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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Report: Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A 3-D surface seismic survey was conducted to explore the structure of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada), to determine if modern seismic techniques could be successfully applied in geothermal environments. Furthermore, it was intended to map the structural features which may control geothermal production in the reservoir. The seismic survey covered an area of 3.03 square miles and was designed with 12 north-south receiver lines and 25 east-west source lines. The receiver group interval was 100 feet and the receiver line spacing was 800 feet. The

2

Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at Well 46-28, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,Seismic Survey, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,Seismic Survey, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,

Feighner, Mark A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Detiding Three-Dimensional Velocity Survey Data in Coastal Waters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional data interpolation technique is proposed that efficiently removes tidal currents from spatial velocity surveys. The least squares method extends prior two-dimensional detiding methods to three spatial dimensions using ...

Andreas Münchow

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Prudhoe Bay western peripheral development using three-dimensional seismic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The western periphery of the Prudhoe Bay field, known as the West End or Eileen area, is characterized by a relatively gentle southwestern regional dip cut by numerous normal faults with up to 500 ft of throw. These faults displace the Permian-Triassic reservoir sandstones against Jurassic shales. A detailed structural map was interpreted from three-dimensional seismic data acquired in 1984 and 1985. Three distinct and coherent trends of faulting are evident from the data: north-south, northwest-southeast, and east-west. These faults were aliased by the earlier two-dimensional data grid and could not be connected in a coherent manner consistent with suppositions of the stress directions. The added detail to the structural maps will allow development of narrow, oil-filled horst blocks and should prevent drilling of dry holes in narrow grabens as has occurred prior to the three-dimensional data acquisition. Seventy-two 80-ac wells and up to four horizontal gas injectors are planned for the area, with drilling commencing from new surface facilities in 1988. Upon the successful completion of a horizontal and an 88/sup 0/ highangle well from existing facilities, the utility and shortcomings of the data interpretations were illuminated. The high-angle well encountered only 40% of the prognosed oil column, which is believed to be a consequence of an unpredicted permafrost thickening. Thus, as with two-dimensional data, the uncertainty in the estimate of the velocity field is the dominant factor in estimating subsurface structure.

Guderjahn, C.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A California Statewide Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model from Both Absolute and Differential Times  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A California Statewide Three-Dimensional Seismic Velocity Model from Both Absolute and Differential of the California crust and uppermost mantle using a regional-scale double-difference tomography algorithm. We begin using S picks from both the Southern California Seismic Network and USArray, assuming a starting model

Shearer, Peter

6

Three-dimensional seismic imaging of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 3-D surface seismic survey was conducted to explore the structure of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir (Nevada), to determine if modern seismic techniques could be successfully applied in geothermal environments. Furthermore, it was intended to map the structural features which may control geothermal production in the reservoir. The seismic survey covered an area of 3.03 square miles and was designed with 12 north-south receiver lines and 25 east-west source lines. The receiver group interval was 100 feet and the receiver line spacing was 800 feet. The source interval was 100 feet while the source line spacing was 400 feet. The sources were comprised of 4 vibrator trucks arranged in a box array. Seismic processing involved, among other steps, the picking of over 700,000 of the possible one million traces to determine first arrival travel times, normal moveout correction, 3-D stack, deconvolution, time migration, and depth conversion. The final data set represents a 3-D cube of the subsurface structure in the reservoir. Additionally, the travel times were used to perform tomographic inversions for velocity estimates to support the findings of the surface seismic imaging. The results suggest the presence of at least one dominant fault responsible for the migration of fluids in the reservoir. Furthermore, it is suggested that this feature might be part of a fault system that includes a graben structure.

Feighner, M.; Gritto, R.; Daley, T.M.; Keers, H.; Majer, E.L.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Modelling strong seismic ground motion: three-dimensional loading path versus wavefield polarization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seismic waves due to strong earthquakes propagating in surficial soil layers may both reduce soil stiffness and increase the energy dissipation into the soil. To investigate seismic wave amplification in such cases, past studies have been devoted to one-directional shear wave propagation in a soil column (1D-propagation) considering one motion component only (1C-polarization). Three independent purely 1C computations may be performed ('1D-1C' approach) and directly superimposed in the case of weak motions (linear behaviour). This research aims at studying local site effects by considering seismic wave propagation in a 1-D soil profile accounting for the influence of the 3-D loading path and non-linear hysteretic behaviour of the soil. In the proposed '1D-3C' approach, the three components (3C-polarization) of the incident wave are simultaneously propagated into a horizontal multilayered soil. A 3-D non-linear constitutive relation for the soil is implemented in the framework of the Finite Element Method in th...

D'Avila, Maria Paola Santisi; Semblat, Jean-François

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

THREE-DIMENSIONAL TERRAIN EFFECTS IN ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETOMETRIC RESISTIVITY SURVEYS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Introduction The Electrical Resistivity Method • Terrainin Electrical Resistivity Surveys • • • • . • • . • • • • •effects in electrical resistivity and magnetometric

Oppliger, G.L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Three-dimensional photovoltaics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...

Myers, Bryan

10

Seismic Emissions Surveys | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Emissions Surveys Emissions Surveys Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Seismic Emissions Surveys Abstract With recent improvements in acquiring, processing and interpreting data, seismic ground noise provides a valuable tool for geothermal exploration. A time domain beam steering array processing technique is employed. This process eliminates the occurrence of false anomalies caused by local geologic amplification effects. Surveys of this type are used to located naturally fractured reservoirs. Results form Dixie Valley and Desert Peak, Nevada correlate well with the location of productive wells or known geology. Authors Katz and Lewis J. Published Journal Geothermal Resources Council Transactions, 1984 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http://crossref.org

11

Three-dimensional  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Three-dimensional Three-dimensional gravity modelling and focusing inversion using rectangular meshes Michael Commer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratories Earth Sciences Division 1 Cyclotron Road, MS 90-1116 Berkeley, CA 94720 USA (March 17, 2011) ABSTRACT Rectangular grid cells are commonly used for the geophysical modeling of gravity anomalies, owing to their flexibility in constructing complex models. The straightforward handling of cubic cells in gravity inversion algorithms allows for a flexible imposition of model regulariza- tion constraints, which are generally essential in the inversion of static potential field data. The first part of this paper provides a review of commonly used expressions for calculating the gravity of a right polygonal prism, both for gravity and gradiometry, where the formulas of Plouff and Forsberg are adapted. The formulas can be cast into general

12

Three dimensional flow processor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The 3D-flow processor is a general purpose programmable data stream pipelined device that allows fast data movement in six directions for digital signal processing applications such as identifying objects in a matrix in a programmable form. The 3D-flow processor can be used in one dimensional, two dimensional, and three dimensional topologies capable of sustaining an input data rate of up to 100 million data (or frames) per second in a parallel processing system.

Crosetto, D.B.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Three dimensional magnetotelluric modeling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) volume integral equation solution was refined and adapted to magnetotelluric (MT) modeling. The refinement, incorporating an integro-difference scheme, increases the accuracy somewhat without increasing the computer time. Utilizing the two symmetry planes for a plane wave source decreases the computer storage by a factor of 8 and greatly reduces the computer time. Convergence checks and comparisons with other solutions show that our results are valid. Because of space charges at resistivity boundaries, low-frequency 3D responses are much different from 1D and 2D responses. Hence 3D models are required for interpreting MT data in the complex geothermal environment.

Hohmann, G.W.; Ting, S.C.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Three-dimensional metamaterials  

SciTech Connect

A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.

Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

15

THE ACS SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. XI. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORIENTATION OF THE SAGITTARIUS DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY AND ITS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use observations from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST/ACS) study of Galactic globular clusters to investigate the spatial distribution of the inner regions of the disrupting Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr). We combine previously published analyses of four Sgr member clusters located near or in the Sgr core (M54, Arp 2, Terzan 7, and Terzan 8) with a new analysis of diffuse Sgr material identified in the background of five low-latitude Galactic bulge clusters (NGC 6624, 6637, 6652, 6681, and 6809) observed as part of the ACS survey. By comparing the bulge cluster color-magnitude diagrams to our previous analysis of the M54/Sgr core, we estimate distances to these background features. The combined data from four Sgr member clusters and five Sgr background features provide nine independent measures of the Sgr distance and, as a group, provide uniformly measured and calibrated probes of different parts of the inner regions of Sgr spanning 20 Degree-Sign over the face of the disrupting dwarf. This allows us, for the first time, to constrain the three-dimensional orientation of Sgr's disrupting core and globular cluster system and compare that orientation to the predictions of an N-body model of tidal disruption. The density and distance of Sgr debris are consistent with models that favor a relatively high Sgr core mass and a slightly greater distance (28-30 kpc, with a mean of 29.4 kpc). Our analysis also suggests that M54 is in the foreground of Sgr by {approx}2 kpc, projected on the center of the Sgr dSph. While this would imply a remarkable alignment of the cluster and the Sgr nucleus along the line of sight, we cannot identify any systematic effect in our analysis that would falsely create the measured 2 kpc separation. Finally, we find that the cluster Terzan 7 has the most discrepant distance (25 kpc) among the four Sgr core clusters, which may suggest a different dynamical history than the other Sgr core clusters.

Siegel, Michael H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Majewski, Steven R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Law, David R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); and others

2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

16

Refraction Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner, Et  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refraction Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner, Et Refraction Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Refraction Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Heimgartner, Et Al., 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Refraction Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown References Michelle Heimgartner, James B. Scott, Weston Thelen, Christopher R. Lopez, John N. Louie (2005) Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Refraction_Survey_At_Central_Nevada_Seismic_Zone_Region_(Heimgartner,_Et_Al.,_2005)&oldid=401382

17

Three-Dimensional Edge Waves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exact solutions are found to the linearized three-dimensional equations for free surface-gravity waves trapped against a straight coastline with a topography varying perpendicular to the coastline. Three families of topographies are found, one ...

Richard Paul Shaw; David Paskausky

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Three-dimensional terminal toric flips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe three-dimensional terminal toric flips. We obtain the complete local description of three-dimensional terminal toric flips.

Fujino, Osamu; Takano, Yukishige; Uehara, Hokuto

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Three-dimensional p-velocity structure of the summit caldera of Newberry Volcano, Oregon  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-dimensional high-resolution seismic study of the summit caldera of Newberry Volcano, Oregon, was conducted by the US Geological Survey using an adaptation of the method applied by Mercessian et al. (1984). Preliminary interpretation of the traveltime residuals reveals a ring of high P-velocity material coinciding with the inner ring fault system of the caldera in the upper 2 km. A zone of lower P velocities extends deeper than 2 km in the center of the caldera. 9 refs., 5 figs.

Stauber, D.A.; Iyer, N.M.; Mooney, W.D.; Dawson, P.B.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Three dimensional scour along offshore pipelines.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Three-dimensional scour propagation along offshore pipelines is a major reason to pipeline failures in an offshore environment. Although the research on scour in both numerical… (more)

Yeow, Kervin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Three dimensional carbon nanotube based photovoltaics .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Photovoltaic (PV) cells with a three dimensional (3D) morphology are an exciting new research thrust with promise to create cheaper, more efficient solar cells by… (more)

Flicker, Jack David

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Application of Disturbance Theory to Assess Impacts Associated with a Three-Dimensional Seismic Survey in a Freshwater Marsh in Southwest Louisiana.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This study examined various practical and theoretical aspects of disturbance in a coastal wetland marsh in southern Louisiana. A literature review approached disturbance ecology from… (more)

Bass, Aaron Stuard

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Three-dimensional Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot Springs known  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot Springs known Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (in Coso geothermal area) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Three-dimensional Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (in Coso geothermal area) Details Activities (3) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Observations of teleseismic P waves above geothermal systems exhibit travel time delays and anomalously high seismic attenuation, which is extremely useful in estimating the thermal regime and the potential of the system. A regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Coso Hot Springs Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA) for such studies from September 1975 to October 1976.

24

Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown Notes Targeting of Potential Geothermal Resources in the Great Basin from Regional to Basin-Scale Relationships Between Geodetic Strain and Geological Structures, Geoffrey Blewitt. The objectives of this project are to assess the use of inter-seismic crustal strain rates derived from GPS-stations as an exploration tool for non-magmatic high-temperature

25

Equivalence of three-dimensional spacetimes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solution to the equivalence problem in three-dimensional gravity is given and a practically useful method to obtain a coordinate invariant description of local geometry is presented. The method is a nontrivial adaptation of Karlhede invariant classification of spacetimes of general relativity. The local geometry is completely determined by the curvature tensor and a finite number of its covariant derivatives in a frame where the components of the metric are constants. The results are presented in the framework of real two-component spinors in three-dimensional spacetimes, where the algebraic classifications of the Ricci and Cotton-York spinors are given and their isotropy groups and canonical forms are determined. As an application we discuss Goedel-type spacetimes in three-dimensional General Relativity. The conditions for local space and time homogeneity are derived and the equivalence of three-dimensional Goedel-type spacetimes is studied and the results are compared with previous works on four-dimensional Goedel-type spacetimes.

F. C. Sousa; J. B. Fonseca; C. Romero

2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

26

Three-dimensional ocean chlorophyll distributionsfrom underwater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-dimensional ocean chlorophyll distributionsfrom underwater serial-sectioned fluorescence images Andrew W. Palowitch and Jules S. Jaffe An underwater optical serial-sectioning technique that the underwater optical serial- sectioning technique is practical for in situ determination and analysis

Jaffe, Jules

27

Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for ...  

Method and Apparatus for Three-Dimensional Carbon Fiber Production: Abstract: This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original ...

28

Real time three dimensional sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.

Gordon, Steven J. (Boston, MA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Real time three dimensional sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.

Gordon, S.J.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.

Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

31

Three-dimensional medical imaging: algorithms and computer systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: Computer graphics, medical imaging, surface rendering, three-dimensional imaging, volume rendering

M. R. Stytz; G. Frieder; O. Frieder

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

A Survey Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Survey Of Seismic Activity Near Wairakei Geothermal Field, New Zealand Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: A five-week survey showed that seismic activity within 20 km of Wairakei Geothermal Field took place mainly at shallow depths (< 2 km), in or close to the Taupo Fault Belt, and occurred in swarms. Twenty-eight earthquakes, with magnitudes (M) between -1.3 and +2.8, were located; 43 other earthquakes, with M < 0.2, were recorded but could not be located. The distribution of located earthquakes did not correlate with known areas of surface geothermal activity. No located earthquake occurred beneath the

33

Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m

Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)

1999-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill Co., NV Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title A 3D-3C Reflection Seismic Survey and Data Integration to Identify the Seismic Response of Fractures and Permeable Zones Over a Known Geothermal Resource at Soda Lake, Churchill Co., NV Project Type / Topic 1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type / Topic 2 Validation of Innovative Exploration Technologies Project Description The Soda Lake geothermal field is an ideal setting to test the applicability of the 3D-3C reflection seismic method because: it is a producing field with a great deal of geologic and drilling data already available; it is in an alluvial valley where the subsurface structures that carry the geothermal fluids have no surface manifestations; and, there are downhole geophysical logs of fractures and permeable zones that can be used to ground-truth the new data.

35

Two component-three dimensional catalysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.

Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.

Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J. [327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); 1011 Richardson Building, Photon Migration Laboratories, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); 327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Blewitt, Et Al., Blewitt, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Geodetic Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Blewitt, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Geodetic Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful regional reconnaissance DOE-funding Unknown References Geoffrey Blewittl, Mark F. Coolbaugh, Don Sawatzky, William Holt, James Davis, Richard A. Bennett (2003) Targeting Of Potential Geothermal Resources In The Great Basin From Regional To Basin-Scale Relationship Between Geodetic Strain And Geological Structures Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Geodetic_Survey_At_Central_Nevada_Seismic_Zone_Region_(Blewitt,_Et_Al.,_2003)&oldid=401367

38

Direct-Current Resistivity Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Survey At Central Nevada Survey At Central Nevada Seismic Zone Region (Pritchett, 2004) Exploration Activity Details Location Central Nevada Seismic Zone Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Direct-Current Resistivity Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes NOTE: These are theoretical/computer simulation tests of various methods on eight hypothetical 'model' basing-and-range geothermal systems. "The 300-meter heat flow holes are essentially useless for finding the "hidden" reservoirs. Clearly, the best results are obtained from the SP and MT surveys, with DC resistivity a close third. It is concluded that the best way to find "hidden" basin and range geothermal resources of this general type is to carry out simultaneous SP and low-frequency MT surveys, and then

39

THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.  

SciTech Connect

BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.

KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.

2003-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

40

Three dimensional, multi-chip module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to integrated circuit packaging technology, and particularly to three dimensional packages involving high density stacks of integrated circuits. A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow ``dummy chips`` are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.

Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Three-dimensional null point reconnection regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent advances in theory and computational experiments have shown the need to refine the previous categorization of magnetic reconnection at three-dimensional null points--points at which the magnetic field vanishes. We propose here a division into three different types, depending on the nature of the flow near the spine and fan of the null. The spine is an isolated field line which approaches the null (or recedes from it), while the fan is a surface of field lines which recede from it (or approach it). So-called torsional spine reconnection occurs when field lines in the vicinity of the fan rotate, with current becoming concentrated along the spine so that nearby field lines undergo rotational slippage. In torsional fan reconnection field lines near the spine rotate and create a current that is concentrated in the fan with a rotational flux mismatch and rotational slippage. In both of these regimes, the spine and fan are perpendicular and there is no flux transfer across spine or fan. The third regime, called spine-fan reconnection, is the most common in practice and combines elements of the previous spine and fan models. In this case, in response to a generic shearing motion, the null point collapses to form a current sheet that is focused at the null itself, in a sheet that locally spans both the spine and fan. In this regime the spine and fan are no longer perpendicular and there is flux transfer across both of them.

Priest, E. R. [Mathematics Institute, St. Andrews University, St. Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Pontin, D. I. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Mapping Frost-Sensitive Areas with a Three-Dimensional Local-Scale Numerical Model. Pad II: Comparison with Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional numerical model was developed to predict the microclimate near the ground surface of local-scale domains during radiative frost events. Its performances are compared with an observational topo-climatological survey of minimum ...

R. Avissar; Y. Mahrer

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Acoustical Holography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an acoustic field visualization technique that can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic fields by projecting two-dimensional (2-D) data measured on a hologram surface. However, linear NAH algorithms developed and improved by many researchers can result in significant reconstruction errors when they are applied to reconstruct 3-D acoustic fields that are radiated from a high-level noise source and include significant nonlinear components. Here, planar, nonlinear acoustical holography procedures are developed that can be used to reconstruct 3-D, nonlinear acoustic fields radiated from a high-level noise source based on 2-D acoustic pressure data measured on a hologram surface. The first nonlinear acoustic holography procedure is derived for reconstructing steady-state acoustic pressure fields by applying perturbation and renormalization methods to nonlinear, dissipative, pressure-based Westervelt Wave Equation (WWE). The nonlinear acoustic pressure fields radiated from a high-level pulsating sphere and an infinite-size, vibrating panel are used to validate this procedure. Although the WWE-based algorithm is successfully validated by those two numerical simulations, it still has several limitations: (1) Only the fundamental frequency and its second harmonic nonlinear components can be reconstructed; (2) the application of this algorithm is limited to mono-frequency source cases; (3) the effects of bent wave rays caused by transverse particle velocities are not included; (4) only acoustic pressure fields can be reconstructed. In order to address the limitations of the steady-state, WWE-based procedure, a transient, planar, nonlinear acoustic holography algorithm is developed that can be used to reconstruct 3-D nonlinear acoustic pressure and particle velocity fields. This procedure is based on Kuznetsov Wave Equation (KWE) that is directly solved by using temporal and spatial Fourier Transforms. When compared to the WWE-based procedure, the KWE-based procedure can be applied to multi-frequency source cases where each frequency component can contain both linear and nonlinear components. The effects of nonlinear bent wave rays can be also considered by using this algorithm. The KWE-based procedure is validated by conducting an experiment with a compression driver and four numerical simulations. The numerical and experimental results show that holographically-projected acoustic fields match well with directly-calculated and directly-measured fields.

Niu, Yaying

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

The Three-Dimensional Circulation near the Eastern North pacific Subtropical Front  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of our study is to describe and compute the large-scale, three-dimensional circulation near the Subtropical Front in the eastern North Pacific along 31°N. This was accomplished through the use of four extensive hydrographic surveys, ...

Pearn P. Niller; Richard W. Reynolds

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Method and Apparatus for Three-Dimensional Carbon Fiber Production  

UCF researchers have discovered a method for producing three-dimensional carbon fibers. These novel fibers have a surface area approximately two ...

46

Three-dimensional anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Book: Three-dimensional anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast-Central California...

47

U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) U.S. Maximum Number of Active Crews Engaged in Seismic Surveying (Number of Elements) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2000 0 0 62 63 59 63 58 61 59 63 62 65 2001 61 61 63 65 64 60 58 56 54 58 59 58 2002 54 57 54 50 51 50 52 50 56 57 50 43 2003 40 41 41 40 38 39 41 43 39 39 38 42 2004 43 45 45 45 44 49 48 49 48 48 49 50 2005 52 53 51 50 55 57 54 55 56 57 57 58 2006 55 57 59 58 58 57 66 62 63 64 65 64 2007 63 63 68 71 70 69 69 71 73 77 79 75 2008 76 77 75 72 73 73 72 72 NA 77 72 73 2009 75 76 72 70 65 60 61 60 60 63 62 63 2010 64 65 63 66 67 67 67 65 64 62 62 62

48

Paper: FFTs and three-dimensional Poisson solvers for hypercubes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the implementation of fast direct methods for solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation on loosely coupled hypercube multiprocessors. As a preliminary step, the problem of computing multiple FFTs is considered and two different ... Keywords: Fast Fourier Transform, experimental results, hypercube multiprocessors, performance models, three-dimensional Poisson solvers

Roland A. Sweet; William L. Briggs; Suely Oliveira; Jules L. Porsche; Tom Turnbull

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Three-dimensional anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast-Central  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast-Central anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast-Central California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Book: Three-dimensional anatomy of a geothermal field, Coso, Southeast-Central California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: This paper reviews geophysical and seismological imaging in the Coso geothermal field, located in southeast-central California. The Coso geothermal production area covers approximately 6X10 km 2 . Although regional seismicity is addressed, as it sheds light on the magma, or heat, sources in the field, the primary focus of this paper is on the main production area. Three-dimensional inversions for P- and S- wave velocity variations, distribution of attenuation, and anisotropy are presented side-by-side so that anomalies can be compared spatially in a direct

50

Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.

Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

51

Three-dimensional Integrated Circuits: Design, EDA, and Architecture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emerging three-dimensional (3D) integration technology is one of the promising solutions to overcome the barriers in interconnection scaling, thereby offering an opportunity to continue performance improvements using CMOS technology. As the fabrication ...

Guangyu Sun; Yibo Chen; Xiangyu Dong; Jin Ouyang; Yuan Xie

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Three-dimensional Simulation of Backward Raman Amplification  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional (3-D) simulations for the Backward Raman Amplification (BRA) are presented. The images illustrate the effects of pump depletion, pulse diffraction, non-homogeneous plasma density, and plasma ionization.

A.A. Balakin; G.M. Fraiman; N.J. Fisch

2005-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

53

Design automation and analysis of three-dimensional integrated circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation concerns the design of circuits and systems for an emerging technology known as three-dimensional integration. By stacking individual components, dice, or whole wafers using a high-density electromechanical ...

Das, Shamik, 1977-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Summertime Three-Dimensional Wind Field Above Sacramento, California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An observational study of the three-dimensional structure of the wind field over Sacramento, California, is reported. The observations were made with a double-theodolite network during the summer period. Although the topography is relatively ...

L. O. Myrup; D. L. Morgan; R. L. Boomer

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

A Scaling for the Three-Dimensional Semigeostrophic Approximation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three dimensional semigeostrophic equations are derived by a formal asymptotic analysis. The equations are scaled with typical values of the gradients across absolute momentum contours along isentropic surfaces and are accurate to first order ...

George C. Craig

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Three-Dimensional Variational Analysis with Spatially Inhomogeneous Covariances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a global three-dimensional variational analysis system is formulated in model grid space. This formulation allows greater flexibility (e.g., inhomogeneity and anisotropy) for background error statistics. A simpler formulation, ...

Wan-Shu Wu; R. James Purser; David F. Parrish

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Three-Dimensional VHF Lightning Mapping System for Winter Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) winter lightning mapping system employing very high frequency (VHF) broadband signals was developed for continuous remote observation in winter. VHF broadband pulses radiated by leader progression are received with three ...

Masahide Nishihashi; Ken-ichi Shimose; Kenichi Kusunoki; Syugo Hayashi; Ken-ichiro Arai; Hanako Y. Inoue; Wataru Mashiko; Masako Kusume; Hiroyuki Morishima

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.

Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Tungsten carbide-cobalt by Three Dimensional Printing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three Dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing process for rapid prototyping ceramic and metallic parts [Sachs, et al, 1990]. Green (not sintered) tungsten carbide-cobalt parts must have a density greater than 50% ...

Kelley, Andrew, III

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Simulation of Three-Dimensional Turbulent Velocity Fields  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New algorithms for the simulation of three-dimensional homogeneous turbulent velocity fields are compared with standard spectral domain algorithms. Results are presented for a von Kármán model of the covariance tensor. For typical atmospheric ...

Rod Frehlich; Larry Cornman; Robert Sharman

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Three-Dimensional Tidal Flow in an Elongated, Rotating Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional tidal circulation in an elongated basin of arbitrary depth is described with a linear, constant-density model on the f plane. Rotation fundamentally alters the lateral flow, introducing a lateral recirculation comparable in ...

Clinton D. Winant

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

A Three-Dimensional Balance Theory for Rapidly Rotating Vortices  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional balance formulation for rapidly rotating vortices, such as hurricanes, is presented. The asymmetric balance (AB) theory represents a new mathematical framework for studying the slow evolution of rapidly rotating fluid systems. ...

Lloyd J. Shapiro; Michael T. Montgomery

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.

Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron

2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

64

Canonical transformations in three-dimensional phase space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canonical transformation in a three-dimensional phase space endowed with Nambu bracket is discussed in a general framework. Definition of the canonical transformations is constructed as based on canonoid transformations. It is shown that generating functions, transformed Hamilton functions and the transformation itself for given generating functions can be determined by solving Pfaffian differential equations corresponding to that quantities. Types of the generating functions are introduced and all of them is listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed. Finally, we show that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase space as in the usual two-dimensional one.

Dereli, T; Hakioglu, T

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Canonical transformations in three-dimensional phase space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Canonical transformation in a three-dimensional phase space endowed with Nambu bracket is discussed in a general framework. Definition of the canonical transformations is constructed as based on canonoid transformations. It is shown that generating functions, transformed Hamilton functions and the transformation itself for given generating functions can be determined by solving Pfaffian differential equations corresponding to that quantities. Types of the generating functions are introduced and all of them is listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed. Finally, we show that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase space as in the usual two-dimensional one.

T. Dereli; A. Tegmen; T. Hakioglu

2009-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

66

Forming Three-Dimensional Colloidal Structures Using Holographic Optical Tweezers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A method for forming permanent three dimensional structures from colloidal particles using holographic optical trapping is described. Holographic optical tweezers (HOT) are used to selectively position charge stabilized colloidal particles within a flow cell. Once the particles are in the desired location an electrolyte solution is pumped into the cell which reduces the Debye length and induces aggregation caused by the van der Waals attraction. This technique allows for the formation of three dimensional structures both on and away from the substrate that can be removed from solution without the aid of critical point drying. This technique is inexpensive, fast, and versatile as it relies on forces acting on almost all colloidal suspensions.

C. R. Knutson; J. Plewa

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

67

Constraint structure of the three dimensional massive gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constraint analysis of the three-dimensional massive gravity, the so-called new massive gravity, is studied in the Palatini formalism. We show that amongst 6 components of the metric, 2 are dynamical, which is compatible with the existence of one vector massive graviton in the linearized theory (Fierz-Pauli theory).

Sadegh, M.; Shirzad, A. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology , P.O.Box 84156-83111, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O.Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Three?dimensional group manifold reductions of gravity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We review the three?dimensional group manifold reductions of pure Einstein gravity and we exhibit a new consistent group manifold reduction of gravity when the compactification group manifold is S 3. The new reduction leads to a lower dimensional theory whose gauge group is SU (2).

Román Linares

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

An Investigation of a Three-Dimensional Asymmetric Vortex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional numerical simulation is presented for the asymmetric vortex motion which occurs in a Ward-type vortex chamber. The initial state is taken to be one of axisymmetric irrotational flow where the flow enters through the sides at ...

Richard Rotunno

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Ironless Permanent Magnet Motors: Three-Dimensional Analytical Calculation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Ironless Permanent Magnet Motors: Three-Dimensional Analytical Calculation Romain Ravaud, Guy and the rotor of an ironless permanent magnet motor. The calculations are carried out without using any, torque, magnetic field, PM Synchronous motors ! 1 INTRODUCTION IRONLESS electrical machines are generally

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

High three dimensional thermoelectric performance from low dimensional bands  

SciTech Connect

Reduced dimensionality has long been regarded as an important strategy for increasing thermoelectric performance, for example in superlattices and other engineered structures. Here we point out and illustrate by examples that three dimensional bulk materials can be made to behave as if they were two dimensional from the point of view of thermoelectric performance. Implications for the discovery of new practical thermoelectrics are discussed.

Singh, David J [ORNL; Chen, Xin [ORNL; Parker, David S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: A dense grid of 125 magnetotelluric (MT) stations plus a single line of contiguous bipole array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at Parkfield, CA was used as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. These data have been inverted to a fully three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. This model shows the controlling geological structures possibly

73

THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF SOLAR WIND TURBULENCE  

SciTech Connect

We present a measurement of the scale-dependent, three-dimensional structure of the magnetic field fluctuations in inertial range solar wind turbulence with respect to a local, physically motivated coordinate system. The Alfvenic fluctuations are three-dimensionally anisotropic, with the sense of this anisotropy varying from large to small scales. At the outer scale, the magnetic field correlations are longest in the local fluctuation direction, consistent with Alfven waves. At the proton gyroscale, they are longest along the local mean field direction and shortest in the direction perpendicular to the local mean field and the local field fluctuation. The compressive fluctuations are highly elongated along the local mean field direction, although axially symmetric perpendicular to it. Their large anisotropy may explain why they are not heavily damped in the solar wind.

Chen, C. H. K.; Bale, S. D. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Mallet, A.; Schekochihin, A. A. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Horbury, T. S. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Wicks, R. T., E-mail: chen@ssl.berkeley.edu [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

74

Ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

X-ray computed tomography (CT) is a well established visualization technique in medicine and nondestructive testing. However, since CT scanning requires sampling of radiographic projections from different viewing angles, common CT systems with mechanically moving parts are too slow for dynamic imaging, for instance of multiphase flows or live animals. Here, we introduce an ultrafast three-dimensional x-ray CT method based on electron beam scanning, which achieves volume rates of 500 s{sup -1}. Primary experiments revealed the capability of this method to recover the structure of phase boundaries in gas-solid and gas-liquid two-phase flows, which undergo three-dimensional structural changes in the millisecond scale.

Bieberle, Martina; Barthel, Frank; Hampel, Uwe [Institute of Safety Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden (Germany); Menz, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Hans-Georg [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Energy Systems, University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

75

A generalized flux function for three-dimensional magnetic reconnection  

SciTech Connect

The definition and measurement of magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic fields with multiple reconnection sites is a challenging problem, particularly in fields lacking null points. We propose a generalization of the familiar two-dimensional concept of a magnetic flux function to the case of a three-dimensional field connecting two planar boundaries. In this initial analysis, we require the normal magnetic field to have the same distribution on both boundaries. Using hyperbolic fixed points of the field line mapping, and their global stable and unstable manifolds, we define a unique flux partition of the magnetic field. This partition is more complicated than the corresponding (well-known) construction in a two-dimensional field, owing to the possibility of heteroclinic points and chaotic magnetic regions. Nevertheless, we show how the partition reconnection rate is readily measured with the generalized flux function. We relate our partition reconnection rate to the common definition of three-dimensional reconnection in terms of integrated parallel electric field. An analytical example demonstrates the theory and shows how the flux partition responds to an isolated reconnection event.

Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G. [Division of Mathematics, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 4HN (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

76

Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.

Kaschmitter, J.L.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

77

Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems  

SciTech Connect

Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.

Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A

2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

78

Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: the anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.

Cristiano L. Dias; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Martin Grant; Mikko Karttunen

2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

79

Three dimensional magnetotelluric modeling. Final: volume 77-15  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) volume integral equation solution was refined and adapted to magnetotelluric (MT) modeling. The refinement, incorporating an integro-difference scheme, increases the accuracy somewhat without increasing the computer time. Utilizing the two symmetry planes for a plane wave source decreases the computer storage by a factor of 8 and greatly reduces the computer time. Convergence checks and comparisons with other solutions show that our results are valid. Because of space charges at resistivity boundaries, low-frequency 3D responses are much different from 1D and 2D responses. Hence 3D models are required for interpreting MT data in the complex geothermal environment.

Hohmann, G.W.; Ting, S.C.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.

Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Simplified three-dimensional modeling for MHD DCW channels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, numerical technique for modeling diagonal conducting wall (DCW) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators is developed and discussed. Cross-plane gasdynamic and electrodynamic profiles are computed considering coupled MHD flow field and electrical phenomena. A turbulent transport model based on the mixing length theory is used to deal with wall roughness generated turbulence effects. Both sidewall and electrode wall boundary losses are treated. The infinitely fine electrode segmentation formulation is applied to simplify the governing electrodynamic equations. Calculations show the development of distorted temperature and velocity profiles under influences of magnetohydrodynamic interaction. The results furnish a realistic representation of MHD generator behavior.

Liu, B.L.; Lineberry, J.T.; Schmidt, H.J.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

MAGNETIC FIELD INTENSIFICATION BY THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL 'EXPLOSION' PROCESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate an intensification mechanism for the magnetic field near the base of the solar convection zone that does not rely on differential rotation. Such mechanism in addition to differential rotation has been suggested by studies of flux emergence, which typically require field strength in excess of those provided by differential rotation alone. We study here a process in which potential energy of the superadiabatically stratified convection zone is converted into magnetic energy. This mechanism, known as the 'explosion of magnetic flux tubes', has been previously studied in thin flux tube approximation as well as two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations; here we expand the investigation to three-dimensional MHD simulations. Our main result is that enough intensification can be achieved in a three-dimensional magnetic flux sheet as long as the spatial scale of the imposed perturbation normal to the magnetic field is sufficiently large. When this spatial scale is small, the flux sheet tends to rise toward the surface, resulting in a significant decrease of the magnetic field amplification.

Hotta, H.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Rempel, M., E-mail: hotta.h@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.

Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes for three-dimensional imaging  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? We discuss the properties of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs) and their use in developing an imaging laser radar (ladar). This type of photodetector gives a fast electrical pulse in response to the detection of even a single photon, allowing for sub-nsec-precision photon-flight-time measurement. We present ongoing work at Lincoln Laboratory on three-dimensional (3D) imaging with arrays of these diodes, and the integration of the arrays with fast complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) digital timing circuits. Lincoln laboratory has long been involved with the development of laser radar (ladar) systems, which, like their microwave counterparts, measure the flight time of transmitted pulses of radiation to determine the distance to an object of interest. Real-time acquisition of such range information is central to a wide variety of remote-sensing applications. The optical radar, because of its shorter

Brian F. Aull; Andrew H. Loomis; Douglas J. Young; Richard M. Heinrichs; Bradley J. Felton; Peter J. Daniels; Deborah J. L

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Jordan-Schwinger realizations of three-dimensional polynomial algebras  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A three-dimensional polynomial algebra of order $m$ is defined by the commutation relations $[P_0, P_\\pm]$ $=$ $\\pm P_\\pm$, $[P_+, P_-]$ $=$ $\\phi^{(m)}(P_0)$ where $\\phi^{(m)}(P_0)$ is an $m$-th order polynomial in $P_0$ with the coefficients being constants or central elements of the algebra. It is shown that two given mutually commuting polynomial algebras of orders $l$ and $m$ can be combined to give two distinct $(l+m+1)$-th order polynomial algebras. This procedure follows from a generalization of the well known Jordan-Schwinger method of construction of $su(2)$ and $su(1,1)$ algebras from two mutually commuting boson algebras.

V. Sunil Kumar; B. A. Bambah; R. Jagannathan

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.

Worstell, William A. (Framingham, MA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.

Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

88

The new computer program for three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An effective computer program for three dimensional relativistic hydrodynamical model has been developed. It implements a new approach to the early hot phase of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The computer program simulates time-space evolution of nuclear matter in terms of ideal-fluid dynamics. Equations of motions of hydrodynamics are solved making use of finite difference methods. Commonly-used algorithms of numerical relativistic hydrodynamics RHLLE and MUSTA-FORCE have been applied in simulations. To speed-up calculations, parallel processing has been made available for solving hydrodynamical equations. The test results of simulations for 3D, 2D and Bjorken expansion are reported in this paper. As a next step we plan to implement the hadronization algorithm by implementing the continuous particle emission for freeze-out and comparing it with Cooper-Frye formula.

Daniel Kikola; Wiktor Peryt; Yuri M. Sinyukov; Marcin Slodkowski; Marek Szuba

2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

An exactly-solvable three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exact analytical, closed-form solutions, expressed in terms of special functions, are presented for the case of a three-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator with a position dependent mass. This system is the generalization of the corresponding one-dimensional system, which has been the focus of recent attention. In contrast to other approaches, we are able to obtain solutions in terms of special functions, without a reliance upon a Rodrigues-type of formula. The wave functions of the quantum oscillator have the familiar spherical harmonic solutions for the angular part. For the s-states of the system, the radial equation accepts solutions that have been recently found for the one-dimensional nonlinear quantum oscillator, given in terms of associated Legendre functions, along with a constant shift in the energy eigenvalues. Radial solutions are obtained for all angular momentum states, along with the complete energy spectrum of the bound states.

Axel Schulze-Halberg; John R. Morris

2013-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

90

Three dimensional numerical simulations of the UPS-292-SC engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present and analyze three-dimensional calculations of the spray, mixing and combustion in the UPS-292 stratified charge engine for three different operating conditions, corresponding to overall air-fuel ratios between 22.4 and 61.0. The numerical calculations are performed with KIVA, a multidimensional arbitrary-mesh, finite-difference hydrodynamics program for internal combustion engine applications. The calculations use a mesh of 10,000 computational cells, which conform to the shape of the piston bowl and cylinder and move to follow piston motion. Each operating condition is calculated from intake valve closure at 118/sup 0/ BTDC to 90/sup 0/ ATDC and requires approximately three hours of CRAY-XMP computer time.

O'Rourke, P.J.; Amsden, A.A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1975-1976) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1975-1976) Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1975-1976) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring At Coso Geothermal Area (1975-1976) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Teleseismic-Seismic Monitoring Activity Date 1975 - 1976 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Estimate thermal regime and potential of the system Notes Three-dimensional Q -1 model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area was conducted. To complete the model a regional telemetered network of sixteen stations was operated by the U.S. Geological Survey; deployed a portable Centipede array of 26 three-component stations near the

92

Numerical Study on Flow Pass of a Three-Dimensional Obstacle under a Strong Stratification Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, numerical turbulent model was used to study the flow pass of a three-dimensional obstacle under a strong stratification condition. The numerical results clarify the behavior of the flow at a low Froude number, ...

W. Sha; K. Nakabayashi; H. Ueda

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

A Quasi-Three-Dimensional Variably Saturated Groundwater Flow Model for Climate Modeling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a quasi-three-dimensional, variably saturated groundwater flow model was developed by approximately dividing the three-dimensional soil water and groundwater flow into an unsaturated vertical soil water flow and a horizontal ...

Zhenghui Xie; Zhenhua Di; Zhendong Luo; Qian Ma

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The Numerical Simulation of Airflow and Dispersion in Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Recirculation Zones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic numerical code using the two-equation turbulence closure was developed to model the atmospheric transport and diffusion of pollutants over buildings and a three-dimensional hill. The standard engineering two-...

Paul Dawson; David E. Stock; Brian Lamb

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Elastoplastic implicit integration algorithm applicable to both plane stress and three-dimensional stress states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An elastoplastic implicit integration algorithm applicable to both plane stress and three-dimensional stress states is developed for a general class of combined nonlinear kinematic-isotropic hardening models. The algorithm is first built for three-dimensional ... Keywords: Constitutive models, Implicit integration, Plane stress, Plasticity, Three-dimensional stress

Nobutada Ohno; Masatoshi Tsuda; Takafumi Kamei

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Three-dimensional analysis of AP600 standard plant shield building roof  

SciTech Connect

The AP600 passive containment vessel is surrounded by a concrete cylindrical shell covered with a truncated conical roof. This roof supports the passive containment cooling system (PCS) annular tank, shield plate and other nonstructural attachments. When the shield building is subjected to different loading combinations as defined in the Standard Review Plan (SRP), some of the sections in the shield building could experience forces in excess of their design values. This report summarized the three-dimensional finite element analysis that was conducted to review the adequacy of the proposed Westinghouse shield building design. The ANSYS finite element software was utilized to analyze the Shield Building Roof (SBR) under dead, snow, wind, thermal and seismic loadings. A three-dimensional model that included a portion of the shield building cylindrical shell, the conical roof and its attachments, the eccentricities at the cone-cylinder connection and at the compression ring and the PCS tank was developed. Mesh sensitivity studies were conducted to select appropriate element size in the cylinder, cone, near air intakes and in the vicinity of the eccentricities. Also, a study was carried out to correctly idealize the water-structure interaction in the PCS tank. Response spectrum analysis was used to calculate the internal forces at different sections in the SBR under Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). Forty-nine structural modes and twenty sloshing modes were used. Two horizontal components of the SSE together with a vertical component were used. Modal stress resultants were combined taking into account the effects of closely spaced modes. The three earthquake directions were combined by the Square Root of the Sum Squares method. Two load combinations were studied. The load combination that included dead, snow, fluid, thermal and seismic loads was selected to be the most critical. Interaction diagrams for critical sections were developed and used to check the design adequacy. The results demonstrated that provided area of steal on each face of several sections of the AP600 SBR was inadequate. This was also noticed when comparing the total provided area of steel per section, i.e., the area of steel on both faces. The discrepancy between Westinghouse results and these reported herein could have resulted from the different finite element mesh sizes and the assumption used in Westinghouse design.

Greimann, L.; Fanous, F.; Safar, S.; Khalil, A.; Bluhm, D.

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

RESISTIVITY MODELING FOR ARBITRARILY SHAPED THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Full utilization of the electrical resistivity method ingeologic models for electrical resistivity applications, theResistivity In electrical resistivity surveys a current

Dey, Abhijit

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Three-dimensional computer modeling of hydrogen injection and combustion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hydrodynamics of hydrogen gas injection into a fixed-volume combustion chamber is analyzed and simulated using KIVA-3, a three-dimensional, reactive flow computer code. Comparisons of the simulation results are made to data obtained at the Combustion Research Facility at Sandia National Laboratory-California (SNL-CA). Simulation of the gas injection problem is found to be of comparable difficulty as the liquid fuel injection in diesel engines. The primary challenge is the large change of length scale from the flow of gas in the orifice to the penetration in the combustion chamber. In the current experiments, the change of length scale is about 4,000. A reduction of the full problem is developed that reduces the change in length scale in the simulation to about 400, with a comparable improvement in computational times. Comparisons of the simulation to the experimental data shows good agreement in the penetration history and pressure rise in the combustion chamber. At late times the comparison is sensitive to the method of determination of the penetration in the simulations. In a comparison of the combustion modeling of methane and hydrogen, hydrogen combustion is more difficult to model, and currently available kinetic models fail to predict the observed autoignition delay at these conditions.

Johnson, N.L.; Amsden, A.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Naber, J.D.; Siebers, D.L. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONNECTION INVOLVING MAGNETIC FLUX ROPES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two and three magnetic flux ropes are created and studied in a well-diagnosed laboratory experiment. The twisted helical bundles of field lines rotate and collide with each other over time. In the two rope case, reverse current layers indicative of reconnection are observed. Using a high spatial and temporal resolution three-dimensional volume data set in both cases, quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) are identified in the magnetic field. Originally developed in the context of solar magnetic reconnection, QSLs are thought to be preferred sites for reconnection. This is verified in these studies. In the case of three flux ropes there are multiple QSLs, which come and go in time. The divergence of the field lines within the QSLs and the field line motion is presented. In all cases, it is observed that the reconnection is patchy in space and bursty in time. Although it occurs at localized positions it is the result of the nonlocal behavior of the flux ropes.

Gekelman, W.; Van Compernolle, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lawrence, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

100

Crack Surface Roughness in Three-Dimensional Random Fuse Networks  

SciTech Connect

Using large system sizes with extensive statistical sampling, we analyze the scaling properties of crack roughness and damage profiles in the three-dimensional random fuse model. The analysis of damage profiles indicates that damage accumulates in a diffusive manner up to the peak load, and localization sets in abruptly at the peak load starting from a uniform damage landscape. The global crack width scales as $W \\sim L^{0.5}$ and is consistent with the scaling of localization length $\\xi \\sim L^{0.5}$ used in the data collapse of damage profiles in the post-peak regime. This consistency between the global crack roughness exponent and the post-peak damage profile localization length supports the idea that the post-peak damage profile is predominantly due to the localization produced by the catastrophic failure, which at the same time results in the formation of the final crack. Finally, the crack width distributions can be collapsed for different system sizes and follow a log-normal distribution.

Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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101

Three-dimensional transient electromagnetic modeling in the Laplace Domain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In modeling electromagnetic responses, Maxwell's equations in the frequency domain are popular and have been widely used (Nabighian, 1994; Newman and Alumbaugh, 1995; Smith, 1996, to list a few). Recently, electromagnetic modeling in the time domain using the finite difference (FDTD) method (Wang and Hohmann, 1993) has also been used to study transient electromagnetic interactions in the conductive medium. This paper presents a new technique to compute the electromagnetic response of three-dimensional (3-D) structures. The proposed new method is based on transforming Maxwell's equations to the Laplace domain. For each discrete Laplace variable, Maxwell's equations are discretized in 3-D using the staggered grid and the finite difference method (FDM). The resulting system of equations is then solved for the fields using the incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradient (ICCG) method. The new method is particularly effective in saving computer memory since all the operations are carried out in real numbers. For the same reason, the computing speed is faster than frequency domain modeling. The proposed approach can be an extremely useful tool in developing an inversion algorithm using the time domain data.

Mizunaga, H.; Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, H.J.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Interactive graphical tools for three-dimensional mesh redistribution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional meshes modeling nonlinear problems such as sheet metal forming, metal forging, heat transfer during welding, the propagation of microwaves through gases, and automobile crashes require highly refined meshes in local areas to accurately represent areas of high curvature, stress, and strain. These locally refined areas develop late in the simulation and/or move during the course of the simulation, thus making it difficult to predict their exact location. This thesis is a systematic study of new tools scientists can use with redistribution algorithms to enhance the solution results and reduce the time to build, solve, and analyze nonlinear finite element problems. Participatory design techniques including Contextual Inquiry and Design were used to study and analyze the process of solving such problems. This study and analysis led to the in-depth understanding of the types of interactions performed by FEM scientists. Based on this understanding, a prototype tool was designed to support these interactions. Scientists participated in evaluating the design as well as the implementation of the prototype tool. The study, analysis, prototype tool design, and the results of the evaluation of the prototype tool are described in this thesis.

Dobbs, L.A.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.

Smithpeter, Colin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoover, Eddie R. (Sandia Park, NM); Pain, Bedabrata (Los Angeles, CA); Hancock, Bruce R. (Altadena, CA); Nellums, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

104

A three-dimensional gravity model of the geologic structure of Long Valley caldera  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Several attempts to define and interpret this anomaly have been made in the past using 2-D and 3-D models. None of the previous interpretations have yielded definitive results, but in fairness, the interpretation here has benefited from a larger gravity data base and more subsurface control than available to previous workers. All published 3-D models simplistically assumed constant density of fill. All 2-D models suffered from the inherent three-dimensionality of the complicated density structure of Long Valley caldera. In addition, previous interpreters have lacked access to geological data, such as well lithologies and density logs, seismic refraction interpretations, suface geology, and structural geology interpretations. The purpose of this study is to use all available gravity data and geological information to constrain a multi-unit, 3-D density model based on the geology of Long Valley caldera and its vicinity. Insights on the geologic structure of the caldera fill can help other geophysical interpretations in determining near-surface effects so that deeper structure may be resolved. With adequate control on the structure of the caldera fill, we are able to examine the gravity data for the presence of deeper density anomalies in the crust. 20 refs., 7 figs.

Carle, S.F.; Goldstein, N.E.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Three-Dimensional Tsunami Modeling Using GPU-SPHysics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the devastating effects of the 2004 Sumatra Tsunami, tsunami research is at an all time high. Tsunami forecasting and modeling has become exceedingly important in the anticipation of major disasters. Tsunami inundation modeling, how a tsunami invades a coastal area, is an extremely useful tool for the prevention of major disaster in tsunami laden zones. Using a new free-surface hydrodynamic modeling code called GPUSPHysics, accurate inundation and propagation models of tsunamis can be modeled at very high resolutions. GPU-SPHysics takes advantage of the extremely powerful computational power of a GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) and calculates the dynamics of fluids based on SPH (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics). The implementation of SPH on the GPU not only creates accurate, three-dimensional models but stunning visualizations of a tsunami wave breaking on beaches or other structures. Using the data from these models, coastal communities will be well prepared for any magnitude of tsunami that they may encounter by adjusting their infrastructure and disaster preparation to accommodate for this common disaster and potentially save many lives. To utilize GPU-SPHysics? models accurately, they must first be verified. NOAA (The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) has provided benchmarks for tsunami inundation and propagation models. These benchmarks consist of analytic tests, laboratory tests and field tests. A key benchmark for GPU-SPHysics to be verified against is the solitary wave inundation on a sloping beach experiment. The solitary wave best represents the leading wave of a tsunami; hence it is vital to test other inundations that involve more complex structures than sloping beaches. Through visual analysis, the GPU-SPHysics solitary wave model, accurate to a small deviation, has been verified using the analytic calculation for maximum runup as provided by Synolakis. To verify other benchmarks provided by NOAA, GPU-SPHysics must be tested against multiple experiments. Once GPU-SPHysics has been verified for multiple data sets, it can be considered an accurate tool for hazard analysis.

Munoz, Andrew J.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Direct three-dimensional coherently scattered x-ray microtomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: It has been shown that coherently scattered x rays can be used to discriminate and identify specific components in a mixture of low atomic weight materials. The authors demonstrated a new method of doing coherently scattered x-ray tomography with a thin sheet of x ray. Methods: A collimated x-ray fan-beam, a parallel polycapillary collimator, and a phantom consisting of several biocompatible materials of low attenuation-based contrast were used to investigate the feasibility of the method. Because of the particular experimental setup, only the phantom translation perpendicular to the x-ray beam is needed and, thus, there is no need of Radon-type tomographic reconstruction, except for the correction of the attenuation to the primary and scattered x rays, which was performed by using a conventional attenuation-based tomographic image data set. The coherent scatter image contrast changes with momentum transfer among component materials in the specimen were investigated with multiple x-ray sources with narrow bandwidth spectra generated with anode and filter combinations of Cu/Ni (8 keV), Mo/Zr (18 keV), and Ag/Pd (22 keV) and at multiple scatter angles by orienting the detector and polycapillary collimator at different angles to the illuminating x ray. Results: The contrast among different materials changes with the x-ray source energy and the angle at which the image was measured. The coherent scatter profiles obtained from the coherent scatter images are consistent with the published results. Conclusions: This method can be used to directly generate the three-dimensional coherent scatter images of small animal, biopsies, or other small objects with low atomic weight biological or similar synthetic materials with low attenuation contrast. With equipment optimized, submillimeter spatial resolution may be achieved.

Cui Congwu; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Eaker, Diane R.; Ritman, Erik L. [Department of Medical Physics, CancerCare Manitoba, 675 McDermot Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3E 0V9 (Canada); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street Southwest, Alfred Building 2-409, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

A three dimensional comparison of elite and recreational ice hockey slap shots.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this thesis was to examine the three dimensional kinematic differences between elite and recreational ice hockey players while performing a stationary slap… (more)

Woo, Timothy Keith

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Co-volume Simulation of Thermal-Hydraulic Phenomena on Two- and Three- Dimensional Unstructured Grids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes development of co-volume methods for the basic conservation laws governing two- and three-dimensional fluid transport processes.

1999-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

109

Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plants, gas turbines and auxiliary power units. Survey of alternate power sources including wind, solar operations, properties of petroleum res- ervoir rocks, single-phase and multiphase fluid flow through po media; flow characteristics of porous structures; principles of single­ phase and multi­phase flow

Twente, Universiteit

110

Three-dimensional modelling and geothermal process simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subsurface geological model or 3-D GIS is constructed from three kinds of objects, which are a lithotope (in boundary representation), a number of fault systems, and volumetric textures (vector fields). The chief task of the model is to yield an estimate of the conductance tensors (fluid permeability and thermal conductivity) throughout an array of voxels. This is input as material properties to a FEHM numerical physical process model. The main task of the FEHM process model is to distinguish regions of convective from regions of conductive heat flow, and to estimate the fluid phase, pressure and flow paths. The temperature, geochemical, and seismic data provide the physical constraints on the process. The conductance tensors in the Franciscan Complex are to be derived by the addition of two components. The isotropic component is a stochastic spatial variable due to disruption of lithologies in melange. The deviatoric component is deterministic, due to smoothness and continuity in the textural vector fields. This decomposition probably also applies to the engineering hydrogeological properties of shallow terrestrial fluvial systems. However there are differences in quantity. The isotropic component is much more variable in the Franciscan, to the point where volumetric averages are misleading, and it may be necessary to select that component from several, discrete possible states. The deviatoric component is interpolated using a textural vector field. The Franciscan field is much more complicated, and contains internal singularities. 27 refs., 10 figs.

Burns, K.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Orbital characteristics due to the three dimensional swing-by in the Sun-Jupiter system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analytical and numerical study about orbital characteristics of trajectories due to a three dimensional swing-by maneuver between a planet and a particle. The model used has the same hypothesis of the circular restricted three-body ... Keywords: celestial mechanics, orbital dynamics, orbital maneuver, three dimensional swing-by

Jorge K. S. Formiga; Antonio F. B. A. Prado

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Pseudo three-dimensional vision-based nail-fold morphological and hemodynamic analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a Pseudo three-dimensional Vision-based Nail-fold Morphological and Hemodynamic Analysis (PTVNMHA) is proposed to automatically extract morphological/hemodynamic features from a microscopic nail-fold image sequence, reconstruct the corresponding ... Keywords: Blood flow rate, Blood flow velocity, Finger nail-fold morphological/hemodynamic analysis, Microcirculation, Pseudo three-dimensional capillary reconstruction

Lun-Chien Lo; Ker-Cheng Lin; Yuan-Nian Hsu; Tsung-Po Chen; John Y. Chiang; Yung-Fu Chen; Yin-Tso Liu

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Three-dimensional imaging of dislocations by X-ray diffraction laminography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation laminography with X-ray diffraction contrast enables three-dimensional imaging of dislocations in monocrystalline wafers. We outline the principle of the technique, the required experimental conditions, and the reconstruction procedure. The feasibility and the potential of the method are demonstrated by three-dimensional imaging of dislocation loops in an indent-damaged and annealed silicon wafer.

Haenschke, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Helfen, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS/ANKA), 76344 Eggenstein (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), BP220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Altapova, V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Danilewsky, A. [University Freiburg, Kristallographie, Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Baumbach, T. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Laboratory for Applications of Synchrotron Radiation (LAS), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS/ANKA), 76344 Eggenstein (Germany)

2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

114

Three-dimensional fluvial-deltaic sequence stratigraphy Pliocene-Recent Muda Formation, Belida Field, West Natuna Basin, Indonesia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Pliocene-Recent Muda formation is essentially undeformed in the West Natuna Basin, and excellent resolution of this interval on three-dimensional seismic data in Belida Field allows detailed interpretation of component fluvial-deltaic systems. Detailed interpretation of seismic time slice and seismic sections along with seismic facies analysis, horizon mapping, and extraction of seismic attributes provide the basis to construct a sequence stratigraphic framework and determine patterns for sediment dispersal and accumulation. The Muda interval contains five third-order sequences, with depositional environments confined to the shelf and consisting mainly of fluvial elements. Sequence boundaries (SB) apparently result from major sea level falls, since there was no tectonic uplift and the field underwent only regional slow subsidence during sedimentation of the study interval. Sea level fluctuation also caused changes in fluvial patterns. Analysis of changing channel patterns indicates that major systems tracts relate to specific channel patterns. The Lowstand Systems Tract (LST) is generally dominated by larger channel dimensions and low sinuosity channel patterns. The Transgressive Systems Tract (TST) typically contains relatively smaller channels with high sinuosity. Channels in the Highstand Systems Tract (HST) generally show moderate sinuosity channels and are intermediate in size, larger than TST channels but smaller than LST channels. Crossplots of stratigraphic position and channel morphology indicate that within the transition from LST-TST, channel dimensions (width and thickness) generally decrease and channel sinuosity generally increases. High sinuosity, meandering and anastomosing channels are generally found near the maximum flooding surface. Low sinuosity channels occur within the HST-SB-LST succession, with the exception of higher sinuosity meandering channels evolving inside valleys. Larger, lower sinuosity channels result from high gradient and high discharge associated with stream piracy. Smaller, high-sinuosity channels result from low gradient and small discharge. Extraction of seismic attributes such as RMS Amplitude and Average Reflection Strength show these depositional features in greater detail. In the Belida Field area, lowstand channels were found to comprise the greatest volume of sandstone bodies. Seismic delineation of the distribution and morphology of these channel systems provides critical input for reservoir modeling and volumetric analysis.

Darmadi, Yan

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Seismic Characterization of Basalt Topography at Two Candidate Sites for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the seismic refraction results from the depth to bed rock surveys for two areas being considered for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste (RH-LLW) disposal facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. The first area (Site 5) surveyed is located southwest of the Advanced Test Reactor Complex and the second (Site 34) is located west of Lincoln Boulevard near the southwest corner of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC). At Site 5, large area and smaller-scale detailed surveys were performed. At Site 34, a large area survey was performed. The purpose of the surveys was to define the topography of the interface between the surficial alluvium and underlying basalt. Seismic data were first collected and processed using seismic refraction tomographic inversion. Three-dimensional images for both sites were rendered from the data to image the depth and velocities of the subsurface layers. Based on the interpreted top of basalt data at Site 5, a more detailed survey was conducted to refine depth to basalt. This report briefly covers relevant issues in the collection, processing and inversion of the seismic refraction data and in the imaging process. Included are the parameters for inversion and result rendering and visualization such as the inclusion of physical features. Results from the processing effort presented in this report include fence diagrams of the earth model, for the large area surveys and iso-velocity surfaces and cross sections from the detailed survey.

Jeff Sondrup; Gail Heath; Trent Armstrong; Annette Shafer; Jesse Bennett; Clark Scott

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Comparison of three-dimensional neutron flux calculations for Maine Yankee  

SciTech Connect

Calculations have been performed on the Maine Yankee Power Plant to obtain three-dimensional neutron fluxes using the spatial synthesis with the two-dimensional discrete ordinates code DORT, the three-dimensional discrete ordinates code THREEDANT and the three-dimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP. Neutron fluxes are compared for energies above 0.1 MeV and 1.0 MeV as well as dpa. Results were obtained at the Yankee dosimetry locations and special test regions within the pressure vessel, in the reactor cavity, and in a shield tank detector well.

Urban, W.T.; Crotzer, L.A.; Waters, L.S.; Parsons, D.K.; Alcouffe, R.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Spinney, K.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J. [Yankee Atomic Electric Co., Bolton, MA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

System for generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model using topological analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.

Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

118

Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management. 20 figs.

He, W.; Anderson, R.N.

1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

119

Method for inverting reflection trace data from 3-D and 4-D seismic surveys and identifying subsurface fluid and pathways in and among hydrocarbon reservoirs based on impedance models  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for inverting 3-D seismic reflection data obtained from seismic surveys to derive impedance models for a subsurface region, and for inversion of multiple 3-D seismic surveys (i.e., 4-D seismic surveys) of the same subsurface volume, separated in time to allow for dynamic fluid migration, such that small scale structure and regions of fluid and dynamic fluid flow within the subsurface volume being studied can be identified. The method allows for the mapping and quantification of available hydrocarbons within a reservoir and is thus useful for hydrocarbon prospecting and reservoir management. An iterative seismic inversion scheme constrained by actual well log data which uses a time/depth dependent seismic source function is employed to derive impedance models from 3-D and 4-D seismic datasets. The impedance values can be region grown to better isolate the low impedance hydrocarbon bearing regions. Impedance data derived from multiple 3-D seismic surveys of the same volume can be compared to identify regions of dynamic evolution and bypassed pay. Effective Oil Saturation or net oil thickness can also be derived from the impedance data and used for quantitative assessment of prospective drilling targets and reservoir management.

He, Wei (New Milford, NJ); Anderson, Roger N. (New York, NY)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

An Examination of the Breakup of Marine Stratus: a Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud top entrainment instability, as a mechanism for the breakup of marine stratus, is examined with a three-dimensional, planetary boundary layer (PBL) model. Specifically, we examine the criterion developed by Randall and Deardorff; this ...

Paul M. Tag; Steven W. Payne

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

A Further Study of Cumulus Interactions and Mergers: Three-Dimensional Simulations with Trajectory Analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A total of nine three-dimensional experiments are made to study cloud interaction and merging under the influence of different imposed conditions. Large-scale lifting forcing, environmental wind shear and cloud microphysical processes are the ...

Wei-Kuo Tao; Joanne Simpson

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Bimetallic bars with local control of composition by three-dimensional printing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a process that enables the fabrication of geometrically complex parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The success of 3DP as an alternative manufacturing technology to ...

Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee, 1979-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

A Three-Dimensional Time-Dependent Global Model of the Thermosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global, three-dimensional, time-dependent numerical model of the thermosphere has been created to simulate the dynamical behavior of the earth's thermosphere under a wide variety of geophysical conditions. Comparison of the model's predictions ...

T. J. Fuller-Rowell; D. Rees

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

A Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Great Plains Dryline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, nonhydrostatic, nested grid version of the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) was used to perform simulations of an actual dryline that was observed as part of the COPS-91 field experiment ...

B. L. Shaw; R. A. Pielke; C. L. Ziegler

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell Code Using High Performance Fortran on PC Cluster  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) code, TRISTAN (Tridimensional Stanford) code, has been parallelized using High Performance Fortran (HPF) as a RPM (Real Parallel Machine). In the simulation, the simulation domains are decomposed ...

DongSheng Cai; Yaoting Li; Ken-ichi Nishikawa; Chiejie Xiao; Xiaoyan Yan

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Impact of Formulation of Cost Function and Constraints on Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) analysis is an important method used at many operational and research institutes in meteorology, for example, the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the European Centre ...

Yuanfu Xie; Chungu Lu; Gerald L. Browning

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Transferability of a Three-Dimensional Air Quality Model between Two Different Sites in Complex Terrain  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional, diagnostic, particle-in-cell transport and diffusion model MATHEW/ADPIC is used to test its transferability from one site in complex terrain to another with different characteristics, under stable nighttime drainage flow ...

Rolf Lange

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Three-dimensional metrics as deformations of a constant curvature metric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Any three-dimensional Riemannian metric can be locally obtained by deforming a constant curvature metric along one direction. The general interest of this result, both in geometry and physics, and related open problems are stressed.

B. Coll; J. Llosa; D. Soler

2001-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

129

Diurnal Evolution of Three-Dimensional Wind and Temperature Structure in California's Central Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The diurnal evolution of the three-dimensional summer-season mean wind and temperature structure in California's Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys (collectively called the Central Valley) is investigated using data from 22 radar wind profiler/...

Shiyuan Zhong; C. David Whiteman; Xindi Bian

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

A Method to Estimate Three-Dimensional Thermal Structure from Satellite Altimetry Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new empirical method to estimate mesoscale three-dimensional oceanic thermal structures from near-real-time satellite altimetry data is presented. The method uses a two-layer model with a novel set of empirical parameters for stratification. ...

Akiko Takano; Hidekatsu Yamazaki; Takeyoshi Nagai; Osamu Honda

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Three-Dimensional Response of a Shear Flow to Elevated Heating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional response of a shear flow to elevated heating is investigated using linear theory. The basic wind profile is allowed to reverse directions at a certain height. Effects of shear, evaporative cooling, and the stratosphere are ...

Yuh-Lang Lin; Shiaolin Li

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Thermodynamic Balance of Three-Dimensional Stratospheric Winds Derived from a Data Assimilation Procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The NASA/Goddard three-dimensional chemistry and transport model is driven by winds from a stratospheric data assimilation system. Synoptic- and planetary-scale patterns, apparent in satellite observations of trace constituents, are successfully ...

Clark J. Weaver; Anne R. Douglass; Richard B. Rood

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Spectral Representation of Three-Dimensional Global Data by Expansion in Normal Mode Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To represent atmospheric data spectrally in three indices (zonal wavenumber, and meridional and vertical modal indices), we propose to use three-dimensional normal mode functions (NMF's) to express the wind and mass fields simultaneously. The NMF'...

Akira Kasahara; Kamal Puri

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Thermal Modeling and Device Noise Properties of Three-Dimensional-SOI Technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal test structures and ring oscillators (ROs) are fabricated in 0.18-mum three-dimensional (3-D)-SOI technology. Measurements and electrothermal simulations show that thermal and parasitic effects due to 3-D packaging ...

Chen, Tze Wee

135

A Three-Dimensional, Adaptive, Godunov-Type Model for Global Atmospheric Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a Godunov-type methodology is applied to three-dimensional global atmospheric modeling. Numerical issues are addressed regarding the formulation of the tracer advection problem, the application of dimensional splitting, and the ...

M. E. Hubbard; N. Nikiforakis

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Accuracy and Energy Conservation in a Three-Dimensional Anelastic Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accuracy and energy conservation are examined in a three-dimensional (3D) anelastic model. For both dry and moist (noncondensing) atmospheres, we prescribe analytic solutions of momentum, potential temperature and mixing ratio for both periodic ...

Paul M. Tag; Thomas E. Rosmound

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Microwave Simulations of a Tropical Rainfall System with a Three-Dimensional Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional cloud model-microwave radiative transfer model combination is used to study the relations among the precipitation and other microphysical characteristics of a tropical oceanic squall line and the upwelling radiance at ...

Robert F. Adler; Hwa-Young M. Yeh; N. Prasad; Wei-Kuo Tao; Joanne Simpson

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

A Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Outflow Layer of Supertyphoon Flo (1990)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Isentropic coordinate analyses of rawinsondes and cloud motion wind vectors derived from geostationary satellite imagery are employed to describe the three-dimensional upper-tropospheric and lower-stratospheric circulation attending western North ...

Robert T. Merrill; Christopher S. Velden

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Two-and Three-Dimensional Modelling Studies of the Big Thompson Storm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Big Thompson storm occurred on 31 July–1 August 1976 over Big Thompson Canyon, Colorado, when a secondary cold frontal surge was accelerated and reached the foothills of the Front Range. Two- and three-dimensional moist compressible cloud ...

Masanori Yoshizaki; Yoshi Ogura

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Strongly Stratified Flow past Conical Orography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from a series of numerical simulations of three-dimensional stably stratified flows past conical orography with unit slope are presented and are compared directly with laboratory results from a stratified towing tank. The simulations are ...

S. B. Vosper

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

A Relationship Between Acid Precipitation and Three-Dimensional Transport Associated with Synoptic-Scale Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Field data collected during APEX (Acid Precipitation Experiment) are used in combination with an isentropic trajectory model to analyze the relationship between acid precipitation and three-dimensional transport associated with cyclonic storms. ...

Philip L. Haggenson; Allan L. Lazrus; Ying-Hwa Kuo; Ginger A. Caldwell

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Application of a Monotonic Upstream-biased Transport Scheme to Three-Dimensional Constituent Transport Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The application of van Leer's scheme, a monotonic, upstream-biased differencing scheme, to three-dimensional constituent transport calculations is shown. The major disadvantage of the scheme is shown to be a self-limiting diffusion. A major ...

Dale J. Allen; Anne R. Douglass; Richard B. Rood; Paul D. Guthrie

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

The Importance of Three Physical Processes in a Minimal Three-Dimensional Tropical Cyclone Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The minimal three-dimensional tropical cyclone model developed by Zhu et al. is used to explore the role of shallow convection, precipitation-cooled downdrafts, and the vertical transport of momentum by deep convection on the dynamics of tropical ...

Hongyan Zhu; Roger K. Smith

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

The Three-Dimensional Interpretation of a Class of Simple Line-Drawings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a theory of the three-dimensional interpretation of a class of line-drawings called p-images, which are interpreted by the human vision system as parallelepipeds ("boxes"). Despite their simplicity, p-images ...

Marill, Thomas

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Seasonality and Three-Dimensional Structure of Interdecadal Change in the East Asian Monsoon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant interdecadal cooling with vivid seasonality and three-dimensional (3D) structure is first revealed in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over East Asia. A robust upper-tropospheric cooling appears in March and has two ...

Rucong Yu; Tianjun Zhou

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Magnetically driven three-dimensional manipulation and inductive heating of magnetic-dispersion containing metal alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fundamental to the development of three-dimensional microelectronic fabrication is a material that enables vertical geometries. Here we show low-melting-point metal alloys containing iron dispersions that can be remotely ...

Calabro, Joshua D.

147

Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...

Farahat, Waleed A.

148

Recovery of Three-Dimensional Wind and Temperature Fields from Simulated Single-Doppler Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for recovering the full three-dimensional wind and temperature fields from single-Doppler radar data is developed and demonstrated. This method uses a dynamic model, and attempts to determine the initial conditions of the unobserved flow ...

Juanzhen Sun; Dawn W. Flicker; Douglas K. Lilly

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

STORMTIPE: A Forecasting Experiment Using a Three-Dimensional Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experiment using a three-dimensional cloud-scale numerical model in an operational forecasting environment was carried out in the spring of 1991. It involved meteorologists generating forecast environmental conditions associated with ...

Harold E. Brooks; Charles A. Doswell III; Louis J. Wicker

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Direct Numerical Simulation of Differential Scalar Diffusion in Three-Dimensional Stratified Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for differential turbulent transport of oceanic temperature (T) and salinity () is explored using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of decaying stratified turbulence. The simulations employ a realistic molecular ...

Ann E. Gargett; William J. Merryfield; Greg Holloway

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Direct Numerical Simulation of Differential Scalar Diffusion in Three-Dimensional Stratified Turbulence  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential for differential turbulent transport of oceanic temperature (T) and salinity (S) is explored using three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of decaying stratified turbulence. The simulations employ a realistic molecular ...

Ann E. Gargett; William J. Merryfield; Greg Holloway

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Diagnostic Model of the Three-Dimensional Circulation in the Upper Equatorial Pacific Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To investigate the processes that maintain the large-scale, annual-average thermal structure of the equatorial Pacific, the three-dimensional ocean circulation for a large area is determined from a diagnostic model applied to repeated, meridional ...

Harry L. Bryden; Esther C. Brady

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

The Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method for Three-Dimensional Atmospheric Radiative Transfer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new algorithm for modeling radiative transfer in inhomogeneous three-dimensional media is described. The spherical harmonics discrete ordinate method uses a spherical harmonic angular representation to reduce memory use and time computing the ...

K. Franklin Evans

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Radiative Heat Transfer Analysis within Three-Dimensional Clouds Subjected to Solar and Sky Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional radiative heat transfer analysis of an arbitrary-shaped modeled cloud subjected to solar and sky irradiation has been performed. The Radiation Element Method by Ray Emission Model (REM2) was used for numerical simulation. ...

Toru Nishikawa; Shigenao Maruyama; Seigo Sakai

2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Mature Thunderstorm Cloud-Top Structure and Dynamics: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An anelastic three-dimensional model is used to investigate the effects of vertical wind shear regime on cloud-top structure and internal properties of mature isolated midlatitude thunderstorms. Four comparative experiments, designated A through ...

Robert E. Schlesinger

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Three-Dimensional Residual Tidal Circulation in an Elongated, Rotating Basin  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional residual circulation driven by tides in an elongated basin of arbitrary depth is described with a small amplitude, constant density model on the f plane. The inclusion of rotation fundamentally alters the residual flow. With ...

Clinton D. Winant

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Three-Dimensional Idealized Simulations of Barrier Jets along the Southeast Coast of Alaska  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional idealized simulations using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) down to 6-km grid spacing were performed in order to understand how different ambient conditions (wind speed and direction,...

Joseph B. Olson; Brian A. Colle

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation of a Carolina Coastal Front and the Gulf Stream Rainband  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional mesoscale planetary boundary layer (PBL) numerical model is used to investigate mesoscale circulations over the Carolina coastal and Gulf Stream baroclinic zones. Idealized ambient onshore and offshore flows are investigated, ...

Ching-Yuang Huang; Sethu Raman

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

A Three-Dimensional Simulation of a Tropical Squall Line: Convective Organization and Thermodynamic Vertical Transport  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional convective-scale simulations of an African squall line, observed during the French COPT 81 experiment, are presented. Three simulations with different representations of large-scale forcing are performed on a domain of 50 km (...

Jean-Luc Redelsperger; Jean-Philippe Lafore

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Analytical Surface Pressure and Drag for Linear Hydrostatic Flow over Three-Dimensional Elliptical Mountains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A linear hydrostatic model of the flow of stably stratified air over a three-dimensional mountain with an elliptical horizontal cross section is considered. Analytical expressions for the surface pressure perturbation are used to study the ...

Doug S. Phillips

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Sediment-Driven Downslope Flow in Submarine Canyons and Channels: Three-Dimensional Numerical Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of submarine canyons and channels in sediment-driven downslope flow (sediment plumes) is examined, using a three-dimensional, rotational numerical model that couples the hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The model domain consists of ...

Jochen Kämpf; Hermann Fohrmann

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

An Improved Time Interpolation for Three-Dimensional Doppler Wind Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A temporal interpolation is required for three-dimensional Doppler wind analysis when the precise measurement time is counted for each radar beam position. The time interpolation is traditionally done by a linear scheme either in the measurement ...

Shun Liu; Chongjian Qiu; Qin Xu; Pengfei Zhang

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study of Deep-Water Formation in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Deep-water formation (DWF) in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea and the subsequent horizontal circulation are investigated in a rectangular basin with a three-dimensional primitive equation model. The basin is forced by constant climatological ...

Gurvan Madec; Pascale Delecluse; Michel Crepon; Michel Chartier

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Comparing Aerosol and Low-Level Moisture Influences on Supercell Tornadogenesis: Three-Dimensional Idealized Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Four three-dimensional, nested-grid numerical simulations were performed using the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to compare the effects of aerosols acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) to those of low-level moisture [and thus ...

David G. Lerach; William R. Cotton

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

A Three-Dimensional Anelastic Model Based on the Vorticity Equation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional anelastic model has been developed using the vorticity equation, in which the pressure gradient force is eliminated. The prognostic variables of the model dynamics are the horizontal components of vorticity at all heights and ...

Joon-Hee Jung; Akio Arakawa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Experiments with a Three-Dimensional Statistical Objective Analysis Scheme Using FGGE Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D), multivariate, statistical objective analysis scheme (referred to as optimum interpolation or OI) has been developed for use in numerical weather prediction studies with the FGGE data. Some novel aspects of the present ...

Wayman E. Baker; Stephen C. Bloom; John S. Woollen; Mark S. Nestler; Eugenia Brin; Thomas W. Schlatter; Grant W. Branstator

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Three-Dimensional Mass-Conserving Semi-Lagrangian Scheme Employing Forward Trajectories  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Through the use of the dimensional splitting “cascade” method of grid-to-grid interpolation, it is shown that consistently high-order-accurate semi-Lagrangian integration of a three-dimensional hydrostatic primitive equations model can be carried ...

Lance M. Leslie; R. James Purser

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Linking a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model with Three-Dimensional Eulerian Wind Field Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A slightly simplified form of Thomson’s Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM) is presented for dispersion applications in three-dimensional (3D) flow fields. It is found that the Lagrangian velocity of a particle in 3D inhomogeneous Gaussian ...

Jeffrey C. Weil

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

The Three-Dimensional Axisymmetric Wind Field Structure of the Spencer, South Dakota, 1998 Tornado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional axisymmetric wind field structure of the violent Spencer, South Dakota, 1998 tornado was analyzed using the ground-based velocity track display (GBVTD) method. Data from a Doppler on Wheels mobile radar, collected at very ...

Karen Kosiba; Joshua Wurman

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

3DHLS: incorporating high-level synthesis in physical planning of three-dimensional (3D) ICs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration is a promising technology to alleviate performance and power related issues raised by interconnects in nanometer CMOS. Physical planning of three-dimensional integrated circuits is substantially different from ...

Yibo Chen; Guangyu Sun; Qiaosha Zou; Yuan Xie

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Effects from Time-Height Cross Sections  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Estimating Three-Dimensional Cloudy Radiative Transfer Effects from Time-Height Cross Sections C. Hannay and R. Pincus National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Diagnostics Center Boulder, Colorado K. F. Evans Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction Clouds in the atmosphere are finite in extent and variable in every direction and in time. Long data sets from ground-based profilers, such as lidars or cloud radars, could provide a very valuable set of observations to characterize this variability. We may ask how well such profiling instruments can represent the cloud structure as measured by the magnitude of the three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer effect. The 3D radiative transfer effect is the difference between the domain average broadband solar surface

172

A Bme Solution Of The Stochastic Three-Dimensional Laplace Equation  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bme Solution Of The Stochastic Three-Dimensional Laplace Equation Bme Solution Of The Stochastic Three-Dimensional Laplace Equation Representing A Geothermal Field Subject To Site-Specific Information Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: A Bme Solution Of The Stochastic Three-Dimensional Laplace Equation Representing A Geothermal Field Subject To Site-Specific Information Details Activities (0) Areas (0) Regions (0) Abstract: This work develops a model of the geothermal field in the Nea Kessani region (Greece) by means of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method, which describes the temperature variations across space in the underground geological formations. The geothermal field is formed by a thermal reservoir consisting of arcosic sandstones. The temperature distribution vs depth was first investigated by the Greek Institute of

173

Nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of three dimensional current shear instability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with detailed nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a three dimensional current shear driven instability in slab geometry. The simulations show the development of the instability in the current shear layer in the linear regime leading to the generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the nonlinear regime. The electromagnetic turbulence is first generated in the unstable shear layer and then spreads into the stable regions. The turbulence spectrum shows a new kind of anisotropy in which power transfer towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow. Results of the present three dimensional simulations of the current shear instability are compared with those of our earlier two dimensional simulations of sausage instability. It is found that the flattening of the mean velocity profile and thus reduction in the electron current due to generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the three dimensional case is more effective as compared to that in the two dimensional case.

Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Das, Amita; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Three dimensional visualization in support of Yucca Mountain Site characterization activities  

SciTech Connect

An understanding of the geologic and hydrologic environment for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is a critical component of site characterization activities. Conventional methods allow visualization of geologic data in only two or two and a half dimensions. Recent advances in computer workstation hardware and software now make it possible to create interactive three dimensional visualizations. Visualization software has been used to create preliminary two-, two-and-a-half-, and three-dimensional visualizations of Yucca Mountain structure and stratigraphy. The three dimensional models can also display lithologically dependent or independent parametric data. Yucca Mountain site characterization studies that will be supported by this capability include structural, lithologic, and hydrologic modeling, and repository design.

Brickey, D.W.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Three dimensional modeling and analysis of Haversian systems in compact bone tissue  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study provides a qualitative as well as quantitative characterization of the geometry and architecture of the Haversian systems at a microscopic level. A procedure was developed and employed to generate a three dimensional computer model from serial sections of equine bone. From the reconstruction, quantitative calculations were made. including porosity. surface areas. cross sectional areas, anci cross sectional shapes. Also the porosity due to Volkmann canals was estimated. Other more qualitative calculations included the nature of branching. termination. taper'n-and-general osteon movement. Any chance in the specimen size or shape during, the entire processing-was carefully documented and corrected for where possible. One of the goals of the research was to assess and evaluate the procedures developed and identify ways to further improve accuracy. With a computerized three dimensional imag-e of the bone microstructure. detailed calculations can be made and insig-ht cained more accurately than with two dimensional models or past three dimensional models.

Deisseroth, Kate

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a hierarchical data structure  

SciTech Connect

Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. In this example embodiment, the hierarchical data structure includes at least a parent node and a corresponding plurality of child nodes. The method includes a first act of determining that a first active ray in the packet hits the parent node and a second act of descending to each of the plurality of child nodes.

Wald, Ingo; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

177

Angular interpolations and splice options for three-dimensional transport computations  

SciTech Connect

New, accurate and mathematically rigorous angular Interpolation strategies are presented. These strategies preserve flow and directionality separately over each octant of the unit sphere, and are based on a combination of spherical harmonics expansions and least squares algorithms. Details of a three-dimensional to three-dimensional (3-D to 3-D) splice method which utilizes the new angular interpolations are summarized. The method has been implemented in a multidimensional discrete ordinates transport computer program. Various features of the splice option are illustrated by several applications to a benchmark Dog-Legged Void Neutron (DLVN) streaming and transport experimental assembly.

Abu-Shumays, I.K.; Yehnert, C.E.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Analytical solutions for the three-dimensional side-fringing field of magnetic recording heads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using conical coordinates, and in the limit of small gap length, the three-dimensional boundary value problem for the side-fringing field of beveled recording heads is reduced to two dimensions. This makes it possible to use analytic functions of a complex variable, and find simple expressions, in terms of elementary functions, for the scalar potential and three-dimensional magnetic fringing field. For a given bevel angle, the spectral response for side reading from in-plane and perpendicular magnetization depends on a single dimensionless parameter, and a quasi-exponential falloff of this response is calculated as a function of the bevel angle.

Mayergoyz, I.D.; Bloomberg, D.S.

1988-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al.,  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

9) 9) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes "The seismic reflection profiles of the range front structures are difficult to interpret because of he steep dips and 3-d fault zone geometry, in the-classical paper by Okaya and Thompson (1985) the range-bounding fault is not imaged as they proposed. The reflection seismic studies are the most useful of the geophysical techniques also the most expensive. The reflection data are two-dimensional making structural interpretation complicated for the three-dimensional geometry of the basin so that the other structural studied have been critical in correctly interpreting the seismic profiles. There are many

180

Elastic sectional stress analysis of variable section piers subjected to three-dimensional loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The elastic stress analysis of beam-column structures of uniaxial symmetrical variable cross-sections is developed using an extension of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The applied loads are general considering axial (P), flexure (M"x-M"y), shear (V"x-V"y), ... Keywords: Elastic sectional analysis, Shear stress, Tapered section, Three-dimensional loads, Variable section, Warping function

Lucian Stefan; Pierre Léger

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Three-dimensional simulations of geometrically complex subduction with large viscosity variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The incorporation of geologic realism into numerical models of subduction is becoming increasingly necessary as observational and experimental constraints indicate plate boundaries are inherently three-dimensional (3D) in nature and contain large viscosity ... Keywords: ACM proceedings, mantle convection, multigrid, rheology, subduction

Margarete A. Jadamec; Magali I. Billen; Oliver Kreylos

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

The Structure of Three-Dimensional Tide-Induced Current. Part II: Residual Currents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple method of computing the second-order, three-dimensional, tidally-induced residual current is presented. The depth-averaged residual current and the mean-surface gradient from the depth-averaged equations are first computed, assuming that ...

Kim-Tai Tee

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Three-dimensional midpoint displacement algorithm for the generation of fractal porous media  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a novel method of generating fractal three-dimensional porous media geometry. The method is an extension of the two-dimensional midpoint displacement method, used to generate realistic looking terrain for graphics applications, to a third ... Keywords: Fractal, Periodic boundary conditions, Porous media generation

Jonathan Jilesen; Jim Kuo; Fue-Sang Lien

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Three-Dimensional Location-Based IPv6 Addressing for Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Grid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart grid is one of the most important applications of the Internet of Things (IoT) for environmental sustainability and energy efficiency issues in recent years. IP-based wireless sensor networks (IP-WSNs) are considered as one of the promising wireless ... Keywords: Smart grid, Wireless Sensor Networks, Spatial IP, IPv6 address, Three dimensional spaces

Chih-Yung Cheng; Chi-Cheng Chuang; Ray-I Chang

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUX PREDICTION FOR A DISH CONCENTRATOR CAVITY RECEIVER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the boiling region in a steam receiver [1][2]. Measurement of the three dimensional flux distribution-dimensional flux distribution in the focal region, in particular as an aid to receiver design. Inputs to the ray a two-dimensional flux distribution which was used to calibrate the ray tracing models

186

DRAM-based FPGA enabled by three-dimensional (3d) memory stacking (abstract only)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Motivated by the emerging three-dimensional (3D integration technologies, this paper studies the potential of applying 3D memory stacking to enable FPGA devices use on-chip DRAM cells to store configuration data. In current design practice, FPGAs do ... Keywords: 3d integration, dram-based fpga, memory stacking

Yangyang Pan; Tong Zhang

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Transition to Three-dimensional Waves in Cocurrent Gas-liquid Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 1 Transition to Three-dimensional Waves in Cocurrent Gas-liquid Flows W. C. Kuru, M on the interface of a gas-liquid flow in a horizontal channel is studied experimentally. It is found of gas-liquid and liquid-liquid mixtures. For a general case, these flows will have at least 6

McCready, Mark J.

188

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas Mauricio-dimensional associating lattice gas (ALG) model. This model combines orientational ice-like interactions and "van der the presence of two liquid phase, two critical points and density anomaly. PACS numbers: 1 #12;I. INTRODUCTION

Barbosa, Marcia C. B.

189

Three-dimensional metamaterials with an ultra-high effective refractive index over broad bandwidth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The authors introduce a general mechanism, based on electrostatic and magnetostatic considerations, for designing three-dimensional isotopic metamaterials that possess an enhanced refractive index over an extremely large frequency range. The mechanism allows nearly independent control of effective electric permittivity and magnetic permeability without the use of resonant elements.

Jonghwa Shin; Jung-Tsung Shen; Shanhui Fan

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

190

A System for Three-Dimensional Robotic Mapping of Underground Mines  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems have been deployed in an operational coal mine in Bruceton, Pennsylvania, where they have been been obtained in two different setions of an experimental coal mine in Bruceton, PennsylvaniaA System for Three-Dimensional Robotic Mapping of Underground Mines Michael Montemerlo, Dirk H

191

Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?  

SciTech Connect

Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.

Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina

2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

192

Three dimensional solid-state supercapacitors from aligned single-walled carbon nanotube array templates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three dimensional solid-state supercapacitors from aligned single-walled carbon nanotube array- thermore, modeling of supercapacitor architectures utilizing other dielectric layers suggests the ability, and supercapacitor technologies, are being adapted and optimized with nanostructured compo- nents [1­5]. The promise

Gordon, Roy

193

Three-Dimensional Effects in High-Drag-State Flows over Long Ridges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of nonrotating flow with uniform basic wind and stability past long three-dimensional (3D) ridges are compared to the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) limit to reveal the importance of 3D effects. For mountain heights ...

Craig C. Epifanio; Dale R. Durran

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Three-dimensional simulation of elastic capsules in shear flow by the penalty immersed boundary method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved penalty immersed boundary method (pIBM) has been proposed for simulation of flow-induced deformation of three-dimensional (3D) elastic capsules. The motion of the capsule membrane is described in the Lagrangian coordinates. The membrane deformation ... Keywords: Elastic capsule, Fluid-structure interaction, Penalty immersed boundary method, Red blood cell, Subdivision surface

Wei-Xi Huang; Cheong Bong Chang; Hyung Jin Sung

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Three-Dimensional Wind Retrieval: Application of MUSCAT to Dual-Doppler Lidar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the field campaign of the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) in the spring of 2006, Doppler lidar measurements were taken in the complex terrain of the Californian Owens Valley for six weeks. While fast three-dimensional (3D) wind ...

Susanne Drechsel; Georg J. Mayr; Michel Chong; Martin Weissmann; Andreas Dörnbrack; Ronald Calhoun

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Thermally Forced Low Froude Number Flow past Three-Dimensional Obstacles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present study extends the discussion of the flow of a density-stratified fluid past three-dimensional obstacles for Froude number O(1) to flows past an isolated obstacle with heated/cooled surface. The study focuses on a response of thermally ...

Jon M. Reisner; Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Three-dimensional Thermal and Airflow (3D-TAF) Model of a Dome...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Three-dimensional Thermal and Airflow (3D-TAF) Model of a Dome-covered House in Canada Speaker(s): Yaolin Lin Date: October 6, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 A dome-covered house...

198

A three-dimensional adaptive method based on the iterative grid redistribution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as fluid dynamics, combustion and heat transfer and others, the required density of grid pointsA three-dimensional adaptive method based on the iterative grid redistribution Desheng Wang on iterative grid redistribution technique introduced in [J. Comput. Phys. 159 (2000) 246]. The key step

Wang, Xiao-Ping

199

Application of the three-dimensional transport code to analysis of the neutron streaming experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The neutron streaming through an experimental mock-up of a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) prototypic coolant pipe chaseway was recalculated with a three-dimensional discrete ordinates code. The experiment was conducted at the Tower Shielding Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1976 and 1977. The measurement of the neutron flux, using Bonner ball detectors, indicated nine orders of attenuation in the empty pipeway, which contained two 90-deg bends and was surrounded by concrete walls. The measurement data were originally analyzed using the DOT3.5 two-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code. However, the results did not agree with measurement data at the bend because of the difficulties in modeling the three-dimensional configurations using two-dimensional methods. The two-dimensional calculations used a three-step procedure in which each of the three legs making the two 90-deg bends was a separate calculation. The experiment was recently analyzed with the TORT three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code, not only to compare the calculational results with the experimental results, but also to compare with results obtained from analyses in Japan using DOT3.5, MORSE, and ENSEMBLE, which is a three-dimensional discrete ordinates radiation transport code developed in Japan.

Chatani, K.; Slater, C.O. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Wintertime Nitric Acid Chemistry: Implications from Three-Dimensional Model Calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional simulation of the evolution of HNO3 has been run for the winter of 1979. Winds and temperatures are taken from a stratospheric data assimilation analysis, and the chemistry is based on Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere ...

Richard B. Rood; Jack A. Kaye; Anne R. Douglass; Dale J. Allen; Stephen Steenrod; Edmund M. Larson

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Three-Dimensional Structure and Evolution of a Tornado Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The finescale three-dimensional structure and evolution of the near-surface boundary layer of a tornado (TBL) is mapped for the first time. The multibeam Rapid-Scan Doppler on Wheels (RSDOW) collected data at several vertical levels, as low as 4, ...

Karen A. Kosiba; Joshua Wurman

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2 ,Nadjette to compute their physical properties. We focus here on base catalyzed and colloidal silica aerogels, which are fractal materials and we use an original method for the reconstruction of these aerogels from TEM images

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

203

High-Performance Three-Dimensional Image Reconstruction for Molecular Structure Determination  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe an efficient parallel implementation of a reliable iterative reconstruction algorithm for estimating the three-dimensional (3D) density map of a macromolecular complex from a large number of two-dimensional (2D) cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) ... Keywords: 3D image reconstruction, Cryo-EM, parallel computing, regularization

Julianne Chung; Philip Sternberg; Chao Yang

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Determining Full Three-Dimensional Orientation of Single Anisotropic Nanoparticles by Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Keeping track: By combining differential interference contrast (DIC) image pattern recognition with DIC polarization anisotropy, the exact full three-dimensional angular information of individual tilted gold nanorods positioned in the focal plane of the objective lens can be readily determined. The angular rotational modes and kinetics of individual in-focus gold nanorods can thus be resolved dynamically.

Xiao, Lehu; Ha, Ji Won; Wei, Lin; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

205

An accelerating rendering method of hybrid point and polygon for complex three-dimensional models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an accelerating hybrid rendering method for complex three-dimensional models using both points and polygons. In circumstance of current PC hardware, our rendering method that integrates advantages of both GBMR (Graphics -Based Modeling ... Keywords: continuous multi-resolution models, modeling and rendering, point clouds, real-time property, virtual reality

Aimin Hao; Guifen Tian; Qinping Zhao; Zhide Li

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Holographic Flow Visualization as a Tool for Studying Three-dimensional Coherent Structures and Instabilities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Holography is capable of three-dimensional (3D) representation of spatial objects such as fluid interfaces and particle ensembles. Based on this, we adapt it into a 3D flow visualization tool called Holographic Flow Visualization (HFV). This technique ... Keywords: drop instability, flame-vortex interaction, holographic PIV, holographic flow visualization, jet diffusion flame, particle-laden flows, vortex cascade, vortex ring instability

H. Meng; J. Estevadeordal; S. Gogineni; L. Goss; W. M. Roquemore

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Three-dimensional ferroelectric domain visualization by Cerenkov-type second  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Three-dimensional ferroelectric domain visualization by Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation that satisfy the Cerenkov-type phase matching condition. Moreover, these beam disappear when the laser light-Bloch, D. N. Neshev, W. Krolikowski, A. Arie, K. Koynov, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Cerenkov-type second

Arie, Ady

208

A modified Tikhonov regularization method for a spherically symmetric three-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper deals with a spherically symmetric three-dimensional inverse heat conduction problem of determining the internal surface temperature distribution of a hollow sphere from the measured data at a fixed location inside it. This is an ill-posed ... Keywords: Error estimate, Ill-posed problem, Regularization, Spherically symmetric inverse heat conduction problem

Wei Cheng; Chu-Li Fu; Zhi Qian

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Long-Lasting Trade-Wind Rain Showers in a Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional warm rain model that included microphysics was used to study the reasons for ease of rainfall in Hawaiian clouds and the long-lasting rainfall from certain rainbands. It was found that drop recirculation occurs within these ...

Tsutomu Takahashi

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Parameterization of Small Scales of Three-Dimensional Isotropic Turbulence Utilizing Spectral Closures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A spectral equation derived from two-point closures applied to three-dimensional isotropic turbulence is studied from the subgrid-scale modeling point of view, with a cutoff wavenumber kc located in the inertial range of turbulence. Ideas of ...

Jean-Pierre Chollet; Marcel Lesieur

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Full-chip, three-dimensional, shapes-based RLC extraction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we report the development of the first commercial full-chip, three-dimensional, shapes-based, RLCK extraction tool, developed as part of a university-industry collaboration. The technique of return-limited inductances is used to provide ...

K. L. Shepard; D. Sitaram; Yu Zheng

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Tidal Mixing in the Southern Weddell Sea: Results from a Three-Dimensional Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional primitive equation ocean model is used to study the magnitude and distribution of tidal mixing in the southern Weddell Sea. The contributions of (i) semidiurnal barotropic constituents M2 and S2, (ii) internal tides, and (iii) ...

Adriene F. Pereira; Aike Beckmann; Hartmut H. Hellmer

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic observations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic-000 Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil, {lcalado, ana.claudia}@ieapm.mar.mil.br Acoustic tomography is now a well for an instantaneous sound speed field constructed from dynamical predictions for Cabo Frio, Brazil. The results show

Jesus, Sérgio M.

214

Development of a Three-Dimensional, Limited-Area (Island) Shelf Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, finite-difference model is developed to study limited-area (island) shelf circulation. The model uses a semi-implicit scheme in the cross-shore dimension and a mode-splitting technique in the vertical dimension, to achieve ...

Dong-Ping Wang

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Three-Dimensional Linear Instability of Persistent Anomalous Large-Scale Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The linear baroclinic instability of three-dimensional basic flows on the Northern Hemisphere is examined in terms of a simple two-level, quasi-geostrophic model. The basic flows considered comprise an observed six-winter mean flow, as well as ...

Andrew W. Robertson; Werner Metz

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The geomagnetic direction problem: The two-dimensional and the three-dimensional  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fields generated are generally of the same order of magnitude as the geomagnetic field, and the outer geomagnetic field than the solution without the stable layer. I. Introduction A central problem in modelling by comparison with geomagnetic data. Because of the difficulties inherent in a fully three-dimensional attack

Kaiser, Ralf

217

Analytical three-dimensional neutron transport benchmarks for verification of nuclear engineering codes. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of the requirement of accountability and quality control in the scientific world, a demand for high-quality analytical benchmark calculations has arisen in the neutron transport community. The intent of these benchmarks is to provide a numerical standard to which production neutron transport codes may be compared in order to verify proper operation. The overall investigation as modified in the second year renewal application includes the following three primary tasks. Task 1 on two dimensional neutron transport is divided into (a) single medium searchlight problem (SLP) and (b) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 2 on three-dimensional neutron transport covers (a) point source in arbitrary geometry, (b) single medium SLP, and (c) two-adjacent half-space SLP. Task 3 on code verification, includes deterministic and probabilistic codes. The primary aim of the proposed investigation was to provide a suite of comprehensive two- and three-dimensional analytical benchmarks for neutron transport theory applications. This objective has been achieved. The suite of benchmarks in infinite media and the three-dimensional SLP are a relatively comprehensive set of one-group benchmarks for isotropically scattering media. Because of time and resource limitations, the extensions of the benchmarks to include multi-group and anisotropic scattering are not included here. Presently, however, enormous advances in the solution for the planar Green`s function in an anisotropically scattering medium have been made and will eventually be implemented in the two- and three-dimensional solutions considered under this grant. Of particular note in this work are the numerical results for the three-dimensional SLP, which have never before been presented. The results presented were made possible only because of the tremendous advances in computing power that have occurred during the past decade.

Ganapol, B.D.; Kornreich, D.E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins: Part 1: Evaluation of Phase 2 CO{sub 2} Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2: Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids  

SciTech Connect

Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO{sub 2} in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO{sub 2} storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO{sub 2} were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO{sub 2} was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole � including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite � at 1152�2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO{sub 2} was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter. Operations in the Phase 2 testing program commenced with retrieval of the bridge plug and long-term pressure gauges, followed by mechanical isolation of the Gunter by plugging the wellbore with cement below the injection zone at 1605.7 m, then cementing a section of a 14-cm casing at 1470.4�1535.6. The resultant 70.1-m test interval at 1535.6�1605.7 m included nearly all of the Gunter sandstone facies. During the Phase 2 injection, 333 tonnes of CO{sub 2} were injected into the thick, lower sand section in the sandy member of the Gunter. Following the completion of testing, the injection zone below casing at 1116 m in the Marvin Blan No. 1 well, and wellbore below 305 m was permanently abandoned with cement plugs and the wellsite reclaimed. The range of most-likely storage capacities found in the Knox in the Marvin Blan No. 1 is 1000 tonnes per surface hectare in the Phase 2 Gunter interval to 8685 tonnes per surface hectare if the entire Knox section were available including the fractured interval near the base of the Copper Ridge. By itself the Gunter lacks sufficient reservoir volume to be considered for CO{sub 2} storage, although it may provide up to 18% of the reservoir volume available in the Knox. Regional extrapolation of CO{sub 2} storage potential based on the results of a single well test can be problematic, although indirect evidence of porosity and permeability can be demonstrated in the form of active saltwater-disposal wells injecting into the Knox. The western Kentucky region suitable for CO{sub 2} storage in the Knox is limited updip, to the east and south, by the depth at which the base of the Maquoketa shale lies above the depth required to ensure storage of CO{sub 2} in its supercritical state and the deepest a commercial well might be drilled for CO{sub 2} storage. The resulting prospective region has an area of approximately 15,600 km{sup 2}, beyond which it is unlikely that suitable Knox reservoirs may be developed. Faults in the subsurface, which serve as conduits for CO{sub 2} migration and compromise sealing strata, may mitigate the area with Knox reservoirs suitable for CO{sub 2} storage. The results of the injection tes

Richard Bowersox; John Hickman; Hannes Leetaru

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL TWO-PHASE SIMULATOR SHAFT78 FOR USE IN GEOTHERMAL RESERVOIR STUDIES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

i n Vapor-Dominated Geothermal Reservoirs, I' Report No. 76-G. : Three- . Dimensional Geothermal Reservoir Simulation,f1161. Coats, K. H. : "Geothermal Reservoir Modeling," paper

Pruess, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Geochemistry, Fate, and Three-Dimensional Transport Modeling of Subsurface Cyanide Contamination at a Manufactured Gas Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents the geochemistry, fate, and three-dimensional transport modeling of subsurface cyanide contamination at a manufactured gas plant.

2001-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Three-dimensional V p /V s variations for the Coso region, California |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

p /V s variations for the Coso region, California p /V s variations for the Coso region, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Three-dimensional V p /V s variations for the Coso region, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Recent seismological studies of the Coso region of southeastern California document both low P wave velocities and abnormal SV attenuation in Indian Wells Valley, south of the Pleistocene volcanics of the Coso Range. In order to learn more about the physical nature of these colocated anomalies, a tomographic inversion for the three-dimensional variations of Vp /Vs the ratio of compressional to shear velocity was performed. Iterative back projection of 2966 shear and compressional wave travel time residuals from local earthquakes recorded on vertical instruments reveals

222

Using Three Dimensional Cell Culture and Tissue Architecture to Monitor an  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Three Dimensional Cell Culture and Tissue Architecture to Monitor an Three Dimensional Cell Culture and Tissue Architecture to Monitor an Adaptive Response in Mammary Epithelial Cells Mina Bissell Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Exposure of tissues to ionizing radiation results in targeted effect on cells as well as non-targeted effects on tissues. Although, targeted effects such as the DNA damage response have been studied extensively, non-targeted effects leading to modification in tissue architecture and tumor progression have been less studied and are not well understood. The mammary gland is a tissue that has been shown to be susceptible to tumor formation and cancer progression following exposure to ionizing radiation. In conjunction with the laboratories of Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff and Catherine Park we showed previously that in the presence of TGF-β,

223

Three-dimensional Fourier transforms, integrals of spherical Bessel functions, and novel delta function identities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a general approach for evaluating a large variety of three-dimensional Fourier transforms. The transforms considered include the useful cases of the Coulomb and dipole potentials, and include situations where the transforms are singular and involve terms proportional to the Dirac delta function. Our approach makes use of the Rayleigh expansion of exp(i p.r) in terms of spherical Bessel functions, and we study a number of integrals, including singular integrals, involving a power of the independent variable times a spherical Bessel function. We work through several examples of three-dimensional Fourier transforms using our approach and show how to derive a number of identities involving multiple derivatives of 1/r, 1/r^2, and delta(\\vec r).

Gregory S. Adkins

2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

224

Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator, Bi 2Te3  

SciTech Connect

Three-dimensional topological insulators are a new state of quantum matter with a bulk gap and odd number of relativistic Dirac fermions on the surface. By investigating the surface state of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the surface state consists of a single nondegenerate Dirac cone. Furthermore, with appropriate hole doping, the Fermi level can be tuned to intersect only the surface states, indicating a full energy gap for the bulk states. Our results establish that Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is a simple model system for the three-dimensional topological insulator with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The large bulk gap of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} also points to promising potential for high-temperature spintronics applications.

Siemons, W.

2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

225

Three-Dimensionality in Quasi-Two Dimensional Flows: the Barrel Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A scenario is put forward for the appearance of three-dimensionality both in quasi-2D rotating flows and quasi-2D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows. We distinguish two forms of threedimensionalities, establish how both are ignited by the presence of walls, and how they relate to each other. One form involves velocities or currents along the rotation direction or the magnetic field, while the other leads to quadratic variations of these quantities along this direction. It is shown that the common tendency of these flows to two-dimensionality and the mechanisms of the first form of three-dimensionality can be explained through a single formal analogy between rotating flows, MHD flows and a wider class of flows, whereas the second form involves a distinct mechanism. Because of this trans-disciplinary character, these phenomena are active in such diverse flows as those in atmospheres, oceans and the cooling blankets of nuclear fusion reactors.

Pothérat, Alban

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Three-dimensional Fast Flux Test Facility plenum model turbulent flow prediction and data comparison  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent flow in a scaled Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) upper plenum model were performed using the TEMPEST hydrothermal code. A standard k-element of model was used to describe turbulence through an effective viscosity. Comparisons with previously reported mean velocity and turbulence field data measured in the plenum model and two-dimensional numerical simulations using the TEACH code were made. Predicted horizontal and vertical mean velocities and turbulent kinetic energy are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data when inlet conditions of the dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy are appropriately prescribed. The three-dimensional quarter-symmetry simulation predicts the turbulent kinetic energy field significantly better than the two-dimensional centerplane simulations. These results lead to conclusions concerning deficiencies in the experimental data and the turbulence model.

Eyler, L.L.; Sawdye, R.W.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Three-dimensional structure of human chromatin accessibility complex hCHRAC by electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes modulate the dynamic assembly and remodeling of chromatin involved in DNA transcription, replication, and repair. There is little structural detail known about these important multiple-subunit enzymes that catalyze chromatin remodeling processes. Here we report a three-dimensional structure of the human chromatin accessibility complex, hCHRAC, using single particle reconstruction by negative stain electron microscopy. This structure shows an asymmetric 15 x 10 x 12 nm disk shape with several lobes protruding out of its surfaces. Based on the factors of larger contact area, smaller steric hindrance, and direct involvement of hCHRAC in interactions with the nucleosome, we propose that four lobes on one side form a multiple-site contact surface 10 nm in diameter for nucleosome binding. This work provides the first determination of the three-dimensional structure of the ISWI-family of chromatin remodeling complexes.

Hu, M.; Hainfeld, J.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Qian, L.; Brinas, R. P.; Kuznetsova, L.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Control of polymer gel surface pattern formation and its three dimensional measurement method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the controllability of a gelation surface pattern formation. Recently, we have found and studied a novel kind of pattern formation that occurs during a radical polymerization (gelation) process. The pattern formation is observed in an open top boundary of quasi two dimensional gelation. In previous studies, we have used two dimensional photo based image processing to analyze the patterns. However, the actual pattern is a three dimensional surface deformation. Thus we develop a three dimensional measurement system using a line laser displacement sensor and an automatic x-stage. Patterns measured by the system are analyzed and discussed by means of pattern controllability. In particular, we focus on the possibility of the pattern control using an external temperature field. As a result, we reveal that the global structure can be controlled, whereas the characteristic length scales (wavelength and amplitude) are not controllable.

T. Mizoue; Y. Aoki; M. Tokita; H. Honjo; H. J. Barraza; H. Katsuragi

2011-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

229

Interpreting the visual and cinematic style of Japanese anime using three-dimensional computer graphics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Due to the international popularity of Japanese anime and its recognition as a cinematic art form, creative professionals in the animation industry are impressed with not only the complexity and artistic fluidity of the animation style but also the variety of narrative themes. As an acceptable alternative to live action films, Japanese directors and animators have more liberty with narrative themes and explicit imagery in anime than their western counterparts, and anime is attracting a variety of audiences ranging from young children to adults. As a stylistic form of animation with a distinct line art style, anime is traditionally produced by hand. With the development of non-photorealistic rendering techniques such as toon shading, three-dimensional computer graphics are used in anime production, though with limited application. This thesis attempts to interpret the visual and cinematic style of anime entirely within a three-dimensional digital environment through character design, modeling, character animation, cinematography, and non-photorealistic rendering.

Mistry, Pradeep Champaklal

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology and Applications to the Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC, Methodology and Applications to the Coso Geothermal Field Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: We describe here efforts in technology development to invert magnetotelluric (MT) data collected in geothermal settings for three-dimensional resistivity models using desktop PC's or small clusters. A finite difference scheme is utilized for the forward problem, with various options to compute the parameter Jacobians, and parameter step estimates are defined using an explicit Gauss-Newton step. The paper

231

Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal area, California, from microseismic travel time data Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal area, California, from microseismic travel time data Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High precision P and S wave travel times for 2104 microearthquakes with focus <6 km are used in a non-linear inversion to derive high-resolution three-dimensional compressional and shear velocity structures at the Coso Geothermal Area in eastern California. Block size for the inversion is 0.2 km horizontally and 0.5 km vertically and inversions are investigated in the upper 5 km of the geothermal area.

232

SIMULATION STUDY OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL LASER COOLING SCHEMES FOR FAST STORED BEAMS  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics (MD) approach is employed to study laser cooling of fast circulating beams in a storage ring. The authors compare several three-dimensional (3D) cooling methods, examining achievable minimum beam temperature. In particular, the stress is put upon the three coupling schemes, i.e. the dispersion-coupling scheme, the coupling-cavity scheme, and the tapered cooling scheme. The authors show that beam temperatures much lower than the currently achievable level could be reached with these schemes.

KIHARA,T.; OKAMOTO,H.; IWASHITA,Y.; OIDE,K.; LAMANNA,G.; WEI,J.

1998-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

233

Experimental verification of the key properties of a three-dimensional isotropic transmission line based superlens  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design and experimental realization of a three-dimensional superlens based on LC-loaded transmission lines are presented. Commercially available components and materials are used in the design. Transmission properties of the designed structure are studied experimentally and the observed lens properties are compared with analytical predictions. Backward-wave propagation and amplification of evanescent waves in the prototype structure are verified both analytically and experimentally.

Pekka Alitalo; Stanislav Maslovski; Sergei Tretyakov

2006-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

234

The X-Ray Factory-some experiments with three-dimensional, iconic control displays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper I describe experiments I have done using three-dimensional computer generated environments (a.k.a. "virtual worlds technology") for the tasks of process plant management and computer network monitoring. I attempt to discuss drawbacks and advantages of these, as compared to twodimensional graphic displays. In addition, I point out that verisimilitude is not always a necessary goal for "virtual realities" and that in fact, very stylised and abstract representations may be advantageous.

Kai-Mikael Jää-Aro; Kai-mikael Jaa-aro

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Three-dimensional N=4 supersymmetry in harmonic N=3 superspace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the map of three-dimensional N=4 superfields to N=3 harmonic superspace. The left and right representations of the N=4 superconformal group are constructed on N=3 analytic superfields. These representations are convenient for the description of N=4 superconformal couplings of the Abelian gauge superfields with hypermultiplets. We analyze the N=4 invariance in the non-Abelian N=3 Yang-Mills theory.

B. M. Zupnik

2010-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

236

CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.

Kachynski, A V; Prasad, P N; Smalyukh, I I

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.

A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh

2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

238

Design and calibration method for microvision three-dimensional laser scanner  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A microvision three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner with micron accuracy and the calibration method are presented in this article. The system is designed to measure and reconstruct the 3D shape of miniature objects. A new two-step calibration method is proposed to reduce measurement errors and improve the measurement precision. Repeated measurements show that the repeatability is better than ± 1 ? m . Moreover

Changku Sun; Bin Liu; Peng Wang

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Three dimensional silicon photonic crystals fabricated by two photon phase mask lithography.  

SciTech Connect

We describe the fabrication of silicon three dimensional photonic crystals using polymer templates defined by a single step, two-photon exposure through a layer of photopolymer with relief molded on its surface. The resulting crystals exhibit high structural quality over large areas, displaying geometries consistent with calculation. Spectroscopic measurements of transmission and reflection through the silicon and polymer structures reveal excellent optical properties, approaching properties predicted by simulations that assume ideal layouts.

Wiltzius, P. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Braun, P. V. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Liao, H. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Brzezinski, A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Chen, Y. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Nelson, E. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Shir, D. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Rogers, J. A. (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois); Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Three-dimensional Thermal and Airflow (3D-TAF) Model of a Dome-covered  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Three-dimensional Thermal and Airflow (3D-TAF) Model of a Dome-covered Three-dimensional Thermal and Airflow (3D-TAF) Model of a Dome-covered House in Canada Speaker(s): Yaolin Lin Date: October 6, 2009 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 A dome-covered house is an example of sustainable design that draws from biological forms in nature. A three-dimensional thermal and air flow (3D-TAF) model was developed to estimate the energy needs of a dome-covered house. This model has two components: a thermal model to calculate the temperature; and an air flow model to find the velocities, which are needed to estimate the surface convection. The two models are solved iteratively at every time step until they converge. I will present the numerical methods for solving the mathematical models, and compared the results with other simulated and experimental results from similar structures. I will

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

THREE-DIMENSIONAL EXPLOSION GEOMETRY OF STRIPPED-ENVELOPE CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE. I. SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the multi-dimensional geometry of supernova (SN) explosions by means of spectropolarimetric observations of stripped-envelope SNe, i.e., SNe without a hydrogen-rich layer. We perform spectropolarimetric observations of two stripped-envelope SNe, Type Ib SN 2009jf and Type Ic SN 2009mi. Both objects show non-zero polarization at the wavelength of the strong lines. They also show a loop in the Stokes Q - U diagram, which indicates a non-axisymmetric, three-dimensional ion distribution in the ejecta. We show that five out of six stripped-envelope SNe, which have been observed spectropolarimetrically so far, show such a loop. This implies that a three-dimensional geometry is common in stripped-envelope SNe. We find that stronger lines tend to show higher polarization. This effect is not related to the geometry, and must be corrected for to compare the polarization of different lines or different objects. Even after the correction, however, there remains a dispersion of polarization degree among different objects. Such a dispersion might be caused by three-dimensional clumpy ion distributions viewed from different directions.

Tanaka, Masaomi; Iye, Masanori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan); Kawabata, Koji S.; Yamanaka, Masayuki [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Hattori, Takashi; Aoki, Kentaro; Sasaki, Toshiyuki [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Mazzali, Paolo A. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Maeda, Keiichi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa (Japan); Pian, Elena, E-mail: masaomi.tanaka@nao.ac.jp [Istituto Naz. di Astrofisica-Oss. Astron., Via Tiepolo, 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

242

Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A promising approach to the fabrication of materials with nanoscale features is the transfer of liquid-crystalline structure to polymers. However, this has not been achieved in systems with full three-dimensional periodicity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures by polymer templating blue phase I, a chiral liquid crystal with cubic symmetry. Blue phase I was photopolymerized and the remaining liquid crystal removed to create a porous free-standing cast which retains the chiral three-dimensional structure of the blue phase, yet contains no chiral additive molecules. The cast may in turn be used as a hard template for the fabrication of new materials. By refilling the cast with an achiral nematic liquid crystal, we created templated blue phases which have unprecedented thermal stability in the range -125 to 125 [degrees symbol]C, and that act both as mirrorless lasers and switchable electro-optic devices. Blue-phase templated materials will facilitate advances in device architectures for photonics applications in particular.

F. Castles; F. V. Day; S. M. Morris; D. -H. Ko; D. J. Gardiner; M. M. Qasim; S. Nosheen; P. J. W. Hands; S. S. Choi; R. H. Friend; H. J. Coles

2013-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

243

A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A numerical investigation of laminar forced convective heat transfer was performed in a three-dimensional channel with baffles in which a uniform heat flux was applied to the top and bottom walls, and the side walls were considered adiabatic. The trade-off between heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop produced by the baffles was studied for periodically fully developed flow (PDF). The numerical analysis was performed using a finite volume approach. The computer code was validated against the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5, 0.6, 0. 7, 0.8. Heat transfer behavior was studied for Prandtl Numbers (Pr) of 0. 7 and 7. 0, and for wall thermal conductivity to fluid thermal conductivity ratios (K) of 1, 10, 100 and 1000. It was found that three dimensional effects were present for the range of Reynolds number studied. The pressure drop penalty becomes highly important above blockage ratios of 0.7. Higher heat transfer enhancement was found for high Prandtl numbers (Pr--7. 0) than for low Prandtl numbers (Pr--O. 7). The heat transfer enhancement due to an increase in the thermal conductivity ratio of the solid to the fluid regions is greater than the one obtained by increasing the blockage ratio.

Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Bayesian approach for three-dimensional aquifer characterization at the Hanford 300 Area  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a stochastic, three-dimensional characterization of a heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field within DOE's Hanford 300 Area site, Washington, by assimilating large-scale, constant-rate injection test data with small-scale, three-dimensional electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) measurement data. We first inverted the injection test data to estimate the transmissivity field, using zeroth-order temporal moments of pressure buildup curves. We applied a newly developed Bayesian geostatistical inversion framework, the method of anchored distributions (MAD), to obtain a joint posterior distribution of geostatistical parameters and local log-transmissivities at multiple locations. The unique aspects of MAD that make it suitable for this purpose are its ability to integrate multi-scale, multi-type data within a Bayesian framework and to compute a nonparametric posterior distribution. After we combined the distribution of transmissivities with depth-discrete relative-conductivity profile from EBF data, we inferred the three-dimensional geostatistical parameters of the log-conductivity field, using the Bayesian model-based geostatistics. Such consistent use of the Bayesian approach throughout the procedure enabled us to systematically incorporate data uncertainty into the final posterior distribution. The method was tested in a synthetic study and validated using the actual data that was not part of the estimation. Results showed broader and skewed posterior distributions of geostatistical parameters except for the mean, which suggests the importance of inferring the entire distribution to quantify the parameter uncertainty.

Murakami, Haruko; Chen, X.; Hahn, Melanie S.; Liu, Yi; Rockhold, Mark L.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Zachara, John M.; Rubin, Yoram

2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Three-dimensional seismic interpretations of Miocene strata in Vermilion and South Marsh Island areas, Gulf of Mexico.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Louisiana continental shelf is the most prolific offshore hydrocarbon province in the nation. Siliciclastic Miocene strata in south Louisiana and the northern Gulf of… (more)

Rothengass, Robert W

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

THREE DIMENSIONAL INTEGRATED CHARACTERIZATION AND ARCHIVING SYSTEM (3D-ICAS)  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop an integrated system that remotely characterizes, maps, and archives measurement data of hazardous decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) areas. The system will generate a detailed 3-dimensional topography of the area as well as real-time quantitative measurements of volatile organics and radionuclides. The system will analyze substrate materials consisting of concrete, asbestos, and transite. The system will permanently archive the data measurements for regulatory and data integrity documentation. Exposure limits, rest breaks, and donning and removal of protective garments generate waste in the form of contaminated protective garments and equipment. Survey times are increased and handling and transporting potentially hazardous materials incur additional costs. Off-site laboratory analysis is expensive and time-consuming, often necessitating delay of further activities until results are received. The Three Dimensional Integrated Characterization and Archiving System (3D-ICAS) has been developed to alleviate some of these problems. 3D-ICAS provides a flexible system for physical, chemical and nuclear measurements reduces costs and improves data quality. Operationally, 3D-ICAS performs real-time determinations of hazardous and toxic contamination. A prototype demonstration unit is available for use in early 2000. The tasks in this Phase included: (1) Mobility Platforms: Integrate hardware onto mobility platforms, upgrade surface sensors, develop unit operations and protocol. (2) System Developments: Evaluate metals detection capability using x-ray fluorescence technology. (3) IWOS Upgrades: Upgrade the IWOS software and hardware for compatibility with mobility platform. The system was modified, tested and debugged during 1999 and 2000. The 3D-ICAS was shipped on 11 May 2001 to FIU-HCET for demonstration and validation of the design modifications. These modifications included simplifying the design from a two-vehicle system to a single mobile platform, integration of the XRF sensor for enhanced substrate analysis and upgrading of the IWOS operating system. Several of the system's power supplies were accidentally damaged upon power on because FIU wired 3 phase AC power to the system instead of the requested single phase. Repairs were made in the field to the damaged power supplies but 3 of 5 days time were lost to complete the repairs. Once the repairs were made CyTerra was able to demonstrate the CLR mapping and the movement of the sensor probe to selected locations on the test wall. The XRF sensor was also demonstrated on a stainless steel substrate. A surrogate solution was determined to be below the detection threshold. The radionuclide and GCMS sensors were not demonstrated due to either failed power supply or lack of time remaining in the schedule. The GCMS failure was partially the result of the debugging activities that took place during the week for assessing electrical damage. Specifically, GCMS electronic modules, which control the heating of two of gas transfer elements, may have been damaged during field debugging that was required. Given the financial constraints of the program, CyTerra Corporation decided to return the equipment to Waltham facilities for further assessment. We believe the principles of operation were shown, however a complete demonstration did not occur due to these difficulties.

George Jarvis

2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

247

Design and test of a PC-based portable three-dimensional ultrasound software system Ultra3D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Currently, portable ultrasound units lack three-dimensional (3D) image display, limiting their potential usefulness especially under remote and hostile operating environments where information must be intuitive and objective. A freehand 3D image processing ... Keywords: Portable, Processing, Three-dimensional, Ultrasound, Visualization

X. George Xu; Yong Hum Na; Tiantian Zhang

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

A hybrid-mixed finite element formulation for the geometrically exact analysis of three-dimensional framed structures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper addresses the development of a hybrid-mixed finite element formulation for the quasi-static geometrically exact analysis of three-dimensional framed structures with linear elastic behavior. The formulation is based on a modified principle ... Keywords: Complementary energy principle, Geometrically exact analysis, Hybrid-mixed finite elements, One-dimensional beam model, Three-dimensional framed structures

H. A. Santos; P. M. Pimenta; J. P. Almeida

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Three-dimensional mapping techniques in the analysis of a mature steam drive  

SciTech Connect

The use of interactive volumetric modeling (IVM), a three-dimensional mapping software package that employs a three-dimensional gridding algorithm, greatly assisted in evaluating the efficiency of a mature steam drive in the South Belridge field, Kern County, California. The productive horizon consists of Pleistocene-aged unconsolidated oil sands interbedded with impermeable shales. The sand-shale architecture is controlled by a prograding of fluviodeltaic depositional system. For mapping convenience, the Tulare reservoir has been divided into five zones, the lowermost E zone to the uppermost A zone. In ascending order the reservoir can be characterized by the following description: lowest in the section are isolated to coalescing mouth bars, followed by fairly continuous lower delta plain interdistributary channels, isolated meandering stream channels of the upper delta plain, and uppermost, a braided stream complex of amalgamated channel sands. A drilling program consisting of 68 wells evenly distributed over 100 acres supplied ample log and core information and in effect presented a snap-shot of the reservoir in its maturity. Drilling revealed zones with excellent sweep and, conversely, zones that had been bypassed by the steam drive. By using well-log data tied to core data three-dimensional maps of individual sands incorporating structure, sand thicknesses in a multicolored format were generated to show the changing oil saturation values throughout the reservoir. The graphic presentation of these data on the CRT allows the user to rotate and cut through the sand body of interest revealing virtually an infinite number of perspectives. A hard copy option gives the user a printed map of any perspective of interest. The software is also capable of precise volumetric calculations of the oil remaining in the reservoir.

Barrett, R.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Denver, CO (USA))

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Three-Dimensional Bayesian Geostatistical Aquifer Characterization at the Hanford 300 Area using Tracer Test Data  

SciTech Connect

Tracer testing under natural or forced gradient flow holds the potential to provide useful information for characterizing subsurface properties, through monitoring, modeling and interpretation of the tracer plume migration in an aquifer. Non-reactive tracer experiments were conducted at the Hanford 300 Area, along with constant-rate injection tests and electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) profiling. A Bayesian data assimilation technique, the method of anchored distributions (MAD) [Rubin et al., 2010], was applied to assimilate the experimental tracer test data with the other types of data and to infer the three-dimensional heterogeneous structure of the hydraulic conductivity in the saturated zone of the Hanford formation. In this study, the Bayesian prior information on the underlying random hydraulic conductivity field was obtained from previous field characterization efforts using the constant-rate injection tests and the EBF data. The posterior distribution of the conductivity field was obtained by further conditioning the field on the temporal moments of tracer breakthrough curves at various observation wells. MAD was implemented with the massively-parallel three-dimensional flow and transport code PFLOTRAN to cope with the highly transient flow boundary conditions at the site and to meet the computational demands of MAD. A synthetic study proved that the proposed method could effectively invert tracer test data to capture the essential spatial heterogeneity of the three-dimensional hydraulic conductivity field. Application of MAD to actual field data shows that the hydrogeological model, when conditioned on the tracer test data, can reproduce the tracer transport behavior better than the field characterized without the tracer test data. This study successfully demonstrates that MAD can sequentially assimilate multi-scale multi-type field data through a consistent Bayesian framework.

Chen, Xingyuan; Murakami, Haruko; Hahn, Melanie S.; Hammond, Glenn E.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Zachara, John M.; Rubin, Yoram

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Analysis of three-dimensional splines and their application to the initial graphics exchange specification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research develops the fundamental theories associated with three-dimensional splines and the philosophies underlying the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES). Splines have been classified into three main categories: polynomial splines, splines-in-tension, and blending splines. The importance of a three-dimensional spline standard is given. It is shown that no single spline routine can adequately define a curve for every possible application. A possible three-dimensional spline standard should therefore contain a spline routine from each of the three categories. The B-spline, Cline's spline-in-tension, and Circle Spline were the three spline routines selected. The properties and characteristics that these splines should possess are defined. Two methods for extending a two-dimensional spline into three dimensions are given. The B-spline is extended parametrically and the Spline-in-Tension is extended explicitly. It will be shown that the parametric form is the more powerful and computationally efficient method. An alternative method for representing splines in IGES is presented. This alternate method uses the IGES Copious Data Entity. It has a smaller file size than the traditionally used Parametric Spline Curve Entity. The use of this method is geared toward the application of splines in design and analysis work. The data stored within the file by each spline routine represents the minimum amount of information required to uniquely define the spline curve. The alternative method for storing and transferring spline data is structured in a manner that allows each spline routine to read and write files efficiently. Using this data file, a spline routine can generate a curve by reading the output of another spline routine. It will be demonstrated that spline transfer between both similar and dissimilar spline routines can be done accurately and efficiently. 72 refs., 16 figs.

Dolin, R.M.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Dynamics of gravity driven three-dimensional thin films on hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterned substrates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate numerically the dynamics of unstable gravity driven three-dimensional thin liquid films on hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterned substrates of longitudinal stripes and checkerboard arrangements. The thin film can be guided preferentially on hydrophilic longitudinal stripes, while fingers develop on adjacent hydrophobic stripes if their width is large enough. On checkerboard patterns, the film fingering occurs on hydrophobic domains, while lateral spreading is favoured on hydrophilic domains, providing a mechanism to tune the growth rate of the film. By means of kinematical arguments, we quantitatively predict the growth rate of the contact line on checkerboard arrangements, providing a first step towards potential techniques that control thin film growth in experimental setups.

Rodrigo Ledesma-Aguilar; Aurora Hernandez-Machado; Ignacio Pagonabarraga

2010-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

253

Development of a transient three-dimensional neutron transport code with feedback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new code is being developed at the Y-12 Plant for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport model with feedback. The new code, PADK, uses the quasi-static method in its adiabatic form and is to be utilized to analyze hypothetical criticality accidents. A description of the code along with preliminary results without feedback are presented in this paper. The code is applied to 2 standard benchmark problems and the results are compared to another method. Also, the code is used to model the GODIVA reactor. Further work needed to be completed is described.

Waddell, M.W. Jr.

1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

254

Porosity in millimeter-scale welds of stainless steel : three-dimensional characterization.  

SciTech Connect

A variety of edge joints utilizing a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser have been produced and examined in a 304-L stainless steel to advance fundamental understanding of the linkage between processing and resultant microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Acquisition of three-dimensional reconstructions via micro-computed tomography combined with traditional metallography has allowed for qualitative and quantitative characterization of weld joints in a material system of wide use and broad applicability. The presence, variability and distribution of porosity, has been examined for average values, spatial distributions and morphology and then related back to fundamental processing parameters such as weld speed, weld power and laser focal length.

Aagesen, Larry K. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Madison, Jonathan D.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Anomalous Discharge Product Distribution in Lithium-Air Cathodes: A Three Dimensional View  

SciTech Connect

Using neutron tomographic imaging we report for the first time three dimensional spatial distribution of lithium product distribution in electrochemically discharged Lithium-Air cathodes. Neutron imaging finds a non-uniform lithium product distribution across the electrode thickness; the lithium species concentration being higher near the edges of the Li-air electrode and relatively uniform in the center of the electrode. The experimental neutron images were analyzed in context of results obtained from 3D modeling of the spatial lithium product distribution using a kinetically coupled diffusion based transport model that accounts for the dynamical reaction rate dependence on the discharge product formation, porosity changes and mass transfer.

Nanda, Jagjit [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Pannala, Sreekanth [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Walker, Lakeisha MH [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Analytical Approach Treating Three-Dimensional Geometrical Effects of Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.

Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Liquid polymorphism and density anomaly in a three-dimensional associating lattice gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the phase diagram of a three-dimensional associating gas $(ALG)$ model. This model combines orientational ice-like interactions and ``van der Waals'' that might be repulsive, representing, in this case, a penalty for distortion of hydrogen bonds. These interactions can be interpreted as two competing distances making the connection between this model and continuous isotropic soft-core potentials. We present Monte Carlo studies of the $ALG$ model showing the presence of two liquid phase, two critical points and A density anomaly.

Mauricio Girardi; Aline L. Balladares; Vera B. Henriques; Marcia C. Barbosa

2006-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

258

Three-Dimensional Numerical Evaluation of Thermal Performance of Uninsulated Wall Assemblies: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.

Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Subwavelength resolution with three-dimensional isotropic transmission-line lenses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dispersion, impedance matching and resolution characteristics of an isotropic three-dimensional flat lens ("superlens") are studied. The lens is based on cubic meshes of interconnected transmission lines and bulk loads. We study a practical realization of the lens, based on the microstrip technology. The dispersion equations that have been previously derived, are verified with full-wave simulations. The isotropy of the structure is verified with analytical as well as simulation results. The resolution characteristics of a practically realizable, lossy lens are studied analytically.

Pekka Alitalo; Sergei Tretyakov

2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

Three-dimensional finite element modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drag forces due to eddy currents induced by the relative motion of a conductor and a magnetic field occur in many practical devices: motors, brakes, magnetic bearings, and magnetically levitated vehicles. Recently, finite element codes have included solvers for 3-D eddy current geometries and have the potential to be very useful in the design and analysis of these devices. In this paper, numerical results from three-dimensional modeling of a magnet array spinning above a conductor are compared to experimental results in order to assess the capabilities of these codes.

Lorimer, W.L.; Lieu, D.K. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Rossing, T.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

Three-dimensional geometry of fluvial reservoir sands: steam-drive case study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional geometry of fluvial sands in South Belridge heavy oil field was investigated as part of an Enhanced Oil Recovery study. It was shown that only close-spaced well data are sufficient to define the sand-body geometries and heterogeneities of multichannelled fluvial systems. Reservoir flow-unit patterns cannot necessarily be correctly delineated by isolated vertical sequence analysis. Wireline logs from 19 wells and conventional cores from seven wells in a 10-ac (660 ft x 660 ft) pattern were correlated in detail, using additional input from sedimentology, steam-flow patterns, and reservoir flow-unit continuity.

McPherson, J.G.; Miller, D.D.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Three-dimensional visualization of forming Hepatitis C virus-like particles by electron-tomography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hepatitis C virus infects almost 170 million people per year but its assembly pathway, architecture and the structures of its envelope proteins are poorly understood. Using electron tomography of plastic-embedded sections of insect cells, we have visualized the morphogenesis of recombinant Hepatitis C virus-like particles. Our data provide a three-dimensional sketch of viral assembly at the endoplasmic reticulum showing different budding stages and contiguity of buds. This latter phenomenon could play an important role during the assembly of wt-HCV and explain the size-heterogeneity of its particles.

Badia-Martinez, Daniel; Peralta, Bibiana [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain)] [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain); Andres, German; Guerra, Milagros [Electron Microscopy Unit, Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)] [Electron Microscopy Unit, Centro de Biologia Molecular Severo Ochoa, CSIC-UAM, Campus Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gil-Carton, David [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain)] [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain); Abrescia, Nicola G.A., E-mail: nabrescia@cicbiogune.es [Structural Biology Unit, CIC bioGUNE, CIBERehd, 48160 Derio (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain)

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Practical use of three-dimensional inverse method for compressor blade design  

SciTech Connect

The practical utility of a three-dimensional inverse viscous method is demonstrated by carrying out a design modification of a first-stage rotor in an industrial compressor. In this design modification study, the goal is to improve the efficiency of the original blade while retaining its overall aerodynamic, structural, and manufacturing characteristics. By employing a simple modification to the blade pressure loading distribution (which is the prescribed flow quantity in this inverse method), the modified blade geometry is predicted to perform better than the original design over a wide range of operating points, including an improvement in choke margin.

Damle, S.; Dang, T. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Mfg. Engineering; Stringham, J.; Razinsky, E. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Three-Dimensional Analysis of Longitudinal Space Charge Microbunching Starting From Shot Noise  

SciTech Connect

The commissioning of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) injector showed unexpected coherent optical transition radiation (COTR) for an uncompressed electron bunch downstream of a dog-leg transport line. In this paper, we develop a three-dimensional analysis of longitudinal space charge microbunching to explain the phenomenon. Our analysis takes into account the transverse correlation of the longitudinal space charge field due to shot-noise startup and finite observation angles of the radiation. We also apply this analysis to the LCLS COTR observations.

Ratner, D.; Chao, A.; Huang, Z.

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Three-Dimensional Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulation for Liquid Metal Solidification Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The solidification behavior of liquid metal in a container under rapid cooling process is one of the major concerns to be analyzed. In order to analyze its fundamental behavior, a three- dimensional (3D) fluid dynamics simulation was developed using a particle-based method, known as the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Governing equations that determine the fluid motion and heat transfer involving phase change process are solved by discretizing their gradient and Laplacian term with the moving particles and calculating the interaction with its neighboring particles. The results demonstrate that the SPH mehod can successfully reproduce the behavior and defect prediction of liquid metal solidification process.

S, Raden Ahnaf Faqih

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Extended three-dimensional ADCIRC hydrodynamic model to include baroclinic flow and sediment transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to identify the circulation patterns of the water and sediment fluxes in coastal and estuarine zones, where the shoaling processes correlate with tide generating flow patterns. The research provides a better understanding of the characteristics of spatial and temporal variability of currents. An important deviation from previous research is the inclusion of the baroclinic term, which becomes very important in density driven flows. The understanding of this process provides a basis for determining how the water circulation three-dimensionally controls the hydrodynamics of the system and ultimately transports the suspended and soluble materials due to combined currents and waves. A three-dimensional circulation model is used to calculate the water circulation. The model is based on the three-dimensional (3D) version of Advanced Circulation (AD-CIRC) Hydrodynamic Model with extending the Sediment Transport module. The model is based on the finite element method on unstructured grids. The output of the hydrody-namic model is used to estimate spatial and temporal advections, dispersions and bottom shear stress for the erosion, suspension, deposition and transport of sediment. The model development includes extending the existing three-dimensional (3D) ADCIRC Model with (1) baroclinic forcing term and (2) transport module of suspended and soluble materials. The transport module covers the erosion, material suspension and deposition processes for both cohesive and non-cohesive type sediments. The inclusion of the baroclinic demonstrates the potential of over or underpredicting the total net transport of suspended cohesive sediment under influence of currents. The model provides less than 6% error of theoretical mass conservation for eroded, suspended and deposited sediment material. The inclusion of the baroclinic term in stratified water demonstrates the prevailing longshore sediment transport. It is shown that the model has an application to the transport of the cohesive sediments from the mouth of the Mississippi River along the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico towards and along the Texas coast. The model is also applicable to determine the design erosion thickness of a cap for isolating contaminated dredged material and to evaluate the appro-priate grain size of cap sediments to minimize the erosion.

Pandoe, Wahyu Widodo

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Seismic CD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEISMIC CD Table of Contents INTRODUCTION Background Resource Findings and Recovery Timeline Oil Program ADIS Overview Gas Program ADIS Overview SEISMIC TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT...

268

Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.

Lu, Shin-Yee (Pleasanton, CA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2005-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

270

ATW neutronics: A comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional calculations  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Accelerator Transmutation of Nuclear Waste (ATW) concept consists of four principal systems: accelerator, neutron spallation target, blanket, and chemical separator. The device is designed to transmute actinides and fission products carried in heavy water slurries or aqueous solutions. The design goals of the device are to transmute the actinide and fission product waste from at least two 1000 MW{sub e} LWR{sub s}, and to produce enough electricity to power the accelerator with some excess to sell to local power utilities. This means our goal is to transmute 80 kg of technetium and iodine, and 600 kg of actinide per year. This device is the latest in a series of ATW systems that have been studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Each device has been the object of many radiation physics calculations in order to arrive at some local optimum in terms of transmutation rates and achievable power production. Our basic calculational tool is the one-dimensional transport code ONEDANT. It is important to know, however, how close our results are to those obtainable from a real device. This requires that two- and three-dimensional calculations be made in order to obtain a calculational benchmark. For the two- and three-dimensional calculations we use the codes TWODANT and MCNP, respectively. This paper presents the results of one set of comparisons for the ATW device discussed above.

Perry, R.T.; Krohn, B.; Streetman, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Lee, C.L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Sciences

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Null particle solutions in three-dimensional (anti-) de Sitter spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We obtain a class of exact solutions representing null particles moving in three-dimensional (anti-) de Sitter spaces by boosting the corresponding static point source solutions given by Deser and Jackiw. In de Sitter space the resulting solution describes two null particles moving on the (circular) cosmological horizon, while in anti-de Sitter space it describes a single null particle propagating from one side of the universe to the other. We also boost the BTZ black hole solution to the ultrarelativistic limit and obtain the solution for a spinning null particle moving in anti-de Sitter space. We find that the ultrarelativistic geometry of the black hole is exactly the same as that resulting from boosting the Deser-Jackiw solution when the angular momentum of the hole vanishes. A general class of solutions is also obtained which represents several null particles propagating in the Deser-Jackiw background. The differences between the three-dimensional and four-dimensional cases are also discussed.

Rong-Gen Cai; J. B. Griffiths

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

272

A Three-Dimensional Level Set Simulation of Coupled Reactive Transport and Precipitation/Dissolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Direct simulation of reactive transport in porous media is challenging due to the difficulty of tracking the dynamics of evolving solid-fluid interfaces. To meet this challenge, a level set method for capturing interface evolution due to dissolution and/or precipitation has been integrated into the standard grid-based finite-difference approach for simulating flow and transport in complex geometries. Based on the level set description of the interface geometry, Chorin’s projection method was modified to approximately satisfy the nonslip boundary condition at the grain surface, and a sharp interface methodwas developed for calculating the concentration field near the grain surface in the presence of surface reaction. Compared with the pixel representations of the interface used in other methods, the sub-grid representation using level set method offers significantly improved accuracy and efficiency. The advantage of the method is demonstrated in a systematic investigation of precipitation/dissolution in a simple three dimensional pore-throat with varying throat apertures. The simulation was first validated in a grid-refinement study. The effects of flow conditions, reaction rates and three-dimensional geometries are explored both qualitatively and quantitatively. The permeability-porosity relationship calculated from simulations is compared with Carman-Kozeny constitutive models to illustrate the limited capability of these empirical models, which are based on simplified pore-scale geometries and conditions.

Xiaoyi Li; Hai Huang; Paul Meakin

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Gribov ambiguity in asymptotically AdS three-dimensional gravity  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the zero modes of the de Donder gauge Faddeev-Popov operator for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant are analyzed. It is found that the AdS{sub 3} vacuum produces (infinitely many) normalizable smooth zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. On the other hand, it is found that the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole (including the zero mass black hole) does not generate zero modes. This differs from the usual Gribov problem in QCD where, close to the maximally symmetric vacuum, the Faddeev-Popov determinant is positive definite while 'far enough' from the vacuum it can vanish. This suggests that the zero mass Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole could be a suitable ground state of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Because of the kinematic origin of this result, it also applies for other covariant gravity theories in three dimensions with AdS{sub 3} as maximally symmetric solution, such as new massive gravity and topologically massive gravity. The relevance of these results for supersymmetry breaking is pointed out.

Anabalon, Andres [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Vina Del Mar (Chile); Canfora, Fabrizio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

274

Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.

Lu, S.Y.

1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

275

Three-dimensional current distribution in coal-fired MHD channels  

SciTech Connect

Slagging effects on theoretical three dimensional current and potential distributions are presented for one frame of the UTSI 60/sup 0/DCW channel. The electrodynamic problem is solved with imposed gasdynamic and slag layer solutions. A three-dimensional finite element method is applied to solve for the electrical potential. The location of current concentration calculated on anode sidebar wall coincides with wear pattern observed in experiments. Without considering slag polarization, the leakage resistance calculated lies between 5 to 7 ..cap omega.., which gives the upper bound of slag layer leakage resistance. Next, the effects of slag polarization on electrodes and the sidewall configuration on generator performance are investigated experimentally and analytically in the UTSI channel. An analysis of the voltage-current characteristics between two generator frames measured during the operation of the TP40-07 experiment is presented along with the examination of nonuniformities of interframe voltage. Experimental data reveals that the polarization effect reduces about three percent of the overall electrical performance of the UTSI 60/sup 0/ Diagonal Conducting Wall (DCW) channel. A moderate increase of conductivity in the vicinity near the cathode-side frame gives a calculated leakage resistance which approximates the value derived experimentally. The polarization effect results in a large change of the potential and current distributions near the frame but has a small effect on the overall electrical performance. Alternate sidewall/electrode configurations are considered analytically.

Ishikawa, M.; Wu, Y.C.L.; Scott, M.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Submicrometre-Resolution Polychromatic Three-dimensional X-ray Microscopy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to study the structure, microstructure and evolution of materials with increasing spatial resolution is fundamental to achieving a full understanding of the underlying science of materials. Polychromatic three-dimensional X-ray microscopy (3DXM) is a recently developed nondestructive diffraction technique that enables crystallographic phase identification, determination of local crystal orientations, grain morphologies, grain interface types and orientations, and in favorable cases direct determination of the deviatoric elastic strain tensor with submicrometre spatial resolution in all three dimensions. With the added capability of an energy-scanning incident beam monochromator, the determination of absolute lattice parameters is enabled, allowing specification of the complete elastic strain tensor with three- dimensional spatial resolution. The methods associated with 3DXM are described and key applications of 3DXM are discussed, including studies of deformation in single-crystal and polycrystalline metals and semiconductors, indentation deformation, thermal grain growth in polycrystalline aluminium, the metal insulator transition in nanoplatelet VO 2 , interface strengths in metal matrix composites, high-pressure science, Sn whisker growth, and electromigra- tion processes. Finally, the outlook for future developments associated with this technique is described.

Larson, Ben C [ORNL; Levine, Lyle E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Numerical Study on Appearance of the Runaway Greenhouse State of a Three-Dimensional Gray Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A numerical study on the runaway greenhouse state is performed by using a general circulation model (GCM) with simplified hydrologic and radiative processes. Except for the inclusion of three-dimensional atmospheric motion, the system utilized is ...

Masaki Ishiwatari; Shin-ichi Takehiro; Kensuke Nakajima; Yoshi-Yuki Hayashi

2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Water Mass Distribution and Ventilation Time Scales in a Cost-Efficient, Three-Dimensional Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A cost-efficient, seasonally forced three-dimensional frictional geostrophic balance ocean model (Bern3D) has been developed that features isopycnal diffusion and Gent–McWilliams transport parameterization, 32 depth layers, and an implicit ...

S. A. Müller; F. Joos; N. R. Edwards; T. F. Stocker

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Tropical Cyclone Initialization with a Spherical High-Order Filter and an Idealized Three-Dimensional Bogus Vortex  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A tropical cyclone initialization method with an idealized three-dimensional bogus vortex of an analytic empirical formula is presented for the track and intensity prediction. The procedure in the new method consists of four steps: the separation ...

In-Hyuk Kwon; Hyeong-Bin Cheong

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

An Unstructured Grid, Finite-Volume, Three-Dimensional, Primitive Equations Ocean Model: Application to Coastal Ocean and Estuaries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An unstructured grid, finite-volume, three-dimensional (3D) primitive equation ocean model has been developed for the study of coastal oceanic and estuarine circulation. The model consists of momentum, continuity, temperature, salinity, and ...

Changsheng Chen; Hedong Liu; Robert C. Beardsley

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Three-Dimensional Evolution of Water Vapor Distributions in the Northern Hemisphere Stratosphere as Observed by the MLS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The three-dimensional evolution of stratospheric water vapor distributions observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) during the period October 1991–July 1992 is documented. The transport features inferred from the MLS water vapor distributions ...

W. A. Lahoz; A. O'Neill; E. S. Carr; R. S. Harwood; L. Froidevaux; W. G. Read; J. W. Waters; J. B. Kumer; J. L. Mergenthaler; A. E. Roche; G. E. Peckham; R. Swinbank

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

A Fast Three-Dimensional Approximation for the Calculation of Surface Irradiance in Large-Eddy Simulation Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud-resolving models—in particular, large-eddy simulation (LES) models—are important tools to improve the understanding of cloud–radiation interactions. A method is presented for accurate, yet fast, three-dimensional calculation of surface ...

Kathrin Wapler; Bernhard Mayer

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

A Three-Dimensional Numerical Model of an Isolated Thunderstorm. Part II: Dynamics of Updraft Splitting and Mesovortex Couplet Evolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study analyzes the dynamics of an isolated convective storm embedded within marked ambient vertical wind shear dominated by low-level veering, as simulated by a three-dimensional anelastic numerical modeling experiment. Two particular ...

Robert E. Schlesinger

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Three-Dimensional Observations of a Deep Convective Chimney in the Greenland Sea during Winter 1988/89  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All available temperature data, including moored thermistor, hydrographic, and tomographic measurements, have been combined using least-squares inverse methods to study the evolution of the three-dimensional temperature field in the Greenland Sea ...

W. M. L. Morawitz; P. J. Sutton; P. F. Worcester; B. D. Cornuelle; J. F. Lynch; R. Pawlowicz

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Forecasting Tornado Pathlengths Using a Three-Dimensional Object Identification Algorithm Applied to Convection-Allowing Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (in space and time) object identification algorithm is applied to high-resolution forecasts of hourly maximum updraft helicity (UH)—a diagnostic that identifies simulated rotating storms—with the goal of diagnosing the ...

Adam J. Clark; John S. Kain; Patrick T. Marsh; James Correia Jr.; Ming Xue; Fanyou Kong

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Similarity of Deep Continental Cumulus Convection as Revealed by a Three-Dimensional Cloud-Resolving Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional cloud-resolving simulation of midlatitude continental convection during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program summer 1997 intensive observation period (IOP) is used to study the similarity of several second and ...

Marat F. Khairoutdinov; David A. Randall

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Application of a Signal Technique to the Source–Receptor Relationship in Three-Dimensional Tracer Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Identifying pollutant sources that contribute to downstream locations is important for policy making and air-quality control. In this study, a computationally economic signal technique was implemented into a three-dimensional nonhydrostatic ...

Zhan Zhao; Shu-Hua Chen

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Vertical Structure of Convective Heating and the Three-Dimensional Structure of the Forced Circulation on an Equatorial Beta Plane  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the three-dimensional structure of the thermally forced atmosphere on an equatorial ? plane is investigated. Special emphasis is placed on the relations between the vertical structure of heating and the horizontal structure of the ...

Zhaohua Wu; E. S. Sarachik; David S. Battisti

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Scalable multi-view stereo camera array for real world real-time image capture and three-dimensional displays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The number of three-dimensional displays available is escalating and yet the capturing devices for multiple view content are focused on either single camera precision rigs that are limited to stationary objects or the use ...

Hill, Samuel L. (Samuel Lincoln), 1978-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Development of a three-dimensional two-fluid code with transient neutronic feedback for LWR applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The development of a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics code for LWR safety analysis has been initiated. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code ...

Griggs, D. P.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

A Variational Analysis Method for Retrieval of Three-Dimensional Wind Field from Single-Doppler Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A variational method for retrieval of the three-dimensional wind field from single-Doppler radar observations is developed and tested. The method uses the conservation equation for reflectivity and the continuity equation as a constraining model. ...

Stéphane Laroche; Isztar Zawadzki

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

The Effects of Evaporation, Water Load and Wind Shear on Cloud Development in a Three-Dimensional Numerical Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steiner's (1973) three-dimensional cloud model has been updated to incorporate the deep anelastic system of equations and the microphysical parameterization scheme of Kessler (1969) for precipitation growth. The interactions between cloud ...

Man Kong Yau

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Diagnostic Pressure Equation as a Weak Constraint in a Storm-Scale Three-Dimensional Variational Radar Data Assimilation System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A diagnostic pressure equation is incorporated into a storm-scale three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system in the form of a weak constraint in addition to a mass continuity equation constraint (MCEC). The goal of this ...

Guoqing Ge; Jidong Gao; Ming Xue

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Three dimensional modelling of combustion in a direct injection diesel engine using a new unstructured parallel solver  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new code for numerical simulation of transient three-dimensional chemically reacting fluid flows with sprays is presented. This code uses unstructured hexahedral grids, it has been optimized for superscalar machine and has been parallelized based on ...

Julien Bohbot; Marc Zolver; Diego Klahr; Arnaud Torres

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

A Three-Dimensional Barotropic Model of the Response of the Australian North West Shelf to Tropical Cyclones  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional barotropic model using a -coordinate or depth transformation, and forced with tropical cyclone wind and atmospheric pressure fields has been applied to the continental shelf and slope regions of the Australian North West ...

C. J. Hearn; P. E. Holloway

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Effect of the Hadley Circulation on the Reflection of Planetary Waves in Three-Dimensional Tropospheric Flows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nonlinear behavior of quasi-stationary planetary waves excited by midlatitude orographic forcing is considered in a three-dimensional primitive equation model that includes a representation of the Hadley circulation. The Hadley circulation is ...

Christopher C. Walker; Gudrun Magnusdottir

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Design and optimization of a light-emitting diode projection micro-stereolithography three-dimensional manufacturing system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rapid manufacture of complex three-dimensional micro-scale components has eluded researchers for decades. Several additive manufacturing options have been limited by either speed or the ability to fabricate true ...

Lee, Howon

298

The Emergence of Multiple Robust Zonal Jets from Freely Evolving, Three-Dimensional Stratified Geostrophic Turbulence with Applications to Jupiter  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of freely evolving stratified geostrophic turbulence on the ? plane are presented as a simplified model of zonal jet formation on Jupiter. This study samples the parameter space that covers the low, middle, ...

Kunio M. Sayanagi; Adam P. Showman; Timothy E. Dowling

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Three-Dimensional Model Simulations of Tides and Buoyancy Currents along the West Coast of Vancouver Island  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional finite element model is used to calculate the barotropic tides and seasonal buoyancy flows off the western and northern coasts of Vancouver Island. The model buoyancy currents and the harmonics of eight tidal constituents are ...

Michael G. G. Foreman; Richard E. Thomson

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Computational Cost and Accuracy in Calculating Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer: Results for New Implementations of Monte Carlo and SHDOM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper examines the tradeoffs between computational cost and accuracy for two new state-of-the-art codes for computing three-dimensional radiative transfer: a community Monte Carlo model and a parallel implementation of the Spherical ...

Robert Pincus; K. Franklin Evans

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Stress, seismicity and structure of shallow oil reservoirs of Clinton County, Kentucky. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Between 1993 and 1995 geophysicists of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, in a project funded by the US Department of Energy, conducted extensive microseismic monitoring of oil production in the recently discovered High Bridge pools of Clinton County and were able to acquire abundant, high-quality data in the northern of the two pools. This investigation provided both three-dimensional spatial and kinetic data relating to the High Bridge fracture system that previously had not been available. Funded in part by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Kentucky Geological Survey committed to develop a geological interpretation of these geophysical results, that would be of practical benefit to future oils exploration. This publication is a summary of the results of that project. Contents include the following: introduction; discovery and development; regional geology; fractured reservoir geology; oil migration and entrapment; subsurface stress; induced seismicity; structural geology; references; and appendices.

Hamilton-Smith, T. [Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States)

1995-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

302

Construction and calibration of an instrument for three-dimensional ion imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a new instrument based on a delay-line detector for imaging the complete three-dimensional velocity distribution of photoionized products from photoinitiated reactions. Doppler-free [2+1] resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) of H and D atoms formed upon photolysis of HBr and DBr in the range 203 nm{<=}{lambda}{sub photolysis}{<=}243 nm yields radial speeds measured to be accurate within 1% of those calculated. The relative speed resolution is about 5% and limited by photoionization recoil broadening. A relative speed resolution of 3.4% is obtained for [3+1] REMPI, which minimizes the ionization recoil. We also determine the branching ratio between ground-state and spin-orbit-excited product channels and their associated anisotropies. We find that DBr photolysis dynamics differs slightly from its HBr counterpart.

Koszinowski, Konrad; Goldberg, Noah T.; Pomerantz, Andrew E.; Zare, Richard N. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5080 (United States)

2006-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

303

Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.

Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Monte Carlo calculation of the transition temperature of the anisotropic three-dimensional {ital XY} model  

SciTech Connect

The transition temperature of the spatially anisotropic three-dimensional classical {ital XY} model is calculated by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. In the {ital XY} model the spins are not restricted to the {ital XY} plane, as in the plane rotator model. The results are compared with a self-consistent harmonic approximation calculation (SCHA). In two dimensions the inclusion of effect of vortices pushes down the transition temperature from {ital T}{sub KT}/{ital J}=1.08, given by the standard SCHA to {ital T}{sub KT}/{ital J}=0.70, in good agreement with the MC estimate {ital T}{sub KT}/{ital J}=0.725. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Costa, B.V.; Pereira, A.R.; Pires, A.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, Belo Horizonte, 30161970 Minas Gerais (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, Belo Horizonte, 30161970 Minas Gerais (Brazil)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

STEREO QUADRATURE OBSERVATIONS OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE AND DRIVER OF A GLOBAL CORONAL WAVE  

SciTech Connect

We present the first observations of a global coronal wave ('EIT wave') from the two STEREO satellites in quadrature. The wave's initiation site was at the disk center in STEREO-B and precisely on the limb in STEREO-A. These unprecedented observations from the STEREO Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EUVI) instruments enable us to gain insight into the wave's kinematics, initiation, and three-dimensional structure. The wave propagates globally over the whole solar hemisphere visible to STEREO-B with a constant velocity of {approx}263 +- 16 km s{sup -1}. From the two STEREO observations, we derive a height of the wave in the range of {approx}80-100 Mm. Comparison of the wave kinematics with the early phase of the erupting coronal mass ejection (CME) structure indicates that the wave is initiated by the CME lateral expansion, and then propagates freely with a velocity close to the fast magnetosonic speed in the quiet solar corona.

Kienreich, I. W.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M., E-mail: ines.kienreich@uni-graz.a, E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.a, E-mail: asv@igam.uni-graz.a [Institute of Physics/IGAM, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Three-dimensional relativistic particle-in-cell hybrid code based on an exponential integrator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we present a new three dimensional (3D) full electromagnetic relativistic hybrid plasma code H-VLPL (hybrid virtual laser plasma laboratory). The full kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) method is used to simulate low density hot plasmas while the hydrodynamic model applies to the high density cold background plasma. To simulate the linear electromagnetic response of the high density plasma, we use a newly developed form of an exponential integrator method. It allows us to simulate plasmas of arbitrary densities using large time steps. The model reproduces the plasma dispersion and gives correct spatial scales like the plasma skin depth even for large grid cell sizes. We test the hybrid model validity by applying it to some physical examples.

Tueckmantel, T; Pukhov, A; Hochbruck, M

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Design and development of the associated-particle three-dimensional imaging technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors describe the development of the ``associated-particle`` imaging technique for producing low-resolution three-dimensional images of objects. Based on the t(d,n){sup 4}He reaction, the method requires access to only one side of the object being imaged and allows for the imaging of individual chemical elements in the material under observation. Studies were performed to (1) select the appropriate components of the system, including detectors, data-acquisition electronics, and neutron source, and (2) optimize experimental methods for collection and presentation of data. This report describes some of the development steps involved and provides a description of the complete final system that was developed.

Ussery, L.E.; Hollas, C.L.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Three dimensional complex plasma structures in a combined radio frequency and direct current discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on the first detailed analysis of large three dimensional (3D) complex plasma structures in experiments performed in pure rf and combined rf+dc discharge modes. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is generated by an rf coil wrapped around the vertically positioned cylindrical glass tube at a pressure of 0.3 mbar. In addition, dc plasma can be generated by applying voltage to the electrodes at the ends of the tube far from the rf coil. The injected monodisperse particles are levitated in the plasma below the coil. A scanning laser sheet and a high resolution camera are used to determine the 3D positions of about $10^5$ particles. The observed bowl-shaped particle clouds reveal coexistence of various structures, including well-distinguished solid-like, less ordered liquid-like, and pronounced string-like phases. New criteria to identify string-like structures are proposed.

S. Mitic; B. A. Klumov; S. A. Khrapak; G. E. Morfill

2013-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

309

Three dimensional massive scalar field theory and the derivative expansion of the renormalization group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that non-perturbative fixed points of the exact renormalization group, their perturbations and corresponding massive field theories can all be determined directly in the continuum -- without using bare actions or any tuning procedure. As an example, we estimate the universal couplings of the non-perturbative three-dimensional one-component massive scalar field theory in the Ising model universality class, by using a derivative expansion (and no other approximation). These are compared to the recent results from other methods. At order derivative-squared approximation, the four-point coupling at zero momentum is better determined by other methods, but factoring this out appropriately, all our other results are in very close agreement with the most powerful of these methods. In addition we provide for the first time, estimates of the n-point couplings at zero momentum, with n=12,14, and the order momentum-squared parts with n=2 ... 10.

Tim R. Morris

1996-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

310

Method for producing three-dimensional real image using radiographic perspective views of an object  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A sequence of separate radiographs are made by indexing a radiation source along a known path relative to the object under study. Thus, each radiograph contains information from a different perspective. A holographically-recorded image is then made from each radiographic perspective by exact re-tracing of the rays through each radiographic perspective such that the re-tracing duplicates the geometry under which it was originally prepared. The holographically-stored images are simultaneously illuminated with the conjugate of the reference beam used in the original recordings. The result is the generation of a three-dimensional real image of the object such that a light-sensitive device can be moved to view the real image along any desired surface with the optical information in all other surfaces greatly suppressed.

Ellingson, William A. (Ames, IA); Read, Alvin A. (Ames, IA)

1976-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

311

Strong Coupling Expansion in a Correlated Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Motivated by recent studies which show that topological phases may emerge in strongly correlated electron systems, we theoretically study the strong electron correlation effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator, which effective Hamiltonian can be described by the Wilson fermions. We adopt 1/r long-range Coulomb interaction as the interaction between the bulk electrons. Based on the U(1) lattice gauge theory, the strong coupling expansion is applied by assuming that the effective interaction is strong. It is shown that the effect of the Coulomb interaction is equivalent to the renormalization of the bare mass of the Wilson fermions, and that as a result, the topological insulator phase survives in the strong coupling limit.

Akihiko Sekine; Takashi Z. Nakano; Yasufumi Araki; Kentaro Nomura

2013-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

312

Three-dimensional numerical investigation of a droplet impinging normally onto a wall film  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents a three-dimensional numerical investigation of a droplet impinging normally onto a wall film. The numerical method is based on the finite volume solution of the Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the volume of fluid method (VOF) and utilizing an adaptive local grid refinement technique for tracking more accurately the liquid-gas interface. The results are compared with available experimental data for integral quantities such as the lamella temporal development. Two mechanisms are identified leading to secondary droplet formation; in the initial and intermediate stages of splashing secondary droplet formation is according to Rayleigh instability while at later times surface tension effects contribute further to secondary atomization. Moreover, the influence of Weber number on the impingement process is investigated and correlations for the diameter and number of secondary droplets are proposed.

Nikolopoulos, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nat. Technical University of Athens, 15740 Zografos (Greece)]. E-mail: niknik@fluid.mech.ntua.gr; Theodorakakos, A. [Fluid Research Co., H. Trikoupi 25, Athens, 10681 (Greece)]. E-mail: andreas@fluid-research.com; Bergeles, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nat. Technical University of Athens, 15740 Zografos (Greece)]. E-mail: bergeles@fluid.mech.ntua.gr

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Three-Dimensional Simulations of Tidally Disrupted Solar-Type Stars  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a fully three-dimensional simulation of a 1 Msun solar-type star approaching a 10^6 Msun black hole on a parabolic orbit with a pericenter distance well within the tidal radius. While falling towards the black hole, the star is not only stretched along the orbital direction but even more severely compressed at right angles to the orbit. The overbearing degree of compression achieved shortly after pericenter leads to the production of strong shocks which largely isotropize the temperature profile of the star, resulting in surface temperatures comparable to the initial temperature of the star's core. This phenomenon, which precedes the fallback accretion phase, gives rise to a unique flaring signature. We estimate that EXIST, a proposed space-based X-ray observatory, should detect at least one of these events per year.

Guillochon, James; Rosswog, Stephan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Verification, validation, and benchmarking report for TRIMHX: A three dimensional hexagonal transient diffusion theory code  

SciTech Connect

TRIMHX is a fundamental Reactor Analysis tool in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and is an integral part of the Generalized Reactor Analysis Subsystem (GRASS). TRIMHX solves the time dependent multigroup neutron diffusion equation in two and three dimensional hexagonal geometry by standard and coarse mesh finite difference methods. The TRIMHX implementation assumes the solution to this equation can be discretized in space, energy, and time. These are industry accepted approaches which can be found in many nuclear engineering books. This report concerns the verification and validation of TRIMHX, a transient two and three dimensional hex-z diffusion theory code. The validation was performed to determine the accuracy of the code, and the verification was performed to determine if the code was correctly using the correct theory and that all the subroutines function as required. For TRIMHX, the validation requirement was satisfied by comparing the results of the code with experiments and benchmarking the code against other standard or validated code results. The verification requirement for TRIMHX was performed indirectly since it is impossible and not necessary to reverify a large code like TRIMHX line by line. The extensive operations history of TRIMHX in conjunction with the comparisons against many numerical experiments (exact solutions) and other diffusion theory codes is sufficient to establish that the code is functioning as intended and therefore it is verified. This report summarizes four sets of experiments performed in 1974, 1977, and 1988, two DIF3D/TRIMHX comparison problems performed in 1991, a DIF3D/FX2-TH/TRIMHX comparison problem produced for this report, and the comparison of TRIMHX/GRIMHX initial static calculations. The results of these experiments show that TRIMHX was correctly implemented and is ready to submit into SCMS production mode.

Le, T.L.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Three-dimensional electromagnetic strong turbulence. I. Scalings, spectra, and field statistics  

SciTech Connect

The first fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of large-scale electromagnetic strong turbulence (EMST) are performed by numerically solving the electromagnetic Zakharov equations for electron thermal speeds {nu}{sub e} with {nu}{sub e}/c{>=}0.025. The results of these simulations are presented, focusing on scaling behavior, energy density spectra, and field statistics of the Langmuir (longitudinal) and transverse components of the electric fields during steady-state strong turbulence, where multiple wave packets collapse simultaneously and the system is approximately statistically steady in time. It is shown that for {nu}{sub e}/c > or approx. 0.17 strong turbulence is approximately electrostatic and can be explained using the electrostatic two-component model. For v{sub e}/c > or approx. 0.17 the power-law behaviors of the scalings, spectra, and field statistics differ from the electrostatic predictions and results because {nu}{sub e}/c is sufficiently high to allow transverse modes to become trapped in density wells. The results are compared with those of past 3D electrostatic strong turbulence (ESST) simulations and 2D EMST simulations. For number density perturbations, the scaling behavior, spectra, and field statistics are shown to be only weakly dependent on {nu}{sub e}/c, whereas the Langmuir and transverse scalings, spectra, and field statistics are shown to be strongly dependent on {nu}{sub e}/c. Three-dimensional EMST is shown to have features in common with 2D EMST, such as a two-component structure and trapping of transverse modes which are dependent on {nu}{sub e}/c.

Graham, D. B.; Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Skjaeraasen, O. [ProsTek, Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, N-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

Three-dimensional numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Taylorunstable flames in type Ia supernovae  

SciTech Connect

Flame instabilities play a dominant role in accelerating the burning front to a large fraction of the speed of sound in a Type Ia supernova. We present a three-dimensional numerical simulation of a Rayleigh-Taylor unstable carbon flame, following its evolution through the transition to turbulence. A low Mach number hydrodynamics method is used, freeing us from the harsh time step restrictions imposed by sound waves. We fully resolve the thermal structure of the flame and its reaction zone, eliminating the need for a flame model. A single density is considered, 1.5x107 gm/cc, and half carbon/half oxygen fuel--conditions under which the flame propagated in the flamelet regime in our related two-dimensional study. We compare to a corresponding two-dimensional simulation, and show that while fire-polishing keeps the small features suppressed in two dimensions, turbulence wrinkles the flame on far smaller scales in the three-dimensional case, suggesting that the transition to the distributed burning regime occurs at higher densities in three dimensions. Detailed turbulence diagnostics are provided. We show that the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum and is highly anisotropic on the large scales, with a much larger integral scale in the direction of gravity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that it becomes more isotropic as it cascades down to small scales. Based on the turbulent statistics and the flame properties of our simulation, we compute the Gibson scale. We show the progress of the turbulent flame through a classic combustion regime diagram, indicating that the flame just enters the distributed burning regime near the end of our simulation.

Zingale, M.; Woosley, S.E.; Rendleman, C.A.; Day, M.S.; Bell, J.B.

2005-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

317

A FLUX ROPE NETWORK AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETIC RECONNECTION  

SciTech Connect

We investigate magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration in relativistic pair plasmas with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of a kinetic-scale current sheet in a periodic geometry. We include a guide field that introduces an inclination between the reconnecting field lines and explore outside-of-the-current sheet magnetizations that are significantly below those considered by other authors carrying out similar calculations. Thus, our simulations probe the transitional regime in which the magnetic and plasma pressures are of the same order of magnitude. The tearing instability is the dominant mode in the current sheet for all guide field strengths, while the linear kink mode is less important even without the guide field, except in the lower magnetization case. Oblique modes seem to be suppressed entirely. In its nonlinear evolution, the reconnection layer develops a network of interconnected and interacting magnetic flux ropes. As smaller flux ropes merge into larger ones, the reconnection layer evolves toward a three-dimensional, disordered state in which the resulting flux rope segments contain magnetic substructure on plasma skin depth scales. Embedded in the flux ropes, we detect spatially and temporally intermittent sites of dissipation reflected in peaks in the parallel electric field. Magnetic dissipation and particle acceleration persist until the end of the simulations, with simulations with higher magnetization and lower guide field strength exhibiting greater and faster energy conversion and particle energization. At the end of our largest simulation, the particle energy spectrum attains a tail extending to high Lorentz factors that is best modeled with a combination of two additional thermal components. We confirm that the primary energization mechanism is acceleration by the electric field in the X-line region. The highest-energy positrons (electrons) are moderately beamed with median angles {approx}30 Degree-Sign -40 Degree-Sign relative to (the opposite of) the direction of the initial current density, but we speculate that reconnection in more highly magnetized plasmas would give rise to stronger beaming. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for macroscopic reconnection sites, and which of our results may be expected to hold in systems with higher magnetizations.

Kagan, Daniel; Milosavljevic, Milos [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Spitkovsky, Anatoly [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Quantitative study of two- and three-dimensional strong localization of matter waves by atomic scatterers  

SciTech Connect

We study the strong localization of atomic matter waves in a disordered potential created by atoms pinned at the nodes of a lattice, for both three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) systems. The localization length of the matter wave, the density of localized states, and the occurrence of energy mobility edges (for the 3D system), are numerically investigated as a function of the effective scattering length between the atomic matter wave and the pinned atoms. Both positive and negative matter wave energies are explored. Interesting features of the density of states are discovered at negative energies, where maxima in the density of bound states for the system can be interpreted in terms of bound states of a matter wave atom with a few pinned atomic scatterers. In 3D we found evidence of up to three mobility edges, one at positive energies, and two at negative energies, the latter corresponding to transitions between extended and localized bound states. In 2D, no mobility edge is found, and a rapid exponential-like increase of the localization length is observed at high energy.

Antezza, Mauro; Castin, Yvan; Hutchinson, David A. W. [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS and UPMC, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris (France); Jack Dodd Centre for Quantum Technology, Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016 (New Zealand)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

319

A three-dimensional laboratory steam injection model allowing in situ saturation measurements  

SciTech Connect

The CT imaging technique together with temperature and pressure measurements were used to follow the steam propagation during steam and steam foam injection experiments in a three dimensional laboratory steam injection model. The advantages and disadvantages of different geometries were examined to find out which could best represent radial and gravity override flows and also fit the dimensions of the scanning field of the CT scanner. During experiments, steam was injected continuously at a constant rate into the water saturated model and CT scans were taken at six different cross sections of the model. Pressure and temperature data were collected with time at three different levels in the model. During steam injection experiments, the saturations obtained by CT matched well with the temperature data. That is, the steam override as observed by temperature data was also clearly seen on the CT pictures. During the runs where foam was present, the saturation distributions obtained from CT pictures showed a piston like displacement. However, the temperature distributions were different depending on the type of steam foam process used. The results clearly show that the pressure/temperature data alone are not sufficient to study steam foam in the presence of non-condensible gas.

Demiral, B.M.R.; Pettit, P.A.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Three dimensional analysis of turbulent steam jets in enclosed structures : a CFD approach.  

SciTech Connect

This paper compares the three-dimensional numerical simulation with the experimental data of a steam blowdown event in a light water reactor containment building. The temperature and pressure data of a steam blowdown event was measured at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA), a scaled model of the General Electric simplified Boiling Water Reactor. A three step approach was used to analyze the steam jet behavior. First, a 1-Dimensional, system level RELAP5/Mod3.2 model of the steam blowdown event was created and the results used to set the initial conditions for the PUMA blowdown experiments. Second, 2-Dimensional CFD models of the discharged steam jets were computed using PHOENICS, a commercially available CFD package. Finally, 3-Dimensional model of the PUMA drywell was created with the boundary conditions based on experimental measurements. The results of the 1-D and 2-D models were reported in the previous meeting. This paper discusses in detail the formulation and the results of the 3-Dimensional PHOENICS model of the PUMA drywell. It is found that the 3-D CFD solutions compared extremely well with the measured data.

Ishii, M.; NguyenLe, Q.

1999-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

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321

THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF THE SOLAR WIND INCLUDING PICKUP PROTONS AND TURBULENCE TRANSPORT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To study the effects of interstellar pickup protons and turbulence on the structure and dynamics of the solar wind, we have developed a fully three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that treats interstellar pickup protons as a separate fluid and incorporates the transport of turbulence and turbulent heating. The governing system of equations combines the mean-field equations for the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and pickup protons and the turbulence transport equations for the turbulent energy, normalized cross-helicity, and correlation length. The model equations account for photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with solar wind protons, energy transfer from pickup protons to solar wind protons, and plasma heating by turbulent dissipation. Separate mass and energy equations are used for the solar wind and pickup protons, though a single momentum equation is employed under the assumption that the pickup protons are comoving with the solar wind protons. We compute the global structure of the solar wind plasma, magnetic field, and turbulence in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU for a source magnetic dipole on the Sun tilted by 0 Degree-Sign -90 Degree-Sign and compare our results with Voyager 2 observations. The results computed with and without pickup protons are superposed to evaluate quantitatively the deceleration and heating effects of pickup protons, the overall compression of the magnetic field in the outer heliosphere caused by deceleration, and the weakening of corotating interaction regions by the thermal pressure of pickup protons.

Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Goldstein, Melvyn L., E-mail: arcadi.usmanov@nasa.gov [Code 673, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.

Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

323

THREE-DIMENSIONAL NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST-TO-ALFVEN CONVERSION IN SUNSPOTS  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of fast waves to the Alfven mode in a realistic sunspot atmosphere is studied through three-dimensional numerical simulations. An upward propagating fast acoustic wave is excited in the high-{beta} region of the model. The new wave modes generated at the conversion layer are analyzed from the projections of the velocity and magnetic field in their characteristic directions, and the computation of their wave energy and fluxes. The analysis reveals that the maximum efficiency of the conversion to the slow mode is obtained for inclinations of 25 Degree-Sign and low azimuths, while the Alfven wave conversions peak at high inclinations and azimuths between 50 Degree-Sign and 120 Degree-Sign . Downward propagating Alfven waves appear at the regions of the sunspot where the orientation of the magnetic field is in the direction opposite to the wave propagation, since at these locations the Alfven wave couples better with the downgoing fast magnetic wave which is reflected due to the gradients of the Alfven speed. The simulations show that the Alfven energy at the chromosphere is comparable to the acoustic energy of the slow mode, being even higher at high inclined magnetic fields.

Felipe, T., E-mail: tobias@cora.nwra.com [NorthWest Research Associates, Colorado Research Associates, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

324

Visualizing multiphase flow and trapped fluid configurations in a model three-dimensional porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.

Amber T. Krummel; Sujit S. Datta; Stefan Münster; David A. Weitz

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

325

A system for combined three-dimensional morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue specimens  

SciTech Connect

We present a new system for simultaneous morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue samples. The system is composed of a computer assisted microscope and a JAVA-based image display, analysis and visualization program that allows acquisition, annotation, meaningful storage, three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of structures of interest in thick sectioned tissue specimens. We describe the system in detail and illustrate its use by imaging, reconstructing and analyzing two complete tissue blocks which were differently processed and stained. One block was obtained from a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lumpectomy specimen and stained alternatively with Hematoxilyn and Eosin (H&E), and with a counterstain and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the ERB-B2 gene. The second block contained a fully sectioned mammary gland of a mouse, stained for Histology with H&E. We show how the system greatly reduces the amount of interaction required for the acquisition and analysis and is therefore suitable for studies that require morphologically driven, wide scale (e.g., whole gland) analysis of complex tissue samples or cultures.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Jones, Arthur; Garcia-Rodriguez, Enrique; Yuan Chen, Ping; Idica, Adam; Lockett, Stephen J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

2002-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

326

Visualizing multiphase flow and trapped fluid configurations in a model three-dimensional porous medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.

Krummel, Amber T; Münster, Stefan; Weitz, David A; 10.1002/aic.14005

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Three-dimensional MHD simulations of X-ray emitting subcluster plasmas in cluster of galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent high resolution observations by the {\\it Chandra} X-ray satellite revealed various substructures in hot X-ray emitting plasmas in cluster of galaxies. For example, {\\it Chandra} revealed the existence of sharp discontinuities in the surface brightness at the leading edge of subclusters in merging clusters (e.g., Abell 3667), where the temperature drops sharply across the fronts. These sharp edges are called cold fronts. We present results of three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the interaction between a dense subcluster plasma and ambient magnetized intracluster medium. Anisotropic heat conduction along magnetic field lines is included. At the initial state, magnetic fields are assumed to be uniform and transverse to the motion of the dense subcluster. Since magnetic fields ahead of the subcluster slip toward the third direction in the 3D case, the strength of magnetic fields in this region can be reduced compared to that in the 2D case. Nevertheless, a cold front can be maintained because the magnetic field lines wrapping around the forehead of the subcluster suppress the heat conduction across them. On the other hand, when the magnetic field is absent, a cold front cannot be maintained because isotropic heat conduction from the hot ambient plasma rapidly heats the cold subcluster plasma.

Naoki Asai; Naoya Fukuda; Ryoji Matsumoto

2005-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

328

Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent combustion converting a neutron star into a quark star. Hadronic matter, described by a microphysical finite-temperature equation of state, is converted into strange quark matter. We assume this phase, represented by a bag-model equation of state, to be absolutely stable. Following the example of thermonuclear burning in white dwarfs leading to type Ia supernovae, we treat the conversion process as a potentially turbulent deflagration. Solving the nonrelativistic Euler equations using established numerical methods we conduct large eddy simulations including an elaborate subgrid scale model, while the propagation of the conversion front is modeled with a level-set method. Our results show that for large parts of the parameter space the conversion becomes turbulent and therefore significantly faster than in the laminar case. Despite assuming absolutely stable strange quark matter, in our hydrodynamic approximation an outer layer remains in the hadronic phase, because the conversion front stops when it reaches conditions under which the combustion is no longer exothermic.

Herzog, Matthias; Roepke, Friedrich K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Emil-Fischer-Str. 31, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

329

Three-dimensional simulations of anomalous absorption of laser radiation by plasma with supercritical density  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) model of the interaction of laser radiation with plasma in the framework of Maxwell-Vlasov equations has been used to calculate the anomalous optical absorption in plasma of supercritical density. The results of calculations confirmed the development of anomalous absorption that was previously revealed by 2D models, which were insufficient for comparison to the experiment. Calculations were performed for a system containing about 10{sup 6} macroparticles that allowed the absorption coefficient and other characteristics of anomalous absorption in plasma with an inhomogeneous surface to be determined as functions of various parameters of the incident radiation and plasma target. Results are analyzed and estimations are obtained for the contributions of ionization processes and pair collisions of electrons, which show that these factors were quite reasonably ignored in the model. All quantitative results are obtained for the third harmonic of neodymium laser ({lambda} = 0.351 {mu}m) at a tenfold excess of the substance density over a critical value for this radiation.

Ginzburg, S. L.; Dyachenko, V. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Keldysh Institute for Applied Mathematics (Russian Federation); Imshennik, V. S. [Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Paleychik, V. V.

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Electric-magnetic duality and deformations of three-dimensional conformal field theories  

SciTech Connect

SL(2,Z) duality transformations in asymptotically AdS{sub 4}xS{sup 7} act nontrivially on the three-dimensional superconformal field theory of coincident M2-branes on the boundary. We show how S-duality acts away from the IR fixed point. We develop a systematic method to holographically obtain the deformations of the boundary CFT and show how electric-magnetic duality relates different deformations. We analyze in detail marginal deformations and deformations by dimension 4 operators. In the case of massive deformations, the renormalization group flow relates S-dual CFT's. Correlation functions in the CFT are computed by varying magnetic bulk sources, whereas correlation functions in the dual CFT are computed by electric bulk sources. Under massive deformations, the boundary effective action is generically minimized by massive self-dual configurations of the U(1) gauge field. We show that a self-dual choice of boundary conditions exists, and it corresponds to the self-dual topologically massive gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions. Thus, self-duality in three dimensions can be understood as a consequence of electric-magnetic invariance in the bulk of AdS{sub 4}.

Haro, Sebastian de [Department of Mathematics, King's College, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gao Peng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6396 (United States)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

331

Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Stacks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created for detailed analysis of a high-temperature electrolysis stack (solid oxide fuel cells operated as electrolyzers). Inlet and outlet plenum flow distributions are discussed. Maldistribution of plena flow show deviations in per-cell operating conditions due to non-uniformity of species concentrations. Models have also been created to simulate experimental conditions and for code validation. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental results are discussed. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the electrolysis mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Variations in flow distribution, and species concentration are discussed. End effects of flow and per-cell voltage are also considered. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Timing, energy, and thermal performance of three-dimensional integrated circuits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the performance of custom circuits in an emerging technology known as three-dimensional integration. By combining multiple device layers with a high-density inter-layer interconnect, 3-D integration of a given circuit is expected to provide better timing and energy performance relative to a single-wafer implementation of the same circuit. In this paper, we show that by using our performance-driven design tool for 3-D ICs, the interconnect energy dissipation of standard-cell circuits can be reduced by 24% to 42 % using two to five device layers respectively. Similarly, the interconnect energy-delay product can be reduced by 30 % to 50%. At the same time, thermal performance in 3-D ICs is expected to be a critical issue. By incorporating thermal management and analysis into our placement tool, we may investigate the thermal scalability of 3-D integration. We find that the thermal performance actually can be improved with the use of a modest number of additional device layers. Also, we show that the absolute die temperature can be controlled through the use of extra silicon.

Shamik Das; Anantha Ch; Rafael Reif

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A multi-block infrastructure for three-dimensional time-dependent numerical relativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a generic infrastructure for time evolution simulations in numerical relativity using multiple grid patches. After a motivation of this approach, we discuss the relative advantages of global and patch-local tensor bases. We describe both our multi-patch infrastructure and our time evolution scheme, and comment on adaptive time integrators and parallelisation. We also describe various patch system topologies that provide spherical outer and/or multiple inner boundaries. We employ penalty inter-patch boundary conditions, and we demonstrate the stability and accuracy of our three-dimensional implementation. We solve both a scalar wave equation on a stationary rotating black hole background and the full Einstein equations. For the scalar wave equation, we compare the effects of global and patch-local tensor bases, different finite differencing operators, and the effect of artificial dissipation onto stability and accuracy. We show that multi-patch systems can directly compete with the so-called fixed mesh refinement approach; however, one can also combine both. For the Einstein equations, we show that using multiple grid patches with penalty boundary conditions leads to a robustly stable system. We also show long-term stable and accurate evolutions of a one-dimensional non-linear gauge wave. Finally, we evolve weak gravitational waves in three dimensions and extract accurate waveforms, taking advantage of the spherical shape of our grid lines.

Erik Schnetter; Peter Diener; Ernst Nils Dorband; Manuel Tiglio

2006-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

334

Three-Dimensional N \\geq 5 Superconformal Chern-Simons Gauge Theories And Their Relations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose three-dimensional N=6 superconformal U(N) X U(M) and SU(N) X SU(N) Chern-Simons gauge theories with two pairs of bifundamental chiral superfields in the (N, M) and (\\overline{N}, \\overline{M}) representations and in the (N, N) and (\\overline{N}, \\overline{N}) representations, respectively. We also propose the superconformal U(1) X U(1) gauge theories that have n pairs of bifundamental chiral superfields with U(1) X U(1) charges (\\pm 1, \\mp 1) or (\\pm 1, \\pm 1). Although these U(1) X U(1) gauge theories have global symmetry SU(2n), the R-symmetry is SO(6) for n=2, and might be SO(2n) or SO(2n+1) for 3 \\leq n \\leq 8. In addition, we show that from either the generalized ABJM theories, or our U(N) X U(M) theories, or the N=5 superconformal O(N) X USp(2M) gauge theories, we can derive all the N \\geq 5 superconformal Chern-Simons gauge theories except the N=5 superconformal G_2 X USp(2) gauge theory and our U(1) X U(1) gauge theories with n \

Tianjun Li

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

335

Three-dimensional evolution of the fast reconnection mechanism in a force-free current sheet  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a sequence of the recent paper on the fast reconnection evolution in a sheared current sheet [M. Ugai, Phys. Plasmas 17, 032313 (2010)], the present paper further studies the three-dimensional fast reconnection evolution in a force-free current sheet system. In general, for the larger sheared field magnitude, the fast reconnection evolution requires the larger spatial scales of the current sheet. For the force-free current sheet system, the critical condition for the fast reconnection evolution is that the current sheet width (extent) in the sheet current direction is about six times larger than its thickness. Once the fast reconnection evolves, the low-beta plasma pressure is drastically enhanced in the reconnection outflow region to become comparable with the ambient magnetic pressure. Ahead of the Alfvenic fast reconnection jet, a large-scale plasmoid is formed, where the enhanced plasma pressure is stored. Inside the plasmoid, the sheared field lines are piled up in the form of a core and are significantly wound (or bent) in the sheared field (sheet current) direction because of the oblique plasmoid propagation along the sheared field. The resulting spatial changes in magnetic fields in the plasmoid are found to be in good agreement with the magnetic field signatures usually obtained by satellite observations inside the plasmoid propagating down in the geomagnetic tail.

Ugai, M. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

336

Torsional magnetic reconnection at three dimensional null points: A phenomenological study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Magnetic reconnection around three dimensional (3D) magnetic null points is the natural progression from X-point reconnection in two dimensions. In 3D the separator field lines of the X-point are replaced with the spine line and fan plane (the field lines which asymptotically approach or recede from the null). In this work analytical models are developed for the newly classified torsional spine and torsional fan reconnection regimes by solving the steady state, kinematic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic equations. Reconnection is localized to around the null through the use of a localized field perturbation leading to a localized current while a constant resistivity is assumed. For the torsional spine case current is found to localize around the spine leading to a spiraling slippage of the field around the spine and out along the fan. For the torsional fan case current is found to be localized to the fan plane leading again to a spiraling slippage of the field. In each case no flux is transported across either the spine or the fan. An intermediate twist is then introduced and a link is established between the two regimes. We find that for a general twist plasma flows associated with both torsional spine and fan appear in distinct regions. As such we suggest that the ''pure'' flows of each are extreme cases.

Wyper, Peter; Jain, Rekha [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

337

Three-dimensional light-matter interface for collective spin squeezing in atomic ensembles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the three-dimensional nature of the quantum interface between an ensemble of cold, trapped atomic spins and a paraxial laser beam, coupled through a dispersive interaction. To achieve strong entanglement between the collective atomic spin and the photons, one must match the spatial mode of the collective radiation of the ensemble with the mode of the laser beam while minimizing the effects of decoherence due to optical pumping. For ensembles coupling to a probe field that varies over the extent of the cloud, the set of atoms that indistinguishably radiates into a desired mode of the field defines an inhomogeneous spin wave. Strong coupling of a spin wave to the probe mode is not characterized by a single parameter, the optical density, but by a collection of different effective atom numbers that characterize the coherence and decoherence of the system. To model the dynamics of the system, we develop a full stochastic master equation, including coherent collective scattering into paraxial modes, decoherence by local inhomogeneous diffuse scattering, and backaction due to continuous measurement of the light entangled with the spin waves. This formalism is used to study the squeezing of a spin wave via continuous quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement. We find that the greatest squeezing occurs in parameter regimes where spatial inhomogeneities are significant, far from the limit in which the interface is well approximated by a one-dimensional, homogeneous model.

Ben Q. Baragiola; Leigh M. Norris; Enrique Montano; Pascal G. Mickelson; Poul S. Jessen; Ivan H. Deutsch

2013-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

338

Iterative optimizing quantization method for reconstructing three-dimensional images from a limited number of views  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.

Lee, Heung-Rae (Dublin, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

TEMPEST: A three-dimensional time-dependent computer program for hydrothermal analysis: Volume 1, Numerical methods and input instructions  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the numerical methods, current capabilities, and the use of the TEMPEST (Version L, MOD 2) computer program. TEMPEST is a transient, three-dimensional, hydrothermal computer program that is designed to analyze a broad range of coupled fluid dynamic and heat transfer systems of particular interest to the Fast Breeder Reactor thermal-hydraulic design community. The full three-dimensional, time-dependent equations of motion, continuity, and heat transport are solved for either laminar or turbulent fluid flow, including heat diffusion and generation in both solid and liquid materials. 10 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

Trent, D.S.; Eyler, L.L.; Budden, M.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Three-dimensional modeling of diesel engine intake flow, combustion and emissions-II  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-dimensional computer code, KIVA, is being modified to include state-of-the-art submodels for diesel engine flow and combustion. Improved and/or new submodels which have already been implemented and previously reported are: Wall heat transfer with unsteadiness and compressibility, laminar-turbulent characteristic time combustion with unburned HC and Zeldo`vich NO{sub x}, and spray/wall impingement with rebounding and sliding drops. Progress on the implementation of improved spray drop drag and drop breakup models, the formulation and testing of a multistep kinetics ignition model and preliminary soot modeling results are described in this report. In addition, the use of a block structured version of KIVA to model the intake flow process is described. A grid generation scheme has been developed for modeling realistic (complex) engine geometries, and computations have been made of intake flow in the ports and combustion chamber of a two-intake-valve engine. The research also involves the use of the code to assess the effects of subprocesses on diesel engine performance. The accuracy of the predictions is being tested by comparisons with engine experiments. To date, comparisons have been made with measured engine cylinder pressure, temperature and heat flux data, and the model results are in good agreement with the experiments. Work is in progress that will allow validation of in-cylinder flow and soot formation predictions. An engine test facility is described that is being used to provide the needed validation data. Test results have been obtained showing the effect of injection rate and split injections on engine performance and emissions.

Reitz, R.D.; Rutland, C.J.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

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341

Three-dimensional dust radiative-transfer models: The Pinwheel Nebula of WR104  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present radiative-transfer modelling of the dusty spiral Pinwheel Nebula observed around the Wolf-Rayet/OB-star binary WR104. The models are based on the three-dimensional radiative-transfer code TORUS, modified to include an adaptive mesh that allows us to adequately resolve both the inner spiral turns (sub-AU scales) and the outer regions of the nebula (distances of 10^4 AU from the central source). The spiral model provides a good fit to both the spectral energy distribution and Keck aperture masking interferometry, reproducing both the maximum entropy recovered images and the visibility curves. We deduce a dust creation rate of 8+-1 x 10^{-7} solar masses per year, corresponding to approximately 2% by mass of the carbon produced by the Wolf-Rayet star. Simultaneous modelling of the imaging and spectral data enables us to constrain both the opening-angle of the wind-wind collision interface and the dust grain size. We conclude that the dust grains in the inner part of the Pinwheel nebula are small (~100A), in agreement with theoretical predictions, although we cannot rule out the presence of larger grains (~1 micron) further from the central binary. The opening angle of the wind-wind collision interface appears to be about 40 degrees, in broad agreement with the wind parameters estimated for the central binary. We discuss the success and deficiencies of the model, and the likely benefits of applying similar techniques to the more the more complex nebulae observed around other WR/O star binaries.

Tim J Harries; John D Monnier; Neil H Symington; Ryuichi Kurosawa

2004-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

342

PLASMA JETS AND ERUPTIONS IN SOLAR CORONAL HOLES: A THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUX EMERGENCE EXPERIMENT  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3D) numerical experiment of the launching of a hot and fast coronal jet followed by several violent eruptions is analyzed in detail. These events are initiated through the emergence of a magnetic flux rope from the solar interior into a coronal hole. We explore the evolution of the emerging magnetically dominated plasma dome surmounted by a current sheet and the ensuing pattern of reconnection. A hot and fast coronal jet with inverted-Y shape is produced that shows properties comparable to those frequently observed with EUV and X-ray detectors. We analyze its 3D shape, its inhomogeneous internal structure, and its rise and decay phases, lasting for some 15-20 minutes each. Particular attention is devoted to the field line connectivities and the reconnection pattern. We also study the cool and high-density volume that appears to encircle the emerged dome. The decay of the jet is followed by a violent phase with a total of five eruptions. The first of them seems to follow the general pattern of tether-cutting reconnection in a sheared arcade, although modified by the field topology created by the preceding reconnection evolution. The two following eruptions take place near and above the strong-field concentrations at the surface. They show a twisted, {Omega}-loop-like rope expanding in height, with twist being turned into writhe, thus hinting at a kink instability (perhaps combined with a torus instability) as the cause of the eruption. The succession of a main jet ejection and a number of violent eruptions that resemble mini-CMEs and their physical properties suggest that this experiment may provide a model for the blowout jets recently proposed in the literature.

Moreno-Insertis, F. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna (Tenerife) (Spain); Galsgaard, K. [Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

FISH: A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARALLEL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICAL APPLICATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

FISH is a fast and simple ideal magnetohydrodynamics code that scales to {approx}10,000 processes for a Cartesian computational domain of {approx}1000{sup 3} cells. The simplicity of FISH has been achieved by the rigorous application of the operator splitting technique, while second-order accuracy is maintained by the symmetric ordering of the operators. Between directional sweeps, the three-dimensional data are rotated in memory so that the sweep is always performed in a cache-efficient way along the direction of contiguous memory. Hence, the code only requires a one-dimensional description of the conservation equations to be solved. This approach also enables an elegant novel parallelization of the code that is based on persistent communications with MPI for cubic domain decomposition on machines with distributed memory. This scheme is then combined with an additional OpenMP parallelization of different sweeps that can take advantage of clusters of shared memory. We document the detailed implementation of a second-order total variation diminishing advection scheme based on flux reconstruction. The magnetic fields are evolved by a constrained transport scheme. We show that the subtraction of a simple estimate of the hydrostatic gradient from the total gradients can significantly reduce the dissipation of the advection scheme in simulations of gravitationally bound hydrostatic objects. Through its simplicity and efficiency, FISH is as well suited for hydrodynamics classes as for large-scale astrophysical simulations on high-performance computer clusters. In preparation for the release of a public version, we demonstrate the performance of FISH in a suite of astrophysically orientated test cases.

Kaeppeli, R.; Whitehouse, S. C.; Scheidegger, S.; Liebendoerfer, M. [Physics Department, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pen, U.-L., E-mail: roger.kaeppeli@unibas.ch [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto (Canada)

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Application of three-dimensional transport code to the analysis of the neutron streaming experiment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper summarized the calculational results of neutron streaming through a Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) Prototype coolant pipe chaseway. Particular emphasis is placed on results at bends in the chaseway. Calculations were performed with three three-dimensional codes: the discrete ordinates radiation transport code TORT and Monte Carlo radiation transport code MORSE, which were developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the discrete ordinates code ENSEMBLE, which was developed in Japan. The purpose of the calculations is not only to compare the calculational results with the experimental results, but also to compare the results of TORT and MORSE with those of ENSEMBLE. In the TORT calculations, two types of difference methods, weighted-difference method was applied in ENSEMBLE calculation. Both TORT and ENSEMBLE produced nearly the same calculational results, but differed in the number of iterations required for converging each neutron group. Also, the two types of difference methods in the TORT calculations showed no appreciable variance in the number of iterations required. However, a noticeable disparity in the computer times and some variation in the calculational results did occur. The comparisons of the calculational results with the experimental results, showed for the epithermal neutron flux generally good agreement in the first and second legs and at the first bend where the two-dimensional modeling might be difficult. Results were fair to poor along the centerline of the first leg near the opening to the second leg because of discrete ordinates ray effects. Additionally, the agreement was good throughout the first and second legs for the thermal neutron region. Calculations with MORSE were made. These calculational results and comparisons are described also. 8 refs., 4 figs.

Chatani, K.; Slater, C.O.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Accurate quantum thermal rate constants for the three-dimensional H+H/sub 2/ reaction  

SciTech Connect

The rate constants for the three-dimensional H+H/sub 2/ reaction on the Liu--Siegbahn--Truhlar--Horowitz (LSTH) surface are calculated using Pack--Parker hyperspherical (APH) coordinates and a /ital C//sub 2/ital v// symmetry adapted direct product discrete variable representation (DVR). The /ital C//sub 2/ital v// symmetry decomposition and the parity decoupling on the basis are performed for the internal coordinate xi. The symmetry decomposition results in a block diagonal representation of the flux and Hamiltonian operators. The multisurface flux is introduced to represent the multichannel reactive flux. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the /ital J/=0 internal Hamiltonian are obtained by sequential diagonalization and truncation. The individual symmetry blocks of the flux operator are propagated by the corresponding blocks of the Hamiltonian, and the /ital J/=0 rate constant /ital k//sup 0/(/ital T/) is obtained as a sum of the rate constants calculated for each block. /ital k//sup 0/(/ital T/) is compared with the exact /ital k//sup 0/(/ital T/) obtained from thermal averaging of the /ital J/=0 reaction probabilities; the errors are within 5%--20% up to /ital T/=1500 K. The sequential diagonalization--truncation method reduces the size of the Hamiltonian greatly, but the resulting Hamiltonian matrix still describes the time evolution very accurately. For the /ital J//ne/0 rate constant calculations, the truncated internal Hamiltonian eigenvector basis is used to construct reduced (/ital JK//sub /ital J//) blocks of the Hamiltonian. The individual (/ital JK//sub /ital J//) blocks are diagonalized neglecting Coriolis coupling and treating the off-diagonal /ital K//sub /ital J//+-2 couplings by second order perturbation theory. The full wave function is parity decoupled. The rate constant is obtained as a sum over /ital J/ of (2/ital J/+1)/ital k//sup /ital J//(/ital T/).

Park, T. J.; Light, J. C.

1989-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

347

MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORONAL MASS EJECTION CLOUD RECONSTRUCTED FROM THREE VIEWPOINTS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The propagation properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are crucial to predict its geomagnetic effect. A newly developed three-dimensional (3D) mask fitting reconstruction method using coronagraph images from three viewpoints has been described and applied to the CME ejected on 2010 August 7. The CME's 3D localization, real shape, and morphological evolution are presented. Due to its interaction with the ambient solar wind, the morphology of this CME changed significantly in the early phase of evolution. Two hours after its initiation, it was expanding almost self-similarly. The CME's 3D localization is quite helpful to link remote sensing observations to in situ measurements. The investigated CME was propagating to Venus with its flank just touching STEREO B. Its corresponding interplanetary CME in the interplanetary space shows a possible signature of a magnetic cloud with a preceding shock in Venus Express (VEX) observations, while from STEREO B only a shock is observed. We have calculated three principal axes for the reconstructed 3D CME cloud. The orientation of the major axis is, in general, consistent with the orientation of a filament (polarity inversion line) observed by SDO/AIA and SDO/HMI. The flux rope axis derived by the Minimal Variance Analysis from VEX indicates a radial-directed axis orientation. It might be that locally only the leg of the flux rope passed through VEX. The height and speed profiles from the Sun to Venus are obtained. We find that the CME speed possibly had been adjusted to the speed of the ambient solar wind flow after leaving the COR2 field of view and before arriving at Venus. A southward deflection of the CME from the source region is found from the trajectory of the CME geometric center. We attribute it to the influence of the coronal hole where the fast solar wind emanated from.

Feng, L.; Gan, W. Q. [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Inhester, B.; Wei, Y. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Sonnensystemforschung, Max-Planck-Str.2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Zhang, T. L. [Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, 8042 Graz (Austria); Wang, M. Y., E-mail: lfeng@pmo.ac.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 200030 Shanghai (China)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

348

Focused ion beam assisted three-dimensional rock imaging at submicron scale  

SciTech Connect

Computation of effective flow properties of fluids in porous media based on three dimensional (3D) pore structure information has become more successful in the last few years, due to both improvements in the input data and the network models. Computed X-ray microtomography has been successful in 3D pore imaging at micron scale, which is adequate for many sandstones. For other rocks of economic interest, such as chalk and diatomite, submicron resolution is needed in order to resolve the 3D-pore structure. To achieve submicron resolution, a new method of sample serial sectioning and imaging using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technology has been developed and 3D pore images of the pore system for diatomite and chalk have been obtained. FIB was used in the milling of layers as wide as 50 micrometers and as thin as 100 nanometers by sputtering of atoms from the sample surface. The focused ion beam, consisting of gallium ions (Ga+) accelerated by potentials of up to 30 kV and currents up to 20,000 pA, yields very clean, flat surfaces in which the pore-grain boundaries appear in high contrast. No distortion of the pore boundaries due to the ion milling is apparent. After each milling step, as a new surface is exposed, an image of the surface is generated. Using secondary electrons or ions, resolutions as high as 10 nm can be obtained. Afterwards, the series of 2D images can be stacked in the computer and, using appropriate interpolation and surface rendering algorithms, the 3D pore structure is reconstructed.

Tomutsa, Liviu; Radmilovic, Velimir

2003-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

349

Three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging of sodium ions using stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of {sup 23}Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na{sup +} distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na{sup +} ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of {sup 23}Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na{sup +} is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T{sub 2}. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo {sup 23}Na T{sub 2} values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25{mu}s, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form.

Frederick, B.deB. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Simulation tool for variably saturated flow with comprehensive geochemical reactions in two- and three-dimensional domains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a software tool for simulations of flow and multi-component solute transport in two- and three-dimensional domains in combination with comprehensive intra-phase and inter-phase geochemistry. The software uses IPhreeqc as a reaction engine ... Keywords: COMSOL, Geochemistry, IPhreeqc, PHREEQC, Reaction, Richards' equation, Solute transport, Unsaturated flow

L. Wissmeier; D. A. Barry

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Three-Dimensional Air Motions over the Baiu Front Observed by a VHF-Band Doppler Radar: A Case Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Upper-tmpospheric three dimensional air motions have been observed for the first time during the Baiu period in 1984 by using a 46.5 MHz Doppler radar in Japan. This radar, called the MU radar, operates with an antenna aperture of 8330 m2 and ...

Shoichiro Fukao; Manabu D. Yamanaka; Toru Sato; Toshitaka Tsuda; Susumu Kato

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

On the three-dimensional instability of a swirling, annular, inviscid liquid sheet subject to unequal gas velocities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the increased surface area for interaction between the gas and the liquid. Many practical atomizers, includingOn the three-dimensional instability of a swirling, annular, inviscid liquid sheet subject to unequal gas velocities Mahesh V. Panchagnula, Paul E. Sojka,a) and Philip J. Santangelo Thermal Sciences

Panchagnula, Mahesh

353

A general framework for three-dimensional surface reconstruction by self-consistent fusion of shading and shadow features  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper a novel framework for three-dimensional surface reconstruction by self-consistent fusion of shading and shadow features is presented. Based on the analysis of at least two pixel-synchronous images of the scene under different illumination ... Keywords: Lunar surface, Photoclinometry, Quality inspection, Shadow analysis, Shape from shading, Surface reconstruction

Christian Wöhler; Kia Hafezi

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Two- and Three-Dimensional Simulations of the 9 January 1989 Severe Boulder Windstorm: Comparison with Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulations of the 9 January 1989 Colorado Front Range windstorm using both realistic three-dimensional (3D) orography and a representative two-dimensional (2D) east–west cross-sectional orography are presented. Both Coriolis forcing and surface ...

Terry L. Clark; William D. Hall; Robert M. Banta

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

A Variational Multiple–Doppler Radar Three-Dimensional Wind Synthesis Method and Its Impacts on Thermodynamic Retrieval  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A multiple–Doppler radar synthesis method is developed to recover the three-dimensional wind field. In this method the solutions are obtained by variationally adjusting the winds to satisfy a series of constraints in weak formats. Among them, the ...

Yu-Chieng Liou; Ya-Ju Chang

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

A Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Model to Investigate the Solar Radiation within a Cloudy Atmosphere. Part I: Spatial Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new Monte Carlo–based three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer model of high spectral and spatial resolution is presented. It is used to investigate the difference in broadband solar radiation absorption, top-of-the-atmosphere upwelling, and ...

William O’Hirok; Catherine Gautier

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

A Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Model to Investigate the Solar Radiation within a Cloudy Atmosphere. Part II: Spectral Effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this second part of a two-part paper, the spectral response of the interaction between gases, cloud droplets, and solar radiation is investigated using a Monte Carlo-based three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer model with a spectral ...

William O’Hirok; Catherine Gautier

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Three-Dimensional Volumetric Analysis of Irradiated Lung With Adjuvant Breast Irradiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the dose-volume histogram data of irradiated lung in adjuvant breast radiotherapy (ABR) using a three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT)-guided planning technique; and to investigate the relationship between lung dose-volume data and traditionally used two-dimensional (2D) parameters, as well as their correlation with the incidence of steroid-requiring radiation pneumonitis (SRRP). Methods and Materials: Patients beginning ABR between January 2005 and February 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients included were women aged >=18 years with ductal carcinoma in situ or Stage I-III invasive carcinoma, who received radiotherapy using a 3D-CT technique to the breast or chest wall (two-field radiotherapy [2FRT]) with or without supraclavicular irradiation (three-field radiotherapy [3FRT]), to 50 Gy in 25 fractions. A 10-Gy tumor-bed boost was allowed. Lung dose-volume histogram parameters (V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40}), 2D parameters (central lung depth [CLD], maximum lung depth [MLD], and lung length [LL]), and incidence of SRRP were reported. Results: A total of 89 patients met the inclusion criteria: 51 had 2FRT, and 38 had 3FRT. With 2FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 40} and CLD, MLD, LL were 20%, 14%, 11%, and 8% and 2.0 cm, 2.1 cm, and 14.6 cm, respectively, with strong correlation between CLD and ipsilateral V{sub 10-V40} (R{sup 2} = 0.73-0.83, p < 0.0005). With 3FRT, mean ipsilateral V{sub 10}, V{sub 20}, V{sub 30}, and V{sub 40} were 30%, 22%, 17%, and 11%, but its correlation with 2D parameters was poor. With a median follow-up of 14.5 months, 1 case of SRRP was identified. Conclusions: With only 1 case of SRRP observed, our study is limited in its ability to provide definitive guidance, but it does provide a starting point for acceptable lung irradiation during ABR. Further prospective studies are warranted.

Teh, Amy Yuen Meei, E-mail: amy.teh@petermac.or [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Park, Eileen J.H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore); Shen Liang [Biostatistics Unit, Yang Loo Ling School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Chung, Hans T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Cancer Institute, National University Hospital (Singapore)

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Three Dimensional, Integrated Characterization and Archival System for Remote Facility Contaminant Characterization  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The largest problem facing the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) is the cleanup of the Cold War legacy nuclear production plants that were built and operated from the mid-forties through the late eighties. EM is now responsible for the remediation of no less than 353 projects at 53 sites across the country at, an estimated cost of $147 billion over the next 72 years. One of the keys to accomplishing a thorough cleanup of any site is a rigorous but quick contaminant characterization capability. If the contaminants present in a facility can be mapped accurately, the cleanup can proceed with surgical precision, using appropriate techniques for each contaminant type and location. The three dimensional, integrated characterization and archival system (3D-ICAS) was developed for the purpose of rapid, field level identification, mapping, and archiving of contaminant data. The system consists of three subsystems, an integrated work and operating station, a 3-D coherent laser radar, and a contaminant analysis unit. Target contaminants that can be identified include chemical (currently organic only), radiological, and base materials (asbestos). In operation, two steps are required. First, the remotely operable 3-D laser radar maps an area of interest in the spatial domain. Second, the remotely operable contaminant analysis unit maps the area of interest in the chemical, radiological, and base material domains. The resultant information is formatted for display and archived using an integrated workstation. A 3-D model of the merged spatial and contaminant domains cart be displayed along with a color-coded contaminant tag at each analysis point. In addition, all of the supporting detailed data are archived for subsequent QC checks. The 3D-ICAS system is capable of performing all contaminant characterization in a dwell time of 6 seconds. The radiological and chemical sensors operate at US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory levels. Base materials identification is accomplished using a molecular vibrational spectroscopy, which can identify materials such as asbestos, concrete, wood, or transite. The multipurpose sensor head is positioned robotically using a small CRS Robotics A465 arm, which is registered to the environment map by the 3-D laser radar.

Barry, R.E.; Gallman, P.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.

1999-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

360

THREE-DIMENSIONAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR WIND DURING SOLAR CYCLES 22-24  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an analysis of three-dimensional evolution of solar wind density turbulence and speed at various levels of solar activity between solar cycles 22 and 24. The solar wind data used in this study have been obtained from the interplanetary scintillation (IPS) measurements made at the Ooty Radio Telescope, operating at 327 MHz. Results show that (1) on average, there was a downward trend in density turbulence from the maximum of cycle 22 to the deep minimum phase of cycle 23; (2) the scattering diameter of the corona around the Sun shrunk steadily toward the Sun, starting from 2003 to the smallest size at the deepest minimum, and it corresponded to a reduction of {approx}50% in the density turbulence between the maximum and minimum phases of cycle 23; (3) the latitudinal distribution of the solar wind speed was significantly different between the minima of cycles 22 and 23. At the minimum phase of solar cycle 22, when the underlying solar magnetic field was simple and nearly dipole in nature, the high-speed streams were observed from the poles to {approx}30 Degree-Sign latitudes in both hemispheres. In contrast, in the long-decay phase of cycle 23, the sources of the high-speed wind at both poles, in accordance with the weak polar fields, occupied narrow latitude belts from poles to {approx}60 Degree-Sign latitudes. Moreover, in agreement with the large amplitude of the heliospheric current sheet, the low-speed wind prevailed in the low- and mid-latitude regions of the heliosphere. (4) At the transition phase between cycles 23 and 24, the high levels of density and density turbulence were observed close to the heliospheric equator and the low-speed solar wind extended from the equatorial-to-mid-latitude regions. The above results in comparison with Ulysses and other in situ measurements suggest that the source of the solar wind has changed globally, with the important implication that the supply of mass and energy from the Sun to the interplanetary space has been significantly reduced in the prolonged period of low solar activity. The IPS results are consistent with the onset and growth of the current solar cycle 24, starting from the middle of 2009. However, the width of the high-speed wind at the northern high latitudes has almost disappeared and indicates that the ascending phase of the current cycle has almost reached the maximum phase in the northern hemisphere of the Sun. However, in the southern part of the hemisphere, the solar activity has yet to develop and/or increase.

Manoharan, P. K., E-mail: mano@ncra.tifr.res.in [Radio Astronomy Centre, National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Udhagamandalam (Ooty) 643001 (India)

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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361

Three-Dimensional Integration Technology for Advanced Focal Planes and Integrated Circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the last five years MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT-LL) has developed a three-dimensional (3D) circuit integration technology that exploits the advantages of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology to enable wafer-level stacking and micrometer-scale electrical interconnection of fully fabricated circuit wafers. Advanced focal plane arrays have been the first applications to exploit the benefits of this 3D integration technology because the massively parallel information flow present in 2D imaging arrays maps very nicely into a 3D computational structure as information flows from circuit-tier to circuit-tier in the z-direction. To date, the MIT-LL 3D integration technology has been used to fabricate four different focal planes including: a 2-tier 64 x 64 imager with fully parallel per-pixel A/D conversion; a 3-tier 640 x 480 imager consisting of an imaging tier, an A/D conversion tier, and a digital signal processing tier; a 2-tier 1024 x 1024 pixel, 4-side-abutable imaging modules for tiling large mosaic focal planes, and a 3-tier Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) 3-D LIDAR array, using a 30 volt APD tier, a 3.3 volt CMOS tier, and a 1.5 volt CMOS tier. Recently, the 3D integration technology has been made available to the circuit design research community through DARPA-sponsored Multiproject fabrication runs. The first Multiproject Run (3DL1) completed fabrication in early 2006 and included over 30 different circuit designs from 21 different research groups. 3D circuit concepts explored in this run included stacked memories, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and mixed-signal circuits. The second Multiproject Run (3DM2) is currently in fabrication and includes particle detector readouts designed by Fermilab. This talk will provide a brief overview of MIT-LL's 3D-integration process, discuss some of the focal plane applications where the technology is being applied, and provide a summary of some of the Multiproject Run circuit results.

Keast, Craig (M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory)

2007-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

362

Three-Dimensional Studies of the Warm Ionized Medium in the Milky Way using WHAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) is a high throughput Fabry-Perot facility developed specifically to detect and explore the warm, ionized component of the interstellar medium at high spectral resolution. It began operating at Kitt Peak, Arizona in 1997 and has recently completed the WHAM Northern Sky Survey (WHAM-NSS), providing the first global view of the distribution and kinematics of the warm, diffuse H II in the Milky Way. This H-alpha survey reveals a complex spatial and kinematic structure in the warm ionized medium and provides a foundation for studies of the temperature and ionization state of the gas, the spectrum and strength of the ionizing radiation, and its relationship to other components of the interstellar medium and sources of ionization and heating within the Galactic disk and halo. More information about WHAM and the Survey can be found at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/wham/.

R. J. Reynolds; L. M. Haffner; G. J. Madsen

2002-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Three-Dimensional Studies of the Warm Ionized Medium in the Milky Way using WHAM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Wisconsin H-Alpha Mapper (WHAM) is a high throughput Fabry-Perot facility developed specifically to detect and explore the warm, ionized component of the interstellar medium at high spectral resolution. It began operating at Kitt Peak, Arizona in 1997 and has recently completed the WHAM Northern Sky Survey (WHAM-NSS), providing the first global view of the distribution and kinematics of the warm, diffuse H II in the Milky Way. This H-alpha survey reveals a complex spatial and kinematic structure in the warm ionized medium and provides a foundation for studies of the temperature and ionization state of the gas, the spectrum and strength of the ionizing radiation, and its relationship to other components of the interstellar medium and sources of ionization and heating within the Galactic disk and halo. More information about WHAM and the Survey can be found at http://www.astro.wisc.edu/wham/.

Reynolds, R J; Madsen, G J

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.

Jae-Hwang Lee

2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

365

Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes for Catalysis of Fuel Cell Reactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes for Catalysis of Fuel Cell Reactions John B. Kerr Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) September 30, 2009 Team Members: Adam Weber, Rachel Segalman, Robert Kostecki, Jeff Reimer, John Arnold, Martin Head-Gordon (LBNL). Piotr Zelenay, James Boncella, Yu Seung Kim, Neil Henson, Jerzy Chlistunoff (LANL). Steve Hamrock, Radoslav Atanasoski (3M) Budget: DOE share - $9.58MM over four years; 3M share - in-kind over four years. 2 Objectives 1) Demonstrate that non-platinum group metal catalysts can be used for oxygen reduction in polymer-coated electrode structures based on polyelectrolyte membranes. 2) Incorporate catalysts into polymer binders of composite electrodes for the construction of MEAs to demonstrate that this

366

Capriccio after Davison: translating two-dimensional still imagery into an artistic, dynamic three-dimensional space  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Two-dimensional fine art can serve as a source of inspiration for new works in the relatively young medium of three-dimensional computer animation. Artists are just beginning to discover the potential that digital technology has for realizing their visions not only within the third dimension of depth space, but also within the fourth dimension of time. The purpose of this research is to develop a process for translating the visual forms and atmosphere of an artist's two-dimensional drawings into a three-dimensional, computer-animated interpretation. While this process will be able to serve, in a general sense, as a repeatable guide for comparable work, it is not meant to be a strict didactic approach.

Thomason, Paul Kevin

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Three-dimensional fluid-structure interaction dynamics of a pool-reactor in-tank component. [LMFBR  

SciTech Connect

The safety evaluation of reactor-components often involves the analysis of various types of fluid/structural components interacting in three-dimensional space. For example, in the design of a pool-type reactor several vital in-tank components such as the primary pumps and the intermediate heat exchangers are contained within the primary tank. Typically, these components are suspended from the deck structure and largely submersed in the sodium pool. Because of this positioning these components are vulnerable to structural damage due to pressure wave propagation in the tank during a CDA. In order to assess the structural integrity of these components it is necessary to perform a dynamic analysis in three-dimensional space which accounts for the fluid-structure coupling. A model is developed which has many of the salient features of this fluid-structural component system.

Kulak, R.F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Existence and conditional energetic stability of three-dimensional fully localised solitary gravity-capillary water waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we show that the hydrodynamic problem for three-dimensional water waves with strong surface-tension effects admits a fully localised solitary wave which decays to the undisturbed state of the water in every horizontal direction. The proof is based upon the classical variational principle that a solitary wave of this type is a critical point of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed. We prove the existence of a minimiser of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed and small. The existence of a small-amplitude solitary wave is thus assured, and since the energy and momentum are both conserved quantities a standard argument may be used to establish the stability of the set of minimisers as a whole. `Stability' is however understood in a qualified sense due to the lack of a global well-posedness theory for three-dimensional water waves.

Buffoni, Boris; Sun, Shu-Ming; Wahlén, Erik

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Existence and conditional energetic stability of three-dimensional fully localised solitary gravity-capillary water waves  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we show that the hydrodynamic problem for three-dimensional water waves with strong surface-tension effects admits a fully localised solitary wave which decays to the undisturbed state of the water in every horizontal direction. The proof is based upon the classical variational principle that a solitary wave of this type is a critical point of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed. We prove the existence of a minimiser of the energy subject to the constraint that the momentum is fixed and small. The existence of a small-amplitude solitary wave is thus assured, and since the energy and momentum are both conserved quantities a standard argument may be used to establish the stability of the set of minimisers as a whole. `Stability' is however understood in a qualified sense due to the lack of a global well-posedness theory for three-dimensional water waves.

Boris Buffoni; Mark D. Groves; Shu-Ming Sun; Erik Wahlén

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

370

Three dimensional optical manipulation and structural imaging of soft materials by use of laser tweezers and multimodal nonlinear microscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop an integrated system of holographic optical trapping and multimodal nonlinear microscopy and perform simultaneous three-dimensional optical manipulation and non-invasive structural imaging of composite soft-matter systems. We combine different nonlinear microscopy techniques such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, multi-photon excitation fluorescence and multi-harmonic generation, and use them for visualization of long-range molecular order in soft materials by means of their polarized excitation and detection. The combined system enables us to accomplish both, manipulation in composite soft materials such as colloidal inclusions in liquid crystals as well as imaging of each separate constituents of the composite material in different nonlinear optical modalities. We also demonstrate optical generation and control of topological defects and simultaneous reconstruction of their three-dimensional long-range molecular orientational patterns from the nonlinear optical images.

Rahul P. Trivedi; Taewoo Lee; Kris A. Bertness; Ivan I. Smalyukh

2010-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

371

Sensitivity analysis of reactivity responses using one-dimensional discrete ordinates and three-dimensional Monte Carlo methods  

SciTech Connect

The TSUNAMI computational sequences currently in the SCALE 5 code system provide an automated approach to performing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for eigenvalue responses, using either one-dimensional discrete ordinates or three-dimensional Monte Carlo methods. This capability has recently been expanded to address eigenvalue-difference responses such as reactivity changes. This paper describes the methodology and presents results obtained for an example advanced CANDU reactor design. (authors)

Williams, M. L.; Gehin, J. C.; Clarno, K. T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Bldg. 5700, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6170 (United States)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Three-dimensional geomechanical simulation of reservoir compaction and implications for well failures in the Belridge diatomite  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an integrated geomechanics analysis of well casing damage induced by compaction of the diatomite reservoir at the Belridge Field, California. Historical data from the five field operators were compiled and analyzed to determine correlations between production, injection, subsidence, and well failures. The results of this analysis were used to develop a three-dimensional geomechanical model of South Belridge, Section 33 to examine the diatomite reservoir and overburden response to production and injection at the interwell scale and to evaluate potential well failure mechanisms. The time-dependent reservoir pressure field was derived from a three-dimensional finite difference reservoir simulation and used as input to three-dimensional non-linear finite element geomechanical simulations. The reservoir simulation included -200 wells and covered 18 years of production and injection. The geomechanical simulation contained 437,100 nodes and 374,130 elements with the overburden and reservoir discretized into 13 layers with independent material properties. The results reveal the evolution of the subsurface stress and displacement fields with production and injection and suggest strategies for reducing the occurrence of well casing damage.

Fredrich, J.T. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States); Argueello, J.G.; Thorne, B.J.; Wawersik, W.R. [SPE, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Free vibration analysis of complete paraboloidal shells of revolution with variable thickness and solid paraboloids from a three-dimensional theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3-D) method of analysis is presented for determining the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of solid paraboloids and complete (that is, without a top opening) paraboloidal shells of revolution with variable wall thickness. ... Keywords: Complete paraboloidal shells, Ritz method, Shells of revolution, Solid paraboloids, Thick shell, Three-dimensional analysis, Variable thickness, Vibration

Jae-Hoon Kang; Arthur W. Leissa

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Evaluation of the Fish Passage Effectiveness of the Bonneville I Prototype Surface Collector using Three-Dimensional Ultrasonic Fish Tracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.

Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah; Rhondorf, D.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Three-dimensional natural convection of a fluid with temperature-dependent viscosity in an enclosure with localized heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Three-dimensional natural convection of a fluid in an enclosure is examined. The geometry is motivated by a possible magmaenergy extraction system, and the fluid is a magma simulant and has a highly temperature-dependent viscosity. Flow simulations are performed for enclosures with and without a cylinder, which represents the extractor, using the finite-element code FIDAP (Fluid Dynamics International). The presence of the cylinder completely alters the flow pattern. Flow-visualization and PIV experiments are in qualitative agreement wit the simulations.

Torczynski, J.R.; Henderson, J.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Chu, T.Y.; Blanchat, T.K.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Physical modeling and numerical simulation of subcooled boiling in one- and three-dimensional representation of bundle geometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Numerical simulation of subcooled boiling in one-dimensional geometry with the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) may yield difficulties related to the very low sonic velocity associated with the HEM. These difficulties do not arise with subcritical flow. Possible solutions of the problem include introducing a relaxation of the vapor production rate. Three-dimensional simulations of subcooled boiling in bundle geometry typical of fast reactors can be performed by using two systems of conservation equations, one for the HEM and the other for a Separated Phases Model (SPM), with a smooth transition between the two models.

Bottoni, M.; Lyczkowski, R.; Ahuja, S.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Paraconductivity of three-dimensional amorphous superconductors: evidence for a short-wavelength cutoff in the fluctuation spectrum  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the temperature dependence and magnetic field dependence of the paraconductivity of a three dimensional amorphous superconductor are presented. The data are analyzed in terms of several current theories and are found to give good agreement for low fields and temperatures near T/sub c/. The paraconductivity falls well below predicted theoretical values in the high temperature and high field limits. This is attributed to the reduced role of high wavevector contributions to the paraconductivity. It is shown that the introduction of a short wavelength cutoff in the theoretical fluctuation spectrum provides a phenomelogical account of the discrepancy between theory and experiment.

Johnson, W.L.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Coexistence of Two- and Three-dimensional Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Ar^+ -irradiated KTaO_3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the electron doping in the surface vicinity of KTaO{sub 3} by inducing oxygen-vacancies via Ar{sup +}-irradiation. The doped electrons have high mobility (> 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/Vs) at low temperatures, and exhibit Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with both two- and three-dimensional components. A disparity of the extracted in-plane effective mass, compared to the bulk values, suggests mixing of the orbital characters. Our observations demonstrate that Ar{sup +}-irradiation serves as a flexible tool to study low dimensional quantum transport in 5d semiconducting oxides.

Harashima, S.; Bell, C.; Kim, M.; Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.

2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

379

Development of an Evaluation and Acceptance Methodology for Commercial Two- and Three-Dimensional Plant Modeling Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report identifies a methodology for owner-operators to use to evaluate and then accept commercial two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) software tools and databases to support maintaining nuclear plant design basis information. These tools are currently used only to produce hard copy documents, which are then manually reviewed corner-to-corner each time the document is printed. After the manual review, the signed hard copy documents are used as a source of configuration-controlled ...

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Comparisons of computed and measured three-dimensional velocity fields in a motored two-stroke engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Computer simulations are compared with measurements of the three-dimensional, unsteady scavenging flows of a motored two-stroke engine. Laser Doppler velocimetry measurements were made on a modified Suzuki DT-85 ported engine. Calculations were performed using KIVA-3, a computer program that efficiently solves the intake and exhaust port flows along with those in the cylinder. Measured and computed cylinder pressures and velocities are compared. Pressures agree well over the cycle as do the velocities at the intake ports. In-cylinder velocities differ in detail, but the tumbling motion in the cylinder is well replicated in vertical plane passing through the cylinder axis. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Amsden, A.A.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Butler, T.D. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Meintjes, K.; Fansler, T.D. (General Motors Research Labs., Warren, MI (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Three dimensional gravity modeling techniques with application to the Ennis Geothermal Area: Final report: Part 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

3-D gravity modeling was done in the area of the Ennis hot spring in an attempt to determine controlling structure of the Ennis hot spring. The modeling was done in a two-step process where: 1) The topography was modeled by modeling the valley fill from the highest elevation in the modeling area to some elevation below the lowest station elevation using Talwani and Ewing's (1960) method of modeling with vertically-stacked, horizontal, n-sided polygons. Once the gravity contributions of the valley fill included in this ''topographic model'' are calculated, they were removed from the original gravity data; 2) The remaining valley fill was modeled using blocks where the 3-D algorithm for modeling with blocks results from integrating the gravity formula in the X and Z directions and approximating the integration in the Y-direction using a quadrature formula. Finally, an inverse 3-D gravity modeling program was written to automatically adjust the bedrock topography output from this two-step modeling process. The gravity data calculated from the adjusted bedrock topography, output from the inverse modeling program, should match the observed gravity data within the error of the survey. 43 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

Semmens, D.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Reflection Survey At Under Steamboat Springs Area (Warpinski...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of 2000, (2) a micro-seismic survey run from November 2000 to April 200 1, and (3) a gravity survey conducted in April and May 2001. The 3-D surface seismic data are still being...

383

Boundary-Layer Receptivity to Three-Dimensional Roughness Arrays on a Swept-Wing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-going efforts to reduce aircraft drag through transition delay focus on understanding the process of boundary-layer transition from a physics-based perspective. For swept-wings subject to transition dominated by a stationary crossflow instability, one of the remaining challenges is understanding how freestream disturbances and surface features such as surface roughness create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves. These waves grow, modify the mean flow and create conditions for secondary instabilities to occur, which in turn ultimately lead to transition. Computational methods that model the primary and secondary instability growth can accurately model disturbance evolution as long as appropriate initial conditions are supplied. Additionally, transition delay using discrete roughness arrays that exploit known sensitivities to surface roughness has been demonstrated in flight and wind tunnel testing; however, inconsistencies in performance from the two test platforms indicate further testing is required. This study uses detailed hotwire boundary-layer velocity scans to quantify the relationship between roughness height and initial disturbance amplitude. Naphthalene flow visualization provides insight into how transition changes as a result of roughness height and spacing. Micron-sized, circular roughness elements were applied near the leading edge of the ASU(67)-0315 model installed at an angle of attack of -2.9 degrees in the Klebanoff-Saric Wind Tunnel. Extensive flow quality measurements show turbulence intensities less than 0.02% over the speed range of interest. A survey of multiple roughness heights for the most unstable and control wavelengths and Reynolds numbers of 2.4 x 10? 2.8 x 10? and 3.2 x 10? was completed for chord locations of 10%, 15% and 20%. When care was taken to measure in the region of linear stability, it was found that the disturbance amplitude varies almost linearly with roughness height. Naphthalene flow visualization indicates that moderate changes in already-low freestream turbulence levels can have a significant impact on transition behavior.

Hunt, Lauren Elizabeth

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

COMMIX-PPC: A three-dimensional transient multicomponent computer program for analyzing performance of power plant condensers  

SciTech Connect

The COMMIX-PPC computer pregrain is an extended and improved version of earlier COMMIX codes and is specifically designed for evaluating the thermal performance of power plant condensers. The COMMIX codes are general-purpose computer programs for the analysis of fluid flow and heat transfer in complex Industrial systems. In COMMIX-PPC, two major features have been added to previously published COMMIX codes. One feature is the incorporation of one-dimensional equations of conservation of mass, momentum, and energy on the tube stile and the proper accounting for the thermal interaction between shell and tube side through the porous-medium approach. The other added feature is the extension of the three-dimensional conservation equations for shell-side flow to treat the flow of a multicomponent medium. COMMIX-PPC is designed to perform steady-state and transient. Three-dimensional analysis of fluid flow with heat transfer tn a power plant condenser. However, the code is designed in a generalized fashion so that, with some modification, it can be used to analyze processes in any heat exchanger or other single-phase engineering applications. Volume I (Equations and Numerics) of this report describes in detail the basic equations, formulation, solution procedures, and models for a phenomena. Volume II (User's Guide and Manual) contains the input instruction, flow charts, sample problems, and descriptions of available options and boundary conditions.

Chien, T.H.; Domanus, H.M.; Sha, W.T.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Numerical Analysis of the Dynamics of Two- and Three-Dimensional Fluidized Bed Reactors using an Euler-Lagrange Approach  

SciTech Connect

Biomass thermochemical conversion, often done in fluidized beds, recently gained a lot of attention due to its potential to efficiently produce renewable liquid fuels. Optimization of reactor design and operating conditions, however, requires a fundamental understanding of bed dynamics. In this work, a numerical framework based on an Euler-Lagrange approach is developed and used to perform and analyze large-scale simulations of two- and three-dimensional periodic fluidized beds. Collisions are handled using a soft-sphere model. An efficient parallel implementation allows one to explicitly track over 30 million particles, which is representative of the number of particles found in lab-scale reactor, therefore demonstrating the capability of Lagrangian approaches to simulate realistic systems at that scale. An on-the-fly bubble identification and tracking algorithm is used to characterize bubble dynamics for inlet velocities up to 9 times the minimum fluidization velocity. Statistics for gas volume fraction, gas and particle velocities, bed expansion, and bubble size and velocity, is compared across the two- and three-dimensional configurations, and comparison with literature data generally shows good agreement. The wide distribution of gas residence times observed in the simulations is linked to the different gas hold-up characteristics of the gas-solid system.

Pepiot, P.; Desjardins, O.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Ionization of one- and three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric-top molecules by intense circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on strong-field ionization of a three-dimensionally-oriented asymmetric top molecule, benzonitrile (C{sub 7}H{sub 5}N), by circularly polarized, nonresonant femtosecond laser pulses. Prior to the interaction with the strong field, the molecules are quantum-state selected using a deflector and three-dimensionally (3D) aligned and oriented adiabatically using an elliptically polarized laser pulse in combination with a static electric field. A characteristic splitting in the molecular frame photoelectron momentum distribution reveals the position of the nodal planes of the molecular orbitals from which ionization occurs. The experimental results are supported by a theoretical tunneling model that includes and quantifies the splitting in the momentum distribution. The focus of the present article is to understand strong-field ionization from 3D-oriented asymmetric top molecules, in particular the suppression of electron emission in nodal planes of molecular orbitals. In the preceding article [Dimitrovski et al., Phys. Rev. A 83, 023405 (2011)] the focus is to understand the strong-field ionization of one-dimensionally-oriented polar molecules, in particular asymmetries in the emission direction of the photoelectrons.

Hansen, Jonas L. [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Holmegaard, Lotte; Kalhoej, Line; Kragh, Sofie Louise [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Stapelfeldt, Henrik [Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Filsinger, Frank; Meijer, Gerard; Kuepper, Jochen; Dimitrovski, Darko; Abu-samha, Mahmoud; Martiny, Christian Per Juul; Madsen, Lars Bojer [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Lundbeck Foundation Theoretical Center for Quantum System Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

387

Seismic Studies  

SciTech Connect

This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (2) For probabilistic analyses supporting the demonstration of compliance with preclosure performance objectives, provide a mean seismic hazard curve for the surface facilities area. Results should be consistent with the PSHA for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (3) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for postclosure analyses, provide site-specific seismic time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement) for the waste emplacement level. Time histories should be consistent with the PSHA and reflect available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain. (4) In support of ground-motion site-response modeling, perform field investigations and laboratory testing to provide a technical basis for model inputs. Characterize the repository block and areas in which important-to-safety surface facilities will be sited. Work should support characterization and reduction of uncertainties in inputs to ground-motion site-response modeling. (5) On the basis of rock mechanics, geologic, and seismic information, determine limits on extreme ground motion at Yucca Mountain and document the technical basis for them. (6) Update the ground-motion site-response model, as appropriate, on the basis of new data. Expand and enhance the technical basis for model validation to further increase confidence in the site-response modeling. (7) Document seismic methodologies and approaches in reports to be submitted to the NRC. (8) Address condition reports.

R. Quittmeyer

2006-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

388

A Three-Dimensional Variational Approach for Deriving the Thermodynamic Structure Using Doppler Wind Observations—An Application to a Subtropical Squall Line  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A newly designed retrieval scheme based on three-dimensional variational analysis is used to extract the thermodynamic field of a weather system from Doppler wind measurements. As compared with the traditional retrieval method, with this ...

Yu-Chieng Liou; Tai-Chi Chen Wang; Kao-Shen Chung

2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Convection Produced by Interacting Thunderstorm Outflows. Part I: Control Simulation and Low-Level Moisture Variations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Klemp–Wilhelmson three-dimensional numerical cloud model is used to investigate cloud development along intersecting thunderstorm outflow boundaries. The model initial environment is characterized by a temperature and moisture profile ...

Kelvin K. Droegemeier; Robert B. Wilhelmson

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Development of a Three-Dimensional Meso-? Primitive Equation Model: Katabatic Winds Simulation in the Area of Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The spatial evolution of Antarctic katabatic winds in the area of Terra Nova Bay is examined using the three-dimensional version of the Université Catholique de Louvain-Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (UCL-MAR) mesoscale primitive equation models. ...

Hubert Gallée; Guy Schayes

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

An Application of the Immersed Boundary Method for Recovering the Three-Dimensional Wind Fields over Complex Terrain Using Multiple-Doppler Radar Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study develops an extension of a variational-based multiple-Doppler radar synthesis method to construct the three-dimensional wind field over complex topography. The immersed boundary method (IBM) is implemented to take into account the ...

Yu-Chieng Liou; Shao-Fan Chang; Juanzhen Sun

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Predictability of Total Ozone Using a Global Three-Dimensional Chemical Transport Model Coupled with the MRI/JMA98 GCM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A global three-dimensional chemical transport model is being developed for forecasting total ozone. The model includes detailed stratospheric chemistry and transport and couples with a dynamical module of the Meteorological Research Institute/...

T. T. Sekiyama; K. Shibata

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Partial Spline Models for the Inclusion of Tropopause and Frontal Boundary Information in Otherwise Smooth Two- and Three-Dimensional Objective Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new method, based on partial splint models, is developed for including specified discontinuities in otherwise smooth two- and three-dimensional objective analyses. The method is appropriate for including tropopause height information in two- ...

Jyh-Jen Shiau; Grace Wahba; Donald R. Johnson

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Effects of Subgrid-Scale Mixing Parameterizations on Simulated Distributions of Natural 14C, Temperature, and Salinity in a Three-Dimensional Ocean General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of parameterizations of subgrid-scale mixing on simulated distributions of natural 14C, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model are examined. The parameterizations studied are 1) the Gent–...

Philip B. Duffy; Ken Caldeira; Jerry Selvaggi; Martin I. Hoffert

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Effects of Stratospheric Lapse Rate on Thunderstorm Cloud-Top Structure in a Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation. Part I: Some Basic Results of Comparative Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An anelastic three-dimensional model is used to investigate the effects of stratospheric temperature lapse rate on cloud top height/temperature structure for strongly sheared mature isolated midlatitude thunderstorms. Three comparative ...

Robert E. Schlesinger

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Systematic Study of Longwave Radiative Heating and Cooling within Valleys and Basins Using a Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Monte Carlo code for the physically correct tracing of photons in cloudy atmospheres (MYSTIC) three-dimensional radiative transfer model was used in a parametric study to determine the strength of longwave radiative heating and cooling in ...

Sebastian W. Hoch; C. David Whiteman; Bernhard Mayer

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Heat, Moisture, and Momentum Budgets of Isolated Deep Midlatitude and Tropical Convective Clouds as Diagnosed from Three-Dimensional Model Output. Part I: Control Experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project uses a three-dimensional anelastic cloud model with a simple ice phase parameterization to evaluate the feedback between isolated deep convective clouds and their near surroundings. The horizontal Reynolds averaging approach of ...

Robert E. Schlesinger

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

A Simple Method of Deriving Three-Dimensional Temperature Fields Using Remotely Sensed and In Situ Data for Application to Numerical Hydrodynamic Models of Estuaries and Bays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes the subjective interpolation method (SIM) for generating three-dimensional temperature distributions from remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) fields. SIM incorporates MATLAB-based cloud removal software and a method ...

Timothy R. Keen; Richard W. Gould; Jean-Francois Cayula; Walton E. McBride; John P. Blaha; Clark Rowley

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Three-dimensional shape coding in grasping circuits: A comparison between the anterior intraparietal area and ventral premotor area f5a  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depth information is necessary for adjusting the hand to the three-dimensional 3-D shape of an object to grasp it. The transformation of visual information into appropriate distal motor commands is critically dependent on the anterior intraparietal area ...

Tom Theys; Pierpaolo Pani; Johannes van Loon; Jan Goffin; Peter Janssen

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Characteristics of Correlation Statistics between Droplet Radius and Optical Thickness of Warm Clouds Simulated by a Three-Dimensional Regional-Scale Spectral Bin Microphysics Cloud Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional downscaling simulations using a spectral bin microphysics (SBM) model were conducted to investigate the effects of aerosol amount and dynamical stabilities of the atmosphere on the correlation statistics between cloud droplet ...

Yousuke Sato; Kentaroh Suzuki; Takamichi Iguchi; In-Jin Choi; Hiroyuki Kadowaki; Teruyuki Nakajima

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

TOWARD END-TO-END MODELING FOR NUCLEAR EXPLOSION MONITORING: SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND EARTHQUAKES USING HYDRODYNAMIC AND ANELASTIC SIMULATIONS, HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPUTING AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL EARTH MODELS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes new research being performed to improve understanding of seismic waves generated by underground nuclear explosions (UNE) by using full waveform simulation, high-performance computing and three-dimensional (3D) earth models. The goal of this effort is to develop an end-to-end modeling capability to cover the range of wave propagation required for nuclear explosion monitoring (NEM) from the buried nuclear device to the seismic sensor. The goal of this work is to improve understanding of the physical basis and prediction capabilities of seismic observables for NEM including source and path-propagation effects. We are pursuing research along three main thrusts. Firstly, we are modeling the non-linear hydrodynamic response of geologic materials to underground explosions in order to better understand how source emplacement conditions impact the seismic waves that emerge from the source region and are ultimately observed hundreds or thousands of kilometers away. Empirical evidence shows that the amplitudes and frequency content of seismic waves at all distances are strongly impacted by the physical properties of the source region (e.g. density, strength, porosity). To model the near-source shock-wave motions of an UNE, we use GEODYN, an Eulerian Godunov (finite volume) code incorporating thermodynamically consistent non-linear constitutive relations, including cavity formation, yielding, porous compaction, tensile failure, bulking and damage. In order to propagate motions to seismic distances we are developing a one-way coupling method to pass motions to WPP (a Cartesian anelastic finite difference code). Preliminary investigations of UNE's in canonical materials (granite, tuff and alluvium) confirm that emplacement conditions have a strong effect on seismic amplitudes and the generation of shear waves. Specifically, we find that motions from an explosion in high-strength, low-porosity granite have high compressional wave amplitudes and weak shear waves, while an explosion in low strength, high-porosity alluvium results in much weaker compressional waves and low-frequency compressional and shear waves of nearly equal amplitude. Further work will attempt to model available near-field seismic data from explosions conducted at NTS, where we have accurate characterization of the sub-surface from the wealth of geological and geophysical data from the former nuclear test program. Secondly, we are modeling seismic wave propagation with free-surface topography in WPP. We have model the October 9, 2006 and May 25, 2009 North Korean nuclear tests to investigate the impact of rugged topography on seismic waves. Preliminary results indicate that the topographic relief causes complexity in the direct P-waves that leads to azimuthally dependent behavior and the topographic gradient to the northeast, east and southeast of the presumed test locations generate stronger shear-waves, although each test gives a different pattern. Thirdly, we are modeling intermediate period motions (10-50 seconds) from earthquakes and explosions at regional distances. For these simulations we run SPECFEM3D{_}GLOBE (a spherical geometry spectral element code). We modeled broadband waveforms from well-characterized and well-observed events in the Middle East and central Asia, as well as the North Korean nuclear tests. For the recent North Korean test we found that the one-dimensional iasp91 model predicts the observed waveforms quite well in the band 20-50 seconds, while waveform fits for available 3D earth models are generally poor, with some exceptions. Interestingly 3D models can predict energy on the transverse component for an isotropic source presumably due to surface wave mode conversion and/or multipathing.

Rodgers, A; Vorobiev, O; Petersson, A; Sjogreen, B

2009-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

402

Geophysics I. Seismic Methods  

SciTech Connect

During the past two decades, the technology of geophysics has exploded. At the same time, the petroleum industry has been forced to look for more and more subtle traps in more and more difficult terrain. The choice of papers in this geophysics reprint volume reflects this evolution. The papers were chosen to help geologists, not geophysicists, enhance their knowledge of geophysics. Math-intensive papers were excluded because those papers are relatively esoteric and have limited applicability for most geologists. This volume concentrates on different seismic survey methods. Each of the 38 papers were abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Data Base.

Beaumont, E.A.; Foster, N.H. (comps.)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Three-dimensional correlated-fermion phase separation from analysis of the geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quasi-Gaussian approximation scheme is formulated to study the strongly correlated imbalanced fermions thermodynamics, where the mean-field theory is not applicable. The non-Gaussian correlation effects are understood to be captured by the statistical geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities. In the three-dimensional unitary fermions ground state, a {\\em universal} nonlinear scaling transformation relates the physical chemical potentials with the individual Fermi kinetic energies. For the partial polarization phase separation to full polarization, the calculated critical polarization ratio is $P_C={[1-(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}/{[1+(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}\\doteq 0.34$. The $\\xi=4/9$ defines the ratio of the symmetric ground state energy density to that of the ideal fermion gas.

Chen, Ji-sheng; Wang, Yan-ping

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Three-dimensional correlated-fermion phase separation from analysis of the geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quasi-Gaussian approximation scheme is formulated to study the strongly correlated imbalanced fermions thermodynamics, where the mean-field theory is not applicable. The non-Gaussian correlation effects are understood to be captured by the statistical geometric mean of the individual susceptibilities. In the three-dimensional unitary fermions ground state, an {\\em universal} non-linear scaling transformation relates the physical chemical potentials with the individual Fermi kinetic energies. For the partial polarization phase separation to full polarization, the calculated critical polarization ratio is $P_C={[1-(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}/{[1+(1-\\xi)^{6/5}]}\\doteq 0.34$. The $\\xi=4/9$ defines the ratio of the symmetric ground state energy density to that of the ideal fermion gas.

Ji-sheng Chen; Fang Qin; Yan-ping Wang

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

405

Three-dimensional mapping of equiprobable hydrostratigraphic units at the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit, Nevada Test Site  

SciTech Connect

Geological and geophysical data are used with the sequential indicator simulation algorithm of Gomez-Hernandez and Srivastava to produce multiple, equiprobable, three-dimensional maps of informal hydrostratigraphic units at the Frenchman Flat Corrective Action Unit, Nevada Test Site. The upper 50 percent of the Tertiary volcanic lithostratigraphic column comprises the study volume. Semivariograms are modeled from indicator-transformed geophysical tool signals. Each equiprobable study volume is subdivided into discrete classes using the ISIM3D implementation of the sequential indicator simulation algorithm. Hydraulic conductivity is assigned within each class using the sequential Gaussian simulation method of Deutsch and Journel. The resulting maps show the contiguity of high and low hydraulic conductivity regions.

Shirley, C.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Oceanic three-dimensional Lagrangian Coherent Structures: A study of a mesoscale eddy in the Benguela ocean region  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study three dimensional oceanic Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs) in the Benguela region, as obtained from an output of the ROMS model. To do that we first compute Finite-Size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) fields in the region volume, characterizing mesoscale stirring and mixing. Average FSLE values show a general decreasing trend with depth, but there is a local maximum at about 100 m depth. LCSs are extracted as ridges of the calculated FSLE fields. They present a "curtain-like" geometry in which the strongest attracting and repelling structures appear as quasivertical surfaces. LCSs around a particular cyclonic eddy, pinched off from the upwelling front are also calculated. The LCSs are confirmed to provide pathways and barriers to transport in and out of the eddy.

João H. Bettencourt; Cristóbal López; Emilio Hernández-García

2011-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

407

Electron acceleration during three-dimensional relaxation of an electron beam-return current plasma system in a magnetic field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of acceleration during non-linear electron-beam relaxation in magnetized plasma in the case of electron transport in solar flares. The evolution of electron distribution functions is computed using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell electromagnetic code. Analytical estimations under simplified assumptions are made to provide comparisons. We show that, during the non-linear evolution of the beam-plasma system, the accelerated electron population appears. We found that, although the electron beam loses its energy efficiently to the thermal plasma, a noticeable part of the electron population is accelerated. For model cases with initially monoenergetic beams in uniform plasma, we found that the amount of energy in the accelerated electrons above the injected beam-electron energy varies depending the plasma conditions and could be around 10-30% of the initial beam energy. This type of acceleration could be important for the interpretation of non-thermal electron populations in solar f...

Karlicky, M

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A GRID OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR ATMOSPHERE MODELS OF SOLAR METALLICITY. I. GENERAL PROPERTIES, GRANULATION, AND ATMOSPHERIC EXPANSION  

SciTech Connect

Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late-type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late-type stars, based on deep, three-dimensional (3D), convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations and improving stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize the use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, and asymptotic adiabat as functions of atmospheric parameters.

Trampedach, Regner [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston ACT 2611 (Australia); Nordlund, Ake [Astronomical Observatory/Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Stein, Robert F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

409

Three-dimensional lithographically-defined organotypic tissue arrays for quantitative analysis of morphogenesis and neoplastic progression  

SciTech Connect

Here we describe a simple micromolding method to construct three-dimensional arrays of organotypic epithelial tissue structures that approximate in vivo histology. An elastomeric stamp containing an array of posts of defined geometry and spacing is used to mold microscale cavities into the surface of type I collagen gels. Epithelial cells are seeded into the cavities and covered with a second layer of collagen. The cells reorganize into hollow tissues corresponding to the geometry of the cavities. Patterned tissue arrays can be produced in 3-4 h and will undergo morphogenesis over the following one to three days. The protocol can easily be adapted to study a variety of tissues and aspects of normal and neoplastic development.

Nelson, Celeste M.; Inman, Jamie L.; Bissell, Mina J.

2008-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

410

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-HYDRAULIC MODELS IN THE BEST-ESTIMATE CODE BAGIRA.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper we present verification results of the BAGIRA code that was performed using data from integral thermal-hydraulic experimental test facilities as well as data obtained from operating nuclear power plants. BAGIRA is a three-dimensional numerical best-estimate code that includes non-homogeneous modeling. Special consideration was given to the recently completed experimental data from the PSB-VVER integral test facility (EREC, Electrogorsk, Russia)--a new Russian large-scale four-loop unit, which has been designed to model the primary circuits of VVER-1000 type reactors. It is demonstrated that the code BAGIRA can be used to analyze nuclear reactor behavior under normal and accident conditions.

KALINICHENKO,S.D.KROSHILIN,A.E.KROSHILIN,V.E.SMIRNOV,A.V.KOHUT,P.

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thermal evolution of the full three-dimensional magnetic excitations in the multiferroic BiFeO3  

SciTech Connect

We present neutron inelastic scattering measurements of the full three-dimensional spin-wave dispersion in the multiferroic material BiFeO3 for temperatures from 5K to 700K. Despite the presence of strong electromagnetic coupling, the magnetic excitations behave like conventional magnons over all parts of the Brillouin zone. At low temperature the spin-waves are well-defined coherent modes, described by a classical model for a G-type antiferromagnet. A softening of the spin-wave velocity and broadening in energy is already present at room temperature, which is well below the N eel temperature TN 640K, and increases on heating. In addition, a strong hybridization of the Fe 3d and O 2p states is found to modify the distribution of the spin-wave spectral weight significantly, which implies that the spins are not restricted to the Fe atomic sites as previously believed.

Xu, Zhijun [ORNL; Wen, Jinsheng [University of California, Berkeley; Berlijn, Tom [ORNL; Gehring, Peter M [ORNL; Stock, Christopher K [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL; Gu, G. D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Shapiro, S. M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Birgeneau, R J [University of California, Berkeley & LBNL; Xu, Guangyong [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Progress on the development of a three-dimensional capability for simulating large-scale complex geologic processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Significant progress has been made in developing a three-dimensional capability for predicting the mechanical response of rock over spatial and time scales of geologic interest to the Oil and Gas industry. An Advanced Computational Technology Initiative (ACTI) initiated three years ago to achieve such a computational technology breakthrough has made significant progress towards its goal by adapting and improving the unique advanced quasistatic finite element technology developed by Sandia National Laboratories to the mechanics applications important to exploration and production (E and P). This capability now gives the industry a powerful tool to help reduce risk on prospects, improve pre-project initial reserve estimates, and lower operating costs. Progress to date on this program is reported herein by presenting and discussing the enhancements and adaptations that have been made to the technology, with specific examples to illustrate their use on large E and P geomechanics problems.

Argueello, J.G.; Stone, C.M.; Fossum, A.F.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Whole-Building Energy Simulation with a Three-Dimensional Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Model: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A three-dimensional, finite-element, heat-transfer computer program was developed to study ground-coupled heat transfer from buildings. It was used in conjunction with the SUNREL whole-building energy simulation program to analyze ground-coupled heat transfer from buildings, and the results were compared with the simple ground-coupled heat transfer models used in whole-building energy simulation programs. The detailed model provides another method of testing and refining the simple models and analyzing complex problems. This work is part of an effort to improve the analysis of the ground-coupled heat transfer in building energy simulation programs. The output from this detailed model and several others will form a set of reference results for use with the BESTEST diagnostic procedure. We anticipate that the results from the work will be incorporated into ANSI/ASHRAE 140-2001, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs.

Deru, M.; Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

PREDICTION OF TYPE II SOLAR RADIO BURSTS BY THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD CORONAL MASS EJECTION AND KINETIC RADIO EMISSION SIMULATIONS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Type II solar radio bursts are the primary radio emissions generated by shocks and they are linked with impending space weather events at Earth. We simulate type II bursts by combining elaborate three-dimensional MHD simulations of realistic coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at the Sun with an analytic kinetic radiation theory developed recently. The modeling includes initialization with solar magnetic and active region fields reconstructed from magnetograms of the Sun, a flux rope of the initial CME dimensioned with STEREO spacecraft observations, and a solar wind driven with averaged empirical data. We demonstrate impressive accuracy in time, frequency, and intensity for the CME and type II burst observed on 2011 February 15. This implies real understanding of the physical processes involved regarding the radio emission excitation by shocks and supports the near-term development of a capability to predict and track these events for space weather prediction.

Schmidt, J. M.; Cairns, Iver H. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Hillan, D. S., E-mail: jschmidt@physics.usyd.edu.au [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde, NSW 2113 (Australia)

2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

415

Estimation of radiation-induced cancer from three-dimensional dose distributions: Concept of organ equivalent dose  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Estimates of secondary cancer risk after radiotherapy are becoming more important for comparative treatment planning. Modern treatment planning systems provide accurate three-dimensional dose distributions for each individual patient. These data open up new possibilities for more precise estimates of secondary cancer incidence rates in the irradiated organs. We report a new method to estimate organ-specific radiation-induced cancer incidence rates. The concept of an organ equivalent dose (OED) for radiation-induced cancer assumes that any two dose distributions in an organ are equivalent if they cause the same radiation-induced cancer incidence. Methods and Materials: The two operational parameters of the OED concept are the organ-specific cancer incidence rate at low doses, which is taken from the data of the atomic bomb survivors, and cell sterilization at higher doses. The effect of cell sterilization in various organs was estimated by analyzing the secondary cancer incidence data of patients with Hodgkin's disease who were treated with radiotherapy in between 1962 and 1993. The radiotherapy plans used at the time the patients had been treated were reconstructed on a fully segmented whole body CT scan. The dose distributions were calculated in individual organs for which cancer incidence data were available. The model parameter that described cell sterilization was obtained by analyzing the dose and cancer incidence rates for the individual organs. Results: We found organ-specific cell radiosensitivities that varied from 0.017 for the mouth and pharynx up to 1.592 for the bladder. Using the two model parameters (organ-specific cancer incidence rate and the parameter characterizing cell sterilization), the OED concept can be applied to any three-dimensional dose distribution to analyze cancer incidence. Conclusion: We believe that the concept of OED presented in this investigation represents a first step in assessing the potential risk of secondary cancer induction after the clinical application of radiotherapy.

Schneider, Uwe [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: uwe.schneider@psi.ch; Zwahlen, Daniel [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Ross, Dieter [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, City Hospital Triemli, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaser-Hotz, Barbara [Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Radio-Oncology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland)

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Adapting a Beam-Based Rotordynamics Model to Accept a General Three-Dimensional Finite-Element Casing Model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The subject of this thesis is an extension of a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, Timoshenko-beam finite-element rotordynamic code to include a three-dimensional non-axisymmetric solid-element casing model. Axisymmetric beams are sufficient to model rotors. Spring and damper forces provide the interface between the rotor and its casing and capture the dynamics of the full model. However, axisymmetric beams limit the modeling of real-case machine structures, where the casing is not axisymmetric. Axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric 3D finite element casing structures are modeled. These structures are then reduced using a technique called substructuring. Modal equations are developed for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric casing models. In a 3D non-axisymmetric model, structural dynamics modes can be modeled by lateral modes in two orthogonal planes. Modal information of the complex 3D casing structures are generated, and then incorporated into the 2D code after a series of pre-processing steps. A reduction method called Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) is used to reduce the large dimensionality involved in calculation of rotordynamic coefficients. The results from the casing structures are merged with the rotor model to create a combined rotor-casing model. The analysis of the combined structure shows that there is a difference in the natural frequencies and unbalance response between the model that uses symmetrical casing and the one that uses non-axisymmetric casing. XLTRC2 is used as an example of a two-dimensional axisymmetric beam-element code. ANSYS is used as a code to build three-dimensional non-axisymmetric solid-element casing models. The work done in this thesis opens the scope to incorporate complex non-axisymmetric casing models with XLTRC2.

James, Stephen M.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Predicting tropospheric ozone and hydroxyl radical in a global, three-dimensional, chemistry, transport, and deposition model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.

Atherton, C.S.

1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

418

Three-dimensional turbulent particle dispersion submodel development. Final report, 15 April 1991--15 April 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many practical combustion processes which use solid particles, liquid droplets, or slurries as fuels introduce these fuels into turbulent environments. Examples include spray combustion, pulverized coal and coal slurry combustion, fluidized beds, sorbent injection, and hazardous waste incineration. The interactions of the condensed phases with turbulent environments in such applications have not been well described. Such a description is complicated by the difficulty of describing turbulence in general, even in the absence of particles or droplets. But the complications in describing the dispersion and reaction of the condensed phases in turbulent environments do not stem entirely, or even primarily, from the uncertainties in the description of the turbulence. Even when the turbulence characteristics are known, computational methods for coupling the dynamics of the particulate phase with the continuous phase have not been well established. Several new theoretical descriptions of the turbulent dispersion of particles and droplets have been proposed over the past few years. It has been the purpose of this project to explore the potential of these theories for coupling with the other aspects of three-dimensional, reacting, turbulent, particle-laden systems, to provide computational simulations that could be useful for addressing industrial problems. Two different approaches were explored in this project. The major thrust of this project was on identifying a suitable dispersion submodel for dilute dispersed flows, implementing it in a comprehensive three-dimensional CFD code framework for combustion simulation and evaluating its performance rigorously. In another effort the potential of a dispersion submodel for densely loaded systems was analyzed. This report discusses the main issues that were resolved as part of this project.

Smith, P.J.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

419

Advanced Seismic While Drilling System  

SciTech Connect

A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII. An APS Turbine Alternator powered the SeismicPULSER{trademark} to produce two Hz frequency peak signals repeated every 20 seconds. Since the ION Geophysical, Inc. (ION) seismic survey surface recording system was designed to detect a minimum downhole signal of three Hz, successful performance was confirmed with a 5.3 Hz recording with the pumps running. The two Hz signal generated by the sparker was modulated with the 3.3 Hz signal produced by the mud pumps to create an intense 5.3 Hz peak frequency signal. The low frequency sparker source is ultimately capable of generating selectable peak frequencies of 1 to 40 Hz with high-frequency spectra content to 10 kHz. The lower frequencies and, perhaps, low-frequency sweeps, are needed to achieve sufficient range and resolution for realtime imaging in deep (15,000 ft+), high-temperature (150 C) wells for (a) geosteering, (b) accurate seismic hole depth, (c) accurate pore pressure determinations ahead of the bit, (d) near wellbore diagnostics with a downhole receiver and wired drill pipe, and (e) reservoir model verification. Furthermore, the pressure of the sparker bubble will disintegrate rock resulting in an increased overall rates of penetration. Other applications for the SeismicPULSER{trademark} technology are to deploy a low-frequency source for greater range on a wireline for Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiling (RVSP) and Cross-Well Tomography. Commercialization of the technology is being undertaken by first contacting stakeholders to define the value proposition for rig site services utilizing SeismicPULSER{trademark} technologies. Stakeholders include national oil companies, independent oil companies, independents, service companies, and commercial investors. Service companies will introduce a new Drill Bit SWD service for deep HTHP wells. Collaboration will be encouraged between stakeholders in the form of joint industry projects to develop prototype tools and initial field trials. No barriers have been identified for developing, utilizing, and exploiting the low-frequency SeismicPULSER{trademark} source in a

Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

420

Three-dimensional manifolds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Lemma (11. 1 ) • 1Cl ( Q=#=R) ;: 1Cl Ui~1Cl CR). If S is not essential in Q;# R, then either Q or R is a homotppy 3-sphere ( and therefore a compact 3-manifold wi thout boundary). The isomorphism is a consequence of van Kampen ' s Theorem...

Epstein, David Alper

1960-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Three Dimensional Nanomaterials II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 20, 2011... The University of Alabama; Pu-Xian Gao, University of Connecticut; .... kinetics that governs the mechanisms and morphology selection of ...

422

A Numerical Feasibility Study of Three-Component Induction Logging for Three Dimensional Imaging About a Single Borehole  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A theoretical analysis has been completed for a proposed induction logging tool designed to yield data which are used to generate three dimensional images of the region surrounding a well bore. The proposed tool consists of three mutually orthogonal magnetic dipole sources and multiple 3 component magnetic field receivers offset at different distances from the source. The initial study employs sensitivity functions which are derived by applying the Born Approximation to the integral equation that governs the magnetic fields generated by a magnetic dipole source located within an inhomogeneous medium. The analysis has shown that the standard coaxial configuration, where the magnetic moments of both the source and the receiver are aligned with the axis of the well bore, offers the greatest depth of sensitivity away from the borehole compared to any other source-receiver combination. In addition this configuration offers the best signal-to-noise characteristics. Due to the cylindrically symmetric nature of the tool sensitivity about the borehole, the data generated by this configuration can only be interpreted in terms of a two-dimensional cylindrical model. For a fill 3D interpretation the two radial components of the magnetic field that are orthogonal to each other must be measured. Coil configurations where both the source and receiver are perpendicular to the tool axis can also be employed to increase resolution and provide some directional information, but they offer no true 3D information.

ALUMBAUGH, DAVID L.; WILT, MICHAEL J.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Three-dimensional evaluation of the compression and recovery behavior in a flexible graphite sheet by synchrotron radiation microtomography  

SciTech Connect

The compression and unloading behavior of flexible graphite sheets was investigated using synchrotron radiation microtomography with 1 {mu}m voxel size. The recovery ratio of the flexible graphite sheet was measured accurately by in-situ observation. The three-dimensional strain distribution in the interior of the specimen was obtained using the microstructural tracking method. The inner strain distribution with micrometer scale indicated inhomogeneous deformation. The microstructural tracking analysis revealed that deformation units exist in the flexible graphite sheet. The units seem to deform, affecting the neighboring units with each other. The units had a similar size and shape with compacted exfoliated graphite worms that constitute the flexible graphite sheet. Microscopic deformations during compression and unloading are surely affected by the microstructure of the sheet. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The compression and recovery behavior was investigated using microtomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tracking analysis revealed that deformation units exist in the specimen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Each unit deforms in relation to the neighboring unit.

Kobayashi, M., E-mail: m-kobayashi@me.tut.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, AICHI 441-8580 (Japan); Toda, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi, AICHI 441-8580 (Japan); Takeuchi, A.; Uesugi, K.; Suzuki, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, Sayo-gun, HYOGO 679-5198 (Japan)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF GYROSYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM MILDLY ANISOTROPIC NONUNIFORM ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN SYMMETRIC MAGNETIC LOOPS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave emission of solar flares is formed primarily by incoherent gyrosynchrotron radiation generated by accelerated electrons in coronal magnetic loops. The resulting emission depends on many factors, including pitch-angle distribution of the emitting electrons and the source geometry. In this work, we perform systematic simulations of solar microwave emission using recently developed tools (GS Simulator and fast gyrosynchrotron codes) capable of simulating maps of radio brightness and polarization as well as spatially resolved emission spectra. A three-dimensional model of a symmetric dipole magnetic loop is used. We compare the emission from isotropic and anisotropic (of loss-cone type) electron distributions. We also investigate effects caused by inhomogeneous distribution of the emitting particles along the loop. It is found that the effect of the adopted moderate electron anisotropy is the most pronounced near the footpoints and it also depends strongly on the loop orientation. Concentration of the emitting particles at the looptop results in a corresponding spatial shift of the radio brightness peak, thus reducing effects of the anisotropy. The high-frequency ({approx}> 50 GHz) emission spectral index is specified mainly by the energy spectrum of the emitting electrons; however, at intermediate frequencies (around 10-20 GHz), the spectrum shape is strongly dependent on the electron anisotropy, spatial distribution, and magnetic field nonuniformity. The implications of the obtained results for the diagnostics of the energetic electrons in solar flares are discussed.

Kuznetsov, Alexey A. [Armagh Observatory, Armagh BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D. [Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Three dimensional dust-acoustic solitary waves in an electron depleted dusty plasma with two-superthermal ion-temperature  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical investigation is carried out to study the existence and characteristics of propagation of dust-acoustic (DA) waves in an electron-depleted dusty plasma with two-temperature ions, which are modeled by kappa distribution functions. A three-dimensional cylindrical Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation governing evolution of small but finite amplitude DA waves is derived by means of a reductive perturbation method. The influence of physical parameters on solitary wave structure is examined. Furthermore, the energy integral equation is used to study the existence domains of the localized structures. It is found that the present model can be employed to describe the existence of positive as well as negative polarity DA solitary waves by selecting special values for parameters of the system, e.g., superthermal index of cold and/or hot ions, cold to hot ion density ratio, and hot to cold ion temperature ratio. This model may be useful to understand the excitation of nonlinear DA waves in astrophysical objects.

Borhanian, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahmansouri, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Arak University, Arak, P.O. Box 38156-8-8349 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

Electrodeposited Manganese Oxides on Three-Dimensional Carbon Nanotube Substrate: Supercapacitive Behaviour in Aqueous and Organic Electrolytes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin amorphous manganese oxide layers with a thickness of 3-5nm are electrodeposited on a carbon nanotube (CNT) film substrate that has a three-dimensional nanoporous structure (denoted asMnO2/CNT electrode). For the purpose of comparison, manganese oxide films are also electrodeposited on a flat Pt-coated Si wafer substrate (denoted as MnO2 film electrode). The pseudocapacitive properties of the MnO2 film and MnO2/CNT electrodes are examined in both aqueous electrolyte (1.0M KCl) and nonaqueousorganic electrolyte (1.0M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate). While both types of electrode showpseudocapacitive behaviour in the aqueous electrolyte, only the MnO2/CNT electrode does so in the organic electrolyte, due to its high oxide/electrolyte interfacial area and improved electron conduction through the CNT substrate. Compared with the MnO2 film electrode, the MnO2/CNT electrode shows a much higher specific capacitance and better high-rate capability, regardless of the electrolyte used.Use of the organic electrolyte results in a ?6 times higher specific energy compared with that obtained with the aqueous electrolyte, while maintaining a similar specific power. The construction of a threedimensional nanoporous network structure consisting of a thin oxide layer on a CNT film substrate at the nm scale and the use of an organic electrolyte are promising approaches to improving the specific energyof supercapacitors.

Nam,K.W.; Yang,X.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Bipole-dipole interpretation with three-dimensional models (including a field study of Las Alturas, New Mexico)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The bipole-dipole responses of three-dimensional (3D) prisms were studied using an integral equation numerical solution. Although response patterns are quite complex, the bipole-dipole method appears to be a useful, efficient means of mapping the areal distribution of resistivity. However, 3D modeling is required for quantitative interpretation. Computer time for our solution varies from negligible for small bodies to 6 minutes on a UNIVAC 1108 for the largest possible body (85 cubes). Bipole-dipole response varies significantly with bipole orientation and position, but simply changing the distance between the bipole and the body does not greatly affect the response. However, the response is complex and interpretation ambiguous if both transmitter electrodes are located directly over a body. Boundaries of shallow bodies are much better resolved than those of deep bodies. Conductive bodies produce false polarization highs that can confuse interpretation. It is difficult to distinguish the effects of depth and resistivity contrast, and, as with all electrical methods, depth extent is difficult to resolve. Interactive interpretation of bipole-dipole field results from a geothermal prospect in New Mexico illustrates the value of the 3D modeling technique.

Hohmann, G.W.; Jiracek, G.R.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Three-dimensional blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the effects of long-wavelength modes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments exploring the three-dimensional (3D) Rayleigh-Taylor instability at a blast-wave-driven interface. This experiment is well scaled to the He/H interface during the explosion phase of SN1987A. In the experiments, {approx}5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser was used to create a planar blast wave in a plastic disk, which is accelerated into a lower-density foam. These circumstances induce the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and, after the shock passes the interface, the system quickly becomes dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The plastic disk has an intentional pattern machined at the plastic/foam interface. This perturbation is 3D with a basic structure of two orthogonal sine waves with a wavelength of 71 {mu}m and an amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m. Additional long-wavelength modes with a wavelength of either 212 or 424 {mu}m are added onto the single-mode pattern. The addition of the long-wavelength modes was motivated by the results of previous experiments where material penetrated unexpectedly to the shock front, perhaps due to an unintended structure. The current experiments and simulations were performed to explore the effects of this unintended structure; however, we were unable to reproduce the previous results.

Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Budde, A.; Krauland, C.; Marion, D. C.; Visco, A. J.; Ditmar, J. R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Robey, H. F.; Remington, B. A.; Miles, A. R.; Cooper, A. B. R.; Sorce, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Plewa, T. [Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306 (United States); Hearn, N. C. [ASC Flash Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Killebrew, K. L. [Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Knauer, J. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Arnett, D. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Donajkowski, T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Three-dimensional numerical investigation of electron transport with rotating spoke in a cylindrical anode layer Hall plasma accelerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of increased magnetic field and pressure on electron transport with a rotating spoke in a cylindrical anode layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell numerical simulation. The azimuthal rotation of electron transport with the spoke has a frequency of 12.5 MHz. It propagates in the direction of the E Multiplication-Sign B drift at a speed of {approx}1.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} m/s (about 37% of the E Multiplication-Sign B drift speed). Local charge separation occurs because the azimuthal local electron density concentration is accompanied by an almost uniform azimuthal ion distribution. The non-axisymmetrical electron density concentration and axisymmetrical ion distribution introduce two azimuthal electric fields with opposite directions in the plasma discharge region. The axial electron shear flow is excited under the additional E{sub {theta}} Multiplication-Sign B field. The anomalous electron transport with the rotating spoke may be attributed to the axial electron shear flow induced by the two azimuthal electric fields with opposite directions as a result of the azimuthal local electron density concentration.

Tang, D. L.; Geng, S. F.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Three-dimensional subsurface imaging synthetic aperture radar (3D SISAR). Final report, September 22, 1993--September 22, 1996  

SciTech Connect

The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.

NONE

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

ABWR start-up test analysis using BWR core simulator with three-dimensional direct response matrix method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ABWR start-up test analysis has been done with the BWR core simulator using the three--dimensional direct response matrix (3D-DRM) method. The Monte Carlo code VMONT made the sub-response matrices for the 3D-DRM method. Each boundary surface was subdivided by 4 x 4 for transverse segments, by 4 for angular segments and by 4 for axial zones in a node. For the calculation speedup, the 3D-DRM code used the divided sub-response matrices data set. The code used the MPI and OpenMP for the parallelized method. The median value is set as the average critical eigenvalues. The changes from the maximum value to the minimum value are 0.34 %{Delta}k with the spectral history method and 0.40 %{Delta}k without it, and the respective standard deviations were 0.12 % and 0.14 %. Using the spectral history method decreased the variation by 0.06 %{Delta}k. The root mean square differences of the axial power distribution were about 6 % between the analysis results and the plant data. Using the currents which converged in the previous exposure step reduced the number of iterations when the CR pattern changed only slightly. The averaged calculation time for each exposure step was about 5 hours on 12 PC Linux cluster servers with Core 2 Quad 3 GHz. (authors)

Mitsuyasu, T.; Ishii, K.; Hino, T.; Aoyama, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 2-1 Omika-cho 7-chome, Hitachi-shi Ibaraki-ken, 319-1221 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Development of an optical three-dimensional laser tracker using dual modulated laser diodes and a signal detector  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser trackers are widely used in industry for tasks such as the assembly of airplanes and automobiles, contour measurement, and robot calibration. However, laser trackers are expensive, and the corresponding solution procedure is very complex. The influence of measurement uncertainties is also significant. This study proposes a three-dimensional space position measurement system which consists of two tracking modules, a zero tracking angle return subsystem, and a target quadrant photodiode (QPD). The target QPD is placed on the object being tracked. The origin locking method is used to keep the rays on the origin of the target QPD. The position of the target QPD is determined using triangulation since the two laser rays are projected onto one QPD. Modulation and demodulation are utilized to separate the coupled positional values. The experiment results show that measurement errors in the X, Y, and Z directions are less than {+-}0.05% when the measured object was moved by 300, 300, and 200 mm in the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. The theoretical measurement error estimated from the measurement model is between {+-}0.02% and {+-}0.07% within the defined measurable range. The proposed system can be applied to the measurements of machine tools and robot arms.

Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chien-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Three-Dimensional Simulations of Tidally Disrupted Solar-Type Stars and the Observational Signatures of Shock Breakout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe a three-dimensional simulation of a $1 M_{\\odot}$ solar-type star approaching a $10^{6} M_{\\odot}$ black hole on a parabolic orbit with a pericenter distance well within the tidal radius. While falling towards the black hole, the star is not only stretched along the orbital direction but even more severely compressed at right angles to the orbit. The overbearing degree of compression achieved shortly after pericenter leads to the production of strong shocks which largely homogenize the temperature profile of the star, resulting in surface temperatures comparable to the initial temperature of the star's core. This phenomenon, which precedes the fallback accretion phase, gives rise to a unique double-peaked X-ray signature that, if detected, may be one of the few observable diagnostics of how stars behave under the influence of strong gravitational fields. If $\\sim 10^{6} M_{\\odot}$ black holes were prevalent in small or even dwarf galaxies, the nearest of such flares may be detectable by EXIST from no further away than the Virgo Cluster.

James Guillochon; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Stephan Rosswog; Daniel Kasen

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

434

Evidence for three-dimensional Fermi-surface topology of the layered electron-doped iron superconductor Ba(Fe1 xCox)2As2  

SciTech Connect

The electronic structure of electron doped iron-arsenide superconductors Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} has been measured with Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy. The data reveal a marked photon energy dependence of points in momentum space where the bands cross the Fermi energy, a distinctive and direct signature of three-dimensionality in the Fermi surface topology. By providing a unique example of high temperature superconductivity hosted in layered compounds with three-dimensional electronic structure, these findings suggest that the iron-arsenides are unique materials, quite different from the cuprates high temperature superconductors.

Vilmercati, P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Fedorov, A. V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Vobornik, I. [TASC National Laboratory, Trieste, Italy; Manju, U. [TASC National Laboratory, Trieste, Italy; Panaccione, G. [TASC National Laboratory, Trieste, Italy; Goldoni, A. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Italy; Safa-Sefat, Athena [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Jin, Rongying [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Mannella, Norman [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Atom probe microscopy of three-dimensional distribution of silicon isotopes in {sup 28}Si/{sup 30}Si isotope superlattices with sub-nanometer spatial resolution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser-assisted atom probe microscopy of 2 nm period {sup 28}Si/{sup 30}Si isotope superlattices (SLs) is reported. Three-dimensional distributions of {sup 28}Si and {sup 30}Si stable isotopes are obtained with sub-nanometer spatial resolution. The depth resolution of the present atom probe analysis is much higher than that of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) even when SIMS is performed with a great care to reduce the artifact due to atomic mixing. Outlook of Si isotope SLs as ideal depth scales for SIMS and three-dimensional position standards for atom probe microscopy is discussed.

Shimizu, Yasuo; Kawamura, Yoko; Uematsu, Masashi; Itoh, Kohei M. [School of Fundamental Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Tomita, Mitsuhiro [Corporate Research and Development Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Sasaki, Mikio; Uchida, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Mamoru [Toshiba Nanoanalysis Corporation, 1 Komukai Toshiba-cho, Saiwai-ku, Kawasaki 212-8583 (Japan)

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A survey of approaches and challenges in 3D and multi-modal 3D + 2D face recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This survey focuses on recognition performed by matching models of the three-dimensional shape of the face, either alone or in combination with matching corresponding two-dimensional intensity images. Research trends to date are summarized, and challenges ... Keywords: biometrics, face recognition, multi-modal, range image, three-dimensional face recognition

Kevin W. Bowyer; Kyong Chang; Patrick Flynn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

A survey of approaches and challenges in 3D and multi-modal 3D+2D face recognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This survey focuses on recognition performed by matching models of the three-dimensional shape of the face, either alone or in combination with matching corresponding two-dimensional intensity images. Research trends to date are summarized, and challenges ... Keywords: Biometrics, Face recognition, Multi-modal, Range image, Three-dimensional face recognition

Kevin W. Bowyer; Kyong Chang; Patrick Flynn

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Single well seismic imaging of a gas-filled hydrofracture  

SciTech Connect

A single well seismic survey was conducted at the Lost Hills, Ca oil field in a monitoring well as part of a CO2 injection test. The source was a piezoelectric seismic source and the sensors were a string of hydrophones hanging below the source. The survey was processed using standard CMP reflection seismology techniques. A potential reflection event was observed and interpreted as being caused by a near vertical hydrofracture. The radial distance between the survey well and the hydrofracture is estimated from Kirchoff migration using a velocity model derived from cross well seismic tomography. The hydrofracture location imaged after migration agrees with the location of an existing hydrofracture.

Daley, Thomas M.; Gritto, Roland; Majer, Ernest L.

2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

439

A Cabled Acoustic Telemetry System for Detecting and Tracking Juvenile Salmon: Part 2. Three-Dimensional Tracking and Passage Outcomes  

SciTech Connect

In Part 1 of this paper [1], we presented the engineering design and instrumentation of the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) cabled system, a nonproprietary technology developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet the needs for monitoring the survival of juvenile salmonids through the 31 dams in the Federal Columbia River Power System. Here in Part 2, we describe how the JSATS cabled system was employed as a reference sensor network for detecting and tracking juvenile salmon. Time-of-arrival data for valid detections on four hydrophones were used to solve for the three-dimensional (3D) position of fish surgically implanted with JSATS acoustic transmitters. Validation tests demonstrated high accuracy of 3D tracking up to 100 m from the John Day Dam spillway. The along-dam component, used for assigning the route of fish passage, had the highest accuracy; the median errors ranged from 0.06 to 0.22 m, and root mean square errors ranged from 0.05 to 0.56 m at distances up to 100 m. For the case study at John Day Dam during 2008, the range for 3D tracking was more than 100 m upstream of the dam face where hydrophones were deployed, and detection and tracking probabilities of fish tagged with JSATS acoustic transmitters were higher than 98%. JSATS cabled systems have been successfully deployed on several major dams to acquire information for salmon protection and for development of more “fish-friendly” hydroelectric facilities.

Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Fu, Tao; Seim, Thomas A.; Lamarche, Brian L.; Choi, Eric Y.; Carlson, Thomas J.; Eppard, Matthew B.

2011-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

440

THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF THE THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM YOUNG SUPERNOVA REMNANTS INCLUDING EFFICIENT PARTICLE ACCELERATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Supernova remnants (SNRs) are believed to be the major contributors to Galactic cosmic rays. The detection of non-thermal emission from SNRs demonstrates the presence of energetic particles, but direct signatures of protons and other ions remain elusive. If these particles receive a sizeable fraction of the explosion energy, the morphological and spectral evolution of the SNR must be modified. To assess this, we run three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of a remnant coupled with a nonlinear acceleration model. We obtain the time-dependent evolution of the shocked structure, impacted by the Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities at the contact discontinuity and by the back-reaction of particles at the forward shock. We then compute the progressive temperature equilibration and non-equilibrium ionization state of the plasma, and its thermal emission in each cell. This allows us to produce the first realistic synthetic maps of the projected X-ray emission from the SNR. Plasma conditions (temperature and ionization age) can vary widely over the projected surface of the SNR, especially between the ejecta and the ambient medium owing to their different composition. This demonstrates the need for spatially resolved spectroscopy. We find that the integrated emission is reduced with particle back-reaction, with the effect being more significant for the highest photon energies. Therefore, different energy bands, corresponding to different emitting elements, probe different levels of the impact of particle acceleration. Our work provides a framework for the interpretation of SNR observations with current X-ray missions (Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku) and with upcoming X-ray missions (such as Astro-H).

Ferrand, Gilles; Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Decourchelle, Anne, E-mail: gferrand@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca, E-mail: anne.decourchelle@cea.fr [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/Irfu, CNRS/INSU, Universite Paris VII), CEA Saclay, bat. 709, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France)

2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "three-dimensional seismic surveying" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Modeling Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow and Advective Contaminant Transport at a Heterogeneous Mountainous Site in Support of Remediation Strategy  

SciTech Connect

A calibrated groundwater flow model for a contaminated site can provide substantial information for assessing and improving hydraulic measures implemented for remediation. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was developed for a contaminated mountainous site, at which interim corrective measures were initiated to limit further spreading of contaminants. This flow model accounts for complex geologic units that vary considerably in thickness, slope, and hydrogeologic properties, as well as large seasonal fluctuations of the groundwater table and flow rates. Other significant factors are local recharge from leaking underground storm drains and recharge from steep uphill areas. The zonation method was employed to account for the clustering of high and low hydraulic conductivities measured in a geologic unit. A composite model was used to represent the bulk effect of thin layers of relatively high hydraulic conductivity found within bedrock of otherwise low conductivity. The inverse simulator ITOUGH2 was used to calibrate the model for the distribution of rock properties. The model was initially calibrated using data collected between 1994 and 1996. To check the validity of the model, it was subsequently applied to predicting groundwater level fluctuation and groundwater flux between 1996 and 1998. Comparison of simulated and measured data demonstrated that the model is capable of predicting the complex flow reasonably well. Advective transport was approximated using pathways of particles originating from source areas of the plumes. The advective transport approximation was in good agreement with the trend of contaminant plumes observed over the years. The validated model was then refined to focus on a subsection of the large system. The refined model was subsequently used to assess the efficiency of hydraulic measures implemented for remediation.

Zhou, Quanlin; Birkholzer, Jens T.; Javandel, Iraj; Jordan, Preston D.

2004-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

442

THREE-DIMENSIONAL HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATIONS OF A PROTON INGESTION EPISODE IN A LOW-METALLICITY ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STAR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We use the three-dimensional (3D) stellar structure code DJEHUTY to model the ingestion of protons into the intershell convection zone of a 1 M{sub Sun} asymptotic giant branch star of metallicity Z = 10{sup -4}. We have run two simulations: a low-resolution one of around 300,000 zones and a high-resolution one consisting of 2,000,000 zones. Both simulations have been evolved for about 4 hr of stellar time. We observe the existence of fast, downward flowing plumes that are able to transport hydrogen into close proximity to the helium-burning shell before burning takes place. The intershell in the 3D model is richer in protons than the 1D model by several orders of magnitude and so we obtain substantially higher hydrogen-burning luminosities-over 10{sup 8} L{sub Sun} in the high-resolution simulation-than are found in the 1D model. Convective velocities in these simulations are over ten times greater than the predictions of mixing length theory, though the 3D simulations have greater energy generation due to the enhanced hydrogen burning. We find no evidence of the convective zone splitting into two, though this could be as a result of insufficient spatial resolution or because the models have not been evolved for long enough. We suggest that the 1D mixing length theory and particularly the use of a diffusion algorithm for mixing do not give an accurate picture of these events. An advective mixing scheme may give a better representation of the transport processes seen in the 3D models.

Stancliffe, Richard J.; Lattanzio, John C.; Heap, Stuart A.; Campbell, Simon W. [Monash Centre for Astrophysics (formerly the Centre for Stellar and Planetary Astrophysics), Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Dearborn, David S. P., E-mail: rjs@mso.anu.edu.au [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Application of a Polythermal Three-Dimensional Ice Sheet Model to the Greenland Ice Sheet: Response to Steady-State and Transient Climate Scenarios  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steady-state and transient climate-change computations are performed with the author’s three-dimensional polythermal ice sheet model Simulation Code for Polythermal Ice Sheets for the Greenland Ice Sheet. The distinctive feature of this model is ...

Ralf Greve

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Three-Dimensional Wind Field Analysis from Dual-Doppler Radar Data. Part I: Filtering, Interpolating and Differentiating the Raw Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper is the first of three dealing with the three-dimensional wind field analysis from dual-Doppler radar data. Here we deal with the first step of the analysis which consists in interpolating and filtering the raw radial velocity fields ...

J. Testud; M. Chong

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Analysis and Forecasting of Sea Ice Conditions with Three-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation and a Coupled Ice–Ocean Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system has been developed to provide analyses of the ice–ocean state and to initialize a coupled ice–ocean numerical model for forecasting sea ice conditions. This study focuses on the ...

Alain Caya; Mark Buehner; Tom Carrieres

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Comparison between a Three-Dimensional Simulation and Doppler Radar Data of a Tropical Squall Line: Transports of Mass, Momentum, Heat, and Moisture  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results from a detailed three-dimensional cloud model are extensively compared with Doppler radar data in the case of a fast-moving tropical squall line, observed during the COPT81 experiment. The comparisons use a two-dimensional statistical ...

Jean-Philippe Lafore; Jean-Luc Redelsperger; Geneviève Jaubert

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

A new method to estimate three-dimensional residual mean circulation in the middle atmosphere and its application to gravity-wave resolving general circulation model data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a new method to estimate three-dimensional (3-d) material circulation driven by waves based on recently-derived formulas by Kinoshita and Sato that are applicable both to Rossby waves and to gravity waves. The residual mean flow is ...

Kaoru Sato; Takenari Kinoshita; Kota Okamoto

448

Using a three-dimensional particle-tracking model to estimate the residence time and age of water in a tidal estuary  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that includes a Lagrangian particle-tracking simulation was applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system in northern Taiwan. The model's accuracy was validated with data from 1999; the results from the model agreed ... Keywords: Age, Currents, Freshwater discharge, Models, Particle tracking, Residence time, Salinity

Wen-Cheng Liu; Wei-Bo Chen; Ming-Hsi Hsu

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Numerical simulation of three-dimensional breaking waves on a gravel slope using a two-phase flow Navier-Stokes model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wave breaking is mainly a three-dimensional flow problem characterized by wave energy dissipation due to turbulence. The understanding of the wave breaking mechanism on a beach is essential in studying coastal processes. The complexity of the wave-induced ... Keywords: CFD, Porous medium, Two phase, VOF, Wave breaking

P. Higuera; M. Del Jesus; J. L. Lara; I. J. Losada; Y. Guanche; G. Barajas

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Comparison of Two- and Three-Dimensional Model Simulation of the Effect of a Tidal Barrier on the Gulf of Maine Tides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-dimensional and three-dimensional tide models were used to simulate the M2 tide in the Gulf of Maine. Model estimates of changes to the tide caused by a tidal barrier in the upper Bay of Fundy were made and compared. Tidal amplitudes in the ...

Peter V. Sucsy; Bryan R. Pearce; Vijay G. Panchang

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN GEOTHERMAL FIELDS | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN GEOTHERMAL FIELDS SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN GEOTHERMAL FIELDS Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: SEISMIC ATTRIBUTES IN GEOTHERMAL FIELDS Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Large velocity contrasts are regularly encountered in geothermal fields due to poorly consolidated and hydro-thermally altered rocks. The appropriate processing of seismic data is therefore crucial to delineate the geological structure. To assess the benefits of surface seismic surveys in such settings, we applied different migration procedures to image a synthetic reservoir model and seismic data from the Coso Geothermal Field. We have shown that the two-dimensional migration of synthetic seismic data from a typical reservoir model resolves the geological structure very well

452

SEISMIC MEASUREMENTS BY THE U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY DURING THE PRE-GNOME HIGH-EXPLOSIVES TESTS NEAR CARLSBAD, NEW MEXICO. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The U. S. Geological Survey monitored three highexplosive test shots at the Gnome site during the PreGnome experiments and monitored routine blasting in the potash mine of the Duval Sulphur and Potash Company. The motion in the potash mines near Carlsbad from a shot of 9 kt of TNT at the Gnome site, 46,000 feet from the nearest potash mine, is given. These particle velocities and accelerations are less than those recorded at a distance of 90 feet from a routine 75-pound dynamite blast in a potash mine. (auth)

Byerly, P.E.; Stewart, S.W.; Roller, J.C.

1960-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Issues in Three-Dimensional Depletion Analysis of Measured Data Near the End of a Fuel Rod  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics of reactor operation result in nonuniform axial-burnup profiles in fuel with any significant burnup. At the beginning of life in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), a near-cosine axial-shaped flux will begin depleting fuel near the axial center of a fuel assembly at a greater rate than at the ends. As the reactor continues to operate, the cosine flux shape will flatten because of the fuel depletion and fission-product buildup that occur near the center. However, because of the high leakage near the end of the fuel assembly, burnup will drop off rapidly near the ends. Partial-length absorbers or nonuniform axial fuel loadings can further complicate the burnup profile. In a boiling water reactor, the same phenomena come into play, but the burnup profile is complicated by the significant variation of axial moderator density and by nonuniform axial loadings of burnable poison rods. Numerous studies of axial burnup effects have been published. However, most analyses performed in estimation of isotopic distributions due to axial burnup have been based on a set of two-dimensional (2-D) calculations performed for burnups that represent the axial burnup distribution in a fuel assembly. In general, this approach works quite well because the in-core axial gradient of the neutron flux is small over most of the length of the fuel rod, and the 2-D approximation is appropriate. Conversely, because the axial gradient becomes significant as one approaches either end of the fuel assembly, the 2-D approximation begins to break down at that point. It has been theorized that axial leakage will lead to a reduced fast flux relative to the thermal flux, softening the spectrum near the ends of the fuel, and that a 2-D approximation is conservative in that it provides more plutonium production. This has not been put the test, however, for two reasons--a lack of good three-dimensional (3-D) analysis methods acceptable for away-from-reactor applications and, more importantly, a scarcity of experimental measurements for fuel taken from the end regions of a fuel rod. A number of 3-D depletion approaches based on Monte Carlo methods have been introduced in the past decade including, but not limited to, those listed in Refs. 5-7. A full listing would be quite extensive. Recent fuel-sample measurements from two discharged assemblies of the Takahama Unit 3 PWR provide data for fuel samples taken very close to the top of the active region of the fuel rod. This paper discusses results of TRITON-based 3-D depletion calculations completed in the analysis of the Takahama fuel samples.

DeHart, Mark D [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL; Suyama, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

A survey of design issues in spatial input  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a survey of design issues for developing effective free-space three-dimensional (3D) user interfaces. Our survey is based upon previous work in 3D interaction, our experience in developing free-space interfaces, and our informal observations ... Keywords: 3D interaction, ergonomics of virtual manipulation, haptic input, spatial input, two-handed input, virtual reality

Ken Hinckley; Randy Pausch; John C. Goble; Neal F. Kassell

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Seismic sources  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

Green, Michael A. (Oakland, CA); Cook, Neville G. W. (Lafayette, CA); McEvilly, Thomas V. (Berkeley, CA); Majer, Ernest L. (El Cirrito, CA); Witherspoon, Paul A. (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

A UNIFIED PARTICLE DIFFUSION THEORY FOR CROSS-FIELD SCATTERING: SUBDIFFUSION, RECOVERY OF DIFFUSION, AND DIFFUSION IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new nonlinear theory for cosmic-ray scattering across the mean magnetic field is derived. This theory can be applied for arbitrary turbulence geometry. Previous theories such as the extended nonlinear guiding center theory are deduced as special limits. Furthermore, the new theory can explain subdiffusive transport for slab turbulence and the recovery of diffusion for slab/two-dimensional and three-dimensional turbulence. The nonlinear standard theory for field line wandering can be obtained as a special limit.

Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.co [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

457

Research on the MPCG algorithm applied in the three dimensional electric field calculation of SF6 circuit breaker in three-phase-in-one tank GIS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the structure miniaturization of SF6 Circuit Breaker in three-phase-in-one-tank GIS, improvement of internal structure design and layout should be taken into account to balance the electric field intensity distribution among phases. By ... Keywords: GIS(gas insulated switchgear), MPCG(modified preconditioned conjugate gradient), circuit breaker, electric field calculation, finite element method, sparse matrix, three dimensional, three-phase-in-one-tank

Ma Ai-qing; Jiang Xiu-chen; Zeng Yi

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Seismic Design Expectations Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Seismic Design Expectations Report (SDER) is a tool that assists DOE federal project review teams in evaluating the technical sufficiency of