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1

Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst: Final Report, 24 February 2004 -- 23 February 2006  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst Final Report February 24, 2004 - February 23, 2006 T. Reppert Mack Trucks, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania J. Chiu Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas Subcontract Report NREL/SR-540-38222 September 2005 Heavy-Duty Waste Hauler with Chemically Correct Natural Gas Engine Diluted with EGR and Using a Three-Way Catalyst Final Report February 24, 2004 - February 23, 2006 T. Reppert Mack Trucks, Inc. Allentown, Pennsylvania J. Chiu Southwest Research Institute San Antonio, Texas NREL Technical Monitor: R. Parish Prepared under Subcontract No. ZCI-4-32049-01 Subcontract Report NREL/SR-540-38222 September 2005 National Renewable Energy Laboratory

2

System and method for determining an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A system according to the principles of the present disclosure includes a rate determination module, a storage level determination module, and an air/fuel ratio control module. The rate determination module determines an ammonia generation rate in a three-way catalyst based on a reaction efficiency and a reactant level. The storage level determination module determines an ammonia storage level in a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst positioned downstream from the three-way catalyst based on the ammonia generation rate. The air/fuel ratio control module controls an air/fuel ratio of an engine based on the ammonia storage level.

Sun, Min; Perry, Kevin L; Kim, Chang H

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

3

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 1999 1 Dynamic Modeling of a Three-Way Catalyst for SI  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a Three-Way Catalyst for SI Engine Exhaust Emission Control E. P. Brandt, Yanying Wang, and J. W. Grizzle Abstract| Automotive emissions are severely regulated. Since 1980, a three-way catalyst TWC has been used the catalyst, the velocity of the exhaust mass, and the temperature of the catalyst. The goal of this paper

Grizzle, Jessy W.

4

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

formulations and operation for the in-situ generation of NH3, storage on a downstream SCR catalyst, and utilized to reduce the remaining NOx deer12toops.pdf More Documents &...

5

Using the three-way catalyst monolith reactor for reducing exhaust emissions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The monolith reactor was developed for the cleaning of exhaust gases from combustion processes both in cars and large power plants. Nowadays monolith reactors are increasingly being used developed evaluated in automotive and stationary emission control reactors such as power plants and new reactor applications such as chemical and refining processes catalytic combustion ozone abatement and others. Monolith catalysts mainstays in gas-phase automotive and environmental process applications have found new potential in replacing three-phase slurry reactors for the production of specialty chemicals especially when their advantages are fully utilized in recirculation loop approaches. This paper gives a general overview about monolith reactors’ benefits fabrication characteristics and typical use in automotive industry. Several commercial product applications and new developments for use of monolith reactors in automotive stationary and chemical industry have been discussed. Different types of monolith reactor systems manufacturing modeling and application areas are specified with their advantages and disadvantages. Some experimental studies have been attached to compare monolith reactor types with conventional reactors.

Burak Gokalp

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094  

SciTech Connect

Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E. [Studsvik, Inc. 5605 Glenridge Drive Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)] [Studsvik, Inc. 5605 Glenridge Drive Suite 705, Atlanta, GA 30342 (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Experimental and numerical study of the behavior of three-way catalytic converters under different engine operation conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thesis reports the studies on how the three-way catalytic converters behave under different operation conditions. The main focus of the work is in the oxygen storage capacity of the three-way catalyst. Rich-to-lean ...

Zhang, Yuetao

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Technology development for iron F-T catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this work were twofold. The first objective was to design and construct a pilot plant for preparing precipitated iron oxide F-T precursors and demonstrate that the rate of production from this plant is equivalent to 100 lbs/day of dried metal oxide. Secondly, these precipitates were to be used to prepare catalysts capable of achieving 88% CO + H{sub 2} conversion with {le} 5 mole percent selectivity to methane + ethane.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Temporal analysis of social networks using three-way DEDICOM.  

SciTech Connect

DEDICOM is an algebraic model for analyzing intrinsically asymmetric relationships, such as the balance of trade among nations or the flow of information among organizations or individuals. It provides information on latent components in the data that can be regarded as ''properties'' or ''aspects'' of the objects, and it finds a few patterns that can be combined to describe many relationships among these components. When we apply this technique to adjacency matrices arising from directed graphs, we obtain a smaller graph that gives an idealized description of its patterns. Three-way DEDICOM is a higher-order extension of the model that has certain uniqueness properties. It allows for a third mode of the data, such as time, and permits the analysis of semantic graphs. We present an improved algorithm for computing three-way DEDICOM on sparse data and demonstrate it by applying it to the adjacency tensor of a semantic graph with time-labeled edges. Our application uses the Enron email corpus, from which we construct a semantic graph corresponding to email exchanges among Enron personnel over a series of 44 months. Meaningful patterns are recovered in which the representation of asymmetries adds insight into the social networks at Enron.

Bader, Brett William; Harshman, Richard A. (University of Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada); Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

NH3 generation over commercial Three-Way Catalysts and Lean-NOx...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

use by sector * cars light trucks 3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Why NH 3 -generation on TWCs? * Zeolite-based NH 3 -SCR has been shown to have very...

11

A Three-Way Decisions Model Based on Constructive Covering Algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The three-way decisions model divides the universe into three regions, i.e., positive region (POS), boundary region (BND) and negative region (NEG) according to two thresholds. A challenge of the three-way dec...

Yanping Zhang; Hang Xing; Huijin Zou; Shu Zhao…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic...

13

Development of a stable cobalt-ruthenium Fisher-Tropsch catalyst. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The reverse micelle catalyst preparation method has been used to prepare catalysts on four supports: magnesium oxide, carbon, alumina- titania and steamed Y zeolite. These catalysts were not as active as a reference catalyst prepared during previous contracts to Union Carbide Corp. This catalyst was supported on steamed Y zerolite support and was impregnated by a pore-filling method using a nonaqueous solvent. Additional catalysts were prepared via pore- filling impregnation of steamed Y zeolites. These catalysts had levels of cobalt two to three and a half times as high as the original Union Carbide catalyst. On a catalyst volume basis they were much more active than the previous catalyst; on an atom by atom basis the cobalt was about of the same activity, i.e., the high cobalt catalysts` cobalt atoms were not extensively covered over and deactivated by other cobalt atoms. The new, high activity, Y zerolite catalysts were not as stable as the earlier Union Carbide catalyst. However, stability enhancement of these catalysts should be possible, for instance, through adjustment of the quantity and/or type of trace metals present. A primary objective of this work was determination whether small amounts of ruthenium could enhance the activity of the cobalt F-T catalyst. The reverse micelle catalysts were not activated by ruthenium, indeed scanning transmission electronic microscopy (STEM) analysis provided some evidence that ruthenium was not present in the cobalt crystallites. Ruthenium did not seem to activate the high cobalt Y zeolite catalyst either, but additional experiments with Y zeolite-supported catalysts are required. Should ruthenium prove not to be an effective promoter under the simple catalyst activation procedure used in this work, more complex activation procedures have been reported which are claimed to enhance the cobalt/ruthenium interaction and result in activity promotion by ruthenium.

Frame, R.R.; Gala, H.B.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Tungsten Cathode Catalyst for PEMFC  

SciTech Connect

Final report for project to evaluate tungsten-based catalyst as a cathode catalyst for PEM cell applications.

Joel B. Christian; Sean P. E. Smith

2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

15

Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop novel hydrogen-oxidation electrocatalyst materials that contain reduced platinum content compared to traditional catalysts by developing flexible synthesis techniques to fabricate supported catalyst structures, and by verifying electrochemical performance in half cells and ultimately laboratory fuel cells. Synthesis methods were developed for making small, well-defined platinum clusters using zeolite hosts, ion exchange, and controlled calcination/reduction processes. Several factors influence cluster size, and clusters below 1 nm with narrow size distribution have been prepared. To enable electrochemical application, the zeolite pores were filled with electrically-conductive carbon via infiltration with carbon precursors, polymerization/cross-linking, and pyrolysis under inert conditions. The zeolite host was then removed by acid washing, to leave a Pt/C electrocatalyst possessing quasi-zeolitic porosity and Pt clusters of well-controlled size. Plotting electrochemical activity versus pyrolysis temperature typically produces a Gaussian curve, with a peak at ca. 800 C. The poorer relative performances at low and high temperature are due to low electrical conductivity of the carbon matrix, and loss of zeolitic structure combined with Pt sintering, respectively. Cluster sizes measured via adsorption-based methods were consistently larger than those observed by TEM and EXAFS, suggesting , that a fraction of the clusters were inaccessible to the fluid phase. Detailed EXAFS analysis has been performed on selected catalysts and catalyst precursors to monitor trends in cluster size evolution, as well as oxidation states of Pt. Experiments were conducted to probe the electroactive surface area of the Pt clusters. These Pt/C materials had as much as 110 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt} electroactive surface area, an almost 30% improvement over what is commercially (mfg. by ETEK) available (86 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt}). These Pt/C materials also perform qualitatively as well as the ETEK material for the ORR, a non-trivial achievement. A fuel cell test showed that Pt/C outperformed the ETEK material by an average of 50% for a 300 hour test. Increasing surface area decreases the amount of Pt needed in a fuel cell, which translates into cost savings. Furthermore, the increased performance realized in the fuel cell test might ultimately mean less Pt is needed in a fuel cell; this again translates into cost savings. Finally, enhanced long-term stability is a key driver within the fuel cell community as improvements in this area must be realized before fuel cells find their way into the marketplace; these Pt/C materials hold great promise of enhanced stability over time. An external laser desorption ion source was successfully installed on the existing Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. However, operation of this laser ablation source has only generated metal atom ions, no clusters have been found to date. It is believed that this is due to the design of the pulsed-nozzle/laser vaporization chamber. The final experimental configuration and design of the two source housings are described.

Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Development and process evaluation of improved Fischer-Tropsch slurry catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating improved catalysts for a slurry Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process for converting synthesis gas to high quality transportation fuels (gasoline and distillate). The improvements in catalyst performance were sought by studying effects of pretreatment conditions, promoters and binders/supports. A total of 20 different, iron based, catalysts were evaluated in 58 fixed bed reactor tests and 10 slurry reactor tests. The major accomplishments and conclusions are summarized below. The pretreatment conditions (temperature, duration and the nature of reducing gas) have significant effect on catalyst performance (activity, selectivity and stability) during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. One of precipitated unsupported catalysts had hydrocarbon selectivity similar to Mobil`s I-B catalyst in high wax mode operation, and had not experienced any loss in activity during 460 hours of testing under variable process conditions in a slurry reactor. The effect of promoters (copper and potassium) on catalyst performance during FT synthesis has been studied in a systematic way. It was found that potassium promotion increases activities of the FT and water-gas-shift (WGS) reactions, the average molecular weight of hydrocarbon products, and suppresses the olefin hydrogenation and isomerization reactions. The addition of binders/supports (silica or alumina) to precipitated Fe/Cu/K catalysts, decreased their activity but improved their stability and hydrocarbon selectivity. The performance of catalysts of this type was very promising and additional studies are recommended to evaluate their potential for use in commercial slurry reactors.

Bukur, D.B.; Mukesh, D.; Patel, S.A.; Zimmerman, W.H.; Rosynek, M.P. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Kellogg, L.J. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P. [and others

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Catalyst dispersion and activity under conditions of temperature-staged liquefaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This research program involves the investigation of the use of highly dispersed catalyst precursors for the pretreatment of coals by mild hydrogenation. During the course of this effort solvent preswelling of the coal was evaluated as a means of deeply impregnating catalysts into coal, active phases of catalysts under reaction conditions were studied and the impact of these techniques were evaluated during pretreatment and temperature-staged liquefaction. Two coals, a Texas subbituminous and a Utah high volatile A bituminous, were used to examine the effects of solvent swelling pretreatment and catalyst impregnation on conversion behavior at 275{degrees}C, representative of the first, low-temperature stage in a temperature-staged liquefaction reaction. Ferrous sulfate, iron pentacarbonyl, ammonium tetrathiomolybdate, and molybdenum hexacarbonyl were used as catalyst precursors. Without swelling pretreatment, impregnation of both coals increased conversion, mainly through increased yields of preasphaltenes.

Davis, A.; Schobert, H.H.; Mitchell, G.D.; Artok, L.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Methanol and methyl fuel catalysts. Final technical report, September 1978-August 1980  

SciTech Connect

The Cu/ZnO methanol synthesis catalysts were investigated for (1) the role of additives such as alumina, ceria, and lanthana, (2) the effect of carbon dioxide in the H/sub 2//CO synthesis gas, (3) the chemisorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide on the catalysts, and (4) the chemical poisoning of the catalysts by sulfur- and chlorine-containing compounds. Maximum activity and selectivity were obtained with a binary catalyst having a composition of Cu/ZnO = 30/70 metal atomic percent and with a synthesis gas of H/sub 2//CO/CO/sub 2/ = 70/28/2 volume percent in the absence of strongly reducing or strongly oxidizing chemical poisons. Both the binary and the ternary catalysts were fully characterized by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), X-ray diffraction, electron spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and surface area-pore distribution measurements. Structural and morphologic information is presented in this report in detail for very active Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts prepared from acetates and for other catalysts in which the third component caused a loss of activity.

Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.

1980-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)reaction is the established technology for the production of liquid fuels from coal by an indirect route using coal-derived syngas (CO + H{sub 2}). Modern FTS catalysts are potassium- and copper-promoted iron preparations. These catalysts exhibit moderate activity with carbon monoxide-rich feedstocks such as the syngas produced by advanced coal gasification processes. However, the relatively large yields of by-product methane and high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes detract from the production of desired liquid products in the C{sub 5}-C{sub 16} range needed for motor and aviation fuel. The goal of this program is to decrease undesirable portions of the FTS hydrocarbon yield by altering the Schultz-Flory polymerization product distribution through design and formulation of improved catalysts. Two approaches were taken: (1) reducing the yield of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes by using highly dispersed catalysts produced from surface-confined multiatomic clusters on acid supports and (2) suppressing methane production by uniformly pretreating active, selective conventional FTS catalysts with submonolayer levels of sulfur.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Tong, G.T.; Chan, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; McCarty, J.G.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON DUAL-UEGO ACTIVE CATALYST CONTROL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ON DUAL-UEGO ACTIVE CATALYST CONTROL Giovanni Fiengo Jessy W. Grizzle ignition engine equipped with a three-way catalyst and pre- and post-catalyst oxygen sensors. The control hydrocarbons. Linear exhaust gas oxygen sensors are used to measure pre- and post-catalyst air-fuel ratio

Grizzle, Jessy W.

22

Three-Way Decision: An Interpretation of Rules in Rough Set Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-Way Decision: An Interpretation of Rules in Rough Set Theory Yiyu Yao Department of Computer theory is to induce classification or de- cision rules that indicate the decision class of an object. A new interpretation of rules in rough set theory is intro- duced. According to the positive, boundary

Yao, Yiyu

23

Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

1995-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mapping the Human Reference Genome's Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ARTICLE Mapping the Human Reference Genome's Missing Sequence by Three-Way Admixture in Latino Genomes Giulio Genovese,1,2,3,* Robert E. Handsaker,2,3 Heng Li,2,3 Eimear E. Kenny,4,5,6,7,8 and Steven A. McCarroll1,2,3,* A principal obstacle to completing maps and analyses of the human genome involves

McCarroll, Steve

25

An Outline of a Theory of Three-way Decisions Department of Computer Science, University of Regina,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Outline of a Theory of Three-way Decisions Yiyu Yao Department of Computer Science, University in everyday decision-making and have been widely used in many fields and disciplines. An outline of a theory to other theories. 1 Introduction The concept of three-way decisions was recently proposed and used

Yao, Yiyu

26

Evaluation of On-Board Diagnosis Methods for Three-Way Catalytic Converters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the fact that exhaust emission regulations for new cars have become increasingly stringent in the last two decades (see Table 1), real-world emission levels of the average car have remained higher than anticipated. ... From the legislative point of view, the optimum OBD threshold is defined by two criteria:? first the OBD system should spot as many defective catalysts as possible, thereby maximizing the resulting environmental benefit; second, it should also return the lowest possible amount of false alarms, as these could place a burden on the citizens (by increasing service costs) and jeopardize the system's credibility. ...

Dimitrios N. Tsinoglou; Grigorios C. Koltsakis; Zissis C. Samaras

2002-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

27

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Chemistry and mechanism of molten-salt catalysts in coal-gasification processes. Final report, January 1984-January 1985  

SciTech Connect

Alkali metal salts have been recognized as effective catalysts in coal gasification. However, the presence of reducing gases, in particular carbon monoxide, has recently been shown to have serious inhibitory effects on the catalyst performance. This program has addressed the question of the chemical interactions between carbon monoxide gas containing mixtures and the salt catalysts in liquid form by probing the solution chemistry by dynamic electrochemical techniques. The results of this study show that oxalate ions are formed by the reaction between carbonate ions and carbon monoxide gas. At temperatures above 700/sup 0/C, sulfate ions are directly attacked by carbon monoxide. The oxalate ions are electroactive and their electrochemistry has been studied and found to involve adsorption of oxalate and formation of reactive intermediates. The pathway likely involves an ECE sequence. The formation of active adsorbed species such as oxalate or sulfides at high temperature may be the means by which catalytic function of the salts is inhibited.

White, S.H.; Twardoch, U.M.

1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Superior catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide. Final technical report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The most advanced and proven technology for NO{sub x} control for stationary sources is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR). In SCR, NO{sub x} is reduced by NH{sub 3} to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The commercial catalysts are based on V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TiO{sub 2}, and the vanadium-based catalysts are patented by the Japanese (Mitsubishi). However, there are three main advantages for the vanadium-based SCR catalyst: (a) a tendency to be poisoned in the flue gas; (b) oxidation of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} by V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, this is a particularly severe problem due to the higher sulfur content of American coals compared with coals used in Japan (from Australia) and in Europe; (c) environmental problems involved in the disposal of the spent catalyst (due to the toxicity of vanadium). In order to overcome these problems, in addition to the undesirable dominance by the Japanese patent position, the authors have studied in this project a new type of catalyst for the SCR reaction; namely, pillared clays, which have adjustable, unique structures and acidity. Three types of catalysts were developed and tested for this reaction, i.e. Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clays, delaminated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-pillared clays, and ion-exchanged pillared clays. The project was divided into sixteen tasks, and will be reported as such.

Yang, R.T.; Li, W.B.; Chen, J.P.; Hausladen, M.C.; Cheng, L.S.; Kikkinides, E.S.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

US10 Capable Prototype Volvo MG11 Natural Gas Engine Development: Final Report, December 16, 2003 - July 31, 2006  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses a project to develop a low-emissions natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three-way catalyst (TWC).

Tai, C.; Reppert, T.; Chiu, J.; Christensen, L.; Knoll, K.; Stewart, J.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dual-UEGO Active Catalyst Control for Emissions Reduction: Design and Experimental Validation three-way catalysts and two oxygen sensors. The control objective is to maximize the simultaneous are used to measure air-fuel ratio upstream and downstream of each catalyst. A series controller

Grizzle, Jessy W.

32

Improved catalyst loading reduces guard reactor fouling  

SciTech Connect

A new catalyst-loading strategy reduced the fouling tendency of the gas oil hydrotreater guard reactors at Syncrude Canada Ltd.'s heavy-crude upgrading facilities. Studies conducted on the guard reactors were designed to determine the thermal stability of the coker gas oil and to understand the properties of the fouling material. Small particles (described as fines) were present in the upper section of the removed catalyst bed. This part of the bed was then replaced in one of three ways. One way was to replace the catalyst with used, nonregenerated catalyst, and cover the catalyst with nonactive support balls, 10 and 13 mm in diameter. The second way was to fill the entire space with nonactive support balls, and the third way was to fill with regenerated oxidic catalyst combined with semiactive support balls (unsulfided).

Sanford, E.C.; Kirchen, R.P. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton (CA))

1988-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

33

Enhanced thermal and gas flow performance in a three-way catalytic converter through use of insulation within the ceramic monolith  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Emissions performance comparison of conventional catalytic converter with multi-channel catalytic converter (ceramic fiber insulation layers introduced into ceramic monolith of three-way catalytic converter)

34

Volume 1, 1st Edition, Multiscale Tailoring of Highly Active and Stable Nanocomposite Catalysts, Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect

Nanomaterials have gained much attention as catalysts since the discovery of exceptional CO oxidation activity of nanoscale gold by Haruta. However, many studies avoid testing nanomaterials at the high-temperatures relevant to reactions of interest for the production of clean energy (T > 700°C). The generally poor thermal stability of catalytically active noble metals has thus far prevented significant progress in this area. We have recently overcome the poor thermal stability of nanoparticles by synthesizing a platinum barium-hexaaluminate (Pt-BHA) nanocomposite which combines the high activity of noble metal nanoparticles with the thermal stability of hexaaluminates. This Pt-BHA nanocomposite demonstrates excellent activity, selectivity, and long-term stability in CPOM. Pt-BHA is anchored onto a variety of support structures in order to improve the accessibility, safety, and reactivity of the nanocatalyst. Silica felts prove to be particularly amenable to this supporting procedure, with the resulting supported nanocatalyst proving to be as active and stable for CPOM as its unsupported counterpart. Various pre-treatment conditions are evaluated to determine their effectiveness in removing residual surfactant from the active nanoscale platinum particles. The size of these particles is measured across a wide temperature range, and the resulting “plateau” of stability from 600-900°C can be linked to a particle caging effect due to the structure of the supporting ceramic framework. The nanocomposites are used to catalyze the combustion of a dilute methane stream, and the results indicate enhanced activity for both Pt-BHA as well as ceria-doped BHA, as well as an absence of internal mass transfer limitations at the conditions tested. In water-gas shift reaction, nanocomposite Pt-BHA shows stability during prolonged WGS reaction and no signs of deactivation during start-up/shut-down of the reactor. The chemical and thermal stability, low molecular weight, and wealth of literature on the formation of mesoporous silica materials motivated investigations of nanocomposite silica catalysts. High surface area silicas are synthesized via sol-gel methods, and the addition of metal-salts lead to the formation of stable nanocomposite Ni- and Fe- silicates. The results of these investigations have increased the fundamental understanding and improved the applicability of nanocatalysts for clean energy applications.

Veser, Goetz

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Natta catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

\\¦nät-(¦)tä-\\ n. Any of several catalysts used in the stereospecific polymerization of olefins, ... .g., ethylene and propylene, particularly a catalyst made from titanium chloride and aluminum alkyl...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Natta Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

\\?nät-(?)tä-\\ n Any of several catalysts used in the stereospecific polymerization of olefins, ... .g., ethylene and propylene, particularly a catalyst made from titanium chloride and aluminum alkyl...

Jan W. Gooch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing: Direct coal liquefaction of rawhide sub-bituminous coal. Final topical report, June 1994--December 1994  

SciTech Connect

Supported catalysts, either in fixed bed or ebullating bed reactors, are subject to deactivation with time, especially if the feed contains deactivating species, such as metals and coke precursors. Dispersed catalyst systems avoid significant catalyst deactivation because there are no catalyst pores to plug, hence no pore mouth plugging, and hopefully, no relevant decline of catalyst surface area or pore volume. The tests carried out in 1994, at the Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL) for DOE covered a slate of 5 dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal, which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested earlier at Wilsonville. The catalysts included three iron and two molybdenum types. The Bailey iron oxide and the two molybdenum catalysts have previously been tested in DOE-sponsored research. These known catalysts will be used to help provide a base line and tie-in to previous work. The two new catalysts, Bayferrox PK 5210 and Mach-1`s Nanocat are very finely divided iron oxides. The iron oxide addition rate was varied from 1.0 to 0.25 wt % (dry coal basis) but the molybdenum addition rate remained constant at 100 wppm throughout the experiments. The effect of changing recycle rate, sulfur and iron oxide addition rates, first stage reactor temperature, mass velocity and catalyst type were tested in the 1994 operations of ERDL`s recycle coal liquefaction unit (RCLU). DOE will use these results to update economics and plan future work. The test program will resume in mid 1995, with another 2-3 months of pilot plant testing.

Coless, L.A.; Poole, M.C.; Wen, M.Y.

1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

38

Effects of tone on the three-way laryngeal distinction in Korean: An acoustic and aerodynamic comparison of the Seoul and South Kyungsang dialects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

KU ScholarWorks | http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu Effects of tone on the three-way laryngeal distinction in Korean: An acoustic and aerodynamic comparison of the Seoul and South Kyungsang dialects by Hyunjung Lee and Allard Jongman KU Scholar... below. Lee, H., and Jongman, A. (2012). Effects of tone on the three-way laryngeal distinction in Korean: An acoustic and aerodynamic comparison of the Seoul and South Kyungsang dialects. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 42, 145...

Lee, Hyunjung; Jongman, Allard

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

FINAL  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR EXIDE TECHNOLOGIES ELECTRIC DRIVE VEHICLE BATTERY AND COMPONENT MANUFACTURING INITIATIVE APPLICATION, BRISTOL, TN, AND COLUMBUS, GA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory March 2010 DOE/EA-1712 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR EXIDE TECHNOLOGIES ELECTRIC DRIVE VEHICLE BATTERY AND COMPONENT MANUFACTURING INITIATIVE APPLICATION, BRISTOL, TN, AND COLUMBUS, GA U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory March 2010 DOE/EA-1712 iii COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Title: Environmental Assessment for Exide Technologies Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Application, Bristol, TN, and Columbus, GA

40

DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 – October 2008)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst shows the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited comparable catalytic activity and selectivity for ORR as the Pt catalyst. A theoretical analysis is made of the four-electron reduction reaction of oxygen to water over the mixed anion and cation (202) surface of pentlandite structure Co9Se8, one of several selenide phases. Reversible potentials for forming adsorbed reaction intermediates in acid are predicted using adsorption energies calculated with the Vienna ab initio simulation program (VASP) and the known bulk solution values together in a linear Gibbs energy relationship. The effect of hydrophobic and structural properties of a single/dual-layer cathode gas diffusion layer on mass transport in PEM fuel cells was studied using an analytical expression. The simulations indicated that liquid water transport at the cathode is controlled by the fraction of hydrophilic surface and the average pore diameter in the cathode gas diffusion layer. The optimized hydrophobicity and pore geometry in a dual-layer cathode GDL leads to an effective water management, and enhances the oxygen diffusion kinetics.

Branko N. Popov

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

DOE Award No. DE-FC36-03GO13108 NOVEL NON-PRECIOUS METAL CATALYSTS FOR PEMFC: CATALYST SELECTION THROUGH MOLECULAR MODELING AND DURABILITY STUDIES Final Report (September 2003 – October 2008)  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to develop novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), and demonstrate the potential of the catalysts to perform at least as good as conventional Pt catalysts currently in use in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) with a cost at least 50 % less than a target of 0.2 g (Pt loading)/peak kW and with durability > 2,000 h operation with less than 10 % power degradation. A novel nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst was obtained by modifying carbon black with nitrogen-containing organic precursor in the absence of transition metal precursor. The catalyst shows the onset potential of approximately 0.76 V (NHE) for ORR and the amount of H2O2 of approximately 3% at 0.5 V (NHE). Furthermore, a carbon composite catalyst was achieved through the high-temperature pyrolysis of the precursors of transition metal (Co and Fe) and nitrogen supported on the nitrogen-modified carbon-based catalyst, followed by chemical post-treatment. This catalyst showed an onset potential for ORR as high as 0.87 V (NHE), and generated less than 1 % of H2O2. The PEM fuel cell exhibited a current density of 2.3 A cm-2 at 0.2 V for a catalyst loading of 6.0 mg cm-2. No significant performance degradation was observed for 480 h continuous operation. The characterization studies indicated that the metal-nitrogen chelate complexes decompose at the temperatures above 800 oC. During the pyrolysis, the transition metals facilitate the incorporation of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen groups into the carbon matrix, and the carbon surface modified with nitrogen is active for ORR. In order to elucidate the role of transition metal precursor played in the formation of active sites in the non-precious metal catalysts, a novel ruthenium-based chelate (RuNx) catalyst was synthesized by using RuCl3 and propylene diammine as the Ru and N precursors, respectively, followed by high-temperature pyrolysis. This catalyst exhibited comparable catalytic activity and selectivity for ORR as the Pt catalyst. A theoretical analysis is made of the four-electron reduction reaction of oxygen to water over the mixed anion and cation (202) surface of pentlandite structure Co9Se8, one of several selenide phases. Reversible potentials for forming adsorbed reaction intermediates in acid are predicted using adsorption energies calculated with the Vienna ab initio simulation program (VASP) and the known bulk solution values together in a linear Gibbs energy relationship. The effect of hydrophobic and structural properties of a single/dual-layer cathode gas diffusion layer on mass transport in PEM fuel cells was studied using an analytical expression. The simulations indicated that liquid water transport at the cathode is controlled by the fraction of hydrophilic surface and the average pore diameter in the cathode gas diffusion layer. The optimized hydrophobicity and pore geometry in a dual-layer cathode GDL leads to an effective water management, and enhances the oxygen diffusion kinetics.

Branko N. Popov

2009-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

42

Study of the kinetics of hydrogenation using aged catalysts. Final technical progress report, 1 October 1983-30 October 1985. [Shell No. 324M  

SciTech Connect

We have demonstrated that a l-liter Robinson reactor can be used to quantify the aging characteristics of Wilsonville hydrotreater catalyst, Shell No. 324M. We compared the derived, lumped kinetic constants measured by Sandia National Labs. in a 15-ml microautoclave (tubing bomb reactor) on the identical catalyst samples shared with this program. Our results show the two reactor systems are sensitive to the carbon coking and pore mouth blocking that affect the rate of pyrene hydrogenation. The program objective was to determine the catalytic hydrogenation of coal liquid model compounds using authentically aged catalysts. Results of the program quantified the change in rate of hydrogenation pyrene as a function of the process age of the Wilsonville Pilot Plant. Comparison of whole pellet and crushed catalyst (Sandia Labs.) showed carbon coating and metals deposition blocking pores of active sites, thereby reducing overall hydrogenation activity by 20 to 25%. The range of the apparent kinetic constants, calculated from the Robinson reactor data, is 2 to 3 times greater than those calculated from the microautoclave. Both reactor systems show the absolute trend in decrease of hydrogenation potential with whole aged pellets. The rate constants derived for crushed catalyst from the microautoclave were a factor of 10 higher than the whole pellet constants. This is due to the exposure of new surface area with crushing, which normalizes the aging effect. Comparing the methods as analytical tools clearly favors the microautoclave technique with whole pellets. Comparing the methods as research tools to model the kinetics of hydrogenation of a bulk catalyst (pellets) the Robinson reactor allows for more precise data acquisition, with reduced catalyst sampling error and a closer approximation of the ''true'' activity of the catalyst as a function of coking and metal deposition. 21 refs., 10 tabs.

Schweighardt, F.K.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 11, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary results on the effect of reaction temperature on the performance of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis obtained during the last quarter confirmed that Co catalysts were very sensitive to temperature and deactivated significantly at temperatures above 240{degree}C both in the fixed bed and the slurry bubble column reactors. Following this preliminary investigation, a series of tests were carried out during this period in order to elucidate the nature of this deactivation process as well as determine possible means of preventing it. In order to elucidate the nature of this deactivation process, the catalysts which had undergone significant deactivation after high temperature (280{degree}C) reaction in either the fixed bed reactor or the slurry bubble column reactor were regenerated and retested in the fixed bed reactor. In both cases the catalysts recovered completely their initial activity. In addition, reactions at very high H{sub 2}CO ratios and high temperatures showed very little deactivation, suggesting that the deactivation of the Co catalysts during F-T synthesis at high temperatures was mainly due carbon formation via the Boudouard reaction. Due to the unreactive nature of this carbon, it could only be removed by calcination. A second series of experiments was carried out to investigate the effect of certain promoters (Zr, La, Cr, and Re) as well as the effect of another support such as silica on the deactivation characteristics of Co catalysts during F-T synthesis at high temperature. The results suggest that the deactivation process and rate for most of these catalysts are similar to those of the alumina-supported catalysts tested previously (Co.005 and Co-053), and that none of the promoters helps to slow down the rate of carbon formation at high temperatures above 240{degree}C.

Singleton, A.H.

1995-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

Final  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

, , Final for Vegetation Control at VHF Stations, Microwave Stations, Electrical Substations, and Pole Yards . Environmental Assessment Prepared for Southwestern Power Administration U.S. Department of Energy - _ . . . " Prepared by Black & Veatch October 13,1995 ' Table of Contents 1 . 0 Purpose and Need for Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.0 Description of the Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Alternative 1 . No Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Alternative 2 . Mechanical and Manual Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Alternative 3 . Proposed Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.1 Foliar Spray Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3.2 Soil-Spot Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

Y.Y. Yao, Three-way decisions with probabilistic rough sets, Information Sciences, Vol. 180, No. 3, pp. 341-353, 2010.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model. The results enrich the rough set theory by ideas from Bayesian decision theory and hypothesis of incorrect decisions make the rough set theory practical in applications. Key words: Decision-theoretic roughY.Y. Yao, Three-way decisions with probabilistic rough sets, Information Sciences, Vol. 180, No. 3

Yao, Yiyu

46

Global Structure of a Three-Way Junction in a Phi29 Packaging RNA Dimer Determined Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling  

SciTech Connect

The condensation of bacteriophage phi29 genomic DNA into its preformed procapsid requires the DNA packaging motor, which is the strongest known biological motor. The packaging motor is an intricate ring-shaped protein/RNA complex, and its function requires an RNA component called packaging RNA (pRNA). Current structural information on pRNA is limited, which hinders studies of motor function. Here, we used site-directed spin labeling to map the conformation of a pRNA three-way junction that bridges binding sites for the motor ATPase and the procapsid. The studies were carried out on a pRNA dimer, which is the simplest ring-shaped pRNA complex and serves as a functional intermediate during motor assembly. Using a nucleotide-independent labeling scheme, stable nitroxide radicals were attached to eight specific pRNA sites without perturbing RNA folding and dimer formation, and a total of 17 internitroxide distances spanning the three-way junction were measured using Double Electron-Electron Resonance spectroscopy. The measured distances, together with steric chemical constraints, were used to select 3662 viable three-way junction models from a pool of 65 billion. The results reveal a similar conformation among the viable models, with two of the helices (HT and HL) adopting an acute bend. This is in contrast to a recently reported pRNA tetramer crystal structure, in which HT and HL stack onto each other linearly. The studies establish a new method for mapping global structures of complex RNA molecules, and provide information on pRNA conformation that aids investigations of phi29 packaging motor and developments of pRNA-based nanomedicine and nanomaterial.

Zhang, Xiaojun; Tung, Chang-Shung; Sowa, Glenna; Hatmal, Ma'mon M.; Haworth, Ian S.; Qin, Peter Z.

2012-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

47

Three-Way Meeting Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

APS, ESRF, SPring-8 Workshop APS, ESRF, SPring-8 Workshop Argonne National Laboratory June 2-3, 2003 Slide show of meeting Bldg. 401, Conf. Rm. A1100 Monday, June 2, 2003 08:00 Coffee Introduction 08:30 Welcome 20-Year Facility Vision and Initiatives Ian McNulty, Chair 08:45 W. Stirling, "ESRF - Current Status, Medium Term Strategy, Long Term Strategy" (1.54Mb PDF) 09:15 J.M. Gibson, "APS Vision and New Initiatives" (9.15Mb PDF) 09:45 A. Kira, "The Boundary Conditions for SPring-8 Future Plans" (937Kb PDF) 10:15 Coffee SR Facility Operational Experience J.M. Gibson, Chair 10:30 J-L. Revol, "Operation and Recent Developments at the ESRF" (2.16Mb PDF) 11:15 R. Gerig, "APS Operational Efficiency and Challenges" (318Kb

48

Advanced Cathode Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

new catalysts, this research program will also target other issues crucial to PEMFC cathode electrocatalysis: novel electrode structures; catalyst durability meeting the...

49

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 2, appendices. Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Liquefaction experiments were undertaken using subbituminous Black Thunder mine coal to observe the effects of aqueous SO{sub 2} coal beneficiation and the introduction of various coal swelling solvents and catalyst precursors. Aqueous SO{sub 2} beneficiation of Black Thunder coal removed alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, increased the sulfur content and increased the catalytic liquefaction conversion to THF solubles compared to untreated Black Thunder coal. The liquefaction solvent had varying effects on coal conversion, depending upon the type of solvent added. The hydrogen donor solvent, dihydroanthracene, was most effective, while a coal-derived Wilsonville solvent promoted more coal conversion than did relatively inert 1-methylnaphthalene. Swelling of coal with hydrogen bonding solvents tetrahydrofuran (THF), isopropanol, and methanol, prior to reaction resulted in increased noncatalytic conversion of both untreated and SO{sub 2} treated Black Thunder coals, while dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), which was absorbed more into the coal than any other swelling solvent, was detrimental to coal conversion. Swelling of SO{sub 2} treated coal before liquefaction resulted in the highest coal conversions; however, the untreated coal showed the most improvements in catalytic reactions when swelled in either THF, isopropanol, or methanol prior to liquefaction. The aprotic solvent DMSO was detrimental to coal conversion.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ., College Park, PA (United States); Gutterman, C.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Lithium phosphate catalyst, III. New supported catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Some new non-stoichiometric Li3PO4 supported on ?-Al2O3, ?-Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 are described as catalysts. The catalysts are used in the isomerization of propene oxide. The catalyst supported on SiO2...is more a...

A. M. Delgado; J. V. Sinisterra

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Electrochemical catalyst recovery method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering catalyst material from latent catalyst material solids includes: (a) combining latent catalyst material solids with a liquid acid anolyte solution and a redox material which is soluble in the acid anolyte solution to form a mixture; (b) electrochemically oxidizing the redox material within the mixture into a dissolved oxidant, the oxidant having a potential for oxidation which is effectively higher than that of the latent catalyst material; (c) reacting the oxidant with the latent catalyst material to oxidize the latent catalyst material into at least one oxidized catalyst species which is soluble within the mixture and to reduce the oxidant back into dissolved redox material; and (d) recovering catalyst material from the oxidized catalyst species of the mixture. The invention is expected to be particularly useful in recovering spent catalyst material from petroleum hydroprocessing reaction waste products having adhered sulfides, carbon, hydrocarbons, and undesired metals, and as well as in other industrial applications. 3 figs.

Silva, L.J.; Bray, L.A.

1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

52

Molecularly engineering homogenous catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have developed new strategies for homogeneous catalyst recovery. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly (N-octadecylacrylamide) supports, for example, yield recoverable catalysts that are selectively soluble in the lower (polar) phase and the upper (non...

Hughes, Reagan Rebekah

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Catalyst Manufacturing Science and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalyst Manufacturing Science and Engineering Consortium (CMSEC) Rutgers University New Jersey, U, automotive, and energy industries makes and/or uses catalysts, there has been no academic program focusing on the operations required to make catalytic materials. Thus, catalyst manufacturing processes are often designed

54

Methods of making textured catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A textured catalyst having a hydrothermally-stable support, a metal oxide and a catalyst component is described. Methods of conducting aqueous phase reactions that are catalyzed by a textured catalyst are also described. The invention also provides methods of making textured catalysts and methods of making chemical products using a textured catalyst.

Werpy, Todd (West Richland, WA); Frye, Jr., John G. (Richland, WA); Wang, Yong (Richland, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

55

Advanced Cathode Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on advanced cathode catalysts, was given by Piotr Zelenay of Los Alamos National laboratory at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

56

Catalyst Characterization | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst Characterization Catalyst Characterization Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Biofuel Impacts on Aftertreatment Devices (Agreement ID:26463) Project ID:18519...

57

Catalyst Renewables | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Catalyst Renewables Jump to: navigation, search Name: Catalyst Renewables Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75204 Product: Pursue projects with low technical risk, stable fuel supply and...

58

Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels - Diesel Emissions Project (APBF-DEC): 2,000-Hour Performance of a NOx Adsorber Catalyst and Diesel Particle Filter System for a Medium-Duty, Pick-Up Diesel Engine Platform; Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Presents the results of a 2,000-hour test of an emissions control system consisting of a nitrogen oxides adsorber catalyst in combination with a diesel particle filter, advanced fuels, and advanced engine controls in an SUV/pick-up truck vehicle platform.

Not Available

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Nanostructured catalyst supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to SiC nanostructures, including SiC nanopowder, SiC nanowires, and composites of SiC nanopowder and nanowires, which can be used as catalyst supports in membrane electrode assemblies and in fuel cells. The present invention also relates to composite catalyst supports comprising nanopowder and one or more inorganic nanowires for a membrane electrode assembly.

Zhu, Yimin; Goldman, Jay L.; Qian, Baixin; Stefan, Ionel C.

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

60

Catalyst regeneration: the business case  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to purchasing new catalyst, technological and economic advantages make a compelling case for regenerating rather than replacing the metal or ceramic that enables selective catalytic reduction systems to capture NOx. The article examines the differences in the process, economics and reliability of new catalyst versus regenerated catalyst, and in rejuvenation versus regeneration of catalysis. SCR-Tech has developed programs to evaluate most catalyst management scenarios. They can predict catalyst life, allow for mixing and matching different catalyst types, provide risk assessment associated with extending catalyst life and evaluate site-specific economics. 2 figs., 1 tab.

McMahon, B. [SCR-Tech (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation).

Wright, Randy B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Modeling of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst ... Optimization of hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation over a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) requires consideration of (i) HC gas diffusion into the catalyst layer, (ii) HC gas adsorption and desorption from catalyst sites, and (iii) kinetics of the oxidation reaction. ... Mutagenicity of Diesel Engine Exhaust Is Eliminated in the Gas Phase by an Oxidation Catalyst but Only Slightly Reduced in the Particle Phase ...

Yasushi Tanaka; Takashi Hihara; Makoto Nagata; Naoto Azuma; Akifumi Ueno

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

63

Catalyst for microelectromechanical systems microreactors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microreactor comprising a silicon wafer, a multiplicity of microchannels in the silicon wafer, and a catalyst coating the microchannels. In one embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a nanostructured material. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises an aerogel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises a solgel. In another embodiment the catalyst coating the microchannels comprises carbon nanotubes.

Morse, Jeffrey D. (Martinez, CA); Sopchak, David A. (Livermore, CA); Upadhye, Ravindra S. (Pleasanton, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA); Satcher, Joseph H. (Patterson, CA); Gash, Alex E. (Brentwood, CA)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Epoxidation catalyst and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed herein is a catalytic method of converting alkenes to epoxides. This method generally includes reacting alkenes with oxygen in the presence of a specific silver catalyst under conditions suitable to produce a yield of the epoxides. The specific silver catalyst is a silver nanocrystal having a plurality of surface planes, a substantial portion of which is defined by Miller indices of (100). The reaction is performed by charging a suitable reactor with this silver catalyst and then feeding the reactants to the reactor under conditions to carry out the reaction. The reaction may be performed in batch, or as a continuous process that employs a recycle of any unreacted alkenes. The specific silver catalyst has unexpectedly high selectivity for epoxide products. Consequently, this general method (and its various embodiments) will result in extraordinarily high epoxide yields heretofore unattainable.

Linic, Suljo (Ann Arbor, MI); Christopher, Phillip (Ann Arbor, MI)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

65

Phase-Transfer Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In previous chapters we learned that a phase-transfer catalyst must have two particular chemical functions to be successful, that is, it must rapidly transfer one of the reactant species into the normal phase ...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Catalyst system comprising a first catalyst system tethered to a supported catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides new catalyst formats which comprise a supported catalyst tethered to a second and different catalyst by a suitable tethering ligand. A preferred system comprises a heterogeneous supported metal catalyst tethered to a homogeneous catalyst. This combination of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts has a sufficient lifetime and unusually high catalytic activity in arene hydrogenations, and potentially many other reactions as well, including, but not limited to hydroformylation, hydrosilication, olefin oxidation, isomerization, hydrocyanidation, olefin metathesis, olefin polymerization, carbonylation, enantioselective catalysis and photoduplication. These catalysts are easily separated from the products, and can be reused repeatedly, making these systems very economical. 2 figs.

Angelici, R.J.; Gao, H.

1998-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

67

Crystalline titanate catalyst supports  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A series of new crystalline titanates (CT) are shown to have considerable potential as catalyst supports. For Pd supported catalyst, the catalytic activity for pyrene hydrogenation was substantially different depending on the type of CT, and one was substantially more active than Pd on hydrous titanium oxide (HTO). For 1-hexene hydrogenation the activities of the new CTs were approximately the same as for the hydrous metal oxide supports.

Anthony, R.G.; Dosch, R.G.

1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

68

Comprehensive catalyst management  

SciTech Connect

From January 2009, as SCR season expands from five months to year-round to meet new US Clean Air Interstate Rule standards, new catalyst strategies are increasingly important. Power plants will need a comprehensive management strategy that accounts for a wide range of old and new issues to achieve peak performance. An optimum plan is necessary for catalyst replacement or addition. SCR systems should be inspected and evaluated at least once a year. Levels of deactivation agents, most often arsenic and calcium oxide, need to match the particular coals used. Tools such as Cormetech's FIELD Guide are available to quantify the effect on catalyst life under various fuel-firing scenarios. Tests should be conducted to evaluate the NH{sub 3}/NOx distribution over time to maximise catalyst performance. The article gives a case study of catalyst management at the Tennessee Valley Authority Allen plant. Recent changes have created new variables to be considered in a catalyst management process, notably the expansion of the operating temperature range, mercury oxidation and SO{sub 3} emission limits. Cormetech has researched these areas. 5 figs., 2 photos.

Pritchard, S. [Cormetech (United States)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Controlling proton source speeds catalyst | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Controlling proton source speeds catalyst Controlling proton source speeds catalyst Nickel-based catalyst three times faster with adjustments to key acid Research showing that...

70

Catalyst deactivation kinetics: An apparent delay in decreasing of catalyst activity, “inflection point” and data interpretation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Problems of catalyst deactivation kinetics and catalyst stability testing are considered. An apparent delay...

N. M. Ostrovskii

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Conversion of hydrocarbons for fuel-cell applications. Part I. Autothermal reforming of sulfur-free and sulfur-containing hydrocarbon liquids. Part II. Steam reforming of n-hexane on pellet and monolithic catalyst beds. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental autothermal reforming (ATR) results obtained in the previous phase of this work with sulfur-free pure hydrocarbon liquids are summarized. Catalyst types and configuration used were the same as in earlier tests with No. 2 fuel oil to facilitate comparisons. Fuel oil has been found to form carbon in ATR at conditions much milder than those predicted by equilibrium. Reactive differences between paraffins and aromatics in ATR, and thus the formation of different carbon precursors, have been shown to be responsible for the observed carbon formation characteristics (fuel-specific). From tests with both light and heavy paraffins and aromatics, it is concluded that high boiling point hydrocarbons and polynuclear aromatics enhance the propensity for carbon formation in ATR. Effects of olefin (propylene) addition on the ATR performance of benzene are described. In ATR tests with mixtures of paraffins and aromatics (n-tetradecane and benzene) synergistic effects on conversion characteristics were identified. Comparisons of the No. 2 fuel oil data with the experimental results from this work with pure (and mixed) sulfur-free hydrocarbons indicate that the sulfur content of the fuel may be the limiting factor for efficient ATR operation. Steam reforming of hydrocarbons in conventional reformers is heat transfer limited. Steam reforming tasks performed have included performance comparisons between conventional pellet beds and honeycomb monolith catalysts. Metal-supported monoliths offer higher structural stability than ceramic supports, and have a higher thermal conductivity. Data from two metal monoliths of different catalyst (nickel) loading were compared to pellets under the same operating conditions.

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Modeling nanostructured catalyst layer in PEMFC and catalyst utilization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A lattice model of the nanoscaled catalyst layer structure in proton exchange membrane fuel ... all the four components in a typical PEMFC catalyst layer: platinum (Pt), carbon, ionomer ... each average sized Pt ...

Jiejing Zhang; Pengzhen Cao; Li Xu…

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD CATALYST HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page | 1 THE UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD & CATALYST HIGHER EDUCATION (SHEFFIELD) PLC. UNIVERSITY of Sheffield / Catalyst Higher Education (Sheffield) plc Project Co Accommodation: Accommodation / Catalyst Higher Education (Sheffield) plc LLFM: Lend Lease Facilities Management Ltd Project Co: Catalyst

Dixon, Peter

75

Catalyst, method of making, and reactions using the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention includes a catalyst having a layered structure with, (1) a porous support, (2) a buffer layer, (3) an interfacial layer, and optionally (4) a catalyst layer. The invention also provides a process in which a reactant is converted to a product by passing through a reaction chamber containing the catalyst.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y [Pasco, WA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; Gao, Yufei [Kennewick, WA

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

76

Insoluble Phase-Transfer Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An important problem facing the designer of industrial phase-transfer catalysis (PTC) processes using soluble PTC catalysts concerns the removal of the catalyst from the reaction mixture, and its economic recy...

Charles M. Starks; Charles L. Liotta; Marc E. Halpern

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

PILLARED CLAYS AS SUPERIOR CATALYSTS FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE  

SciTech Connect

Removal of NO{sub x} (NO + NO{sub 2}) from exhaust gases is a challenging subject. V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-based catalysts are commercial catalysts for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) with NH{sub 3} for stationary sources. However, for diesel and lean-burn gasoline engines in vehicles, hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). The noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective under these conditions. The first catalyst found to be active for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons in the presence of excess oxygen was copper exchanged ZSM-5 and other zeolites, reported in 1990 by Iwamoto in Japan and Held et al. in Germany. Although Cu-ZSM-5 is very active and the most intensively studied catalyst, it suffers from severe deactivation in engine tests, mainly due to H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}. In this project, we found that ion-exchanged pillared clays and MCM-41 catalysts showed superior SCR activities of NO with hydrocarbon. All Cu{sup 2+}-exchanged pillared clays showed higher SCR activities than Cu-ZSM-5 reported in the literature. In particular, H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2} only slightly deactivated the SCR activity of Cu-TiO{sub 2}-PILC, whereas severe deactivation was observed for Cu-ZSM-5. Moreover, Pt/MCM-41 provided the highest specific NO reduction rates as compared with other Pt doped catalysts, i.e., Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Pt/SiO{sub 2} and Pt/ZSM-5. The Pt/MCM-41 catalyst also showed a good stability in the presence of H{sub 2}O and SO{sub 2}.

R.Q. Long; N. Tharappiwattananon; W.B. Li; R.T. Yang

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Zinc sulfide liquefaction catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for the liquefaction of carbonaceous material, such as coal, is set forth wherein coal is liquefied in a catalytic solvent refining reaction wherein an activated zinc sulfide catalyst is utilized which is activated by hydrogenation in a coal derived process solvent in the absence of coal.

Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Project Catalyst | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Project Catalyst Project Catalyst Jump to: navigation, search Name Project Catalyst Agency/Company /Organization ClimateWorks, European Climate Foundation Sector Climate, Energy, Land Focus Area Energy Efficiency, Forestry Website http://www.project-catalyst.in References Project Catalyst[1] Project Catalyst Screenshot Contents 1 About 2 Resources 2.1 Tools 2.2 Programs 3 References About "Project Catalyst is an initiative of the ClimateWorks Foundation. ClimateWorks is a global, nonprofit philanthropic foundation headquartered in San Francisco, California with a network of affiliated foundations in China, India, the US, and the European Union. The ClimateWorks family of organizations focus on enacting policies that reduce greenhouse gas emissions through three general policy areas: energy efficiency standards,

80

Activation of Au/TiO2 Catalyst for CO Oxidation Jeff H. Yang, Juan D. Henao, Mpfunzeni C. Raphulu, Yingmin Wang, Tiziana Caputo,|  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Activation of Au/TiO2 Catalyst for CO Oxidation Jeff H. Yang, Juan D. Henao, Mpfunzeni C. Raphulu; In Final Form: March 29, 2005 Changes in a Au/TiO2 catalyst during the activation process from an as and FTIR spectroscopy, complemented with XPS, microcalorimetry, and TEM characterization. When the catalyst

Marks, Laurence D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts: X-ray photoemission investigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to study Pt–metal oxide aerogel catalysts that have been developed to respond to increased NO x emissions of lean-burn engines. Lean-burn engines critical components of low and zero emission vehicles produce much higher levels of engine-out NO x and current three-way catalytic converters are not sufficient to meet Clean Air Act standards. Platinum catalysts were formed by the reaction of modified Pt coordination compounds with selected transition–metal alkoxides through sol–gel techniques into aerogels. Photoemission measurements of the Pt 4f Si 2p Ti 2p O 1s and C 1s core lines were used to evaluate the chemistry of the material after each processing step. Results indicate Pt–O bonding and reduced Pt disbursed in the aerogel. In addition Si 2p Ti 2p and O 1s binding energies indicate an oxo-bridged network structure.

A. J. Nelson; John G. Reynolds; R. D. Sanner; P. R. Coronado; L. M. Hair

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nonprecious Metal Catalysts for Low Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells ... Initial and final state geometries are found with standard geometry optimization, then a number of intermediate states are generated by interpolation of atomic positions. ... A special "metric" and a special "preconditioning" optimized for a plane-wave basis set will be introduced. ...

Timothy P. Holme; Fritz B. Prinz

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

83

Subnanometer and nanometer catalysts, method for preparing size-selected catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly uniform cluster based nanocatalysts supported on technologically relevant supports were synthesized for reactions of top industrial relevance. The Pt-cluster based catalysts outperformed the very best reported ODHP catalyst in both activity (by up to two orders of magnitude higher turn-over frequencies) and in selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate that highly dispersed ultra-small Pt clusters precisely localized on high-surface area supports can lead to affordable new catalysts for highly efficient and economic propene production, including considerably simplified separation of the final product. The combined GISAXS-mass spectrometry provides an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of size and shape of nanocatalyst at action under realistic conditions. Also provided are sub-nanometer gold and sub-nanometer to few nm size-selected silver catalysts which possess size dependent tunable catalytic properties in the epoxidation of alkenes. Invented size-selected cluster deposition provides a unique tool to tune material properties by atom-by-atom fashion, which can be stabilized by protective overcoats.

Vajda, Stefan (Lisle, IL), Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL); Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL); Winans, Randall A. (Downers Grove, IL); Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz (Roggentin, GR)

2012-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

84

Subnanometer and nanometer catalysts, method for preparing size-selected catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Highly uniform cluster based nanocatalysts supported on technologically relevant supports were synthesized for reactions of top industrial relevance. The Pt-cluster based catalysts outperformed the very best reported ODHP catalyst in both activity (by up to two orders of magnitude higher turn-over frequencies) and in selectivity. The results clearly demonstrate that highly dispersed ultra-small Pt clusters precisely localized on high-surface area supports can lead to affordable new catalysts for highly efficient and economic propene production, including considerably simplified separation of the final product. The combined GISAXS-mass spectrometry provides an excellent tool to monitor the evolution of size and shape of nanocatalyst at action under realistic conditions. Also provided are sub-nanometer gold and sub-nanometer to few nm size-selected silver catalysts which possess size dependent tunable catalytic properties in the epoxidation of alkenes. Invented size-selected cluster deposition provides a unique tool to tune material properties by atom-by-atom fashion, which can be stabilized by protective overcoats.

Vajda, Stefan (Lisle, IL); Pellin, Michael J. (Naperville, IL); Elam, Jeffrey W. (Elmhurst, IL); Marshall, Christopher L. (Naperville, IL); Winans, Randall A. (Downers Grove, IL); Meiwes-Broer, Karl-Heinz (Roggentin, GR)

2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

85

Optimal topology and distribution of catalyst in PEMFC  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The equations that govern the various transport phenomena occurring in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) were formulated and implemented in a commercial finite element software, in order to predict the fuel cell current density with respect to the operating conditions. The numerical model showed polarization curves in accordance with literature. The catalyst utilization was then improved by optimizing the platinum distribution (design variable) in the fuel cell, so as to maximize current density (objective function) for a fixed total amount of platinum (constraint). The first analysis showed that, for equal anode and cathode catalyst layer thicknesses, maximal current density was achieved by placing more catalyst in the cathode than in the anode. The second analysis showed that, for equal anode and cathode catalyst layer density, maximal current density was achieved by using a catalyst layer that is thicker on the cathode side than that on the anode side. Finally, a topological optimization of the platinum density within the cathode catalyst layer was performed with a gradient based algorithm, and the results showed that at a high stoichiometric ratio, the best design has most of its platinum placed where the reaction rate is the highest, i.e., close to the membrane layer.

François Mathieu-Potvin; Louis Gosselin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Catalyst systems and uses thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

Ozkan, Umit S. (Worthington, OH); Holmgreen, Erik M. (Columbus, OH); Yung, Matthew M. (Columbus, OH)

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

87

Laser Catalyst - Energy Innovation Portal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Laser Catalyst Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing...

88

Catalyst Characterization | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation pm028watkins2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalyst...

89

High Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Impact Technology (HIT) Catalyst Images courtesy CREE, True Manufacturing, A.O. Smith, Bernstein Associates, Cambridge Engineering, Alliance Laundry Systems, NREL Commercial...

90

Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Bruce, Richard Catlow and Peter Edwards Catalyst supports for polymer electrolyte fuel...durability in fuel cells is to discover catalyst supports that do not corrode, or corrode...black support. fuel cells|oxides|catalyst supports|nanoparticles|conductivity...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Treatment The overlap among theory, structure, and fully formed catalysts form the foundation of this study deer09narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design -...

92

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

93

Characterization of Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalysts for Aftertreatment and Biomass-derived Fuels: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Characterization of Catalysts for...

94

Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning Exhaust Phosphorous Chemistry and Catalyst Poisoning 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Oak Ridge National...

95

Method of treating intermetallic alloy hydrogenation/oxidation catalysts for improved impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration and increased activity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alternate, successive high temperature oxidation and reduction treatments, in either order, of intermetallic alloy hydrogenation and intermetallic alloy oxidation catalysts unexpectedly improves the impurity poisoning resistance, regeneration capacity and/or activity of the catalysts. The particular alloy, and the final high temperature treatment given alloy (oxidation or reduction) will be chosen to correspond to the function of the catalyst (oxidation or hydrogenation). 23 figs.

Wright, R.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

96

Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

97

Successfully cope with FCC catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) process converts straight-run atmospheric gas oil, vacuum gas oils, certain atmospheric residues, and heavy stocks recovered from other operations into high-octane gasoline, light fuel oils, and olefin-rich light gases. The main features of the FCC processes are long-term reliability and operating adjustability, allowing the refinery to easily adapt their product yields to an ever changing market. The produced gasoline, for example, has an excellent front-end octane number and good overall octane characteristics. The cracking reactions are carried out in a vertical reactor vessel in which vaporized oil rises and carries along with it in intimate contact small fluidized catalyst particles. The reactions are very rapid, and a contact time of only a few seconds is enough for most applications. During the cracking a carbonaceous material of low hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, coke, forms and deposits on the catalyst. The coke blocks the access to the internal structure of the catalyst particle and thus reduces its activity. The spent catalyst is separated from the cracking products in a catalyst stripper/disengager, and the catalyst is transported to a separate vessel, the regenerator, where the coke is burned off reactivating the catalyst. The regenerated catalyst is then transported to the bottom of the reactor riser, where the cycle begins again.

Lindstrom, T.H.; Hashemi, R.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Materials - Catalysts for Diesel Engines  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Argonne's deNOx Catalyst Begins Extensive Diesel Engine Exhaust Testing Argonne's deNOx Catalyst Begins Extensive Diesel Engine Exhaust Testing denox monolith Argonne's deNOx catalyst can be prepared as a powder or a monolith. chris marshall Principal investigator Chris Marshall shows the monolith form of the Argonne deNOx catalyst with a sensor inserted for testing. doug longman Mechanical engineer Doug Longman inserts the instrumented deNOx catalyst monolith into the aftertreatment chamber of Argonne's heavy-duty Caterpillar diesel test engine. Background Diesel engines, while efficient, produce many undesirable combustion byproducts in their exhaust. While we tend to think of the sooty exhaust products we see as the bad stuff, it is the less-visible exhaust products such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) that create bigger problems.

99

Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallocene catalyst system is described for the polymerization of {alpha}-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula shown wherein: R{sup 1}, R{sup 2}, and R{sup 3} are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyls as a substituent, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R{sup 8}){sub 3} where R{sup 8} is selected from the group consisting of C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; R{sup 4} and R{sup 6} are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R{sup 1} and R{sup 3}; R{sup 5} is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E{sup 1}, E{sup 2} are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--Si(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Ge(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, Sn(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}--C(R{sup 9}){sub 2}, where R{sup 9} is C{sub 1} to C{sub 10} alkyl, C{sub 6} to C{sub 15} aryl or C{sub 3} to C{sub 10} cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C{sub S} or C{sub 1}-symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from {alpha}-olefin monomers.

Bercaw, J.E.; Herzog, T.A.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

100

Stereospecific olefin polymerization catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metallocene catalyst system for the polymerization of .alpha.-olefins to yield stereospecific polymers including syndiotactic, and isotactic polymers. The catalyst system includes a metal and a ligand of the formula ##STR1## wherein: R.sup.1, R.sup.2, and R.sup.3 are independently selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, 5 to 7 membered cycloalkyl, which in turn may have from 1 to 3 C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyls as a substituent, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or arylalkyl in which two adjacent radicals may together stand for cyclic groups having 4 to 15 carbon atoms which in turn may be substituted, or Si(R.sup.8).sub.3 where R.sup.8 is selected from the group consisting of C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; R.sup.4 and R.sup.6 are substituents both having van der Waals radii larger than the van der Waals radii of groups R.sup.1 and R.sup.3 ; R.sup.5 is a substituent having a van der Waals radius less than about the van der Waals radius of a methyl group; E.sup.1, E.sup.2 are independently selected from the group consisting of Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Si(R.sup.9).sub.2 --Si(R.sup.9).sub.2, Ge(R.sup.9).sub.2, Sn(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2, C(R.sup.9).sub.2 --C(R.sup.9).sub.2, where R.sup.9 is C.sub.1 to C.sub.10 alkyl, C.sub.6 to C.sub.15 aryl or C.sub.3 to C.sub.10 cycloalkyl; and the ligand may have C.sub.S or C.sub.1 -symmetry. Preferred metals are selected from the group consisting of group III, group IV, group V or lanthanide group elements. The catalysts are used to prepare stereoregular polymers including polypropylene from .alpha.-olefin monomers.

Bercaw, John E. (Pasadena, CA); Herzog, Timothy A. (Pasadena, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

An Oregon State University Publication Catalyst Staff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Catalyst An Oregon State University Publication Volume 3 #12;The Catalyst Staff Editors Megan and remain flexible to the possibilities of new modes of thinking. As editors of the Catalyst, we encourage. Keep on discovering! Katy, Megan, and Carly The Catalyst * Scientific Articles * Creative Writing

Escher, Christine

102

Catalyst inks and method of application for direct methanol fuel cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Inks are formulated for forming anode and cathode catalyst layers and applied to anode and cathode sides of a membrane for a direct methanol fuel cell. The inks comprise a Pt catalyst for the cathode and a Pt--Ru catalyst for the anode, purified water in an amount 4 to 20 times that of the catalyst by weight, and a perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer in an amount effective to provide an ionomer content in the anode and cathode surfaces of 20% to 80% by volume. The inks are prepared in a two-step process while cooling and agitating the solutions. The final solution is placed in a cooler and continuously agitated while spraying the solution over the anode or cathode surface of the membrane as determined by the catalyst content.

Zelenay, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Davey, John (Los Alamos, NM); Ren, Xiaoming (Los Alamos, NM); Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Thomas, Sharon C. (Vancouver, CA)

2004-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

High Temperature Membrane & Advanced Cathode Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect

Current project consisted of three main phases and eighteen milestones. Short description of each phase is given below. Table 1 lists program milestones. Phase 1--High Temperature Membrane and Advanced Catalyst Development. New polymers and advanced cathode catalysts were synthesized. The membranes and the catalysts were characterized and compared against specifications that are based on DOE program requirements. The best-in-class membranes and catalysts were downselected for phase 2. Phase 2--Catalyst Coated Membrane (CCM) Fabrication and Testing. Laboratory scale catalyst coated membranes (CCMs) were fabricated and tested using the down-selected membranes and catalysts. The catalysts and high temperature membrane CCMs were tested and optimized. Phase 3--Multi-cell stack fabrication. Full-size CCMs with the down-selected and optimized high temperature membrane and catalyst were fabricated. The catalyst membrane assemblies were tested in full size cells and multi-cell stack.

Protsailo, Lesia

2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

104

Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Transition metal carbides have recently attracted a great deal of interest due to their potential to replace noble metal catalysts in a variety of reactions. To date, attempts to develop commercial applications with bulk metal carbides have been unsuccessful, however, the catalytic behavior of nanometer-sized carbide particles are reported to be sufficiently different from the bulk materials that new research in this area is warranted. In this report, Mo/W carbides were synthesized using carbon nanotubes both as carbon source and as a catalyst support. These carbon nanotubes (FIBRIL[TM] Nanotubes) are composed of parallel layers of trigonal carbon, but in the form of a series of concentric tubes disposed about the longitudinal axis of the fibrils with diameter of 8{approx}10 nm. The special dimensions of nanotubes stabilize fine dispersion of catalytic entities as only particles with limited sizes, ca <8nm, could be supported on this nanoscale substrate. Two types of catalysts have been prepared in this manner. First, highly dispersed Mo carbide particles were generated on the carbon nanotube surface with average particle size of 3{approx}10 nm. Furthermore, stoichiometric Mo carbide was also obtained in the form of highly porous assemblages of nanorods by careful control of the reaction conditions. The prepared Mo and W carbide catalysts were tested in several industrial reactions with significant energy savings. Results from these studies demonstrated the ''poor man's platinum'' hypothesis as well as many great potentials associated with these novel catalysts in chemical and refinery industries.

Ma, Jun; Hoch, Robert

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

as Catalyst in Public Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crisis as Catalyst in Public Health Immigration Reform and the Threat of Rhetorical Violence look at immigration reform and the impact of public discourse focused on this topic. The panel

Bushman, Frederic

106

Secret Lives of Catalysts Revealed  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division discuss the first-ever glimpse of nanoscale catalysts in action. More information: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-relea...

Miquel Salmeron and Gabor Somorjai

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

107

Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host  

SciTech Connect

The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, Al-SBA-15, containing strong Broensted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt% Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst will be evaluated for the conversion of heavy petroleum feedstocks to naphtha and middle distillates.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

108

Study of the catalyst deactivation in an industrial gasoil HDS reactor using a mini-scale laboratory reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The activity of a hydrodesulphurization catalyst loaded in an industrial hydrotreater is studied at start up and end of run. Catalyst initial and final activity was determined by performing HDS experiments at industrial conditions in a laboratory mini-scale hydrotreater. The results show that the deactivation of the catalyst samples collected from three different places of the industrial reactor do not vary significantly, the maximum difference among the catalyst samples, being less than ±4%. The experimentally determined deactivation level of the catalyst samples is compared with the deactivation estimated for the same industrial reactor and the same load using a hybrid neural network model trained with operational data of the industrial and the results are in close agreement. Catalyst deactivation appears to be faster for hydrogen consumption reactions than for hydrodesulphurization reactions indicating a decreasing hydrogen consumption trend with time in operation for specific sulphur content in the product.

L.E. Kallinikos; G.D. Bellos; N.G. Papayannakos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation Catalysts for Diesel Emission Control Rational Catalyst Design Applied to Development of Advanced Oxidation...

110

Improved Catalysts for Heavy Oil Upgrading Based on Zeolite Y Nanoparticles Encapsulated Stable Nanoporous Host  

SciTech Connect

The addition of hydrothermally-aged zeolite Y precursor to an SBA-15 synthesis mixture under a mildly acidic condition resulted in the formation of a mesoporous aluminosilicate catalyst, AlSBA-15. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst contains strong Br{umlt o}nsted acid sites and aluminum (Al) stabilized in a totally tetrahedral coordination. The physicochemical characteristics of the catalyst varied as a function of the synthesis conditions. The catalyst possessed surface areas ranging between 690 and 850 m{sup 2}/g, pore sizes ranging from 5.6 to 7.5 nm, and pore volumes up 1.03 cm{sup 3}, which were comparable to the parent SBA-15 synthesized under similar conditions. Two wt % Al was present in the catalyst that was obtained from the reaction mixture that contained the highest Al content. The Al remained stable in totally tetrahedral coordination after calcination at a temperature of 550 C. The Al-SBA-15 mesoporous catalyst showed significant catalytic activity for cumene dealkylation, and the activity increased as the amount of zeolite precursor added to the SBA-15 mixture was increased. In preparation for the final phase of the project, the catalyst was embedded into a psuedoboemite alumina (catapal B) matrix and then formed into pellets. In the final phase of the project, the pelletized catalyst is being evaluated for the conversion of a heavy petroleum feedstock to naphtha and middle distillates. This phase was significantly delayed during the past six months due to a serious malfunction of the fume hoods in the Clark Atlanta University's Research Center for Science and Technology, where the project is being conducted. The fume hood system was repaired and the catalyst evaluation is now underway.

Conrad Ingram; Mark Mitchell

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

111

Regeneration of Hydrotreating and FCC Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Hydrotreating, hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities. FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality. Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals. This report discusses a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Phillips Petroleum, Inc., to identify promising chemical processes for removing metals adhered to spent hydrodesulfurization (HDS, a type of hydrotreating catalyst) and FCC catalysts. This study, conducted by PNNL, was funded by the US Department of Energy's Bartlesville Project Office. Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare-earth exchanged Y zeolite in a silica-alumina matrix. X-ray fluorescence analyses showed that the rare earths used in preparing the catalysts were a mixture of lanthanum and cerium. Antimony found in the spent catalyst was added during operation of the FCC unit as a way to suppress the adverse effects of deposited nickel. The fresh HDS samples consisted of sulfided nickel and molybdenum on an alumina support. The spent catalyst showed nearly 10% vanadium on the catalyst and a modest increase in nickel and sulfur on the catalyst as a result of operations. Hydrocracking catalysts were not available for this study.

CM Wai; JG Frye; JL Fulton; LE Bowman; LJ Silva; MA Gerber

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

112

Catalyst containing oxygen transport membrane  

SciTech Connect

A composite oxygen transport membrane having a dense layer, a porous support layer and an intermediate porous layer located between the dense layer and the porous support layer. Both the dense layer and the intermediate porous layer are formed from an ionic conductive material to conduct oxygen ions and an electrically conductive material to conduct electrons. The porous support layer has a high permeability, high porosity, and a high average pore diameter and the intermediate porous layer has a lower permeability and lower pore diameter than the porous support layer. Catalyst particles selected to promote oxidation of a combustible substance are located in the intermediate porous layer and in the porous support adjacent to the intermediate porous layer. The catalyst particles can be formed by wicking a solution of catalyst precursors through the porous support toward the intermediate porous layer.

Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Wilson, Jamie Robyn; van Hassel, Bart Antonie

2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

113

Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

McKee, Douglas W. (Burnt Hills, NY); Spiro, Clifford L. (Scotia, NY); Kosky, Philip G. (Schenectady, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Chapter 13 - Heterogeneous Catalysts and Biomass Conversion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The application of heterogeneous catalysts to conversion processes based on biomasses is described and discussed. The role of heterogeneous catalysts in the development of renewable industrial chemistry is emphasized.

Guido Busca

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Experts reveal catalyst-selection methodologies  

SciTech Connect

Refining catalyst selection procedure were discussed in detail at Oil and Gas Journal`s International Catalyst Conference, Feb. 1--2, in Houston. Marathon Oil Co.`s James P. Wick revealed details of Marathon`s program for review and optimization of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrotreating catalysts. And renowned FCC expert Del Tolen outlined a step-by-step procedure for choosing an FCC catalyst. The paper describes Marathon`s program and Tolen`s selection process.

NONE

1996-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

116

On-line regeneration of hydrodesulfurization catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrotreating catalyst is regenerated as it concurrently hydrotreats a hydrocarbon fuel by introducing a low concentration of oxygen into the catalyst bed either continuously or periodically. At low oxygen concentrations the carbon deposits on the catalyst are burned off without harming the catalyst and without significantly affecting the hydrotreating process. In a preferred embodiment the hydrotreating process is hydrodesulfurization, and regenerating is done periodically with oxygen concentrations between 0.1 and 0.5 volume percent.

Preston, Jr., John L. (Hebron, CT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

118

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

New life for old catalyst  

SciTech Connect

Technology originally developed in Europe is now being optimized to make an attractive catalyst rejuvenation option even better. SCR-Tech undertook a study with American Electric Power (AEP) and Southern Company to quantify the primary effects of five independent factors in SCR-Tech's catalytic regeneration process on the rate of CO{sub 2} oxidation. The study demonstrated the process could minimise CO{sub 2} conversion while maximising the restoration of NOx reduction activity. The team developed statistically valid linear models for SO{sub 2} conversion (K{sub 23}) on both honeycomb and plate catalyst as a function of controlled regeneration process parameters. 1 fig., 1 photo.

Cooper, M. [SCR-Tech (United States)

2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

120

Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

O O O + + O2 Gold catalyst Styrene Benzaldehyde Styrene oxide Acetophenone studies. However, the study by Turner et al.1 seems to be the first to use Au55 in the synthesis of supported gold catalysts a very narrow and reproducible size distribution for the result- ing particles. Traditional catalyst

Rouyer, Francois

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature and by-products formation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Combined to Non-Thermal Plasma: Effect on Activation Catalyst Temperature efficiency together with the catalyst activation temperature when a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is placed the advantageous plasma catalyst coupling effect on the lowering of the catalyst activation temperature

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

122

Treatment of \\{VOCs\\} with molecular sieve catalysts in regenerative catalytic oxidizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This work prepares molecular sieve catalysts with various metal species and various metal weight loadings by impregnation, and then screens them in a catalytic combustion system. The current study further investigates the molecular sieve catalyst in an RCO system after it performed well in combustion efficiency. This work tests its performances in terms of CO2 yield, pressure drop, the difference between temperatures of the inlet and outlet gases (Td), and thermal recovery efficiency (TRE), with various operational conditions. Experimental results demonstrate that the 10 wt% Cu/(MS) catalyst was the most active because it has the greatest combustion efficiency to treat volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than Co/(MS) catalysts and Mn/(MS) catalysts. The 10 wt% Cu/(MS) catalyst used in an RCO system reaches over 95% CO2 yields under the heating zone temperature (Tset) = 400 °C, gas velocity (Ug) = 0.37 m/s, isopropyl alcohol (IPA) concentration = 200–400 ppm conditions. Moreover, the RCO system performed well in economic efficiency with the RCO with in terms of TRE, Td and pressure drop. The TRE ranged from 90.4% to 94.6% and Td ranged from 14.0 to 34.2 °C under various conditions at Tset = 300–450 °C. Finally, the results of the stability test demonstrated that the catalyst was very stable at various Ug values and various Tset values.

Shih-Wei Huang; Jie-Chung Lou; Yung-Chang Lin

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Perovskites of the structure A.sub.2 B.sub.2 C.sub.3 O.sub.10 are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, Kenneth D. (Charleston, WV)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Perovskites of the structure A[sub 2]B[sub 2]C[sub 3]O[sub 10] are useful as catalysts for the oxidative coupling of lower alkane to heavier hydrocarbons. A is alkali metal; B is lanthanide or lanthanum, cerium, neodymium, samarium, praseodymium, gadolinium or dysprosium; and C is titanium.

Campbell, K.D.

1991-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

125

as Catalyst in Public Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Crisis as Catalyst in Public Health Alex's Lemonade Stand and the Fight Against Childhood Cancer, Medical Director, Pediatric Advanced Care Team, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia For more information, survivorship, and palliative care. We will also explore the impact that individuals can make on medical

Bushman, Frederic

126

Supported fischer-tropsch catalyst and method of making the catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and a method of making the catalyst for a Fischer-Tropsch process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas, is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range is disclosed. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consist of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of a Fischer-Tropsch metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Orefield, PA); Withers, Howard P. (Douglassville, PA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Catalyst for selective conversion of synthesis gas and method of making the catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) catalyst, a method of making the catalyst and an F-T process utilizing the catalyst by which synthesis gas, particularly carbon-monoxide rich synthesis gas is selectively converted to higher hydrocarbons of relatively narrow carbon number range. In general, the selective and notably stable catalyst, consists of an inert carrier first treated with a Group IV B metal compound (such as zirconium or titanium), preferably an alkoxide compound, and subsequently treated with an organic compound of an F-T metal catalyst, such as cobalt, iron or ruthenium carbonyl. Reactions with air and water and calcination are specifically avoided in the catalyst preparation procedure.

Dyer, Paul N. (Allentown, PA); Pierantozzi, Ronald (Macungie, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

Berg, Lloyd (Bozeman, MT); McCandless, Frank P. (Bozeman, MT); Ramer, Ronald J. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process has attracted considerable attention recently. The process can make liquid fuels by reacting hydrogen-lean synthesis gas produced from modern energy-efficient gasifiers. continuing assessment of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) has a high priority within an indirect liquefaction program, a part of the liquid fuels program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Funding for the indirect liquefaction program in 1990:0090 is anticipated to be about $8.5 million compared to $6.6 million in 1989 and a like amount in the year before. The studies within the program are conducted by industry, universities, national laboratories and in-house PETC research and development. This article reviews preparation and properties of iron-based catalysts, including recent patent activities and in-depth process analysis of slurry-phase FTS. The review provides an analysis of Fischer-Tropsch catalyst research and development trends and describes options to increase selectivity for iron-based catalysts in a slurry phase.

Srivastava, R.D. (Burns and Roe Services Corp. (US)); Rao, V.U.S.; Cinquegrane, G.; Stiegel, G.J. (Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (US))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Optimization of catalyst system reaps economic benefits  

SciTech Connect

Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc. is learning to optimize its catalyst systems for hydrotreating Venezuelan gas oils through a program of research, pilot plant testing, and commercial unit operation. The economic results of this project have been evaluated, and the benefits are most evident in improvements in product yields and qualities. The project has involved six commercial test runs, to date (Runs 10-15), with a seventh run planned. A summary of the different types of catalyst systems used in the test runs, and the catalyst philosophy that developed is given. Runs 10 and 11 used standard CoMo and NiMo catalysts for heavy gas oils hydrotreating. These catalysts had small pore sizes and suffered high deactivation rates because of metals contamination. When it was discovered that metals contamination was a problem, catalyst options were reviewed.

Le Roy, C.F.; Hanshaw, M.J.; Fischer, S.M.; Malik, T.; Kooiman, R.R. (Champlin Refining and Chemicals Inc., Corpus Christi, TX (US))

1991-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

132

Steam reforming utilizing high activity catalyst  

SciTech Connect

High activity, sulfur tolerant steam reforming catalysts are described comprising rhodium or nickel supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. The catalysts have improved activity over conventionally used catalysts in the presence of sulfur containing hydrocarbon fuel (such as No. 2 fuel oil) in a steam reforming environment. The material has particular utility in autothermal, tubular, cyclic and adiabatic steam reforming processes.

Setzer, H. J.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

133

Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of ammonia boranes  

SciTech Connect

Several effective homogeneous catalysts for the dehydrogenation of amine boranes have been developed. The best catalyst uses an iridium complex, and is capable of dehydrogenating H3NBH3 (AB) and CH3NH2BH3 (MeAB) at comparable rates. Thermodynamic measurements using this catalyst demonstrate that the dehydrogenation of AB and MeAB is substantially exothermic, which has important implications for regeneration.

Heinekey, Dennis M.

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

134

EA-1717: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

717: Final Environmental Assessment 717: Final Environmental Assessment EA-1717: Final Environmental Assessment BASF Catalysts LLC Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Project, Elyria, Ohio The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes, through a cooperative agreement with BASF Catalysts LLC (BASF), to partially fund the construction of a commercial-size manufacturing plant that would produce cathode materials needed for the production of lithium-ion batteries. Environmental Assessment for for BASF Catalysts LLC Electric Drive Vehicle Battery and Component Manufacturing Initiative Project, Elyria, Ohio, DOE/EA-1717 (March 2010) More Documents & Publications EA-1717: Finding of No Significant Impact CX-006426: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-009019: Categorical Exclusion Determination

135

Nano-Structured Nobel Metal Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nobel Metal Catalysts Nobel Metal Catalysts for Hydrocarbon Reforming Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Nano- Structured Nobel Metal Catalysts Based on Hexametallate Architecture for the Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Methods for generating synthesis gas from hydrocarbon feedstocks routinely involve the use of a catalyst-a material that speeds up the reaction, but itself is not consumed-to make this process economically feasible. Sulfur, higher hydrocarbons, and olefins present a major technical challenge since these components can deactivate conventional

136

Precursors of copper/zinc oxide catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent results on hydroxycarbonate precursors of copper/zinc oxide catalysts for methanol synthesis are reinterpreted, taking into account earlier work on these systems.

M.S. Spencer

137

Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems...

138

Diffusion in Porous Catalysts and Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Diffusion in Porous Catalysts and Adsorbents ... Single industrial adsorbent pellets of zeolites 5A and 13X were mounted with a polymer capable of withstanding high temperatures. ...

Jan Hoogschagen

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Low Temperature Catalyst for Fuel Injection System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A low temperature oxidation catalyst applied to a DOC and DPF combined with a unique fuel injection system remove soot from a diesel exhaust system.

140

Highly Dispersed Alloy Cathode Catalyst for Durability  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on alloy cathode catalysts, was given by T. D. Jarvi of UTC Power at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

CLEERS Coordination & Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Catalyst Process Kinetic Data - Pres. 1: Coordination of CLEERS Project; Pres. 2: ORNL Research on LNT Sulfation & Desulfation CLEERS Coordination & Development of...

142

A SOLID CATALYST METHOD FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Biodiesel has considerable production potential as a renewable source of energy. The conventional processes use soluble alkali catalysts that contaminate the biodiesel and glycerol products,… (more)

Kannan, Dheeban Chakrvarthi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum...

144

Steam reforming utilizing sulfur tolerant catalyst  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a steam reforming process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of: adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalyst of platinum supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. It also describes a steam process for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur which consists of steam to the hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity, sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of iridium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina. In addition a steam reforming process is described for converting hydrocarbon material to hydrogen gas in the presence of sulfur comprising adding steam to the hydrocarbon material and passing the steam and hydrocarbon material over catalyst material at elevated temperatures. The improvement comprises utilizing as a catalyst material high activity sulfur tolerant catalysts consisting essentially of palladium supported on lanthanum stabilized alumina or magnesium promoted lanthanum stabilized alumina.

Setzer, H.J.; Karavolis, S.; Bett, J.A.S.

1987-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

New Catalyst Converts CO2 to Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Catalyst Converts CO to Fuel Calculations Run at NERSC Help Confirm University of Illinois Breakthrough September 5, 2014 | Tags: Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Carver,...

146

New Catalyst Converts CO2 to Fuel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

offer better catalytic performance." The proportion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen in the syngas produced in the reaction can also be easily manipulated using the new catalyst,...

147

Polyfunctional catalyst for processiing benzene fractions  

SciTech Connect

A by-product of the coke industry is a raw benzene fraction benzene- 1 which may serve as for catalytic processes. The paper reports a study on the influence of the composition and temperatures on the activity and selectivity of NiO-V{sub 2}O{sub 6}-MoO{sub 3}/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts and the corresponding binary and tertiary subsystems are studied by a pulse method in model reactions; the hydrodealkylating of toluene and the hydrodesulfurizing of thioprhene. The optimal catalyst composition is established. The new catalyst is compared with industrial catalysts.

G. Byakov; B.D. Zubitskii; B.G. Tryasunov; I.Ya. Petrov [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Sandia National Laboratories: fuel cell catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel cell catalyst ECIS and Compass Metals: Platinum Nanostructures for Enhanced Catalysis On March 29, 2013, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Capabilities, Energy, Energy...

149

WATER-GAS SHIFT KINETICS OVER IRON OXIDE CATALYSTS AT MEMBRANE REACTOR CONDITIONS  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the second year of a project investigating water-gas shift catalysts for use in membrane reactors. It has been established that a simple iron high temperature shift catalyst becomes ineffective in a membrane reactor because the reaction rate is severely inhibited by the build-up of the product CO{sub 2}. During the past year, an improved microkinetic model for water-gas shift over iron oxide was developed. Its principal advantage over prior models is that it displays the correct asymptotic behavior at all temperatures and pressures as the composition approaches equilibrium. This model has been used to explore whether it might be possible to improve the performance of iron high temperature shift catalysts under conditions of high CO{sub 2} partial pressure. The model predicts that weakening the surface oxygen bond strength by less than 5% should lead to higher catalytic activity as well as resistance to rate inhibition at higher CO{sub 2} partial pressures. Two promoted iron high temperature shift catalysts were studied. Ceria and copper were each studied as promoters since there were indications in the literature that they might weaken the surface oxygen bond strength. Ceria was found to be ineffective as a promoter, but preliminary results with copper promoted FeCr high temperature shift catalyst show it to be much more resistant to rate inhibition by high levels of CO{sub 2}. Finally, the performance of sulfided CoMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts under conditions of high CO{sub 2} partial pressure was simulated using an available microkinetic model for water-gas shift over this catalyst. The model suggests that this catalyst might be quite effective in a medium temperature water-gas shift membrane reactor, provided that the membrane was resistant to the H{sub 2}S that is required in the feed.

Carl R.F. Lund

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

150

Activation studies with promoted precipitated iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Ruhrchemie catalyst, the catalyst activity and stability changed markedly with reduction procedure. Hs reduction at 220'C was repeated since it gave very loiv activity. The reproducibility of this test ivas good. Hs reduction at 250 gave higher catalyst...

Manne, Rama Krishna

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Focussing the view on Nature's water-splitting catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

formation in synthetic Mn-catalyst. Inorg. Chem. 43, 264-Nature’s water-splitting catalyst Samir Zein 1,2 , Leonid V.Nature’s water splitting catalyst Abstract About 3 billion

Yano, Junko

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNT/SCR Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Results show that a series of dual layer catalysts with a bottom layer of LNT catalyst and a top layer of SCR catalyst can carry out coupled ammonia generation and NOx reduction, achieving high NOx conversion with minimal ammonia slip

153

Highly Active Steam Reforming Catalyst for Hydrogen and Syngas Production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Toyo Engineering Corporation developed a steam reforming catalyst, which is four times as active as conventional catalysts, for hydrogen and syngas production from light natural gas. The catalyst has...3 plant. B...

Toru Numaguchi

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

E-Print Network 3.0 - aged catalyst extrudates Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

catalyst extrudates Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aged catalyst...

155

The Role of Phosphorus and Soot on the Deactivation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation of diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) by soot contamination and lube-oil derived phosphorus poisoning is investigated. Pt/CeO2/-Al2O3 DOCs aged using three different protocols developed by the authors and six high mileage field-returned DOCs of similar formulation are evaluated for THC and CO oxidation performance using a bench-flow reactor. Collectively, these catalysts exhibit a variety of phosphorus and soot morphologies contributing to performance deactivation. To isolate and examine the contribution of each deactivation mechanism, performance evaluations are carried out for each DOC ''as received'' and after removal of surface carbon in a high-temperature oxidizing environment. In such a manner the deactivation contribution of soot contamination is de-convoluted from that of phosphorus poisoning. It will be shown that this is accomplished while preserving phosphorus (and to a lesser degree sulfur, calcium and zinc) chemistries and concentrations within the washcoat. Washcoat contaminant information and materials changes are characterized using electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), BET surface area, oxygen storage capacity (OSC), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, from which the relative severity of each mechanism can be quantified. Results show that soot contamination from diesel exhaust severely degrades THC and CO oxidation performance by acting as a catalyst surface diffusion barrier. This results in a considerable increase of light-off temperatures. In contrast, phosphorus poisoning, which is considered a significant deactivation mechanism in three-way catalysts, is shown to have minimal effect on DOC oxidation performance for the conditions studied here. Material changes include the formation of both Ce(III-IV) and aluminum phosphates which do not significantly hinder the THC and CO oxidation in lean exhaust. In addition, thermal aging and sulfur poisoning are shown to produce minimal contributions to the overall deactivation. Consequently, performance of aged DOCs after soot removal is observed to be comparable to that of a fresh catalyst under our testing conditions.

Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Nguyen, Ke [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Thermodynamic Properties of Supported Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The goals of this work were to develop Coulometric Titration as a method for characterizing the thermodynamic redox properties of oxides and to apply this technique to the characterization of ceria- and vanadia-based catalysts. The redox properties of ceria and vanadia are a major part of what makes these materials catalytically active but their properties are also dependent on their structure and the presence of other oxides. Quantifying these properties through the measurement of oxidation energetics was the goal of this work.

Gorte, Raymond J.

2014-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

157

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Two Catalyst Formulations - One Solution for NOx After-treatment Systems Low-temperature SCR combined with standard high-temperature SCR catalyst formulation in one system provides...

159

Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of Sulfur Deactivation on CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Investigation of...

160

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Transmural Catalysis - High Efficiency Catalyst Systems for NOx Adsorbers and SCR Presentation...

162

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Lean NOx Reduction with Dual Layer LNTSCR Catalysts Development of Optimal...

163

Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalysts...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application Understanding the Deactivation Mechanisms of CuZeolite SCR Catalysts in Diesel Application To understand...

164

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing, April 2013 Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas...

165

Nanosegregated Surfaces as Catalysts for Fuel Cells | Argonne...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Fuel Cells Technology available for licensing: A method for creating a new class of platinum multi-metallic catalysts that are not only compositionally stable but...

166

Enhanced Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts on Functionalized...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Enhanced Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts on Functionalized Graphene Sheets for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction . Enhanced Activity and Stability of Pt catalysts on...

167

Active Hydrogenation Catalyst with a Structured, Peptide-Based...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogenation Catalyst with a Structured, Peptide-Based Outer-Coordination Sphere. Active Hydrogenation Catalyst with a Structured, Peptide-Based Outer-Coordination Sphere....

168

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

169

Bond Energies in Models of the Schrock Metathesis Catalyst. ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energies in Models of the Schrock Metathesis Catalyst. Bond Energies in Models of the Schrock Metathesis Catalyst. Abstract: Heats of formation, adiabatic and diabatic bond...

170

Defining Active Catalyst Structure and Reaction Pathways from...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Active Catalyst Structure and Reaction Pathways from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics and Operando XAFS: Dehydrogenation of Defining Active Catalyst Structure and Reaction Pathways...

171

Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-high Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle...

172

Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterizatio...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization Ultra-High Resolution Electron Microscopy for Catalyst Characterization 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

173

Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

replaces precious metals Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst Cobalt holds promise as an industrial catalyst with potential applications in such...

174

Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Replaces Precious Metals Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst Cobalt holds promise as an industrial catalyst with potential applications in such...

175

Expulsion Leads to a New Catalyst | The Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Expulsion Leads to a New Catalyst Locating a catalyst and reactants in confined spaces makes catalytic reactions go faster in the desired direction. Of course, the reaction...

176

Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance. Arginine-Containing Ligands Enhance H-2 Oxidation Catalyst Performance. Abstract: In H2 fuel cells,...

177

Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Bifunctional Anode Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells. Abstract: Using the binding energy of OH* and CO* on close-packed...

178

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Novel Approach to Advanced Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Anode Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel...

179

The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell Projects...

180

Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst Alloying in Vapor-Liquid-Solid Grown Semiconductor Nanowires. Controlling Axial p-n Heterojunction Abruptness Through Catalyst...

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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free Covalent Attachment of Electrochemically Active Species to an Azide The Electrode as Organolithium Reagent: Catalyst-Free...

182

Three Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and Transition State Analogues. Three Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts: Oxyanion Hole Mimics and Transition State Analogues....

183

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00...

184

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells |...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

185

New Catalysts for Green Diesel | The Ames Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

New Catalysts for Green Diesel A new economical and efficient catalyst for upgrading renewable feedstocks to green diesel has been created. Green diesel, produced by converting...

186

New Means of Transmitting Electricity: A Three-Way Race  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...transmitting it-namely, an overhead power line-needs serious examination...studied as a possibility for power transmission in the future...trans-mission capacity). The Bonneville Power Administration has an 850-mile-long d-c...

William D. Metz

1972-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Final Reminder:  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Final Reminder: Final Reminder: Final Reminder: Please save your $SCRATCH and $SCRATCH2 imporant files by 4/30/12 April 27, 2012 by Helen He (0 Comments) Franklin batch system is drained, and all batch queues are stopped as of 4/26 23:59pm. This is the final reminder that please make sure to save important files on your Franklin $SCRATCH and $SCRATCH2. ALL FILES THERE WILL BE DELETED, and there will be no mechanisms to recover any of the files after May 1. Mon Apr 30: Last day to retrieve files from Franklin scratch file systems Mon Apr 30, 23:59: User logins are disabled If you need help or have any concerns, please contact "consult at nersc dot gov". Post your comment You cannot post comments until you have logged in. Login Here. Comments No one has commented on this page yet.

188

Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This the final report for the project "Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems," for the work in the group of the co-PI George Biros.

Biros, George

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

189

Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

DeTar, Carleton [P.I.

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

190

Method for reactivating catalysts and a method for recycling supercritical fluids used to reactivate the catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of reactivating a catalyst, such as a solid catalyst or a liquid catalyst. The method comprises providing a catalyst that is at least partially deactivated by fouling agents. The catalyst is contacted with a fluid reactivating agent that is at or above a critical point of the fluid reactivating agent and is of sufficient density to dissolve impurities. The fluid reactivating agent reacts with at least one fouling agent, releasing the at least one fouling agent from the catalyst. The at least one fouling agent becomes dissolved in the fluid reactivating agent and is subsequently separated or removed from the fluid reactivating agent so that the fluid reactivating agent may be reused. A system for reactivating a catalyst is also disclosed.

Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Anderson, Raymond P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2008-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

191

Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

1984-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

192

Long-term catalyst health care  

SciTech Connect

Now that many US selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems are in their fifth or sixth year of operation, a number of utilities are shifting their attention from implementing the technology to operating and maintaining it. Catalyst management and performance are key to the successful operation of any SCR system. The article looks at the various stages of successful catalyst management. 7 figs.

Scot Pritchard [Cormetech Inc. (United States)

2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

193

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

- 1 - Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels March 26, 2012 Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose biomass into high-value commodity chemicals. The journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition published

194

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

;3 Objectives: Development of a durable, low cost, high performance cathode electrode (catalyst and support and Approach Approach: Development of advanced cathode catalysts and supports based on 3M's nanostructured thin Review (6/8/10) Water management for cool/wet transient operation (Task 5.2) Developed key strategy

195

Improved catalyst can clear the air  

SciTech Connect

Catalyst technology can make clean coal plants look as clean as they are. This article examines the need and available methods for SO{sub 2} control with a specific focus on a catalyst technology developed by Cormetech. It also presents the results of commercial operating experience. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Pritchard, S. [Cormetech Inc. (United States)

2006-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded.

Doctor, Richard D. (Lisle, IL)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Process for magnetic beneficiating petroleum cracking catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for beneficiating a particulate zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst having metal values in excess of 1000 ppm nickel equivalents. The particulate catalyst is passed through a magnetic field in the range of from about 2 Tesla to about 5 Tesla generated by a superconducting quadrupole open-gradient magnetic system for a time sufficient to effect separation of said catalyst into a plurality of zones having different nickel equivalent concentrations. A first zone has nickel equivalents of about 6,000 ppm and greater, a second zone has nickel equivalents in the range of from about 2000 ppm to about 6000 ppm, and a third zone has nickel equivalents of about 2000 ppm and less. The zones of catalyst are separated and the second zone material is recycled to a fluidized bed of zeolite petroleum cracking catalyst. The low nickel equivalent zone is treated while the high nickel equivalent zone is discarded. 1 figures.

Doctor, R.D.

1993-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

198

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This final report presents and discusses results from a mercury control process development project entitled ''Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems''. The objective of this project was to demonstrate at pilot scale a mercury control technology that uses solid honeycomb catalysts to promote the oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion. Oxidized mercury is removed in downstream wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) absorbers and leaves with the FGD byproducts. The goal of the project was to achieve 90% oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas and 90% overall mercury capture with the downstream wet FGD system. The project was co-funded by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41185. Great River Energy (GRE) and City Public Service (now CPS Energy) of San Antonio were also project co-funders and provided host sites. URS Group, Inc. was the prime contractor. Longer-term pilot-scale tests were conducted at two sites to provide catalyst life data. GRE provided the first site, at their Coal Creek Station (CCS), which fires North Dakota lignite, and CPS Energy provided the second site, at their Spruce Plant, which fires Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Mercury oxidation catalyst testing began at CCS in October 2002 and continued through the end of June 2004, representing nearly 21 months of catalyst operation. An important finding was that, even though the mercury oxidation catalyst pilot unit was installed downstream of a high-efficiency ESP, fly ash buildup began to plug flue gas flow through the horizontal catalyst cells. Sonic horns were installed in each catalyst compartment and appeared to limit fly ash buildup. A palladium-based catalyst showed initial elemental mercury oxidation percentages of 95% across the catalyst, declining to 67% after 21 months in service. A carbon-based catalyst began with almost 98% elemental mercury oxidation across the catalyst, but declined to 79% oxidation after nearly 13 months in service. The other two catalysts, an SCR-type catalyst (titanium/vanadium) and an experimental fly-ash-based catalyst, were significantly less active. The palladium-based and SCR-type catalysts were effectively regenerated at the end of the long-term test by flowing heated air through the catalyst overnight. The carbon-based catalyst was not observed to regenerate, and no regeneration tests were conducted on the fourth, fly-ash-based catalyst. Preliminary process economics were developed for the palladium and carbon-based catalysts for a scrubbed, North Dakota lignite application. As described above, the pilot-scale results showed the catalysts could not sustain 90% or greater oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas for a period of two years. Consequently, the economics were based on performance criteria in a later DOE NETL solicitation, which required candidate mercury control technologies to achieve at least a 55% increase in mercury capture for plants that fire lignite. These economics show that if the catalysts must be replaced every two years, the catalytic oxidation process can be 30 to 40% less costly than conventional (not chemically treated) activated carbon injection if the plant currently sells their fly ash and would lose those sales with carbon injection. If the plant does not sell their fly ash, activated carbon injection was estimated to be slightly less costly. There was little difference in the estimated cost for palladium versus the carbon-based catalysts. If the palladium-based catalyst can be regenerated to double its life to four years, catalytic oxidation process economics are greatly improved. With regeneration, the catalytic oxidation process shows over a 50% reduction in mercury control cost compared to conventional activated carbon injection for a case where the plant sells its fly ash. At Spruce Plant, mercury oxidation catalyst testing began in September 2003 and continued through the end of April 2005, interrupted only by a

Richard Rhudy

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

199

Final Report  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Final Final Report to Improved Reservoir Access Through Refracture Treatments in Tight Gas Sands and Gas Shales 07122-41.FINAL June 2013 PI Mukul M. Sharma The University of Texas at Austin 200 E. Dean Keeton St. Stop C0300 Austin, Texas 78712 (512) 471---3257 msharma@mail.utexas.edu LEGAL NOTICE This report was prepared by The University of Texas at Austin as an account of work sponsored by the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America, RPSEA. Neither RPSEA members of RPSEA, the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the U.S. Department of Energy, nor any person acting on behalf of any of the entities: a. MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WITH RESPECT TO ACCURACY, COMPLETENESS, OR USEFULNESS OF THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS DOCUMENT, OR THAT THE

200

A comparison of different approaches to modelling the PEMFC catalyst layer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper compares three different approaches for describing the cathode catalyst layer of a PEMFC, using a three-dimensional CFD model. The three catalyst treatments include: a thin-film model, a discrete-catalyst volume model and an agglomerate model. It is shown that, within a single-phase approach using physically meaningful parameters, the commonly employed thin-film or discrete-volume descriptions of the catalyst layer do not show the significant mass transport limitations which occur at higher current densities; while this region is observed using a catalyst agglomerate approach. Further, an in-depth analysis of the current density distributions indicates that for a given electrode overpotential the thin-film model significantly over-predicts the current density, compared to the discrete and agglomerate approaches. The thin-film model also greatly exaggerates the variation in current density both along and across the channel. Finally, the agglomerate model predicts noticeable mass transport losses even at very low current densities despite the use of high stoichiometric ratios and thin-electrolyte films.

D. Harvey; J.G. Pharoah; K. Karan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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201

CATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCHCATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCH ASSEMBLYASSEMBLY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCHCATALYST ENHANCED MICRO SCALE BATCH ASSEMBLYASSEMBLY RajashreeCollection/Analysis Capabilities · Parts (800x800x50µmParts (800x800x50µm33 ) and catalysts (2x2x.5mm) and catalysts (2x2x.5mm33 non-participating millimeter scale parts that act as `catalysts'. We present experimental results

202

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula: PS --R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS --H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS --Br; treating said PS --Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS --Li; substituting said PS-- Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Novel Fischer-Tropsch catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Novel polymer-supported metal complexes of the formula PS -R Me(CO).sub.n H.sub.m where: PS represents a divinylbenzene crosslinked polystyrene in which the divinylbenzene crosslinking is greater than 1% and less than about 18%; R represents a cycloalkadienyl radical of 4 through 6 carbon atoms; Me represents a Group VIII metal; CO represents a carbonyl radical; H represents hydrogen; n represents an integer varying from 0 through 3; m represents an integer varying from 0 through 2 inclusively with the further provision that 2n+m must total 18 when added to the electrons in R and Me, or n+m must total 0; are prepared by: brominating PS -H by treating same with bromine in the presence of a thallium salt in a partially or fully halogenated solvent to form PS -Br; treating said PS -Br so produced with a lithium alkyl of 1 through 12 carbon atoms in an aromatic solvent to produce PS -Li; substituting said PS - Li so produced by reaction with a 2-cycloalkenone of 4 to 6 carbon atoms in the presence of an ether solvent and using a water work-up to form a cycloalkenylalcohol-substituted PS ; dehydrating said alcohol so produced by heating under a vacuum to produce a cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS ; reacting the cycloalkadienyl-substituted PS with metal carbonyl in the presence of a partially or fully halogenated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon of 6 through 8 carbon atoms, ethers, or esters of 4 through 10 carbon atoms as a solvent to produce a polystyrene-supported cycloalkadienyl metal carbonyl. The novel compounds are used as improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts particularly for the conversion of CO+H.sub.2 to gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons at milder conditions than with prior catalysts.

Vollhardt, Kurt P. C. (Kensington, CA); Perkins, Patrick (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, November 9, 1991--February 8, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The investigation of methods for the production and testing of iron-pillared clay catalysts was continued in this quarter. The surface area of the mixed alumina/iron pillared clay catalyst decreased to 51 m{sup 2}/g on sulfidation. Thus the stability of the alumina pillars during the sulfidation and thermal treatments prevented the total collapse that occurred in the case of the iron-pillared clays. Previously the mixed alumina/iron pillared clays were tested for hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl. This testing was extended to a determination of activity with a second model compound substrate (pyrene), representative of the polynuclear aromatic systems present in coal. Testing of the mixed alumina/iron-pillared catalysts with 1-methylnaphthalene gave interesting results that demonstrate shape selectivity. The clay-supported iron hydroxyoxide catalysts prepared by impregnation of iron species on acidic clays were further investigated. Sulfidation of these catalysts using the carbon disulfide in situ method gave hydrocracking activities with bibenzyl that were somewhat less than those obtained by presulfidation with H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S mixtures. Liquefaction of Wyodak subbituminous coal was very successful with the iron impregnated clay catalyst, giving a highly soluble product. High conversions were also obtained with the mixed alumina/iron-pillared clay catalyst, but the yield of oil-solubles was considerably lower. Several new catalysts were synthesized with the idea of decreasing the pillar density and thereby increasing the micropore volume. These catalysts were prepared by first pillaring with an organic ammonium pillaring agent, then introducing a lower number of silica or alumina pillars. Finally the iron component was added either before or after thermal removal of organic pillars.

Olson, E.S.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Adsorption of hydrogen on copper catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Copper catalysts display a high activity and selectivity in the hydrogenation of various carbonyl compounds, and copper is a component of the complex catalysts for the synthesis of methanol from CO and H/sub 2/. The adsorption of H/sub 2/ on copper catalysts has been studied by means of thermal desorption. The molecular form of adsorption of H/sub 2/ has been established, the thermal desorption parameters calculated, and the heat of adsorption of H/sub 2/ on a copper surface estimated.

Pavlenko, N.V.; Tripol'skii, A.I.; Golodets, G.I.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Steam reforming utilizing iron oxide catalyst  

SciTech Connect

High activity steam reforming iron oxide catalysts are described. Such catalysts can be unsupported utilizing at least 90% by weight iron oxide and various modifiers (Ai/sub 2/O/sub 3/, K/sub 2/O, CaO, SiO/sub 2/) or unmodified and supported on such things as alumina, CaO impregnated alumina, and lanthanum stabilized alumina. When used in steam reformers such as autothermal and tubular steam reformers, these catalysts demonstrate much improved resistance to carbon plugging.

Setzer, H. T.; Bett, J. A. S.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

208

Predicting the Effect of Catalyst Axial Active Site Distributions on a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Zone-coated diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs) can be used to obtain overall improved performance in oxidation reaction extents. However, why this occurs and under what conditions… (more)

Al-Adwani, Suad

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass for fuels Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Breaking down biomass could help in converting biomass to fuels. March 26, 2012 Biomass Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is an attractive alternative as a feedstock for the production of renewable chemicals and fuels. Get Expertise Researcher Susan Hanson Inorganic Isotope & Actinide Chem Email Researcher Ruilian Wu Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Researcher Louis "Pete" Silks Bioenergy & Environmental Science Email Vanadium is an inexpensive, earth-abundant metal that is well suited for promoting oxidations in air. Vanadium catalysts break down biomass into useful components Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, non-food biomass (lignocellulose) is

210

Catalyst for methanol synthesis: Preparation and activation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Phase composition and structure of the initial and reduced forms of the copper-zinc oxide catalysts for methanol synthesis are discussed. The mechanism of the process is discussed.

T. M. Yurieva

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Poisoning and Sulfation on Vanadia SCR Catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Deactivation of titania-supported vanadia commercial SCR catalysts exposed to flue gases from both coal and coal-biomass co-firing boilers were investigated. BET surface area and average… (more)

Guo, Xiaoyu 1974-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Poisoning and Sulfation on Vanadia SCR Catalyst.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Deactivation of titania-supported vanadia commercial SCR catalysts exposed to flue gases from both coal and coal-biomass co-firing boilers were investigated. BET surface area and… (more)

Guo, Xiaoyu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Clay Minerals as Catalysts and Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... largely devoted to a discussion on the use of clay minerals as catalysts and industrial adsorbents ; in the later part of the afternoon some general papers Were also given. ...

D. M. C. MACEWAN

1948-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Cheap catalyst gets expensive accessory | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

catalyst and its ability to remove oxygen from m-cresol, which is a model compound for lignin, an integral part of cell walls in plants. The synergy between the palladium and iron...

215

Catalyst by Design - Theoretical, Nanostructural, and Experimental...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-08narula.pdf More Documents & Publications Catalyst by Design...

216

Building Better Catalysts for Splitting Water  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Scientists are eagerly developing catalysts to lower the energy demands, and thus the cost, of H2 production. Yet, they still struggle with the basics, such as what structural...

217

Combustion Catalysts in Industry- An Update  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applications of combustion catalysts for coal are presented. Combustion efficiency and calculations are discussed, followed by an explanation of the theories of combustion catalysis and a review of three case histories....

Merrell, G. A.; Knight, R. S.

218

Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

219

Extended Platinum Nanotubes as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption has relied principally on fossil fuels as an energy source; fuel cells, however, can provide a clean and sustainable alternative, an answer to the depletion and climate change concerns of fossil fuels. Within proton exchange membrane fuel cells, high catalyst cost and poor durability limit the commercial viability of the device. Recently, platinum nanotubes (PtNTs) were studied as durable, active catalysts, providing a platform to meet US Department of Energy vehicular activity targets.[1] Porous PtNTs were developed to increase nanotube surface area, improving mass activity for oxygen reduction without sacrificing durability.[2] Subsurface platinum was then replaced with palladium, forming platinum-coated palladium nanotubes.[3] By forming a core shell structure, platinum utilization was increased, reducing catalyst cost. Alternative substrates have also been examined, modifying platinum surface facets and increasing oxygen reduction specific activity. Through modification of the PtNT platform, catalyst limitations can be reduced, ensuring a commercially viable device.

Alia, S.; Pivovar, B. S.; Yan, Y.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Oxford Catalysts Group plc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oxford Catalysts Group plc Oxford Catalysts Group plc Jump to: navigation, search Name Oxford Catalysts Group plc Place Oxford, United Kingdom Zip OX2 6UD Sector Hydro, Hydrogen Product Developer of catalysts for room-temperature hydrogen production, hot steam production and Fischer-Tropsch processes. Coordinates 43.781517°, -89.571699° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":43.781517,"lon":-89.571699,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

222

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

223

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Wednesday, 28 January 2009 00:00 The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

224

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

225

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

226

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

227

Low Cost Autothermal Diesel Reforming Catalyst Development  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic autothermal reforming (ATR) represents an important step of converting fossil fuel to hydrogen rich reformate for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The state-of-the-art reforming catalyst, at present, is a Rh based material which is effective but costly. The objective of our current research is to reduce the catalyst cost by finding an efficient ATR catalyst containing no rhodium. A group of perovskite based catalysts have been synthesized and evaluated under the reforming condition of a diesel surrogate fuel. Hydrogen yield, reforming efficiency, and conversion selectivity to carbon oxides of the catalyst ATR reaction are calculated and compared with the benchmark Rh based material. Several catalyst synthesis improvements were carried out including: 1) selectively doping metals on the A-site and B-site of the perovskite structure, 2) changing the support from perovskite to alumina, 3) altering the method of metal addition, and 4) using transition metals instead of noble metals. It was found that the catalytic activity changed little with modification of the A-site metal, while it displayed considerable dependence on the B-site metal. Perovskite supports performed much better than alumina based supports.

Shihadeh, J.; Liu, D.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print Nanoscale Chemical Imaging of a Working Catalyst Print The heterogeneous catalysts used in most chemical processes typically consist of nanoscale metal or metal oxide particles dispersed on high-surface-area supports. While these particles are the active elements of the catalyst, the overall performance depends not only on their size and composition but also on their multiple interactions with the support, reactants, and products. Probing this chemical soup in real time under realistic reaction conditions is such a tall order that in some cases even the catalytically active chemical species is not known. A Dutch team working at the ALS has combined scanning transmission x-ray microscopy with a reaction chamber adapted from electron microscopy to identify the chemical species present for an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst and to image their distribution on the nanoscale. When developed further, this new tool may give chemists the ability to design and tailor catalysts for maximum selectivity and efficiency in a wide range of chemical processes.

229

Extended Two Dimensional Nanotube and Nanowire Surfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the development of PEMFC cathode catalysts. The Pt content70] Conclusions PEMFC cathode catalysts were developed wereFor PEMFC development, highly active cathode catalysts are

Alia, Shaun Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

One-Pot Formation of Functionalized Indole and Benzofuran Derivatives Using a Single Bifunctional Ruthenium Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Bifunctional Ruthenium Catalyst Reji N. Nair • Paul J. Lee •bifunctional ruthenium catalyst for cyclization of terminalof transi- tion metal based catalysts have been reported to

Nair, Reji N; Lee, Paul J; Grotjahn, Douglas B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Single Bifunctional Ruthenium Catalyst for One-Pot Cyclization and Hydration giving Functionalized Indoles and Benzofurans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Soc. 2004, 126, 12232. Catalyst 1 is now available from7992 – 7995 Bifunctional Ruthenium Catalyst COMMUNICATIONuse of bifunctional catalyst 1 for hydration and cycliza-

Nair, Rejiâ??N.; Lee, Paulâ??J.; Rheingold, Arnoldâ??L.; Grotjahn, Douglasâ??B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Nanolithographic Fabrication and Heterogeneous Reaction Studies of Two-Dimensional Platinum Model Catalyst Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and truly tune the catalyst to the reaction. References 1.Gavriilidis, A. Varma, Catalyst Design, Cambridge UniversityStructure of Metallic Catalysts, Academic Press, London,

Contreras, A.M.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

A Well-Defined, Silica-Supported Tungsten Imido Alkylidene Olefin Metathesis Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

olefin metathesis catalyst. Bouchra Rhers, a Alain Salameh,active propene metathesis catalyst, which can achieve 16000W-based olefin metathesis catalyst through the reaction of [

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - alternative silp-scr catalysts Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by Ce 16 3. Catalysts based on alternative... .2 Catalytic activity of iron based PILC catalysts 24 4. Catalysts based on alternative support materials... , which deals with...

236

The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for Developing Durable Catalysts. The Corrosion of PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Supports and Its Implications for...

237

FINAL REPORT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

FINAL REPORT AEC-ERDA Research Contract AT (11-1) 2174 Columbia University's Nevis Laboratories "Research in Neutron Velocity Spectroscopy" James RainwatGr DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or

238

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control - Emissions & Emission Controls  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for Lean Engine Emission Control Catalysts for controlling NOx from lean engines are studied in great detail at FEERC. Lean NOx Traps (LNTs) and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) are two catalyst technologies of interest. Catalysts are studied from the nanoscale to full scale. On the nanoscale, catalyst powders are analyzed with chemisorptions techniques to determine the active metal surface area where catalysis occurs. Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy is used to observe the chemical reactions occurring on the catalyst surface during catalyst operation. Both powder and coated catalyst samples are analyzed on bench flow reactors in controlled simulated exhaust environments to better characterize the chemical

239

New applications of noble metal catalysts in hydrocracking  

SciTech Connect

The paper explores how a noble metal hydrocracking catalyst functions stably in a hydrogen sulfide and ammonia environment and, in particular, how the physical positioning of the noble metal molecules affects catalyst performance. A commercial example, HC-28 catalyst in the Unicracking unit at Marathon Oil Refinery in Robinson, Illinois, demonstrates the success of the noble metal catalyst approach for naphtha production. In addition, a new Unicracking catalyst, HC-35, which uses a noble metal component to produce high-quality middle distillates, is introduced. The paper also shows how refiners may derive increased economic and operational benefits from their catalyst investment by using the latest developments in reactor internals design.

Mitchell, D.H.G.; Bertram, R.V. [UOP, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Dencker, G.D. [Marathon Oil Co., Robinson, IL (United States). Illinois Refining Div.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Homogeneous catalysts in hypersonic combustion  

SciTech Connect

Density and residence time both become unfavorably small for efficient combustion of hydrogen fuel in ramjet propulsion in air at high altitude and hypersonic speed. Raising the density and increasing the transit time of the air through the engine necessitates stronger contraction of the air flow area. This enhances the kinetic and thermodynamic tendency of H/sub 2/O to form completely, accompanied only by N/sub 2/ and any excess H/sub 2/(or O/sub 2/). The by-products to be avoided are the energetically expensive fragment species H and/or O atoms and OH radicals, and residual (2H/sub 2/ plus O/sub 2/). However, excessive area contraction raises air temperature and consequent combustion-product temperature by adiabatic compression. This counteracts and ultimately overwhelms the thermodynamic benefit by which higher density favors the triatomic product, H/sub 2/O, over its monatomic and diatomic alternatives. For static pressures in the neighborhood of 1 atm, static temperature must be kept or brought below ca. 2400 K for acceptable stability of H/sub 2/O. Another measure, whose requisite chemistry we address here, is to extract propulsive work from the combustion products early in the expansion. The objective is to lower the static temperature of the combustion stream enough for H/sub 2/O to become adequately stable before the exhaust flow is massively expanded and its composition ''frozen.'' We proceed to address this mechanism and its kinetics, and then examine prospects for enhancing its rate by homogeneous catalysts. 9 refs.

Harradine, D.M.; Lyman, J.L.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Pack, R.T.; Schott, G.L.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Final Report  

SciTech Connect

Forest products provide essential resources for human civilization, including energy and materials. In processing forest products, however, unwanted byproducts, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) are generated. The goal of this study was to develop a cost effective and reliable air pollution control system to reduce VOC and HAP emissions from pulp, paper and paperboard mills and solid wood product facilities. Specifically, this work focused on the removal of VOCs and HAPs from high volume low concentration (HVLC) gases, particularly methanol since it is the largest HAP constituent in these gases. Three technologies were developed and tested at the bench-scale: (1) A novel composite material of activated carbon coated with a photocatalyst titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) (referred to as TiO{sub 2}-coated activated carbon or TiO{sub 2}/AC), (2) a novel silica gel impregnated with nanosized TiO{sub 2} (referred to as silica-titania composites or STC), and (3) biofiltration. A pilot-scale reactor was also fabricated and tested for methanol removal using the TiO{sub 2}/AC and STC. The technical feasibility of removing methanol with TiO{sub 2}/AC was studied using a composite synthesized via a spay desiccation method. The removal of methanol consists of two consecutive operation steps: removal of methanol using fixed-bed activated carbon adsorption and regeneration of spent activated carbon using in-situ photocatalytic oxidation. Regeneration using photocatalytic oxidation employed irradiation of the TiO{sub 2} catalyst with low-energy ultraviolet (UV) light. Results of this technical feasibility study showed that photocatalytic oxidation can be used to regenerate a spent TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent. A TiO{sub 2}/AC adsorbent was then developed using a dry impregnation method, which performed better than the TiO{sub 2}/AC synthesized using the spray desiccation method. The enhanced performance was likely a result of the better distribution of TiO2 particles on the activated carbon surface. A method for pore volume impregnation using microwave irradiation was also developed. A commercial microwave oven (800 W) was used as the microwave source. Under 2450 MHz microwave irradiation, TTIP was quickly hydrolyzed and anatase TiO2 was formed in a short time (< 20 minutes). Due to the volumetric heating and selective heating of microwave, the solvent and by-products were quickly removed which reduced energy consumption and processing time. Activated carbon and TiO{sub 2}/AC were also tested for the removal of hydrogen sulfide, which was chosen as the representative total reduced sulfur (TRS) species. The BioNuchar AC support itself was a good H{sub 2}S remover. After coating TiO{sub 2} by dry impregnation, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/AC decreased compared with the virgin AC due to the change of surface pH. Under UV light irradiation, H{sub 2}S removal efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/AC composite doubled, and its sulfate conversion efficiency was higher than that of AC. The formation of sulfate is preferred since the sulfate can be removed from the composite by rising with water. A pilot-scale fluidized bed reactor was designed to test the efficiency of methanol oxidation with TiO{sub 2}/AC in the presence of UV light. TiO{sub 2}/AC was prepared using the spray desiccation method. The TiO{sub 2}/AC was pre-loaded with (1) methanol (equivalent to about 2%wt) and (2) methanol and water. When the TiO{sub 2}/AC loaded with methanol only was exposed to UV light for one hour in the reactor, most of the methanol remained in the carbon pores and, thus, was not oxidized. The TiO{sub 2}/AC loaded with methanol and water desorbed about 2/3 of the methanol from its pores during fluidization, however, only a small portion of this desorbed methanol was oxidized. A biofilter system employing biological activated carbon was developed for methanol removal. The biofilter contained a mixed packing with Westvaco BioNuchar granular activated carbon, perlite, Osmocote slow release ammonium nitrate pellets, and

David W. Mazyck; Angela Lindner; CY Wu, Rick Sheahan, Ashok Jain

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

242

Method for producing catalysts from coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for producing catalysts from coal is provided comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal, heating the aqueous mixture to treat the coal, drying the now-heated aqueous mixture, reheating the mixture to form carbonized material, cooling the mixture, removing excess alkali from the carbonized material, and recovering the carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in controlled atmospheres, and the carbonized material is a hydrocracking or hydrodehalogenation catalyst for liquid phase reactions. The invention also provides for a one-step method for producing catalysts from coal comprising mixing an aqueous alkali solution with the coal to create a mixture, heating the aqueous mixture from an ambient temperature to a predetermined temperature at a predetermined rate, cooling the mixture, and washing the mixture to remove excess alkali from the treated and carbonized material, wherein the entire process is carried out in a controlled atmosphere. 1 fig.

Farcasiu, M.; Derbyshire, F.; Kaufman, P.B.; Jagtoyen, M.

1998-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

243

Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Jumping-Catalyst Dynamics in Nanowire Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nanowire growth is generally considered a steady-state process, but oscillatory phenomena are known to often play a fundamental role. Here we identify a natural sequence of distinct growth modes, in two of which the catalyst droplet jumps periodically on and off a crystal facet. The oscillatory modes result from a mismatch between catalyst size and wire diameter; they enable growth of straight smooth-sided wires even when the droplet is too small to span the wire tip. Jumping-catalyst growth modes are seen both in computer simulations of vapor-liquid-solid growth, and in movies of Si nanowire growth obtained by in situ microscopy. Our simulations also provide new insight into nanowire kinking.

K.?W. Schwarz; J. Tersoff; S. Kodambaka; F.?M. Ross

2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

A catalyst's resistance to deactivation by polymer formation is vital to the successful gasification of heavy feedstocks such as kerosene and gas oil. The improved polymer-resistance performance of this steam-reforming catalyst is directly relate to the distribution of the pore sizes in its calcined (but unreduced) precursor form and to a certain pore-size ratio: 1) At least 55% of the pore volume of pores having a radius of between 12 and 120 A(2000A) is in the range of 12-30 A(2000A) and 2) the ratio of the pore volume contained in pores of 10-50 A(2000A) to the volume contained in pores of 50-300 A(2000A) is at least 5:1. The catalyst-preparation method involves coprecipitation with a minimum of heat treatment (at temperatures not greater than 140/sup 0/F or 60/sup 0/C).

Banks, R.G.S.; Williams, A.

1980-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

246

Catalytic studies of supported Pd-Au catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reaction conditions is the ultimate goal. This thesis is mainly focused on the application of Pd-Au supported catalysts for vinyl acetate synthesis and CO oxidation reactions using highsurface area catalysts. We have attempted to improve the conventional Pd...

Boopalachandran, Praveenkumar

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

247

Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under Accelerated Aging Conditions Volatility of Vanadia from Vanadia-Based SCR Catalysts under Accelerated Aging Conditions TiO2-supported...

248

Steam Gasification of Biomass Surrogates: Catalyst Development and Kinetic Modelling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study reports a new fluidizable La2O3 promoted Ni/?-Al2O3 catalyst. Prepared catalysts are characterized using BET specific surface area, XRD, TPR, TPO, H2-pulse chemisorptions, Pyridine… (more)

Mazumder, A S M Jahirul Islam

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grants Projects Funded for Year Three  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Harvard Catalyst Pilot Grants Projects Funded for Year Three Experimental Approach to Genotype the Harvard Catalyst Program we aim to:1) Review, select and culturally adapt evidence-based modules from

Paulsson, Johan

250

Reaction of adsorption substitution of oxygen on a cracking catalyst  

SciTech Connect

In an investigation of catalysts for methanol synthesis and carbon monoxide conversion, the authors have observed, for the first time, the reaction of adsorption substitution of strongly bound oxygen on catalysts containing zeolites and compounds of lanthanum and cerium.

Vishnetskaya, M.V.; Takhtarova, G.N.; Topchieva, K.V.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Catalysts for Selective Hydrocarbon Combustion in the Presence of CO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As fast screen for catalyst performance, relative heat of reaction was selected. A high-throughput...35–37]. In brief, the library filled with catalysts was placed in a tight gas phase reactor covered by an IR-tr...

P. Rajagopalan; K. Stöwe; W. F. Maier

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Breakout Session: Open Innovation: SunShot Catalyst & Next Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Open Innovation: SunShot Catalyst & Next Generation Government Prizes Breakout Session: Open Innovation: SunShot Catalyst & Next Generation Government Prizes May 21, 2014 2:45PM to...

253

Long term experiences with HDD SCR Catalysts | Department of...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

term experiences with HDD SCR Catalysts Long term experiences with HDD SCR Catalysts Test bench results and on-road experiences of more than 1 million km offer comparisons of...

254

Applications of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation on noble metal catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrogenation and dehydrogenation on Pd- and Pt- catalysts are encountered in many industrial hydrocarbon processes. The present work considers the development of catalysts and their kinetic modeling along a general and rigorous approach. The first...

Wang, Bo

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perovskite-Based Catalysts for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells ... The addition of Ru substantially improves the CO tolerance of the catalyst, and there has been a great deal of research on the optimization of the alloy composition and structure. ...

Aidong Lan; Alexander S. Mukasyan

2007-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

256

Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in...

257

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for...  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells Development of Ultra-low Platinum Alloy Cathode Catalyst for PEM Fuel Cells These slides were presented...

258

Deactivation and poisoning of fuel cell catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The deactivation and poisoning phenomena reviewed are: the poisoning of anode (fuel electrode) catalyst by carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide; the deactivation of the cathode (air electrode) catalyst by sintering; and the deactivation of the cathode by corrosion of the support. The anode catalyst is Pt supported on a conductive, high area carbon black, usually at a loading of 10 w/o. This catalyst is tolerant to some level of carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide or both in combination, the level depending on temperature and pressure. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been studied extensively, including detailed adsorption studies at various temperatures and pressures. Predictive models have been developed that effectively predict anode tolerance to carbon monoxide. Much less is known about hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Typical tolerance levels are 2% CO, and 10 ppM H/sub 2/S. The cathode catalyst is typically Pt supported on a graphitic carbon black, usually a furnace black heat-treated to 2700/sup 0/C. The Pt loading is typically 10 w/o, and the dispersion (or percent exposed) as-prepared is typically 30%. The loss of dispersion in use depends on the operational parameters, most especially the cathode potential history, i.e. higher potentials cause more rapid decrease in dispersion. The mechanism of loss of dispersion is not well known. The graphitic carbon support corrodes at a finite rate that is also potential dependent. Support corrosion causes thickening of the eletrolyte film between the gas pores and the catalyst particles, which in turn causes increased diffusional resistance and performance loss. In addition, support corrosion may also cause loss of Pt into the separator. Support corrosion appears to be the life limiting factor for phosphoric acid fuel cells.

Ross, P.N. Jr.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

REFORMULATION OF COAL-DERIVED TRANSPORTATION FUELS: SELECTIVE OXIDATION OF CARBON MONOXIDE ON METAL FOAM CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Uses for structured catalytic supports, such as ceramic straight-channel monoliths and ceramic foams, have been established for a long time. One of the most prominent examples is the washcoated ceramic monolith as a three-way catalytic converter for gasoline-powered automobiles. A distinct alternative to the ceramic monolith is the metal foam, with potential use in fuel cell-powered automobiles. The metal foams are characterized by their pores per inch (ppi) and density ({rho}). In previous research, using 5 wt% platinum (Pt) and 0.5 wt% iron (Fe) catalysts, washcoated metal foams, 5.08 cm in length and 2.54 cm in diameter, of both varying and similar ppi and {rho} were tested for their activity (X{sub CO}) and selectivity (S{sub CO}) on a CO preferential oxidation (PROX) reaction in the presence of a H{sub 2}-rich gas stream. The variances in these metal foams' activity and selectivity were much larger than expected. Other structured supports with 5 wt% Pt, 0-1 wt% Fe weight loading were also examined. A theory for this phenomenon states that even though these structured supports have a similar nominal catalyst weight loading, only a certain percentage of the Pt/Fe catalyst is exposed on the surface as an active site for CO adsorption. We will use two techniques, pulse chemisorption and temperature programmed desorption (TPD), to characterize our structured supports. Active metal count, metal dispersion, and other calculations will help clarify the causes for the activity and selectivity variations between the supports. Results on ceramic monoliths show that a higher Fe loading yields a lower dispersion, potentially because of Fe inhibition of the Pt surface for CO adsorption. This theory is used to explain the reason for activity and selectivity differences for varying ppi and {rho} metal foams; less active and selective metal foams have a lower Fe loading, which justifies their higher metal dispersion. Data on the CO desorption temperature and average metal crystallite size for TPD are also collected.

Paul Chin; George W. Roberts; James J. Spivey

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

260

Thief Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Carbon Catalyst for Oxidation of Mercury in Effluent Stream Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov January 2012 Significance * Oxidizes heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury, in gas streams * Uses partially combusted coal ("Thief" carbon) * Yields an inexpensive catalyst * Cheap enough to be a disposable catalyst * Cuts long-term costs * Simultaneously addresses oxidation and adsorption issues Applications * Any process requiring removal of heavy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

90 Seconds of Discovery: Biofuel Catalyst Life and Plugs  

SciTech Connect

Scientist at PNNL are working to extend the life of the catalysts used in the production of biomass fuels.

Zacher, Alan; Olarte, Mariefel

2014-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

262

Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers: A Polymer Science Perspective  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the approaching commercialization of PEM fuel cell technol., developing active, inexpensive non-precious metal ORR catalyst materials to replace currently used Pt-based catalysts is a necessary and essential requirement in order to reduce the overall system cost. ... Polymer electrolyte membranes were catalyzed by direct application of thin film layers cast from solns. of suspended Pt/C catalyst and solubilized Nafion ionomer. ... Identification of dominant transport mechanisms in PEMFC cathode catalyst layers operated under low RH ...

Steven Holdcroft

2013-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Tethered catalysts for the hydration of carbon dioxide  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system is provided that substantially increases the efficiency of CO.sub.2 capture and removal by positioning a catalyst within an optimal distance from the air-liquid interface. The catalyst is positioned within the layer determined to be the highest concentration of carbon dioxide. A hydrophobic tether is attached to the catalyst and the hydrophobic tether modulates the position of the catalyst within the liquid layer containing the highest concentration of carbon dioxide.

Valdez, Carlos A; Satcher, Jr., Joe H; Aines, Roger D; Wong, Sergio E; Baker, Sarah E; Lightstone, Felice C; Stolaroff, Joshuah K

2014-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

265

The Effects of Hydrothermal Agingon a Commercial Cu SCR Catalyst  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Examines the effect of hydrothermal aging on the Nox reduction over a commercial Cu-zeolite SCR catalyst.

266

Catalyst and process for steam-reforming of hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect

An improved catalyst and an improved process for use of the catalyst in the steam-hydrocarbon reforming reaction are disclosed. The catalyst comprises a group VIII metal on a cylindrical ceramic support consisting essentially of alpha alumina and having a plurality of gas passages extending axially therethrough. These supported catalysts display a higher geometric surface area and a lower pressure drop than do standard rings.

Atwood, K.; Merriam, J.S.; Wright, J.H.

1980-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Materials Needs for Catalysts To Improve our Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Materials Needs for Catalysts To Improve our Environment ... Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research1997 36 (7), 2533-2536 ...

John N. Armor

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Thief carbon catalyst for oxidation of mercury in effluent stream  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst for the oxidation of heavy metal contaminants, especially mercury (Hg), in an effluent stream is presented. The catalyst facilitates removal of mercury through the oxidation of elemental Hg into mercury (II) moieties. The active component of the catalyst is partially combusted coal, or "Thief" carbon, which can be pre-treated with a halogen. An untreated Thief carbon catalyst can be self-promoting in the presence of an effluent gas streams entrained with a halogen.

Granite, Evan J. (Wexford, PA); Pennline, Henry W. (Bethel Park, PA)

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

269

90 Seconds of Discovery: Biofuel Catalyst Life and Plugs  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Scientist at PNNL are working to extend the life of the catalysts used in the production of biomass fuels.

Zacher, Alan; Olarte, Mariefel

2014-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

270

The Challenges for PEMFC Catalysts in Automotive Applications  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation by Stephen Campbell for the 2013 DOE Catalysis Working Group Meeting on PEMFC catalysts in automotive applications.

271

Reversible chemisorption on highly dispersed Ru catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorptions have been studied by static gas volumetric measurement on a range of highly dispersed Y-zeolite-supported ruthenium catalysts prepared by ion exchange. At ambient temperature, the absorption isotherms indicated two distinct types of adsorption - reversible (composed of both physisorption and weak chemisorption) and irreversible (strongly chemisorbed). The catalysts were highly dispersed and had average particle diameters ranging from 0.9 to 1.6 nm. Reversible hydrogen chemisorption was found to be a function of average particle diameter and dispersion. On the other hand, reversible carbon monoxide chemisorption seemed to be mainly due to interaction with the support.

Yang, C.H.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Changes in the catalytic properties of a multicomponent molybdenum catalyst under vibro-fluidized catalyst bed conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Activation effect of oxidative dehydrogenation of butene-l on a multicomponent molybdenum catalyst at various temperatures has been studied by ... only reactive but also adsorption properties of the catalyst surf...

A. V. Simakov; S. A. Veniaminov; W. Walkov…

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming  

SciTech Connect

Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

Reaction Rates and Catalysts in Ethanol Production (1 Activity)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Students will have the opportunity to investigate alternative catalysts for the degradation of hydrogen peroxide, which will be used as a model system for the breaking down of cellulose into sugar. After identifying other potential catalysts, students will develop their own research question about catalysts and conduct an additional experiment of their own design to investigate their question.

275

Catalyst: Seeing Through the Eyes of a Cat Jeremy Long  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalyst: Seeing Through the Eyes of a Cat Jeremy Long University of Victoria jsl present Catalyst, an educational game that uses our simulation to teach players about the differences between human and cat vi- sion. The tasks in Catalyst are based on the principle of situated cognition

Gooch, Amy

276

Dynamic Restructuring Of Solid Catalyst Cluster During Carbon Nanotube CVD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dynamic Restructuring Of Solid Catalyst Cluster During Carbon Nanotube CVD Stephan Hofmann1 , Renu, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is commonly assumed that the catalyst metal forms a liquid intermediate and that bulk catalyst effects dominate CNT growth dynamics. Calculations of size

Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

277

Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Shape-selective sieving layers on an oxide catalyst surface Christian P. Canlas1 , Junling Lu2 of molecules or can modify the product selectivity (regioselectivity or enantioselectivity) of catalyst sites, and not all catalyst classes can be readily synthesized with pores of the correct dimensions. Here, we present

Mohseni, Hooman

278

Technology Offer Heterogeneous Leaching Free Pd-Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Technology Offer Heterogeneous Leaching Free Pd-Catalyst For further information please contact) of the carrier particles and the catalyst Potential Fields of Application Production of substituted biphenyls-coupling reactions Overview The present invention relates to non-leaching Pd-catalysts for C-C, C-O or C-N couplings

279

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a process for the separation of catalysts used in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The separation is accomplished by extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic. The purified catalyst can be upgraded by various methods.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

New Generation of Catalyst Layers for PEMFCs Based on Carbon Aerogel Supported Pt Catalyst (CASPC)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The mass production of PEMFC power generators requires a price reduction and, ... the amount of noble metals present in the cathode and anode catalyst layers. Automotive, residential, military, and small scale ap...

Alevtina Smirnova; Xing Dong; Hiro Hara; Nigel M. Sammes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Kinetics of catalyst regeneration by coke combustion. II. Influence of temperature rise in the catalyst particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A grain-pellet model has been used to study the effect of high reaction rates upon the temperature profiles developed during regeneration of coked catalyst particles. The possibility of falsification of kinetic.....

D. Lafarga; C. Royo; A. Monzón; M. Menéndez…

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Catalyst for splitting water &Catalyst for splitting water & Synthetic Modeling of InorganicSynthetic Modeling of Inorganic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Importance Hydrogen technology in fuel cellsHydrogen technology in fuel cells As a combustion fuel, it producesCatalyst for splitting water &Catalyst for splitting water & Synthetic Modeling of Inorganic of evolution ·Optimized catalyst for water splitting in all oxygenic phototrophs S0 S4 S1 S2 S3 O2 2 H O2 e- e

Petta, Jason

283

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or [beta]-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Lyons, J.E.

1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

284

Probing Solid Catalysts Under Operating Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...J.W., TRACING THE CONVERSION OF AURICHALCITE TO A COPPER CATALYST BY COMBINED X-RAY...synthetic variants of the mineral phase aurichalcite [Cu5, Zn,(OH)6(CO3)21...stages of the thermal treatment of the aurichalcite, no significant changes occur in the...

John Meurig Thomas; G. Neville Greaves

1994-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

285

Water Uptake in PEMFC Catalyst Layers  

SciTech Connect

Water uptake profiles of proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell catalyst layers are characterized in the form of capillary-pressure saturation (Pc-S) curves. The curves indicate that the catalyst layers tested are highly hydrophilic and require capillary pressures as low as -80 kPa to eject imbibed water. Comparison of materials made with and without Pt indicates a difference in water ejection and uptake phenomena due to the presence of Pt. The addition of Pt increases the tendency of the catalyst layer to retain water. Dynamic vapor sorption (DVS) is used to characterize the water-vapor sorption onto Nafion, Pt/C, and C surfaces. The DVS results align with the trends found from the Pc-S curves and show an increased propensity for water uptake in the presence of Pt. The effect of the ion in Nafion, sodium or protonated form, is also compared and demonstrates that although the protonation of the Nafion in the catalyst layer also increases hydrophilicity, the effect is not as great as that caused by Pt.

Gunterman, Haluna P.; Kwong, Anthony H.; Gostick, Jeffrey T.; Kusoglu, Ahmet; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Nanotube/Nanowire Based ORR Catalyst  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation about nanotube or nanowire-based oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, presented by Yushan Yan, University of Delaware, at the kick-off meeting of the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Program's Catalysis Working Group, held May 14, 2012, in Arlington, Virginia.

287

Prealloyed catalyst for growing silicon carbide whiskers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A prealloyed metal catalyst is used to grow silicon carbide whiskers, especially in the .beta. form. Pretreating the metal particles to increase the weight percentages of carbon or silicon or both carbon and silicon allows whisker growth to begin immediately upon reaching growth temperature.

Shalek, Peter D. (Los Alamos, NM); Katz, Joel D. (Niagara Falls, NY); Hurley, George F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Fluidizable Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluidizable Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Pyrolysis/Steam Reforming K. Magrini/Objective Develop and demonstrate technology to produce hydrogen from biomass at $2.90/kg plant gate price based Bio-oil aqueous fraction CO H2 CO2 H2O Trap grease Waste plastics textiles Co-processing Pyrolysis

289

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Alkanes are oxidized by contact with oxygen-containing gas in the presence as catalyst of a metalloporphyrin in which hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring have been replaced with one or more nitro groups. Hydrogen atoms in the porphyrin ring may also be substituted with halogen atoms.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Nitrated metalloporphyrins as catalysts for alkane oxidation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Compositions of matter comprising nitro-substituted metal complexes of porphyrins are catalysts for the oxidation of alkanes. The metal is iron, chromium, manganese, ruthenium, copper or cobalt. The porphyrin ring has nitro groups attached thereto in meso and/or .beta.-pyrrolic positions.

Ellis, Jr., Paul E. (Downingtown, PA); Lyons, James E. (Wallingford, PA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. Three different SCR catalysts are being studied. These are honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts are manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Test methods and experimental procedures were developed for current and future testing. The methods and procedures equalize factors influencing mercury adsorption and oxidation (surface area, catalyst activity, and pore structure) that normally differ for each catalyst type. Initial testing was performed to determine the time necessary for each catalyst to reach surface-adsorption equilibrium. In addition, the fraction of Hg oxidized by each of the SCR catalyst types is being investigated, for a given amount of catalyst and flow rate of mercury and flue gas. The next major effort will be to examine the kinetics of mercury oxidation across the SCR catalysts with respect to changes in mercury concentration and with respect to HCl concentration. Hg-sorption equilibrium times will also be investigated with respect to ammonia concentration in the simulated flue gas.

Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

2004-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

292

DOE Hydrogen Analysis Repository: Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts Project Summary Full Title: Novel Non-Precious Metal Catalysts for PEMFC: Catalyst Selection through Molecular Modeling and Durability Studies Project ID: 147 Principal Investigator: Branko Popov Brief Description: The University of South Carolina is synthesizing novel non-precious metal electrocatalysts with similar activity and stability as Pt for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Keywords: Catalyst; oxygen reduction; non precious metals; molecular modeling; durability Purpose Develop highly active and stable carbon-based metal-free catalysts and carbon composite catalysts with strong Lewis basicity to facilitate the ORR. Performer Principal Investigator: Branko Popov Organization: University of South Carolina Address: 2C19 Swearingen, Chemical Engineering, 301 Main Street

293

Near Critical Catalyst Reactant Branching Processes with Controlled Immigration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near critical catalyst-reactant branching processes with controlled immigration are studied. The reactant population evolves according to a branching process whose branching rate is proportional to the total mass of the catalyst. The bulk catalyst evolution is that of a classical continuous time branching process; in addition there is a specific form of immigration. Immigration takes place exactly when the catalyst population falls below a certain threshold, in which case the population is instantaneously replenished to the threshold. Such models are motivated by problems in chemical kinetics where one wants to keep the level of a catalyst above a certain threshold in order to maintain a desired level of reaction activity. A diffusion limit theorem for the scaled processes is presented, in which the catalyst limit is described through a reflected diffusion, while the reactant limit is a diffusion with coefficients that are functions of both the reactant and the catalyst. Stochastic averaging principles under ...

Budhiraja, Amarjit

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Effective Transport Properties Accounting for Electrochemical Reactions of Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers  

SciTech Connect

There has been a rapidly growing interest in three-dimensional micro-structural reconstruction of fuel cell electrodes so as to derive more accurate descriptors of the pertinent geometric and effective transport properties. Due to the limited accessibility of experiments based reconstruction techniques, such as dual-beam focused ion beam-scanning electro microscopy or micro X-Ray computed tomography, within sample micro-structures of the catalyst layers in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), a particle based numerical model is used in this study to reconstruct sample microstructure of the catalyst layers in PEMFCs. Then the reconstructed sample structure is converted into the computational grid using body-fitted/cut-cell based unstructured meshing technique. Finally, finite volume methods (FVM) are applied to calculate effective properties on computational sample domains.

Pharoah, Jon; Choi, Hae-Won; Chueh, Chih-Che; Harvey, David

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane over transition metal-fluorite oxide composite catalysts. I. Catalyst composition and activity  

SciTech Connect

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the total oxidation of carbon monoxide and methane was prepared by combining fluorite oxides with active transition metals. The fluorite oxides, such as ceria and zirconia, are oxygen-ion-conducting materials having catalytic properties usually at high temperatures. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of these oxides. The contact of the two types of materials gave rise to a high active oxidation catalyst. At a space velocity of about 42,000 h{sup {minus}1}, complete carbon monoxide oxidation in air occurred at room temperature on the Au{sub 0.05}[Ce(La)]{sub 0.95}L{sub x} catalyst and at ca. 100{degrees}C on Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts. At the same space velocity, total oxidation of methane on the Cu-Ce-O catalyst doped with La{sub 2}O{sub 3} or SrO took place at ca. 550{degrees}C. The specific carbon monoxide oxidation activity of the Cu-Ce-O catalyst was several orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional copper-based catalysts and comparable or superior to platinum catalysts. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water vapor poisoning. The enhanced catalyst activity and stability resulted from strong interaction of the transition metal and fluorite oxide materials. 44 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, F. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)] [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Novel Attrition-Resistant Fischer Tropsch Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

There is a strong national interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process because it offers the possibility of making liquid hydrocarbon fuels from reformed natural gas or coal and biomass gasification products. This project explored a new approach that had been developed to produce active, attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalysts that are based on glass-ceramic materials and technology. This novel approach represented a promising solution to the problem of reducing or eliminating catalyst attrition and maximizing catalytic activity, thus reducing costs. The technical objective of the Phase I work was to demonstrate that glass-ceramic based catalytic materials for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis have resistance to catalytic deactivation and reduction of particle size superior to traditional supported Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials. Additionally, these novel glass-ceramic-based materials were expected to exhibit catalytic activity similar to the traditional materials. If successfully developed, the attrition-resistant Fischer-Tropsch catalyst materials would be expected to result in significant technical, economic, and social benefits for both producers and public consumers of Fischer-Tropsch products such as liquid fuels from coal or biomass gasification. This program demonstrated the anticipated high attrition resistance of the glass-ceramic materials. However, the observed catalytic activity of the materials was not sufficient to justify further development at this time. Additional testing documented that a lack of pore volume in the glass-ceramic materials limited the amount of surface area available for catalysis and consequently limited catalytic activity. However, previous work on glass-ceramic catalysts to promote other reactions demonstrated that commercial levels of activity can be achieved, at least for those reactions. Therefore, we recommend that glass-ceramic materials be considered again as potential Fischer-Tropsch catalysts if it can be demonstrated that materials with adequate pore volume can be produced. During the attrition resistance tests, it was learned that the glass-ceramic materials are very abrasive. Attention should be paid in any further developmental efforts to the potential for these hard, abrasive materials to damage reactors.

Weast, Logan, E.; Staats, William, R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Lactose oxidation kinetics with oxygen in catalyst-solution-gas three-phase system with simultaneous electrical potential measurement of supported gold catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lactose oxidation kinetics was studied on an supported gold catalyst with simultaneous control of catalyst potential. The experimental data were described well...

D. Yu. Murzin; E. V. Murzina; A. V. Tokarev…

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Effect of steam on supported metal catalysts  

SciTech Connect

In order to examine the effect of steam on supported metal catalysts, model supported metal catalysts of Ni, Co, or Fe on alumina have been heated in steam at 700/sup 0/C. The transmission electron micrographs show that for all these metals, patches of film extend from the crystallites. Prolonged heating results in the disappearance of the patches which probably spread as a contiguous film over the entire surface of the substrate. The degree of spreading is in the order: C0 > Ni > Fe. On subsequent heating in H/sub 2/, small crystallites were generated, probably via the rupture of the contiguous film. The contraction of the patches of film bridging two or several particles caused the coalescence of the latter. This subsequent heating in H/sub 2/ favors redispersion only when the heating time is sufficiently short. Prolonged heating in H/sub 2/ leads to the disappearance of the small particles.

Ruckenstein, E.; Hu, X.D.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Cleaner water using bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Groundwater contaminated by hazardous chlorinated compounds, especially chlorinated ethenes, continues to be a significant environmental problem in industrialized nations. The conventional treatment methods of activated carbon adsorption and air-stripping successfully remove these compounds by way of transferring them from the water phase into the solid or gas phase. Catalysis is a promising approach to remove chlorinated compounds completely from the environment, by converting them into safer, non-chlorinated compounds. Palladium-based materials have been shown to be very effective as hydrodechlorination catalysts for the removal of chlorinated ethenes and other related compounds. However, relatively low catalytic activity and a propensity for deactivation are significant issues that prevent their widespread use in groundwater remediation. Palladium-on-gold bimetallic nanoparticles, in contrast, were recently discovered to exhibit superior catalyst activity and improved deactivation resistance. This new type of material is a significant next-step in the development of a viable hydrodechlorination catalysis technology.

Wong, Michael S.; Alvarez, Pedro J.J.; Fang, Yu-Iun; Akçin, Nurgül; Nutt, Michael O.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Heck, Kimberly N.

2010-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

300

Ion-exchanged pillared clays: A new class of catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrocarbons and by ammonia  

SciTech Connect

Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by NH{sub 3} is presently performed with vanadia-based catalysts for flue gas applications. Hydrocarbons would be the preferred reducing agents over NH{sub 3} because of the practical problems associated with the use of NH{sub 3} (i.e., handling and slippage through the reactor). SCR of NO by hydrocarbons can also find important applications for lean-burn (i.e., O{sub 2}-rich) gasoline and diesel engines where the noble-metal three-way catalysts are not effective in the presence of excess oxygen. Pillared interlayered clays (PILCs) have been studied extensively for a number of catalyzed reactions. We have found high activities of PILCs for SCR of NO by NH{sub 3} (26.28). Pillared clays have considerable Bronsted acidity (27, 28), and the protons can be exchanged with metal cations. The Bronsted acidity of TiO{sub 2}-PILC, in particular, remains high after heat treatment at temperatures as high as 400{degrees}C (27-29). In this note, we report first results on the activities of cation-exchanged pillared clays for SCR of NO by both hydrocarbon and NH{sub 3}. 37 refs., 3 figs.

NONE

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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301

Selective Monoterpene-like Cyclization Reactions Achieved by Water Exclusion from Reactive Intermediates in a Supramolecular Catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a Supramolecular Catalyst William M.  Hart?Cooper, confinement of the catalyst’s interior, Prins cyclizations acidic solution  Entry  Catalyst  pH  Conv.  (%)  1 a  

Hart-Cooper, William

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

REDUCTION OF NITRIC OXIDE BY CARBON MONOXIDE OVER A SILICA SUPPORTED PLATINUM CATALYST: INFRARED AND KINETIC STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

System. • B. Procedures. Catalyst Preparation Infrared DiskPreparation. Catalyst Characterization. PreliminaryReduction by CO Over a Pt Catalyst," M.S. thesis, Department

Lorimer, D.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

HIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Understanding high performance materials Pt/C cathode B.S.E. Pt PtCo/C cathode IrB.S.E. Pt Co PtIrCo/C cathodeHIGHLY DISPERSED ALLOY CATHODE CATALYST FOR DURABILITY T. D. Jarvi UTC Power Corporation Electrochemical Area Loss Activity at 900 mVRHE (IR-Free) 0.44 A/mg Pt Specific Activity at 900 m

304

Oxidation of propylene over copper oxide catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the study of propylene oxidation. Dunlop (17) reported that small quantities of iron compounds substantially enhanced the catalytic activity of chromia-alumina catalysts with respect to propylene oxidation, Woodharn (72) has suggested that under... between 360 C and 430oC the rate of propane oxidation decreases as the teznperature is increased, and the rate of conversion to olefins, especially propylene, becomes progressively greater. Above 430 C the proportion of propane converted to ethylene in...

Billingsley, David Stuart

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

305

Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory) A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National

306

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas Opportunity The Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is seeking licensing partners interested in implementing United States Patent Number 7,776,780 entitled "Catalysts for Oxidation of Mercury in Flue Gas." Disclosed in this patent are catalysts for the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas. These novel catalysts include iridium (Ir), platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir), and Thief carbons. The catalyst materials will adsorb the oxidizing agents HCl, Cl 2 , and other halogen species in the flue gas stream that are produced when fuel is combusted. These adsorbed oxidizing agents can then react with elemental mercury in the stream, which is difficult to capture, and oxidize it to form Hg (II) species,

307

NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects Chemical and Catalyst Science Projects A photo of a large white tank the size of a water heater. Several metal fittings stick out of the sides of the tank. Thin tubes are attached to some of the fittings and lead to flow meters and other metal pipes. Researchers use experimental data from this four-inch fluidized bed reactor to develop and validate gasification process models. NREL uses chemical analysis to study biomass-derived products online during the conversion process. Catalysts are used in the thermochemical conversion process to convert tars (a byproduct of gasification) to syngas and to convert syngas to liquid transportation fuels. Among the chemical and catalyst science projects at NREL are: Catalyst Fundamentals NREL is working to develop and understand the performance of catalyst and

308

Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy Los Alamos catalyst could jumpstart e-cars, green energy The new material has the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media of any non-precious metal catalyst developed to date. June 4, 2013 A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National Laboratory) A high-resolution microscopic image of a new type of nanostructured-carbon-based catalyst developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory that could pave the way for reliable, economical next-generation batteries and alkaline fuel cells. (Photo credit: Los Alamos National

309

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal are being performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation correlations will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature are also being investigated. SO2 oxidation is also being investigated for each test condition.

Thomas K. Gale

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

310

Transition metal-promoted oxygen ion conductors as oxidation catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A novel metal oxide composite catalyst for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons was prepared by combining oxygen ion conducting materials with active transition metals. The oxygen ion conductors used were typical fluorite-type oxides, such as ceria, zirconia, and others. Active base metal catalysts, such as copper, were used as additives to promote the catalytic properties of oxygen ion conductors. The intimate contact of the two kinds of materials gave rise to a highly active oxidation catalyst. On Cu-Ce-O composite catalysts, 95% of carbon monoxide was oxidized by air at {approximately} 100 C. Complete methane oxidation on the same catalyst took place at {approximately} 550 C. When the stoichiometric amount of sulfur dioxide was sued to oxidize carbon monoxide, 96% of sulfur dioxide was reduced to elemental sulfur at temperatures above 460 C with 99% of sulfur dioxide conversion. This type of composite catalyst also showed excellent resistance to water poisoning.

Liu, W.; Sarofim, A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

311

Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect

The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150oC and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metalic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

Patel, Anant; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Atanassov, Plamen; Harvey, David; Dutta, Monica; Colbow, Vesna

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Effect of Graphitic Content on Carbon Supported Catalyst Performance  

SciTech Connect

The effect of graphitic content on carbon supported platinum catalysts was investigated in order to investigate its influence on catalyst performance. Four catalysts of varying surface areas and graphitic content were analyzed using XPS, HREELS, and tested using RDE experiments. The catalysts were also heat treated at 150 C and 100%RH as means to uniformly age them. The heat treated samples were analyzed using the same methods to determine what changes had occurred due to this aging process. When compared to the BOL catalysts, heat treated catalysts displayed increased graphitic carbon and platinum metallic content, however they also showed depressed catalytic activity. The primary cause is still under investigation, though it is believed to be related to loss of amorphous carbon content.

A. Patel; K. Artyushkova; P. Atanassov; David Harvey; M. Dutta; V. Colbow; S. Wessel

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Issue --04 Catalyst.Management School --Autumn 2012  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Issue -- 04 Catalyst.Management School -- Autumn 2012 SChooL newS page 09 Move to new world class InTernATIonAL BuSIneSS GrowTh CATALYST -- Become a business growth leader In The CITY -- The City in touch 03 04 05 08 12 14 16 17 18 20 22 23 24 26 28 30 32 34 ThIS ISSue In this issue of Catalyst we take

Stevenson, Mark

314

Comparative studies of hydrodenitrogenation by mixed metal sulfide catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. , Sanchez, K. M. , and Reibenspies, J. , "Synthesis and characterization of [Et4N][M(CO)5SR] and [Et4N]2[M2 (CO) 8 (SR) 2] complexes (M = Cr, Mo, W) . Ligand substitution... to mimic the commercial catalyst (ie. no sulfide bridges prior to activation) l a Ni/Mo sulfide catalyst which consisted of Ni and Mo atoms brought in intimate contact by sulfide bridges; Ni/Mo and Co/Mo organometallic catalysts whose central metal had...

Luchsinger, Mary Margaret

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Enhanced catalyst stability for cyclic co methanation operations  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is thereafter reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Enhanced catalyst stability for long term, cyclic operation is obtained by the incorporation of an alkali or alkaline earth dopant in a silica binding agent added to the catalyst-support additive composition.

Risch, Alan P. (New Fairfield, CT); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Thiophene Hydrogenation to Tetrahydrothiophene over Tungsten Sulfide Catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Independent reactions of thiophene reduction to tetrahydrothiophene and thiophene hydrogenolysis to form hydrogen sulfide...4...hydrocarbons are shown to occur over supported tungsten sulfide catalysts and unsupp...

A. V. Mashkina

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines Catalyst for Improving the Combustion Efficiency of Petroleum Fuels in Diesel Engines 2005 Diesel...

318

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Coupled LNTSCR Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNTSCR We introduce a new bench-scale engine generator testing system for different...

319

Impact of Fuel-Borne Catalysts on Diesel Aftertreatment | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel-Borne Catalyst Assisted DPF regeneration on a Renault truck MD9 Engine Outfitted with SCR Fuel Additivies for Improved Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment Systems...

320

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Optimal Catalyst Designs & Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems Mike Harold, Vemuri Balakotaiah, Dan Luss U. Houston Mark Crocker, U. Kentucky...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Coupled LNTSCR Mike Harold, Vemuri Balakotaiah, and Dan Luss University of Houston Mark Crocker University of...

322

Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Effectiveness of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) to control CO and hydrocarbon emissions from Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion Effectiveness of a...

323

Impact of Fuel Metal Impurities on Diesel Exhaust Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Metal Impurities on Diesel Exhaust Catalysts Aaron Williams, Jonathan Burton, Robert McCormick National Renewable Energy Laboratory Todd Toops, Michael Lance, Andrew...

324

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Catalyst-Assisted Production of Olefins from Natural Gas Liquids: Prototype Development and Full-Scale Testing New Process Produces Ethylene More Efficiently and Reduces Coke...

325

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - About Us  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysis and Atomic-Level Synthesis" The mission of LSU's Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design is to advance: the ability of computational methods to accurately model...

326

Road Blocks Yield Key Information about a Catalyst | The Ames...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Road Blocks Yield Key Information about a Catalyst Researchers systematically blocked key chemical reaction pathways to get unambiguous information about how carbon-nitrogen bonds...

327

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

new computational tools that will guide the formulation of novel heterogeneous catalyst materials. An important class of reactions involving CO hydrogenation and oxidation...

328

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

to provide guidance to the computational description of the fundamental steps on the catalyst surface. It is centered at Utrecht University (assembly of 3D model systems,...

329

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalysis and Atomic-Level Synthesis" The mission of LSU's Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design is to advance: the ability of computational methods to accurately model...

330

Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results | The Ames...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooperative Catalyst leads to Transformative Results Capitalizing on the concept that everything proceeds faster with a little cooperation, researchers showed how designing...

331

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Contact...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact Us >> space control Center for Atomic-Level Catalyst Design (CALCD) 110 Chemical Engineering South Stadium Road Baton Rouge, LA 70803 Telephone: 225.578.1426 Fax:...

332

Catalyst Structure-Performance Relationship Identified by High...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Identified by High-Throughput Operando Method: New Insight for Silica-Supported Catalyst Structure-Performance Relationship Identified by High-Throughput Operando Method: New...

333

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Contact...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Control of Structures on Complex Catalyst Supports space control Ulrike Diebold Wayne Goodman Richard Kurtz Ward Plummer David Sholl Phil Sprunger Ye Xu space control PI names &...

334

Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites. | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites. Abstract: Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on...

335

Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode - Energy...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Biomass-derived Hydrogen-evolution catalyst and electrode Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact...

336

SunShot Catalyst Program | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

vast array of tools, capabilities, data assets and additional resources developed by Energy Department and the national laboratories. Catalyst's open, fast-paced innovation cycle...

337

DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Test and Polarization Curve Protocols (http:www.uscar.orgcommandsfilesdownload.php?filesid267), Catalyst Support Cycle and Metrics (Table 2). Activity loss is based on...

338

Pt Nanophase supported catalysts and electrode systems for water electrolysis .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this study novel composite electrodes were developed, in which the catalytic components were deposited in nanoparticulate form. The efficiency of the nanophase catalysts and… (more)

Petrik, Leslie Felicia

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Catalysts and process for liquid hydrocarbon fuel production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a novel process and system in which a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen synthesis gas, or syngas, is converted into hydrocarbon mixtures composed of high quality gasoline components, aromatic compounds, and lower molecular weight gaseous olefins in one reactor or step. The invention utilizes a novel molybdenum-zeolite catalyst in high pressure hydrogen for conversion, as well as a novel rhenium-zeolite catalyst in place of the molybdenum-zeolite catalyst, and provides for use of the novel catalysts in the process and system of the invention.

White, Mark G; Liu, Shetian

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

340

What Makes a Good Catalyst for the Deacon Process?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalytic activity is to a large extent determined by the binding strength of the reaction intermediates to the catalyst’s surface (Sabatier principle). ... Therefore, a single metal oxide catalyst may not be improved according to the calculations performed in Norskov’s group. ... Reactor parameters that we have investigated in detail include the oxidizer and chlorinator temps., the catalyst circulation rate and its residence time in each fluidized-bed reactor, the HCl/O2 ratio in the oxidizer feed, and the fluid velocities in both reactors. ...

Herbert Over; Reinhard Schomäcker

2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Ordered Nanoparticle Catalysts article is an Energy Focus > Archived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gruner's time at CHESS In This Section EMC2 News Archived News Stories Ordered Nanoparticle Catalysts article is an Energy Focus January 24th, 2013 A Nature Materials...

342

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

SCR is promising non-urea solution PARTNERS U. Houston (lead) Center for Applied Energy Research (U. Kentucky) Ford Motor Company BASF Catalysts LLC Oak Ridge...

343

Searching for novel catalysts for water oxidation | Center for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center News Research Highlights Center Research News Media about Center Center Video Library Bisfuel Picture Gallery Searching for novel catalysts for water oxidation 30 Oct 2012...

344

Small Catalyst Finding Could Lead to Big Breakthrough for Fuel...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

hold the promise of helping us dramatically reduce our dependence on oil while reducing air pollution. Yet, the high costs of fuel cell catalysts, which rely on expensive...

345

New Catalyst Opens Way to Next-Generation Fuel Cells  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

A new highly stable catalyst developed at Brookhaven Lab lowers barriers to commercial use of fuel cells in vehicles and stationary applications.

Snyder, Kendra

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

346

Condensation Reaction of Methyl N-Phenylcarbamate with Formaldehyde over H? Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During the condensation of N-methyl carbamate (MPC) with formaldehyde, liquid acid catalysts, such as H2SO4(12, 13) HCl,(14) and ZnCl2(15) have shown the best catalytic performance with water as a reaction medium. ... Using the organic solvents entails several challenges, such as the recovery and separation of solvents, and consequently increases the production cost. ... Finally, the temperature was increased under He atmosphere [50 cm3 (STP) min–1] at 10 °C min–1 and TPD profiles were recorded at temperatures up to 500 °C. ...

Fang Li; Rui Min; Jing Li; Liya Gao; Wei Xue; Yanji Wang; Xinqiang Zhao

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

347

Catalyst performance of novel Pt/Mg(Ga)(Al)O catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation Georges Siddiqi, Pingping Sun, Vladimir Galvita, Alexis T. Bell *  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalyst performance of novel Pt/Mg(Ga)(Al)O catalysts for alkane dehydrogenation Georges Siddiqi dehydrogenation Pt Hydrotalcite a b s t r a c t The dehydrogenation of ethane and propane using a Pt catalyst supported on a novel Mg(Ga)(Al)O mixed oxide support was investigated. Catalyst performance is strongly

Bell, Alexis

348

A Multi-Ligand Based Pd Catalyst for C–N Cross-Coupling Reactions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An alternative approach to catalyst development, which led to a Pd catalyst based on two biarylphosphine ligands for C?N cross-coupling reactions, is reported. By effectively being able to take the form of multiple catalysts ...

Fors, Brett P.

349

Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and atomic arrangement of catalyst surface under reactionof reactant molecules on the catalyst surfaces are the norm.Break-up of Pt catalyst surfaces by high CO coverage Feng

Tao, Feng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

High-Resolution Structure of the Photosynthetic Mn4Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Photosynthetic Mn 4 Ca Catalyst from X-ray Spectroscopystructure of the Mn 4 Ca catalyst at high-resolution whichthe structure of Mn 4 Ca catalyst as it cycles through the

Yano, Junko

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Extensive Isomerization of Alkenes Using a Bifunctional Catalyst:  An Alkene Zipper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Placement of the base in the catalyst is crucial: adding 1-of the heterocycle in the catalyst 21 is that complex 1e ismay or may not involve metal catalyst but for simplicity is

Grotjahn, Douglas B; Larsen, Casey R; Gustafson, Jeffery L; Nair, Reji; Sharma, Abhinandini

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities DOE's Fuel Cell Catalyst R&D Activities Presentation about the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) fuel cell catalyst R&D activities, presented by...

353

Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final technical report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT41992, 'Pilot Testing of Mercury Oxidation Catalysts for Upstream of Wet FGD Systems,' which was conducted over the time-period January 1, 2004 through December 31, 2010. The objective of this project has been to demonstrate at pilot scale the use of solid catalysts and/or fixed-structure mercury sorbents to promote the removal of total mercury and oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal combustion, followed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to remove the oxidized mercury at high efficiency. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL), EPRI, Great River Energy (GRE), TXU Energy (now called Luminant), Southern Company, Salt River Project (SRP) and Duke Energy. URS Group was the prime contractor. The mercury control process under development uses fixed-structure sorbents and/or catalysts to promote the removal of total mercury and/or oxidation of elemental mercury in the flue gas from coal-fired power plants that have wet lime or limestone FGD systems. Oxidized mercury not adsorbed is removed in the wet FGD absorbers and leaves with the byproducts from the FGD system. The project has tested candidate materials at pilot scale and in a commercial form, to provide engineering data for future full-scale designs. Pilot-scale catalytic oxidation tests have been completed for periods of approximately 14 to19 months at three sites, with an additional round of pilot-scale fixed-structure sorbent tests being conducted at one of those sites. Additionally, pilot-scale wet FGD tests have been conducted downstream of mercury oxidation catalysts at a total of four sites. The sites include the two of three sites from this project and two sites where catalytic oxidation pilot testing was conducted as part of a previous DOE-NETL project. Pilot-scale wet FGD tests were also conducted at a fifth site, but with no catalyst or fixed-structure mercury sorbent upstream. This final report presents and discusses detailed results from all of these efforts, and makes a number of conclusions about what was learned through these efforts.

Gary Blythe; Conor Braman; Katherine Dombrowski; Tom Machalek

2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Understanding the Distributed Intra-Catalyst Impact of Sulfation on Water Gas Shift in a Lean NOx Trap Catalyst  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Lean NOx Trap catalyst is an aftertreatment technology for abatement of nitrogen-oxide emissions from lean-burn vehicle engines.

355

Non-conductive TiO2 as the anode catalyst support for PEM water electrolysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The applicability of a non-conductive TiO2 as the support of the anodic catalyst for PEM water electrolysis was tested. Three TiO2 samples with different specific surface areas were modified by IrO2 using a modified version of the Adams fusion method. A constant weight ratio of IrO2/TiO2 of 0.6 was maintained in all cases. The size, specific surface area and morphology of IrO2 electrocatalyst crystallites were investigated by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption (BET) and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The electron conductivity of compressed catalyst powders was evaluated. Their electrochemical properties were studied on a rotating disk electrode (RDE) and finally in a laboratory electrolyser. Utilization of the TiO2 support resulted in a reduction in the size of the IrO2 crystallites. It was found that the lower the specific surface area of the supports, the higher was the electrochemical activity of the catalyst. This is most likely due to the formation of a conductive IrO2 film on the surface of non-conductive supports. For the supports with a higher surface area, the amount of IrO2 used was not sufficient to form an adequately compact film. This resulted in high electron resistance of such a catalyst. The RDE results were confirmed by a laboratory electrolysis test. Taken together with the excellent stability of TiO2 in an anodic environment, these results suggest that these materials are promising supports if the appropriate amount of iridium is deposited.

Petr Mazúr; Jakub Polonský; Martin Paidar; Karel Bouzek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Technical Report: Final  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work was to develop catalyzed nanoporous materials that have superior hydrogen uptake between 300K and 400K and moderate pressures. Platinum nanoparticles were introduced to both activated carbons (ACs) and microporous metal organic frameworks (MMOFs) in order to dissociate molecular hydrogen into an active hydrogen species that diffuses from the catalyst to weakly chemisorbs to the AC/MMOF support; this combined sequence is referred to as the hydrogen spillover mechanism. For all materials studied, maximum excess hydrogen uptake was 1-1.4 wt% (excess) at 300K, falling short of DOE storage goals (5.5 wt% by 2015). Select Pt/AC materials (after in situ catalyst activation) had high uptake (up to 1.4 wt%) at low pressure which significantly exceeded that expected for physisorption. The uptake was not correlated to size of Pt catalyst, but appeared to be associated with high surface activity of the AC support and the methodology of catalyst doping. Multiple techniques were explored to introduce Pt nanoparticles into MMOFs, but most led to significant structural degradation. Ultimately, a ‘pre-bridge’ (PB) technique was used to introduce Pt/AC catalysts into MMOFs, as the PB technique led to virtually non-detectable changes in structure. At high pressure, hydrogen spillover of ~1 wt% (excess) to a PB-MMOF was very slow (i.e. >80 hours at 70-80 bar), which can be attributed to high diffusion barriers in a complex three-surface domain material (Pt, AC, MMOF) as well as unexpected evidence for mechanical instability of the undoped MMOF precursor. In a low-pressure comparison study of three PB-MMOFs, we found evidence that the doping technique may introduce defects which may contribute to enhanced adsorption at 300K. However, we could not rule out the effect of active Pt sites, as common predictors of adsorption generally favored the materials without Pt. Furthermore, spectroscopic evidence provided definitive evidence of weak hydrogen chemisorption to two MMOFs and AC, and was found only for materials containing Pt catalyst. Overall, high uptake via hydrogen spillover requires high catalytic activity and an energy neutral surface landscape for ready diffusion, with little to no correlation to the size of the Pt nanoparticle or textural properties (i.e. surface area or porosity) of the AC or MMOF support.

Lueking, Angela D.; Wang, Cheng-Yu

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

357

The Use of Soluble Polyolefins as Supports for Transition Metal Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, agrochemicals, etc.). Thus catalyst and ligand separations are of increasing importance. One method for the recovery and separation of catalysts is to use an insoluble or heterogeneous support. This has the advantage of allowing for separation of catalyst..., agrochemicals, etc.). Thus catalyst and ligand separations are of increasing importance. One method for the recovery and separation of catalysts is to use an insoluble or heterogeneous support. This has the advantage of allowing for separation of catalyst...

Hobbs, Christopher Eugene

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electrically heated particulate filter using catalyst striping  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine is provided. The system generally includes a particulate filter (PF) that filters particulates from the exhaust wherein an upstream end of the PF receives exhaust from the engine. A grid of electrically resistive material is applied to an exterior upstream surface of the PF and selectively heats exhaust passing through the grid to initiate combustion of particulates within the PF. A catalyst coating is applied to the PF that increases a temperature of the combustion of the particulates within the PF.

Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J; Ament, Frank

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

Catalyst for elemental sulfur recovery process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reduction process is described for the direct recovery of elemental sulfur from various SO[sub 2]-containing industrial gas streams. The catalytic process provides high activity and selectivity, as well as stability in the reaction atmosphere, for the reduction of SO[sub 2] to elemental sulfur product with carbon monoxide or other reducing gases. The reaction of sulfur dioxide and reducing gas takes place over a metal oxide composite catalyst having one of the following empirical formulas: [(FO[sub 2])[sub 1[minus]n](RO)[sub n

Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Liu, W.

1995-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

360

Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Low-cost and durable catalyst support for fuel cells: graphite submicronparticles. Abstract: Low-cost...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Deactivation Mechanism of Cu/Zeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Deactivation Mechanism of CuZeolite SCR Catalyst Due to Reductive Hydrothermal Aging Better control for...

362

NMR Studies of Cu/zeolite SCR Catalysts Hydrothermally Aged with...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cuzeolite SCR Catalysts Hydrothermally Aged with Urea. NMR Studies of Cuzeolite SCR Catalysts Hydrothermally Aged with Urea. Abstract: The effects of hydrothermal aging of Cu...

363

Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Zirconium Catalyst Follows a Low Energy Pathway for Carbon-Nitrogen Bond Formation Chemists have synthesized a highly selective and highly efficient zirconium catalyst that makes...

364

Using IR Thermography to Evaluate Temperature Distributions on a Diesel NOx Adsorber Catalyst during Simulated Operation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In emissions catalyst applications, an axial distribution of reaction, surface chemistry, and temperature all exist on or along the surface of the catalyst. Understanding these… (more)

Aftab, Khurram

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

New Directions in Catalyst Design and Interrogation: Applications in Dinitrogen Activation and Olefin Metathesis .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A major driving force for development of new catalyst systems is the need for more efficient synthesis of chemical compounds essential to modern life. Catalysts… (more)

Blacquiere, Johanna M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Putting a Smiley Face on the Dragon: Wal-Mart as Catalyst to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Dragon: Wal-Mart as Catalyst to U.S. -China Trade Emekthat Wal-Mart acts as a catalyst to greater imports and

Basker, Emek

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

High-activity fuel cell catalyst layers via block copolymer nanocomposites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalyst layers are disordered blends of carbon-supported platinum catalyst in an ionomeric matrix. The objective of this research… (more)

Alabi, Toheeb Bola

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Extended Two Dimensional Nanotube and Nanowire Surfaces as Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

x-ray spectroscopy EOR: Ethanol oxidation reaction EGOR:in catalysts for MOR, ethanol (EOR), and ethylene glycolreported as an alkaline EOR catalyst, often with activity

Alia, Shaun Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Novel multiple-acidic ionic liquids: Green and efficient catalysts for the synthesis of bis-indolylmethanes under solvent-free conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Four novel multiple-acidic ionic liquids based on triethanolamine (TEA) were prepared and used as efficient catalysts to synthesize bis-indolylmethanes at room temperature without any organic solvent. [TEOA][HSO4] showed the best catalytic performance. The optimal amount of catalyst was 10 mol%. Various aldehydes/ketones reacted with indole/substituted indole smoothly and afforded to corresponding products in 70–99% yields within minutes. Additionally, the ionic liquid could be reused up to five times with only a slight decrease in catalytic activity. Finally, a possible reaction mechanism was given. Techniques of acidity test and NMR were introduced to verify the proposed mechanism.

Anguo Ying; Zhifeng Li; Yuxiang Ni; Songlin Xu; Hailiang Hou; Huanan Hu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Atomic-Scale Design of Iron Fischer-Tropsch Catalysts; A Combined Computational Chemistry, Experimental, and Microkinetic Modeling Approach  

SciTech Connect

This work focuses on (1) searching/summarizing published Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) mechanistic and kinetic studies of FTS reactions on iron catalysts; (2) preparation and characterization of unsupported iron catalysts with/without potassium/platinum promoters; (3) measurement of H{sub 2} and CO adsorption/dissociation kinetics on iron catalysts using transient methods; (3) analysis of the transient rate data to calculate kinetic parameters of early elementary steps in FTS; (4) construction of a microkinetic model of FTS on iron, and (5) validation of the model from collection of steady-state rate data for FTS on iron catalysts. Three unsupported iron catalysts and three alumina-supported iron catalysts were prepared by non-aqueous-evaporative deposition (NED) or aqueous impregnation (AI) and characterized by chemisorption, BET, temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), extent-of-reduction, XRD, and TEM methods. These catalysts, covering a wide range of dispersions and metal loadings, are well-reduced and relatively thermally stable up to 500-600 C in H{sub 2} and thus ideal for kinetic and mechanistic studies. Kinetic parameters for CO adsorption, CO dissociation, and surface carbon hydrogenation on these catalysts were determined from temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of CO and temperature programmed surface hydrogenation (TPSR), temperature-programmed hydrogenation (TPH), and isothermal, transient hydrogenation (ITH). A microkinetic model was constructed for the early steps in FTS on polycrystalline iron from the kinetic parameters of elementary steps determined experimentally in this work and from literature values. Steady-state rate data were collected in a Berty reactor and used for validation of the microkinetic model. These rate data were fitted to 'smart' Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expressions derived from a sequence of elementary steps and using a combination of fitted steady-state parameters and parameters specified from the transient measurements. The results provide a platform for further development of microkinetic models of FTS on Fe and a basis for more precise modeling of FTS activity of Fe catalysts. Calculations using periodic, self-consistent Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods were performed on various realistic models of industrial, Fe-based FTS catalysts. Close-packed, most stable Fe(110) facet was analyzed and subsequently carbide formation was found to be facile leading to the choice of the FeC(110) model representing a Fe facet with a sub-surface C atom. The Pt adatom (Fe{sup Pt}(110)) was found to be the most stable model for our studies into Pt promotion and finally the role of steps was elucidated by recourse to the defected Fe(211) facet. Binding Energies(BEs), preferred adsorption sites and geometries for all FTS relevant stable species and intermediates were evaluated on each model catalyst facet. A mechanistic model (comprising of 32 elementary steps involving 19 species) was constructed and each elementary step therein was fully characterized with respect to its thermochemistry and kinetics. Kinetic calculations involved evaluation of the Minimum Energy Pathways (MEPs) and activation energies (barriers) for each step. Vibrational frequencies were evaluated for the preferred adsorption configuration of each species with the aim of evaluating entropy-changes, pre exponential factors and serving as a useful connection with experimental surface science techniques. Comparative analysis among these four facets revealed important trends in their relative behavior and roles in FTS catalysis. Overall the First Principles Calculations afforded us a new insight into FTS catalysis on Fe and modified-Fe catalysts.

Manos Mavrikakis; James Dumesic; Rahul Nabar; Calvin Bartholonew; Hu Zou; Uchenna Paul

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

371

Improving Platinum Catalyst Durability with a Doped Graphene Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Improving the durability of a platinum catalyst is an important step in increasing its utility when incorporated as the anode or cathode of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell. ... Carboxyl Group Enhanced CO Tolerant GO Supported Pt Catalysts: DFT and Electrochemical Analysis ... Chemical Structure of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene with Single Platinum Atoms and Atomic Clusters as a Platform for the PEMFC Electrode ...

Michael N. Groves; Cecile Malardier-Jugroot; Manish Jugroot

2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

372

IN SITU Device for Real-Time Catalyst Deactivation Measurements  

SciTech Connect

SCR catalyst management has become an important operations and maintenance activity for coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. To facilitate this activity, a method to determine Catalyst Activity in situ is being developed. This report describes the methodology and presents the results of a two ozone season demonstration conducted at Alabama Power Company's Gorgas Unit 10 during the 2005 and 2006 ozone seasons. The results showed that the in situ measurements are in good agreement with the laboratory measurements and the technique has some advantages over the traditional laboratory method of determining Catalyst Activity and Reactor Potential. SCR Performance is determined by the overall Reactor Potential (the product of the Catalyst Activity and the available surface area per unit of flue gas). The in situ approach provides a direct measurement of Reactor Potential under actual operating conditions, whereas laboratory measurements of Catalyst Activity need to be coupled with estimates of catalyst pluggage and flue gas flowrate in order to assess Reactor Potential. The project also showed that the in situ activity results can easily be integrated into catalyst management software to aid in making informed catalyst decisions.

Fossil Energy Research

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

374

Effects of catalyst pretreatment for carbon nanotube growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effects of pretreatment of iron catalyst for carbon nanotube (CNT) growth was studied. CNTs were grown on Fe/A1203 (1/10 nm) thin-film catalyst deposited on silicon substrates via exposure to C2H4 in a thermal chemical ...

Morgan, Caitlin D

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fischer-Tropsch synthesis over iron-rhodium alloy catalysts  

SciTech Connect

To investigate the nature of iron-rhodium alloy catalysts during the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, a combination of experimental techniques were applied. Infrared spectroscopy was mainly used to extract direct information on the surface of catalysts under the reaction conditions. In addition, Mossbauer spectroscopy was employed to study the iron alloy catalysts. Further characterization of the catalysts was performed by chemisorption measurements. Hydrocarbon products of the CO + H/sub 2/ synthesis reaction were analyzed by gas chromatography. The working surface of a silica-supported rhodium catalyst was found to be saturated with molecular carbon monoxide. The intensity of the linear carbonyl absorption band remained constant compared to that for room temperature CO adsorption, while that of the bridge-bonded carbonyl absorption band was drastically reduced during the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The bridge-bonded adsorption sites are assumed to be the active sites for dissociating carbon monoxide. The hydrogenation rate of the linearly adsorbed carbon monoxide was much slower than the steady state reaction rate. The alloy catalyst did not form a bulk carbide, but the presence of surface carbon was suggested by the large shift of the linear carbonyl absorption band. On the other hand, infrared spectra on an iron catalyst showed only weak bands, indicating a high degree of CO dissociation. On a silica-supported iron-rhodium alloy catalyst, surface analysis by infrared spectroscopy presents evidence of well-mixed alloy formation. Three models of carbon monoxide adsorption were identified.

Choi, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts From fuels to renewable energy sources. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have enormous potential in this area A New Instrument For Characterizing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Catalysts Rob Usiskin In partnership

377

Silica-Supported Tantalum Clusters: Catalyst for Alkane Conversion  

SciTech Connect

Silica-supported tantalum clusters (on average, approximately tritantalum) were formed by the treatment, in either H{sub 2} or ethane, of adsorbed Ta(CH{sub 2}Ph){sub 5}; the supported catalyst is active for ethane conversion to methane and propane at 523 K, with the used catalyst containing clusters of the same average nuclearity as the precursor.

Nemana ,S.; Gates, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Decomposition of nitrous oxide on AlFe-PILC catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two AlFe-PILC catalysts were prepared with different OH/metal...2O) decomposition reactions. The 100% conversion of N2O with NH3into N2and H2O was achieved below 500oC with both applied catalysts. However, the ac...

Ern? E. Kiss; Tatjana J Vuli?…

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Development of Highly Selective Oxidation Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to use Atomic Layer Deposition to construct nanostructured catalysts to improve the effectiveness of oxidative dehydrogenation of alkanes. More effective catalysts could enable higher specific conversion rates and result in drastic energy savings - up to 25 trillion Btu per year by 2020.

380

Catalyzing a Cleaner Energy Future When asked about catalysts, most  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for a deeper fundamental understanding of how catalysts aid reactions. As for the "human catalysts," EMSL does it begin with the EMSL's 1997 ribbon-cutting as a new national scientific user facility.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Chuck Peden, catalysis scientist and PNNL Laboratory Fellow, remembers exploring

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Argonne National Laboratory Chemical Engineering Division Catalysts for autothermal reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Krause Chemical Engineering Division Argonne National Laboratory Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure2, CO, CO2, and CH4) as a function of: catalyst composition fuel composition and sulfur content,110,861) awarded Oct 2000: CRADA w/H2Fuel to commercialize reformer Aug 2001: Began work on perovskite catalysts

382

Plate-Based Fuel Processing System Final Report  

SciTech Connect

On-board reforming of liquid fuels into hydrogen is an enabling technology that could accelerate consumer usage of fuel cell powered vehicles. The technology would leverage the convenience of the existing gasoline fueling infrastructure while taking advantage of the fuel cell efficiency and low emissions. Commercial acceptance of on-board reforming faces several obstacles that include: (1) startup time, (2) transient response, and (3) system complexity (size, weight and cost). These obstacles are being addressed in a variety of projects through development, integration and optimization of existing fuel processing system designs. In this project, CESI investigated steam reforming (SR), water-gas-shift (WGS) and preferential oxidation (PrOx) catalysts while developing plate reactor designs and hardware where the catalytic function is integrated into a primary surface heat exchanger. The plate reactor approach has several advantages. The separation of the reforming and combustion streams permits the reforming reaction to be conducted at a higher pressure than the combustion reaction, thereby avoiding costly gas compression for combustion. The separation of the two streams also prevents the dilution of the reformate stream by the combustion air. The advantages of the plate reactor are not limited to steam reforming applications. In a WGS or PrOx reaction, the non-catalytic side of the plate would act as a heat exchanger to remove the heat generated by the exothermic WGS or PrOx reactions. This would maintain the catalyst under nearly isothermal conditions whereby the catalyst would operate at its optimal temperature. Furthermore, the plate design approach results in a low pressure drop, rapid transient capable and attrition-resistant reactor. These qualities are valued in any application, be it on-board or stationary fuel processing, since they reduce parasitic losses, increase over-all system efficiency and help perpetuate catalyst durability. In this program, CESI took the initial steam reforming plate-reactor concept and advanced it towards an integrated fuel processing system. A substantial amount of modeling was performed to guide the catalyst development and prototype hardware design and fabrication efforts. The plate-reactor mechanical design was studied in detail to establish design guidelines which would help the plate reactor survive the stresses of repeated thermal cycles (from start-ups and shut-downs). Integrated system performance modeling was performed to predict system efficiencies and determine the parameters with the most significant impact on efficiency. In conjunction with the modeling effort, a significant effort was directed towards catalyst development. CESI developed a highly active, sulfur tolerant, coke resistant, precious metal based reforming catalyst. CESI also developed its own non-precious metal based water-gas shift catalyst and demonstrated the catalysts durability over several thousands of hours of testing. CESI also developed a unique preferential oxidation catalyst capable of reducing 1% CO to < 10 ppm CO over a 35 C operating window through a single pass plate-based reactor. Finally, CESI combined the modeling results and steam reforming catalyst development efforts into prototype hardware. The first generation 3kW(e) prototype was fabricated from existing heat-exchanger plates to expedite the fabrication process. This prototype demonstrated steady state operation ranging from 5 to 100% load conditions. The prototype also demonstrated a 20:1 turndown ratio, 10:1 load transient operation and rapid start-up capability.

Carlos Faz; Helen Liu; Jacques Nicole; David Yee

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

383

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

384

Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts Contact NETL Technology Transfer Group techtransfer@netl.doe.gov May 2012 Opportunity Research is currently active on the technology "Methods of Reforming Hydrocarbon Fuels Using Hexaaluminate Catalysts." The technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview This invention discloses a method to reform hydrocarbon fuels using hexa- aluminate catalysts. In general, the method successfully disrupts the forma- tion of carbon that leads to the deactivation of the catalyst, a key element in the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels. When researchers are designing catalysts to reform hydrocarbon fuels, one

385

The Science And Engineering of Duralbe Ultralow PGM Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies 2009 Kickoff Meeting The Science And Engineering of Durable Ultralow PGM Catalysts Eric Brosha, Neil Henson and Fernando Garzon (PI) LANL 1 Los Alamos National Laboratory (lead participant) Ballard Power Systems (BPS) University of California Riverside (UCR) University of New Mexico (UNM) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) *Development of durable, high mass activity Platinum Group Metal cathode catalysts *Elucidation of the fundamental relationships between PGM catalyst shape, particle size and activity *Optimization of the cathode electrode layer to maximize the performance of PGM catalysts *Understanding the performance degradation mechanisms of high mass activity cathode catalysts *Development and testing of fuel cells using ultra-low loading high activity

386

NREL: Biomass Research - Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities Chemical and Catalyst Science Capabilities A photo of a man in a white lab coat and dark goggles looking at a microscope. A bright green light shines down from the microscope lens and illuminates a round glass tray containing small white beads. The Laser Raman Spectrometer is used to obtain phase and structural identification information for catalysts used in the thermochemical conversion process. NREL researchers use chemical and catalyst science to assess and improve biochemical and thermochemical conversion throughout the processes, from analyzing feedstocks to improving the yield of desired end products. Catalyst Science Syngas produced during gasification contains tars that are contaminants, but these tars can be reformed to more syngas using tar-reforming

387

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

388

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Reaction-Driven Restructuring of Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts Print Catalytic systems based on bimetallic particles with controlled size, composition, and structure dispersed on a high-surface-area support are widely used for catalytic reforming, pollution control, alcohol oxidation, and electrocatalysis in fuel cells. Owing to the nanoscale size of the particles, the modification of the surface structure and composition that may occur when reaction conditions change can have dramatic effects on catalyst activity and selectivity. Working at the ALS, a University of California, Berkeley-Berkeley Lab group has used an ambient-pressure x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) apparatus to demonstrate that bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts can undergo profound structural and chemical changes in response to reactive environments at ambient pressures, thereby opening the way for engineering catalysts with enhanced activity and selectivity.

389

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project - honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. Most experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. Future work to characterize flue gas simulations typically derived from low and high sulfur bituminous coal will be performed in a stepwise manner, to avoid the constant interruptions in testing that occur when leaks in the system are generated during temperature transitions. Specifically, chlorine concentration vs. mercury oxidation graph will be developed for each catalyst. The contributions of temperature and later sulfur will be investigated after this is complete. Also, last quarter's tests showed a potential linear relationship between SO3 conversion and mercury oxidation. As a result, SO3 samples will be taken more frequently to investigate each catalyst's ability to selectively oxidize mercury.

Alex J. Berry; Thomas K. Gale

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

Supported Molten Metal Catalysis. A New Class of Catalysts  

SciTech Connect

We describe a new class of heterogeneous catalysts called supported molten metal catalysis (SMMC), in which molten metal catalysts are dispersed as nanodroplets on the surface of porous supports, allowing much larger active surface area than is possible in conventional contacting techniques for catalytic metals that are molten under reaction conditions, thus greatly enhancing their activity and potential utility. Specific examples of different types of reactions are provided to demonstrate the broad applicability of the technique in designing active, selective, and stable new catalysts. It is shown that dispersing the molten metal on a support in the suggested manner can enhance the rate of a reaction by three to four orders of magnitude as a result of the concomitant increase in the active surface area. New reaction examples include {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} supported molten Te (melting point 450 C) and Ga (MP 30 C) catalysts for bifunctional methylcyclohexane dehydrogenation. These catalysts provide activity similar to conventional Pt-based catalysts for this with better resistance to coking. In addition, results are described for a controlled pore glass supported molten In (MP 157 C) catalyst for the selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol in the presence of water, demonstrating activities superior to conventional catalysts for this reaction. A discussion is also provided on the characterization of the active surface area and dispersion of these novel supported catalysts. It is clear based on the results described that the development of new active and selective supported molten metal catalysts for practical applications is entirely plausible.

Ravindra Datta; Ajeet Singh; Manuela Serban; Istvan Halasz

2006-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

391

Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening 2007 Progress Report  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are researching the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is obtaining commercially available mixed alcohol or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. The most promising catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. After a review of the literature in 2006 and conversations with companies that produce catalysts, it was determined that no commercial mixed-alcohol synthesis catalysts were available. One manufacturer supplied a modified methanol catalyst that was tested in the PNNL laboratory-scale system and provided to NREL for further testing. PNNL also prepared and tested the behavior of 10 other catalysts representing the distinct catalyst classes for mixed alcohol syntheses. Based on those results,testing in 2007 focused on the performance of the rhodium-based catalysts. The effects of adding promoters to the rhodium catalysts in addition to the manganese already being used were examined. The iron and rhenium promoters both stood out as achieving higher carbon selectivities , followed by Cu. Iridium and Li, on the other hand, had low carbon selectivity ratios of 0.27 and 0.22, respectively. Although testing of candidate promoters is not complete, it appears that Ir and Li promoters warrant further optimization and possibly combination to further improve STYs and carbon selectivities to C2+ oxygenates. However, using these promoters, it will be necessary to incorporate a separate hydrogenation catalyst to improve the yield of C2+ alcohols with respect to the other oxygenates. Fe, Re, and Cu stand out as possible candidates in this respect, but additional research is needed to examine whether they can be combined with the other promoters on the Rh-based catalyst or need to be optimized on a separate catalyst support that is either physically mixed or used in series with the promoted Rh-based catalyst.

Gerber, Mark A.; White, J. F.; Gray, Michel J.; Stevens, Don J.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Characterization and performance of Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared via decomposition of M(Cu, Zn)-ammonia complexes under sub-atmospheric pressure for methanol synthesis from H2 and CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Methanol synthesis from hydrogénation of CO2 is investigated over Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by decomposition of M(Cu, Zn)-ammonia complexes (DMAC) at various temperatures. The catalysts were characterized in detail, including X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption, N2O chemisorption, temperature-programmed reduction and evolved gas analyses. The influences of DMAC temperature, reaction temperature and specific Cu surface area on catalytic performance are investigated. It is considered that the aurichalcite phase in the precursor plays a key role in improving the physiochemical properties and activities of the final catalysts. The catalyst from rich-aurichalcite precursor exhibits large specific Cu surface area and high space time yield of methanol (212 g/(Lcat · h); T = 513 K, p = 3 MPa, SV = 12000 h?1).

Danjun Wang; Jun Zhao; Huanling Song; Lingjun Chou

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

NIF Final Optics Assemblies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NIF Final Optics Assemblies The Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) are the last element of the main laser system and the first of the target area systems. Each FOA contains four...

394

Catalyst for steam reforming of hydrocarbons and process of preparing the catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A catalyst is provided for the steam reforming of normally liquid hydrocarbons to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which does not promote the deposition of carbonaceous materials upon the catalytic surfaces. The catalyst consists of nickel promoted with the oxides of iron and manganese within a specific manganese to iron ratio, said metal and metal oxides being supported upon a refractory support. The support is preferably aluminum oxide in its alpha phase having a surface area of less than 15 m2/gm. The metallic constituents are impregnated onto said refractory low surface area support as salts and are calcined at sufficiently high temperature to convert the salts to the oxide but at a sufficiently low temperature that they do not chemically react with the support.

Broughton, D.R.; Russ, K.J.

1980-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

395

JV 58-Effects of Biomass Combustion on SCR Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

A portable slipstream selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reactor was installed at a biomass cofired utility boiler to examine the rates and mechanisms of catalyst deactivation when exposed to biomass combustion products. The catalyst was found to deactivate at a much faster rate than typically found in a coal-fired boiler, although this may have been the result of high ash loading rather than a general property of biomass combustion. Deactivation was mainly the result of alkali and alkaline-earth sulfate formation and growth in catalyst pores, apparently caused by alkaline-earth ash deposition on or near the pore sites. The high proportion of biomass in the fuel contributed to elevated levels of alkali and alkaline-earth material in the ash when compared to coal ash, and these higher levels provided more opportunity for sulfate formation. Based on laboratory tests, neither catalyst material nor ammonia contributed measurably to ash mass gains via sulfation. A model constructed using both field and laboratory data was able to predict catalyst deactivation of catalysts under subbituminous coal firing but performed poorly at predicting catalyst deactivation under cofiring conditions. Because of the typically higher-than coal levels of alkali and alkaline-earth elements present in biomass fuels that are available for sulfation at typical SCR temperatures, the use of SCR technology and biomass cofiring needs to be carefully evaluated prior to implementation.

Bruce C. Folkedahl; Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Joshua R. Strege; Donald P. McCollor; Jason D. Laumb; Lingbu Kong

2006-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Towards improved iron-based catalysts for direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Iron-based catalysts for direct coal liquefaction (DCL) have several advantages: they are cheap and environmentally benign, and have a reasonable activity in the sulfide form. Work in this area has recently been collected and published. work in our laboratory has focussed on catalysts made with ferric sulfide as a precursor. This material is unstable even at room temperature, and disproportionates to form pyrite (FeS{sub x}; PY) , non-stoichiometric pyrrhotite (FeS{sub x}, x {approx} 1; PH) , and elemental S. The value of x and the relative amounts of PY and PH depend upon the time and temperature of disproportionation. Materials from hydrothermal disproportionation at 200{degrees}C for 1 h have roughly equal amounts of PH and PY (on an iron basis), and these materials appear to make the most active and selective catalysts for DCL. These catalyst precursors and catalyst materials have been characterized by atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AA), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The characterizations have been correlated to the reactions of Fe during disproportionation and to the performance of the catalysts. Improvements in these catalysts can be made in two ways: by altering the active sites, and by decreasing the particle sizes. In the present work, we present examples of both types. The active sites are altered by using small amounts of a second metal. The particle sizes are reduced by using an aerosol technique for preparation.

Dadyburjor, D.B.; Stiller, A.H.; Stinespring, C.D. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Application of solid ash based catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis  

SciTech Connect

Solid wastes, fly ash, and bottom ash are generated from coal and biomass combustion. Fly ash is mainly composed of various metal oxides and possesses higher thermal stability. Utilization of fly ash for other industrial applications provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects. On the one hand, due to the higher stability of its major component, aluminosilicates, fly ash could be employed as catalyst support by impregnation of other active components for various reactions. On the other hand, other chemical compounds in fly ash such as Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} could also provide an active component making fly ash a catalyst for some reactions. In this paper, physicochemical properties of fly ash and its applications for heterogeneous catalysis as a catalyst support or catalyst in a variety of catalytic reactions were reviewed. Fly-ash-supported catalysts have shown good catalytic activities for H{sub 2} production, deSOx, deNOx, hydrocarbon oxidation, and hydrocracking, which are comparable to commercially used catalysts. As a catalyst itself, fly ash can also be effective for gas-phase oxidation of volatile organic compounds, aqueous-phase oxidation of organics, solid plastic pyrolysis, and solvent-free organic synthesis. 107 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Shaobin Wang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

ATTRITION RESISTANT IRON-BASED FISCHER-TROPSCH CATALYSTS  

SciTech Connect

Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis to convert syngas (CO + H{sub 2}) derived from natural gas or coal to liquid fuels and wax is a well-established technology. For low H{sub 2} to CO ratio syngas produced from CO{sub 2} reforming of natural gas or from gasification of coal, the use of Fe catalysts is attractive because of their high water gas shift activity in addition to their high FT activity. Fe catalysts are also attractive due to their low cost and low methane selectivity. Because of the highly exothermic nature of the FT reaction, there has been a recent move away from fixed-bed reactors toward the development of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) that employ 30 to 90 {micro}m catalyst particles suspended in a waxy liquid for efficient heat removal. However, the use of FeFT catalysts in an SBCR has been problematic due to severe catalyst attrition resulting in fines that plug the filter employed to separate the catalyst from the waxy product. Fe catalysts can undergo attrition in SBCRs not only due to vigorous movement and collisions but also due to phase changes that occur during activation and reaction.

K. Jothimurugesan; James G. Goodwin, Jr.; Santosh K. Gangwal

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Octahedral molecular sieve sorbents and catalysts are disclosed, including silver hollandite and cryptomelane. These materials can be used, for example, to catalyze the oxidation of CO.sub.x (e.g., CO), NO.sub.x (e.g., NO), hydrocarbons (e.g., C.sub.3H.sub.6) and/or sulfur-containing compounds. The disclosed materials also may be used to catalyze other reactions, such as the reduction of NO.sub.2. In some cases, the disclosed materials are capable of sorbing certain products from the reactions they catalyze. Silver hollandite, in particular, can be used to remove a substantial portion of certain sulfur-containing compounds from a gas or liquid by catalysis and/or sorption. The gas or liquid can be, for example, natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon.

Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; King, David L [Richland, WA

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

400

USING Fe-PILC as catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe pillared clays (Fe-PILCs) were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. Hydrodeporphyrinization (HDP) of vanadyl octaetil porphyrine (VOOEP) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene were used as catalytic tests. It was demonstrated that Fe-PILCs are very active catalysts for the HDP of VOOEP. After sulfidation of the Fe-PILC, some of the iron forms a bulk pyrrhotite-type iron sulfide (Fe1?xS) phase and the Fe-PILC structure is partially destroyed by the sulfiding procedure. About half of the iron remains forming a pillar structure. Both, the segregated iron sulfide and the iron in the pillars, are active for the decomposition of the VOOEP.

B.P. Embaid; Jose G. Biomorgi; F. Gonzalez-Jimenez; M. Josefina Pérez-Zurita; Carlos E. Scott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

For Immediate Release Catalyst to Keynote Renowned Text Mining and Applied  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For Immediate Release Catalyst to Keynote Renowned Text Mining and Applied Mathematics Conference Denver, Colorado, April 9, 2010--Catalyst Repository Systems announced today that Catalyst's founder and CEO John Tredennick, along with Catalyst's VP of Operations Bruce Kiefer, will be giving the Keynote

Tennessee, University of

402

Z. B. He et al., Nickel catalyst shape Etchant-induced shaping of nanoparticle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Z. B. He et al., Nickel catalyst shape - 1 - Etchant-induced shaping of nanoparticle catalysts al., Nickel catalyst shape - 2 - Abstract Carbon nanofibres (CNFs) obtained by plasma show in this paper that the shape of Ni nanoparticle catalysts, and in turn the CNF properties, can

Boyer, Edmond

403

Matching between Reaction and Catalyst Conditions in Growing VA-SWNTs by ACCVD  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Matching between Reaction and Catalyst Conditions in Growing VA-SWNTs by ACCVD Hisashi Sugime1 of the catalyst nanoparticles is a crucial issue. Co-Mo binary catalysts effectively grow SWNTs either from CO [1/3 for the former [1] and 1.6/1 for the latter [2]. The structure of catalyst nanoparticles should be determined

Maruyama, Shigeo

404

Page 1 of 20 Catalyst preparation for CMOS-compatible silicon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Page 1 of 20 Catalyst preparation for CMOS-compatible silicon nanowire synthesis Vincent T. Renard many of the metallic catalysts required for nanowire growth are not compatible with standard CMOS of silicon nanowires using copper based catalysts is limited by catalyst preparation. We show

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

405

Scalable Parallel Screening of Catalyst Activity at the Single-Particle Level and Subdiffraction Resolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Scalable Parallel Screening of Catalyst Activity at the Single-Particle Level and Subdiffraction ABSTRACT: High-throughput and quantitative screening of catalyst activity is crucial for guiding the work cycles of catalyst improvements and optimizations. For nanoparticle catalysts, their inherent

Chen, Peng

406

Clean gasoline reforming with superacid catalysts  

SciTech Connect

The data showing the selectivity for production of 1-octene during dehydration of 2-octanol for ZrO[sub 2]-A and for ZrO[sub 2]-A/S are shown in Figure 17. The unsulfated sample exhibits high selectivity for 1-octene initially, but this declines to stabilize at about 40% at a reaction temperature of 320[degrees]C. However, the selectivity of the sulfated sample for 1-octene is consistently high at a reaction temperature of 220[degrees]C. The addition of sulfate ions has therefore increased the catalytic activity over that of the unsulfated zirconia, and at the same time produced a catalyst that is very selective for 1-octene only. Thus, this ZrO[sub 2]-A/S sample clearly does not exhibit superacid character since the dehydration product is the least stable one. Under similar conditions, dehydration using amorphous silica-alumina produces an equilibrium distribution of m-alkenes. Samples of ZrO[sub 2]-N were sulfated and these catalysts were even more active for 2-octanol dehydration than ZrO[sub 2]-A/S. However, the sulfated samples based upon ZrO[sub 2]-N produced nearly 100% conversion at the highest flow rate possible with the equipment [LHSV=12] and showed an equilibrium distribution of normal octenes rather than a selectivity for 1-octene. The samples of sulfated zirconias that are described here show a wide range of activity compared to unsulfated zirconias, but none of them exhibits the chain isomerization character expected of a superacute.

Davis, B.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Role of the resid solvent in catalytic coprocessing with finely divided catalysts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The role of the resid in coprocessing coal with petroleum resid has been investigated using model systems. The primary question being investigated is whether resid is participating in reactions with coal or if the resid is acting simply as a diluent. Since hydrogen transfer is an important mechanism by which solvent interacts with coal, hydrogen transfer between naphthenes, saturated alicyclic molecules, that represent resid and aromatic molecules that represent coal were examined in reactions with a high pressure H{sub 2} atmosphere that is typical of actual coprocessing. The model naphthene, perhydropyrene, was chosen as the donor species and the models, anthracene, phenanthrene, and benzophenone, were chosen as the acceptor species. Coprocessing reactions of coal with petroleum resid were performed to evaluate the effect of the chemistry of both constituents on coal conversion and the upgrading of the heavy resid. Three heavy resids, Maya, FHC-623 and Manji were used as the whole resid and as fractions that has been separates into hexane solubles and saturate fractions.

Curtis, C.W.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Development of ternary alloy cathode catalysts for phosphoric acid fuel cells: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the program was the identification development and incorporation of high activity platinum ternary alloys on corrosion resistant supports, for use in advanced phosphoric acid fuel cells. Two high activity ternary alloys, Pr-Cr-Ce and Pt-Ni-Co, both supported on Vulcan XC-72, were identified during the course of the program. The Pr-Ni-Co system was selected for optimization, including preparation and evaluation on corrosion resistant supports such as 2700/degree/C heat-treated Vulcan XC-72 and 2700/degree/ heat-treated Black Pearls 2000. A series of tests identified optimum metal ratios, heat-treatment temperatures and heat-treatment atmospheres for the Pr-Ni-Co system. During characterization testing, it was discovered that approximately 50% of the nickel and cobalt present in the starting material could be removed, subsequent to alloy formation, without degrading performance. Extremely stable full cell performance was observed for the Pt-Ni-Co system during a 10,000 hour atmosphere pressure life test. Several theories are proposed to explain the enhancement in activity due to alloy formation. Recommendations are made for future research in this area. 62 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

Not Available

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Method of making metal-polymer composite catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst for use as a cathode electrocatalyst in fuel cells. The catalyst includes a heteroatomic polymer; a transition metal linked to the heteroatomic polymer by one of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, and a recast ionomer dispersed throughout the heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite. The method includes forming a heteroatomic polymer-carbon composite and loading the transition metal onto the composite. The invention also provides a method of making a membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell that includes the metal-polymer-carbon composite catalyst.

Zelena, Piotr (Los Alamos, NM); Bashyam, Rajesh (Los Alamos, NM)

2009-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

410

Kinetics of rapid reactions on nanometer catalyst particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Steady-state kinetics of the practically important catalytic reaction 2A+B2?2AB (e.g., 2CO+O2 ? 2CO2 on Pt, Rh or Pd), occurring on nanometer supported catalyst particles, is analyzed by employing two schemes taking into account, respectively, (i) the interplay of the reaction on different facets of the catalyst particle and (ii) the possibility of adsorption of reactants on the support followed by diffusion to the catalyst. The results obtained demonstrate that the kinetics for these two cases can be remarkably different compared to those corresponding to the infinite surface.

V. P. Zhdanov and B. Kasemo

1997-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Nickel Catalysts Supported on Barium Hexaaluminate for Enhanced CO Methanation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(4, 5) Since Sabatier and Senderens discovered that some metals such as Ni, Ru, Rh, Pt, Fe, and Co could be used in the methanation reaction in 1902,(6) many methanation catalysts have been developed. ... In short, although Ni/Al2O3 catalysts have been extensively explored, their thermal stability and resistance to carbon deposition still need to be improved. ... Meanwhile, the catalyst coatings on the walls of micro-channel reactor showed high activity and stability, having the excellent catalytic performance for methanation reaction in micro-channel reactors and the reliability in long-term use as well. ...

Jiajian Gao; Chunmiao Jia; Jing Li; Fangna Gu; Guangwen Xu; Ziyi Zhong; Fabing Su

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

412

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

HYBRID HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSTS FOR HYDROGENATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE Lucia M. Petkovic, Harry W. Rollins, Daniel M. Ginosar, and Kyle C. Burch Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625 Idaho Falls, ID 83415-2208 Introduction Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas often associated with global warming, have increased considerably since the beginning of the industrial age.1 In the U.S., stationary CO2 sources, such as electricity generation plants, produce about one-third of the anthropogenic CO2 generation. Reports2 indicate that the power required to recover 90% of the CO2 from an integrated coal-fired power-plant is about 10% of the power-plant capacity. This energy requirement can be reduced to less than 1% if the recovered CO2 is applied to the production of synthetic fuels. However, the lack of efficient catalysts along with the costs of energy and hydrogen has prevented the development of technologies for direct hydrogenation of CO2.3 Although the cost of hydrogen for hydrogenating CO2 is not economically attractive at present, the future production of hydrogen by nuclear power sources could completely change this scenario.2 Still, an efficient catalyst will be essential for commercial application of those processes. The objective of the work presented here was the development of hybrid catalysts for one-step carbon dioxide hydrogenation to liquid fuels. The hybrid catalysts, which were prepared by two novel techniques, included a copper/zinc oxide catalytic function distributed within an acidic zeolitic matrix. Results of catalyst activity and selectivity studies at atmospheric pressure are presented in this contribution. Experimental Catalysts were prepared by two novel techniques and under several different conditions to produce copper/zinc oxide/zeolite materials. Once synthesized, samples were pelletized and the fraction between 40-60 mesh was utilized for the experiments. Two hundred milligrams of catalyst were loaded in a U-tube stainless steel reactor and a flow of 100 cm3/min of a 10:90 H2:Ar mixture was passed through the catalyst bed while the temperature was increased from room temperature to 513 K at 1.8 K/min and held at 513 K for 15 h. A reactant gas mixture composed by 10 cm3/min of CO2 and 30 cm3/min of H2 was then passed through the catalyst bed and the reaction products monitored by on-line gas chromatographic analyses using an SRI Multiple Gas Analyzer #2 equipped with 3 columns (MoleSieve 13X, Hayesep-D, and MXT-1) and 3 detectors (TCD, FID, and FID-methanizer). This GC system allowed for quantification of inert gases, CO, CO2, methanol, dimethylether, higher alcohols, water, and hydrocarbons up to C20. One hundred milligrams of a commercial syngas-to-methanol catalyst along with the same amount of a commercial zeolite catalyst was utilized under the same reaction conditions for comparison purposes. These catalysts were utilized either in two-layers (Com1) or mixed together (Com2). Results and Discussion Under the conditions applied in this study, the main reaction products were CO, CH3OH, CH3OCH3, and H2O. Methanol and dimethylether production rates and selectivities with respect to CO formation are presented in Figures 1 and 2, respectively. Although the activity of the synthesized catalysts did not surpass the commercial catalysts, the selectivity to oxygenates with respect to CO on most of the synthesized catalysts were better than on the commercial catalysts. For example, cat

Licia M. Petkovic; Harry W. Rollins; Daniel M. Ginosar; Kyle C. Burch

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Final Report: Catalytic Hydrocarbon Reactions over Supported Metal Oxides, August 1, 1995 - July 31, 1999  

SciTech Connect

The research program focused on the catalysis of hydrodesulfurization (HDS) over molybdenum-based catalysts and how catalyst composition, redox ability, structure and neighboring sites control the catalytic properties of metal oxides. We sought to understand the catalytic features/sites that control hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and isomerization during HDS. Unprompted silica-supported molybdenum oxides and molybdenum sulfides were studied. Model catalyst systems were prepared from organometallic precursors or cluster compounds to generate supported structures that feature Mo(II) and Mo(IV) cations that are isolated or in ensembles and that have either Mo-O or Mo-S bonds. Conventional MOS{sub 2} catalysts, which contain both edge and rim sites, were be studied. Finally, single-layer MOS{sub 2} structures were also prepared from 2H-MoS{sub 2} powder so that the model systems could be compared against a disulfide catalyst that only involves rim sites. Catalytic reactions for thiophene and tetrahydrothione were studied over the various catalysts. Oxidation states were determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray crystallography was used to characterize and follow changes in the MOS{sub 2} structures. The program on metal oxides prepared supported oxides that have a specific structure and oxidation state to serve as model templates for the more complex commercial catalysts and then employed these structures in reaction studies. This focus area examined the relationships between structure and cation redox characteristics in oxidation catalysis. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the cations and reaction intermediates.

Ekerdt, John G.

1999-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

414

Advanced NOx Emissions Control: Control Technology - SCR Catalyst Blinding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SCR Catalyst Blinding SCR Catalyst Blinding University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UND-EERC) is determining the potential of low-rank coal ash to cause blinding or masking of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts. A secondary goal will be to determine the degree of elemental mercury conversion across the catalysts. Specific objectives include (1) identify candidate coals and blends for testing under bench-scale conditions, (2) conduct bench-scale testing to screen coals and identify key conditions for full-scale testing, (3) design and construct an SCR slipstream test chamber for sampling at full-scale facilities, (4) conduct testing at full-scale testing, (5) identify SCR blinding mechanisms, rates, and cleaning methods as well as mercury conversion efficiencies, and (6) interpret data, prepare a report, and attend sponsor meetings to present information and recommendations.

415

Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

11, 2008 11, 2008 Oxygen Atoms Display Novel Behavior on Common Catalyst Like waltzing dancers, the two atoms of an oxygen molecule usually behave identically when they separate on the surface of a catalyst. However, new research from the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory reveals that on a particular catalyst, the oxygen atoms act like a couple dancing the tango: one oxygen atom plants itself while the other shimmies away, probably with energy partially stolen from the stationary one. Scientists from EMSL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discovered this unanticipated behavior while studying how oxygen interacts with reduced titanium oxide, a popular catalyst and a model oxide. Their research began with a slice of titanium oxide crystal, oriented so that titanium and oxygen

416

Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection Durable Catalysts for Fuel Cell Protection during Transient Conditions (Topic 1c) Radoslav Atanasoski DOE/3M Award DE-EE0000456 Kickoff meeting for new DOE Fuel Cell projects from solicitation DE-PS36-08GO98009 and lab call DE-PS36-08GO98010 Washington DC, Sept. 30, 2009 2 Timeline * Project start date: August 1, 2009 * Project end date: July 31, 2013 * Percent complete: ~ 5% Collaborations * Dalhousie University (subcontractor) - Dr. David Stevens; High-throughput catalyst synthesis and basic characterization * Oak Ridge National Lab (subcontractor) - Dr. Karren More; TEM Characterization * 3M Team: George Vernstrom Greg Haugen Mark Debe Radoslav Atanasoski Project Overwiew Durable Catalysts for Transient Conditions- July 01, 2009  Barriers C. Electrode Performance

417

Iron supported clay as catalysts for oxidation of cyclooctane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron supported bentonite clay catalysts have been prepared by the ion exchange of bentonite with iron2+ and iron3+ solution and immobilization with iron compounds using ligands: acetylacetonate, picolinate, pyraz...

W. Trakarnpruk; P. Dumrongpong

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction. 1 fig.

Halow, J.S.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

Novel Intermetallic Catalysts to Enhance PEM Membrane Durability  

SciTech Connect

The research examined possible sources of degradation of platinum based anode catalysts under long term use. Scientists at the United Technologies Research Center had shown that the anode as well as the cathode catalysts degrade in hydrogen fuel cells. This goal of this research was to see if mechanisms of anode degradation could be understood using forefront electrochemical techniques in an aqueous system. We found that this method is limited by the very low levels of impurities (perhaps less than a part per trillion) in the electrolyte. This limitation comes from the relatively small catalyst surface area (a few sq cm or less) compared to the electrolyte volume of 10 to 25 ml. In real fuel cells this ratio is completelyreversed: high catalyst surface area and low electrolyte violume, making the system much less sensitive to impurities in the electrolyte. We conclude that degradation mechanisms should be studied in real fuel cell systems, rather than in ex-situ, large electrolyte volume experiments.

Francis J. DiSalvo

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

420

Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Evaluation ace029harold2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx Reduction in Coupled LNT-SCR Systems...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Photochemical synthesis of a water oxidation catalyst based on...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photochemical synthesis of a water oxidation catalyst based on cobalt nanostructures Authors: Wee, T-L., Sherman, B.D., Gust, D., Moore, A.L., Moore, T.A., Liu, Y., and Scaiano,...

422

Development of the 2011MY Ford Super Duty Catalyst System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Efforts leading to medium-duty truck aftertreatment system development, issues addressed, including catalyst layout to maximize NOx conversion and balance of precious metals for oxidation function during cold-start and filter regeneration

423

Anne LaPointe > Director, Catalyst Discovery and Development...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Anne LaPointe Director, Catalyst Discovery and Development Laboratory aml329@cornell.edu Dr. LaPointe received her PhD from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and then went...

424

Fractal clustering of reactants on a catalyst surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The islands of adsorbed molecules in an A+B?AB reaction model on a two-dimensional catalyst surface (with no surface diffusion) are found to be fractal with dimension D=1.90±0.03.

Robert M. Ziff and Kristen Fichthorn

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Neutral bimetallic transition metal phenoxyiminato catalysts and related polymerization methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalyst composition comprising a neutral bimetallic diphenoxydiiminate complex of group 10 metals or Ni, Pd or Pt is disclosed. The compositions can be used for the preparation of homo- and co-polymers of olefinic monomer compounds.

Marks, Tobin J. (Evanston, IL); Rodriguez, Brandon A. (Evanston, IL); Delferro, Massimiliano (Chicago, IL)

2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

Palladium as Catalyst in a Polycondensed Matrix, Part ii  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Part I of this series results on the formation of Pd-organic amine adducts, their polymerization, and the catalytic behavior of the catalyst formed were reported [1]. In the...2...adsorption measurements are d...

József Petró; Krisztina László; János T. Kiss…

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Technical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 space control 2012 Technical Conference: Center for Atomic-level Catalyst Design Oct. 8-10, 2012 LSU Welcomes CALC-D researchers to the Center's 4th Annual Technical Conference....

428

XPS Study of a New Heterogeneous Ruthenium Catalyst Precursor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The catalyst precursor has been synthesized by modifying the silica surface with ClPPh2 followed by a surface reaction with RuCl3. Sup- ports consisting of a thin layer of SiO2 on a...

Smet, P; Verpoort, F; Doncker, G De; Bossuyt, A R; Fiermans, L; Verdonck, L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Porphyrin-Stabilized Iridium Oxide Water Oxidation Catalyst Authors: Sherman, B. D., Pillai, S., Kodis, G., Bergkamp, J., Mallouk, T. E., Gust, D., Moore, T. A., and Moore, A. L....

430

Down-flow moving-bed gasifier with catalyst recycle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The gasification of coal and other carbonaceous materials by an endothermic gasification reaction is achieved in the presence of a catalyst in a down-flow, moving-bed gasifier. Catalyst is removed along with ash from the gasifier and is then sufficiently heated in a riser/burner by the combustion of residual carbon in the ash to volatilize the catalyst. This volatilized catalyst is returned to the gasifier where it uniformly contacts and condenses on the carbonaceous material. Also, the hot gaseous combustion products resulting from the combustion of the carbon in the ash along with excess air are introduced into the gasifier for providing heat energy used in the endothermic reaction.

Halow, John S. (Waynesburg, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Catalysts and materials development for fuel cell power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic processing of fuels was explored in this thesis for both low-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell as well as high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Novel catalysts were ...

Weiss, Steven E

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

NREL Patents a Catalyst that Removes Syngas Tar, Boosting the...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Schroeder, NREL 20393 Quick Facts NREL patented a catalyst that can reform tar in a gasification reactor, an important shortcut in making biomass suitable as a drop-in fuel....

433

Modeling of Catalyst Structure Degradation in PEM Fuel Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter, the requirements of a high-performance catalyst layer are examined in order to understand the ways in which the structure might degrade with operation. The formation of oxide species on the su...

Jeremy P. Meyers

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Proposals for Non-PGM Catalyst Target and Test Protocols  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Fuel Cell Tech Team Proposals for Non-PGM catalyst target and test protocols FCTT (USCAR) Shinichi Hirano (co-chair), Tarek Abdel-Baset, Balsu Lakshmanan, David Masten, Mark...

436

Nanocomposite catalysts for soot combustion and propane steam reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nanocomposite system, CuO-Ag/CeO 2, has been successfully developed to complete carbon black combustion by 400*C. This novel catalyst has excellent potential for application in the emission control of soot particulates ...

He, Hong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NOx Trap Catalysts  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conference Pt-free, Perovskite-based Lean NO x Trap Catalysts Gongshin Qi, Chang H. Kim, and Wei Li GM Global Research & Development 2010 DEER Conference Overview LNT Chemistry...

438

Advanced Cathode Catalysts and Supports for PEM Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This presentation, which focuses on advanced cathode catalysts and supports for PEM fuel cells, was given by Mark Debe of 3M at a February 2007 meeting on new fuel cell projects.

439

Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Non-Noble Metal Water Electrolysis Catalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology a) TEM image of the stacked MoN nanosheets on carbon supports. The...

440

Carbon Nanotube Growth Using Ni Catalyst in Different Layouts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes have been grown using Ni as catalyst by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system (PECVD) in various pre-patterned substrates. Ni was thermally evaporated on silicon substrates ...

Nguyen, H. Q.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Redox Active Catalysts Utilizing Earth Abundant Metals | Center...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Redox Active Catalysts Utilizing Earth Abundant Metals 14 Mar 2014 Ryan Trovitch has recently joined the team of the BISfuel PIs. He is an Assistant Professor at the Department of...

442

Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalyst Cartography: 3D Super-Resolution Mapping of Catalytic Activity Thanks to a groundbreaking new method, scientists have created the first 3D super-resolution maps of...

443

Platinum-palladium catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell electrodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Five series of Pt?Pd/C catalysts were prepared with different total metal loading and different atomic composition in Pt and Pd. The activity in electrooxidation of hydrogen were measured for all these catalys...

J. Barbier; E. Lamy; O. Outiki

444

Nanostructured catalysts for cathodes of oxygen-hydrogen fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bimetallic catalysts platinum-cobalt, platinum-chromium, and platinum-tungsten, deposited onto highly dispersed carbon black from complex cluster-type compounds of corresponding metals with a 1: 1 atomic ratio...

V. A. Grinberg; T. L. Kulova; N. A. Maiorova…

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Polyoxometalate water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

446

Nano compartments may aid drug delivery, catalyst design > Archived...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Nano compartments may aid drug delivery, catalyst design April 18th, 2013 By Bill Steele Spongelike nanoparticles whose pores can be filled with drugs offer the promise of drug...

447

Catalysts and Magnets: Built Environment Eects on Bicycle Commuting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalysts and Magnets: Built Environment Eects on Bicycle Commuting A THESIS SUBMITTED technical assistance in constructing the bicycle accessibility measure used in this thesis; Humphrey School immeasurable companionship, patience, and support. i #12;Abstract What eects do bicycle infrastructure

Levinson, David M.

448

Phenol removal by a novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst in a pilot-scaled study: effects of initial phenol concentration, light, and catalyst loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT) was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was ...

Xiao Chen, Yan Liang, Xuefei Zhou, Yanling Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. During this past quarter, it was discovered that long periods (12 - 24 hours) are required to equilibrate the catalysts in the system. In addition, after the system has been equilibrated, operational changes to temperature, gas concentration, or flow rate shifts the equilibrium, and steady-state must be reestablished, which can require as much as twelve additional hours per condition change. In the last quarter of testing, it was shown that the inclusion of ammonia had a strong effect on the oxidation of mercury by SCR catalysts, both in the short-term (a transitional period of elemental and oxidized mercury off gassing) and the long-term (less steady-state mercury oxidation). All experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. In the next quarter, parametric testing will be expanded to include flue gases simulating power plants burning Midwestern and Eastern coals, which are higher in sulfur and chlorine. Also, the isolation of such gases as hydrogen chloride (HCl), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) will be investigated. All of these efforts will be used to examine the kinetics of mercury oxidation across the SCR catalysts with respect to flue gas composition, temperature, and flow rate.

Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

450

Sulfide catalysts for reducing SO2 to elemental sulfur  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A highly efficient sulfide catalyst for reducing sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur, which maximizes the selectivity of elemental sulfur over byproducts and has a high conversion efficiency. Various feed stream contaminants, such as water vapor are well tolerated. Additionally, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen sulfides can be employed as the reducing gases while maintaining high conversion efficiency. This allows a much wider range of uses and higher level of feed stream contaminants than prior art catalysts.

Jin, Yun (Peking, CN); Yu, Qiquan (Peking, CN); Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Design and synthesis of catalysts for coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

Ferric-sulfide-based materials satisfy many of the requirements of catalysts for coal liquefaction - they are cheap enough and environmentally-benign enough to be considered {open_quotes}disposable,{close_quotes} and they can be made small enough and active enough to be considered economical. The talk will focus on the different ways in which these catalysts can be made, including hydrothermal disproportionation, in situ impregnation, and aerosol, as well as their characterization and performance.

Dadyburjor, D.B.; Stinespring, C.D.; Stiller, A.H.; Zondio, J.W. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

Mohajeri, Nahid

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

453

Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal Liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, we have studied the attrition behavior of Iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into liquid fuels.

Abhaya K. Datye

1998-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

454

Catalytic deactivation of methane steam reforming catalysts. I. Activation  

SciTech Connect

An alumina-supported catalyst was studied both in its original state and after activation and sintering. Chemical composition and textural properties were determined, and crystalline compounds were identified. Active-phase and support transformations occurring during activation were determined by differential thermoanalysis (DTA), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and X-ray diffraction. The catalyst activated by means of various procedures was characterized by measuring crystallite size.

Agnelli, M.E.; Demicheli, M.C.; Ponzi, E.N.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

SLURRY PHASE IRON CATALYSTS FOR INDIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in indirect coal liquefaction. Specifically, they have studied the attrition behavior of iron Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, their interaction with the silica binder and the evolution of iron phases in a synthesis gas conversion process. The results provide significant insight into factors that should be considered in the design of catalysts for converting coal based syngas into liquid fuels.

Abhaya K. Datye

1998-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

456

Interdependency of Subsurface Carbon Distribution and Graphene-Catalyst Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Interdependency of Subsurface Carbon Distribution and Graphene? Catalyst Interaction Robert S. Weatherup,*,† Hakim Amara,‡ Raoul Blume,§ Bruno Dlubak,?,? Bernhard C. Bayer,† Mamadou Diarra,?,# Mounib Bahri,‡ Andrea Cabrero-Vilatela,† Sabina Caneva... , France * S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The dynamics of the graphene?catalyst interaction during chemical vapor deposition are investigated using in situ, time- and depth- resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and complementary grand canonical...

Weatherup, Robert S.; Amara, Hakim; Blume, Raoul; Dlubak, Bruno; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Diarra, Mamadou; Bahri, Mounib; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Caneva, Sabina; Kidambi, Piran R.; Martin, Marie-Blandine; Deranlot, Cyrile; Seneor, Pierre; Schloegl, Robert; Ducastelle, François; Bichara, Christophe; Hofmann, Stephan

2014-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

457

Reforming of Isooctane over Ni?Al2O3 Catalysts for Hydrogen Production:? Effects of Catalyst Preparation Method and Nickel Loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reforming of Isooctane over Ni?Al2O3 Catalysts for Hydrogen Production:? Effects of Catalyst Preparation Method and Nickel Loading ... Typically, hydrogen can be produced from hydrocarbons or oxygenated hydrocarbons. ... However, the effects of the catalyst preparation method and nickel loading on the performance of Ni?Al2O3 catalysts for the partial oxidation of gasoline to produce hydrogen have not been reported before in the literature. ...

Hussam H. Ibrahim; Prashant Kumar; Raphael O. Idem

2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

458

National Science Bowl Finals  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

National Science Bowl finals and awards at the National Building Museum in Washington D.C. Monday 5/3/2010

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

460

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Household Demographics of Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Fuels Used and End Uses in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census...

462

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Household Demographics of Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

463

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

HC.1.11 Fuels Used and End Uses in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census...

464

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

465

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

466

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Household Demographics of Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

467

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" " ",,,"East North Central Census...

468

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Fuels Used and End Uses in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

469

DOE Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This final report contains a summary of work accomplished in the establishment of a Climate Data Center at the International Arctic Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks.

Hinzman, Larry D.; Long, James; Newby, Greg B.

2014-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

470

Final Meeting Summary ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health, Safety, and Environmental Protection Committee November 8, 2012 FINAL MEETING SUMMARY HANFORD ADVISORY BOARD HEALTH SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION COMMITTEE November...

471

Final_Report.indd  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Department of Energy, Offi ce of Fossil Energy. Ormat: Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Generation Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3, Teapot Dome Field, Wyoming Final Report for the...

472

Final Meeting Summary ...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

5 Issue Manager Report-Out on Tank Closure and Waste Management Final Environmental Impact Statement (TC&WM FEIS) Groundwater and Vadose Zone Modeling (JOINT...

473

Technology development for cobalt F-T catalysts  

SciTech Connect

A computer search of both the open and the patent literature was conducted in order to ascertain the current state of cobalt-based catalyst technology for F-T synthesis. Two series of literature searches were conducted, one dealing specifically with cobalt catalysts for F-T synthesis and the other focusing on the preparation and/or characterization of supported cobalt catalysts including those not used for F-T synthesis. An initial screening of the literature was carried out by examining the 942 abstracts obtained from these searches. The main objective of this initial screening was the selection of the most pertinent publications for this work. out of the 230 patent references obtained from the computer search, about 90 were found to be directly related the preparation of cobalt catalysts and their use in FT synthesis. Copies of patents (78 patents) not available within the group have been ordered but not yet received. Based on a preliminary analysis,of the abstracts of the most pertinent patents a distribution among the various patent assignees is given in Table 1. As can be seen in Table 1, most of the patents for Co FT catalysts have been assigned to very few companies, the first four, i.e. Exxon, Shell, Gulf, and Statoil representing the most relevant ones. This preliminary analysis of the patent literature permitted a selection of a number of benchmark catalysts the formulations of which will be based on the patents of these four companies.

Not Available

1993-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

474

Decomposition of Perfluorocompounds on Alumina-Based Catalyst  

SciTech Connect

The control of the atmospheric release of PFCs (perfluorocompounds) is an important environmental problem worldwide. PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases used by the semiconductor and liquid crystal industries as etching and cleaning agents. We developed a catalyst that decomposes PFCs with only water. Al2O3 was selected from the survey of some single metal-oxide catalysts. Addition of another metal-oxide improved the decomposition ratio and durability. The Al2O3-based catalyst decomposed CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, NF3 and SF6 by more than 99% at 750 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, our catalyst retained a high decomposition ratio as demonstrated by a continuous run for about 4000 hours at 700-750 degrees Celsius. The influence of chlorine as an impurity with regard to the SF6 decomposition ratio on the catalyst was examined. SF6 was decomposed at more than 99% during 8 hours in the presence of 400 ppm chlorine. Chlorine concentration in the outlet gas was less than TLV. No chlorine compounds were found by X-ray diffraction analysis of the used catalyst. That is, the hydrogenation of chlorine did not inhibit the surface catalytic reaction for PFC. Also, CF4 was decomposed at the condition of 1.4% of high concentration. The conversion remained higher than 99% throughout during a durability test. Furthermore, we investigated a large-scale decomposition system in the paper.

Kanno, Shuichi; Tamata, Shin; Kurokawa, Hideaki

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

475

Scoping economics for the commercial manufacture of metallocene catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This study assumes that commercial-scale production of propylene-based isotactic polymers with metallocene catalyst systems will become a reality. The challenge that must be overcome for commercial success with these propylene polymers is to discover a metallocene system recipe that will give sufficient catalyst activity along with the requisite stereo-selectivity at reasonable cost. Anticipating such a discovery, it is assumed here that the economics are well-represented by a catalyst system that consists in part of a silylene-bridged cyclopentadienyl zirconocene made in a batchwise process having an annual capacity of 15,000 pounds. Activation will be achieved with a cocatalyst such as methylaluminoxane (MAO), coated in conjunction with the catalyst on a support such as silica. The MAO at an estimated $100/lb contributes $1800/lb cost to the finished catalyst with an assumed recipe of 18:1 mass ratio of MAO to zirconocene. Based on a 20% return on investment, the selling price for the supported zirconocene system is estimated to be $2915/lb. The required capital investment to make 735,000 lb/yr of the total supported system is 9 million dollars. These estimates have {plus_minus}50% range of uncertainty. Payback period for this plant in a sold-out condition is three years. The catalyst system cost in ethylene-propylene copolymer is 3.9 cents per pound with a productivity of 75,000 lb polymer/lb of zirconocene. An Appendix includes some economic details.

Brockmeier, N.F.

1994-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

476

Dispersed slurry catalysts for hydroconversion of carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Dispersed slurry catalysts, based upon the in situ sulfided forms of transition metals such as iron and molybdenum, have been developed and successfully employed in the multi-stage hydroconversion of various carbonaceous materials including coal, heavy petroleum resid, waste plastics, and different combinations of these feedstocks. For example, using HTI`s proprietary iron-based catalyst and commercial Molyvan-A additive, over 95% maf coal conversion has been obtained accompanied by over 90% maf conversion of 524{degrees}C+ residuum and over 65% maf yield of C{sub 4}-524{degrees}C distillate yield in a fully back-mixed high pressure reaction system. The use of an in-fine fixed-bed hydrotreater in such a hydroconversion process that relies only on dispersed slurry catalysts for conversion allows to selectively upgrade the light distillate products (IBP-400{degrees}C) from the process resulting in premium quality naphtha and mid-distillate products with less than 10 ppm nitrogen, an FUC ratio of 1.9, and about 20 ppm sulfur. The use of dispersed catalyst for such hydroconversion processes has a significant positive impact (as much as 20% cost potential reduction) on the process economics because the reactor throughput can be increased by as much as 70 % while maintaining the equivalent residence time and the cost associated with the expensive high pressure catalyst addition/withdrawal system, used for supported extrudate catalyst, and that associated with expensive ebullating pumps can be reduced or eliminated completely.

Lee, L.K.; Pradhan, V.R.; Popper, G.; Comolli, A.G. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

477

Phosphine Catalysis using Allenoates with pro-Nucleophiles or Arylidenes; Development of an Asymetric Phosphine Catalyst; and Allenes as ?-Ligands in Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a proline derived phosphine catalyst and its application in4 B. Survey of Phosphine Catalysts for the [4 + 2]of an Asymetric Phosphine Catalyst; and Allenes as ?-Ligands

Martin, Tioga Jarrett

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces: High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts is studied in Chapter 8.and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts, in order toseek the influence of catalyst surface structure on

Zhu, Zhongwei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Nanostructured carbide catalysts for the hydrogen economy  

SciTech Connect

The above quote, taken from the executive summary of the Report from the US DOE Basic Energy Sciences Workshop held August 6–8, 2007,[1] places in context the research carried out at the University of California, Santa Barbara, which is reported in this document. The enormous impact of heterogeneous catalysis is exemplified by the Haber process for the synthesis of ammonia, which consumes a few % of the world’s energy supply and natural gas, and feeds as many as a third of the world’s population. While there have been numerous advances in understanding the process,[2] culminating in the awarding of the Nobel Prize to Gerhard Ertl in 2007, it is interesting to note that the catalysts themselves have changed very little since they were discovered heuristically in the the early part of the 20th century. The thesis of this report is that modern materials chemistry, with all the empirical knowledge of solid state chemistry, combined with cutting edge structural tools, can help develop and better heterogeneous catalysis. The first part of this report describes research in the area of early transition metal carbides (notably of Mo and W), potentially useful catalysts for water gas shift (WGS) and related reactions of use to the hydrogen economy. Although these carbides have been known to be catalytically useful since the 1970s,[3] further use of these relatively inexpensive materials have been plagued by issues of low surface areas and ill-defined, and often unreactive surfaces, in conjunction with deactivation. We have employed for the first time, a combination of constant-wavelength and time-of-flight neutron scattering, including a total scattering analysis of the latter data, to better understand what happens in these materials, in a manner that for the first time, reveals surface graphitic carbon in these materials in a quantitative manner. Problems of preparation, surface stability, and irreversible reactivity have become manifest in this class of materials that discourage us from pursuing these materials further.

Ram Seshadri, Susannah Scott, Juergen Eckert

2008-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

480

Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

Sapienza, Richard S. (1 Miller Ave., Shoreham, NY 11786); Slegeir, William A. (7 Florence Rd., Hampton Bays, NY 11946)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-way catalyst final" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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481

Iron catalyst for preparation of polymethylene from synthesis gas and method for producing the catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to a process for synthesizing hydrocarbons; more particularly, the invention relates to a process for synthesizing long-chain hydrocarbons known as polymethylene from carbon monoxide and hydrogen or from carbon monoxide and water or mixtures thereof in the presence of a catalyst comprising iron and platinum or palladium or mixtures thereof which may be supported on a solid material, preferably an inorganic refractory oxide. This process may be used to convert a carbon monoxide containing gas to a product which could substitute for high density polyethylene.

Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.

1990-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

482

Dynamic structural disorder in supported nanoscale catalysts  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the origin and physical effects of “dynamic structural disorder” (DSD) in supported nano-scale catalysts. DSD refers to the intrinsic fluctuating, inhomogeneous structure of such nano-scale systems. In contrast to bulk materials, nano-scale systems exhibit substantial fluctuations in structure, charge, temperature, and other quantities, as well as large surface effects. The DSD is driven largely by the stochastic librational motion of the center of mass and fluxional bonding at the nanoparticle surface due to thermal coupling with the substrate. Our approach for calculating and understanding DSD is based on a combination of real-time density functional theory/molecular dynamics simulations, transient coupled-oscillator models, and statistical mechanics. This approach treats thermal and dynamic effects over multiple time-scales, and includes bond-stretching and -bending vibrations, and transient tethering to the substrate at longer ps time-scales. Potential effects on the catalytic properties of these clusters are briefly explored. Model calculations of molecule-cluster interactions and molecular dissociation reaction paths are presented in which the reactant molecules are adsorbed on the surface of dynamically sampled clusters. This model suggests that DSD can affect both the prefactors and distribution of energy barriers in reaction rates, and thus can significantly affect catalytic activity at the nano-scale.

Rehr, J. J.; Vila, F. D. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

483

Kinetics of methanation on nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Extensive steady-state and transient measurements of the disproportionation of carbon monoxide, the hydrogenation of deposited carbon, and methanation of carbon monoxide were performed over 2 and 10% nickel on silica support. The results indicated that the methanation of carbon monoxide involves competitively adsorbed species; that the reaction is nearly zero order in carbon monoxide at 0.1-0.5 atm CO and 1 atm H/sub 2/, but negative at higher CO partial pressures and that it becomes less negative with increasing temperature or increasing hydrogen pressure; and that the reaction order with respect to hydrogen changes from 0.5 to 1.0 with increasing CO pressure and decreasing H/sub 2/ pressure. A reaction mechanism is proposed which consists of the molecular adsorption of CO, the dissociative adsorption of H/sub 2/, dissociation of the surface CO species, and reaction of two adsorbed hydrogen atoms with the oxygen; and a multistep hydrogenation and desorption process for the adsorbed carbon. The dissociation and reaction of adsorbed CO is probably the rate-limiting step. The kinetic behavior is best represented with the assumption of a heterogeneous catalyst surface, containing three types of sites of widely varying activity.

Ho, S.V.; Harriott, P.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Transition metal-free olefin polymerization catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ethylene and/or propylene are polymerized to form high molecular weight, linear polymers by contacting ethylene and/or propylene monomer, in the presence of an inert reaction medium, with a catalyst system which consists essentially of (1) an aluminum alkyl component, such as trimethylaluminum, triethylaluminum, triisobutylaluminum, tri-n-octylaluminum and diethylaluminum hydride and (2) a Lewis acid or Lewis acid derivative component, such as B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3, [(CH.sub.3).sub.2 N (H) (C.sub.6 H.sub.5)].sup.+ [B (C.sub.6 F.sub.5)4].sup.-, [(C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.3 NH].sup.+ [B C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ],.sup.-, [C(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.3 ].sup.+ [B(C.sub.6 F.sub.5).sub.4 ].sup.-, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(OCH.sub.3), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenoxide), (C.sub.2 H.sub.5)Al(2,6 -di-t-butylphenoxide).sub.2, (C.sub.2 H.sub.5).sub.2 Al(2,6-di-t-butylphonoxide) , 2,6 -di-t-butylphenol.multidot.methylaluminoxane or an alkylaluminoxane, and which may be completely free any transition metal component(s).

Sen, Ayusman (State College, PA); Wojcinski, II, Louis M. (State College, PA); Liu, Shengsheng (State College, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Use of aluminum phosphate as the dehydration catalyst in single step dimethyl ether process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention pertains to a process for the coproduction of methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) directly from a synthesis gas in a single step (hereafter, the "single step DME process"). In this process, the synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon oxides is contacted with a dual catalyst system comprising a physical mixture of a methanol synthesis catalyst and a methanol dehydration catalyst. The present invention is an improvement to this process for providing an active and stable catalyst system. The improvement comprises the use of an aluminum phosphate based catalyst as the methanol dehydration catalyst. Due to its moderate acidity, such a catalyst avoids the coke formation and catalyst interaction problems associated with the conventional dual catalyst systems taught for the single step DME process.

Peng, Xiang-Dong (Allentown, PA); Parris, Gene E. (Coopersburg, PA); Toseland, Bernard A. (Allentown, PA); Battavio, Paula J. (Allentown, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

Final Draft ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the anticipated completion of the Constellation Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement in June 2008Final Draft ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE CONSTRUCTION, MODIFICATION, AND OPERATION OF THREE CENTER, FL 32899 February 2007 #12;THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK #12;FINAL DRAFT DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL

Waliser, Duane E.

487

Acid strength of silica-supported oxide catalysts studied by microcalorimetric measurements of pyridine adsorption  

SciTech Connect

Microcalorimetric measurements of the differential heat of pyridine adsorption were used to probe the distribution of acid strength on a series of silica-supported oxide catalysts. Depositing oxides of the following cations onto silica increased the acid strength of the catalyst: Ga{sup 3{plus}}, Zn{sup 2{plus}}, Al{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 3{plus}}, Fe{sup 2{plus}}, Mg{sup 2{plus}}, and Sc{sup 3{plus}}. The acid strength distribution curves for the supported oxide samples showed either two or three regions of constant heat of adsorption while silica had an energetically homogeneous surface. The Ga, Al, and Sc samples were found to have both Bronsted and Lewis acidity while the remaining samples showed only Lewis acidity. Incremental adsorption of pyridine indicated that the initial region of highest heat corresponds to strong Lewis acidity while intermediate heats seemed to be due to weaker Lewis acid sites or a combination of Lewis and Bronsted acid sites. The final region of lowest heat was due to H-bonded pyridine on silica. Estimates of the entropies of adsorption were determined, providing information about the mobility of the adsorbed pyridine molecules. The initial differential heat of adsorption increases proportionally to the Sanderson electronegativity of the added oxide.

Cardona-Martinez, N.; Dumesic, J.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells Title Phase-change-related degradation of catalyst layers in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Hwang, Gi Suk, Hyoungchul Kim, Roger Lujan, Rangachary Mukundan, Dusan Spernjak, Rodney L. Borup, Massoud Kaviany, Moo Hwan Kim, and Adam Z. Weber Journal Electrochimica Acta Volume 95 Pagination 29 - 37 Date Published 4/2013 ISSN 00134686 Keywords degradation, Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM), Freeze/thaw cycle, Membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Nanostructured thin film (NSTF), Pt/C dispersion Abstract Understanding and optimizing water and thermal management in the catalyst layer of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells is crucial for performance and durability improvements. This is especially the case at low temperatures, where liquid water and even ice may exist. In this article, the durability of a traditional Pt/C dispersed and a nanostructure thin film (NSTF) membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) are examined under wet/dry and freeze/thaw cycles using both in situ and ex situ experiments. Multiple isothermal cold starts result in a performance degradation for the dispersed MEA, while no such a degradation is found in the NSTF. The results are consistent with stand-alone MEA tests, wherein the dispersed catalyst layer results in an exponential increase in the number and size of cracks until it delaminates from the membrane due to the impact of the freeze/thaw process within the catalyst-layer pores. The NSTF catalyst layer shows minimal crack generation without delamination since the ice forms on top of the layer. The results are useful for understanding degradation due to phase-change containing cycles.

489

Methods of producing epoxides from alkenes using a two-component catalyst system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Methods for the epoxidation of alkenes are provided. The methods include the steps of exposing the alkene to a two-component catalyst system in an aqueous solution in the presence of carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen under conditions in which the alkene is epoxidized. The two-component catalyst system comprises a first catalyst that generates peroxides or peroxy intermediates during oxidation of CO with molecular oxygen and a second catalyst that catalyzes the epoxidation of the alkene using the peroxides or peroxy intermediates. A catalyst system composed of particles of suspended gold and titanium silicalite is one example of a suitable two-component catalyst system.

Kung, Mayfair C.; Kung, Harold H.; Jiang, Jian

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

490

Effects of noble metal-doping on Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts for water–gas shift reaction: Catalyst preparation by adopting “memory effect” of hydrotalcite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Trace amounts of noble metal were doped on Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts by adopting “memory effect” of hydrotalcite. Ternary Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 (molar ratio Cu/Zn = 1/1, Al content 0–25 mol%) catalysts were prepared by co-precipitation (cp) from metal nitrates; a mixture of hydrotalcite (Cu,Zn)6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O, and aurichalcite (Cu,Zn)5(CO3)2(OH)6, was formed at pH 9 with NaOH as the pH controller. Finally the sample, cp-Cu/Zn/Al(45/45/10) containing mainly aurichalcite together with a small amount of hydrotalcite, was selected as the precursor for the noble metal-doping. Noble metal-doping was conducted by dipping the precursor calcined at 300 °C in aqueous solutions of the noble metal nitrates; hydrotalcite was reconstituted by the “memory effect” and simultaneously noble metals were incorporated. The noble metal-doped samples were calcined at 300 °C and tested for the water–gas shift (WGS) reaction. Among the noble metals, Pt was the most effective for stabilizing the catalytic activity although some deactivation due to Cu sintering took place. An intrinsic promoting effect of Pt was clearly observed by evaluating the turnover frequency of the catalyst. Aurichalcite was indispensable for producing active Cu/ZnO sites, whereas a small amount of hydrotalcite was effective for improving the sustainability of the catalyst by the surface modification. It is likely that hydrogen-spillover from trace Pt to active Cu metal not only enhanced the activity via the reduction–oxidation cycle between Cu0 and Cu+ but also stabilized the active Cu metal species against oxidative sintering during the reaction.

Kazufumi Nishida; Ikuo Atake; Dalin Li; Tetsuya Shishido; Yasunori Oumi; Tsuneji Sano; Katsuomi Takehira

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Reinforced nickel and nickel-platinum catalysts for performing the thermally coupled reactions of methane steam reforming and hydrogen oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The formation of composite nickel and nickel-platinum catalysts reinforced with steel gauze was studied. The catalysts were prepared by sintering powdered nickel metal and a supported nickel catalyst (GIAP-3 or N...

M. M. Danilova; Z. A. Sabirova; N. A. Kuzin; V. A. Kirillov…

492

Time-Resolved FT-IR Spectroscopy of CO Hydrogenation over Supported Ru Catalyst at 700K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. In-Situ Spectroscopy of Catalysts 2004, 32-46. Basu, P. ;over Supported Ru Catalyst at 700 K Walter Wasylenko andAl 2 O 3 -supported, Ru catalyst (Aldrich, 5% Ru, Degussa

Wasylenko, Walter; Frei, Heinz

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION AND REACTION OF CO AND H2 ON ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYST  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

over Group VIII Metal Catalysts" J.T. Kummer and P.H.and Fischer- Iron Catalyst", to be published. P.R. Wentrek,on Alumina-supported Ruthenium Catalyst" to be published. M.

Low, Gordon Gongngai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

STUDY OF SOLVENT AND CATALYST INTERACTIONS IN DIRECT COAL LIQUEFACTION  

SciTech Connect

There are several aspects of the Direct Coal Liquefaction process which are not fully understood and which if better understood might lead to improved yields and conversions. Among these questions are the roles of the catalyst and the solvent. While the solvent is known to act by transfer of hydrogen atoms to the free radicals formed by thermal breakdown of the coal in an uncatalyzed system, in the presence of a solid catalyst as is now currently practiced, the yields and conversions are higher than in an uncatalyzed system. The role of the catalyst in this case is not completely understood. DOE has funded many projects to produce ultrafine and more active catalysts in the expectation that better contact between catalyst and coal might result. This approach has met with limited success probably because mass transfer between two solids in a fluid medium i.e. the catalyst and the coal, is very poor. It is to develop an understanding of the role of the catalyst and solvent in Direct Liquefaction that this project was initiated. Specifically it was of interest to know whether direct contact between the coal and the catalyst was important. By separating the solid catalyst in a stainless steel basket permeable to the solvent but not the coal in the liquefaction reactor, it was shown that the catalyst still maintains a catalytic effect on the liquefaction process. There is apparently transfer of hydrogen atoms from the catalyst through the basket wall to the coal via the solvent. Strong hydrogen donor solvents appear to be more effective in this respect than weak hydrogen donors. It therefore appears that intimate contact between catalyst and coal is not a requirement, and that the role of the catalyst may be to restore the hydrogen donor strength to the solvent as the reaction proceeds. A range of solvents of varying hydrogen donor strength was investigated. Because of the extensive use of thermogravimetric analysis in this laboratory in was noted that the peak temperature for volatile evolution from coal was a reliable measure of coal rank. Because of this observation, a wide variety of coals of a wide range of ranks was investigated. It was shown in this work that measuring the peak temperature for volatile evolution was quite a precise indicator of rank and correlated closely wit the rank values obtained by measuring vitrinite reflectance, a more difficult measurement to make. This prompted the desire to know the composition of the volatile materials evolved as a function of coal rank. This was then measured by coupling a TGA to a mass spectrometer using laser activation and photoionization detection TG-PI-MS. The predominant species in volatiles of low rank coal turned out to be phenols with some alkenes. As the rank increases, the relative amount of alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbons increases and the oxygenated species decrease. It was shown that these volatiles were actually pyrolitic products and not volatilization products of coal. Solvent extraction experiments coupled with TG-PI-MS indicates that the low oiling and more extractable material are essentially similar in chemical types to the non-extractable portions but apparently higher molecular weight and therefor less extractable.

Michael T. Klein

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Method of making maximally dispersed heterogeneous catalysts  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a catalyst with monolayer or sub-monolayer metal by controlling the wetting characteristics on the support surface and increasing the adhesion between the catalytic metal and an oxide layer. There are two methods that have been demonstrated by experiment and supported by theory. In the first method, which is useful for noble metals as well as others, a negatively-charged species is introduced to the surface of a support in sub-ML coverage. The layer-by-layer growth of metal deposited onto the oxide surface is promoted because the adhesion strength of the metal-oxide interface is increased. This method can also be used to achieve nanoislands of metal upon sub-ML deposition. The negatively-charged species can either be deposited onto the oxide surface or a compound can be deposited that dissociates on, or reacts with, the surface to form the negatively-charged species. The deposited metal adatoms can thereby bond laterally to the negatively-charged species as well as vertically to the oxide surface. Thus the negatively-charged species serve as anchors for the metal. In the second method, a chemical reaction that occurs when most metals are deposited on a fully hydroxylated oxide surface is used to create cationic metal species that bind strongly both to the substrate and to metallic metal atoms. These are incorporated into the top layer of the substrate and bind strongly both to the substrate and to metallic metal atoms. In this case, these oxidized metal atoms serve as the anchors. Here, as in the previous method, nanoislands of catalytic metal can be achieved to increase catalytic activity, or monolayers or bilayers of reactive metal can also be made.

Jennison, Dwight R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

496

Improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)reaction is the established technology for the production of liquid fuels from coal by an indirect route using coal-derived syngas (CO + H{sub 2}). Modern FTS catalysts are potassium- and copper-promoted iron preparations. These catalysts exhibit moderate activity with carbon monoxide-rich feedstocks such as the syngas produced by advanced coal gasification processes. However, the relatively large yields of by-product methane and high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes detract from the production of desired liquid products in the C{sub 5}-C{sub 16} range needed for motor and aviation fuel. The goal of this program is to decrease undesirable portions of the FTS hydrocarbon yield by altering the Schultz-Flory polymerization product distribution through design and formulation of improved catalysts. Two approaches were taken: (1) reducing the yield of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes by using highly dispersed catalysts produced from surface-confined multiatomic clusters on acid supports and (2) suppressing methane production by uniformly pretreating active, selective conventional FTS catalysts with submonolayer levels of sulfur.

Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Tong, G.T.; Chan, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; McCarty, J.G.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

January 2013 January 2013 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT for the GREEN ENERGY SCHOOL WIND PROJECT SAIPAN, COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office JANUARY 2013 DOE/EA-1923 iv January 2013 FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT for the GREEN ENERGY SCHOOL WIND PROJECT SAIPAN, COMMONWEALTH OF THE NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Golden Field Office January 2013 DOE/EA-1923 v January 2013 COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy TITLE: Final Environmental Assessment for the Green Energy School Wind Project (DOE/EA-1923) CONTACT: For additional copies or more information on this final Environmental Assessment (EA),

498

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Household Demographics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

499

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings...

500

" Million Housing Units, Final...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...