ALBOTA ET AL. Three-Dimensional Imaging Laser Radars with Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays
Â· ALBOTA ET AL. Three-Dimensional Imaging Laser Radars with Geiger-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays- lanche photodiodes (APDs) operating in Geiger mode, with integrated timing circuitry for each pixel [2-Mode Avalanche Photodiode Arrays Marius A. Albota, Brian F. Aull, Daniel G. Fouche, Richard M. Heinrichs, David G
Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)
2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data
Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.
1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site.
Three-dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles using Atom Probe Tomography. Three-dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles using Atom Probe Tomography....
Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope
Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.
Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera
Smithpeter, Colin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoover, Eddie R. (Sandia Park, NM); Pain, Bedabrata (Los Angeles, CA); Hancock, Bruce R. (Altadena, CA); Nellums, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.
Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials
Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.
2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.
Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures
Cowan, B.; /SLAC
2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss simulated photonic crystal structure designs for laser-driven particle acceleration, focusing on three-dimensional planar structures based on the so-called ''woodpile'' lattice. We describe guiding of a speed-of-light accelerating mode by a defect in the photonic crystal lattice and discuss the properties of this mode, including particle beam dynamics and potential coupling methods for the structure. We also discuss possible materials and power sources for this structure and their effects on performance parameters, as well as possible manufacturing techniques and the required tolerances. In addition we describe the computational technique and possible improvements in numerical modeling that would aid development of photonic crystal structures.
Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array
Loss, Daniel
LETTERS Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array KARL D. NELSON, XIAO LI AND DAVID S atom trapped by light is a promising qubit. It has weak, well-understood interactions with the environment, its internal state can be precisely manipulated1 , interactions that entangle atoms can be varied
Ghost imaging for three-dimensional optical security
Chen, Wen, E-mail: elechenw@nus.edu.sg; Chen, Xudong [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583 (Singapore)
2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
Ghost imaging has become increasingly popular in quantum and optical application fields. Here, we report three-dimensional (3D) optical security using ghost imaging. The series of random phase-only masks are sparsified, which are further converted into particle-like distributions placed in 3D space. We show that either an optical or digital approach can be employed for the encoding. The results illustrate that a larger key space can be generated due to the application of 3D space compared with previous works.
Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers
Worstell, William A. (Framingham, MA)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.
Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers
Worstell, W.A.
1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.
Imaging Three Dimensional Two-particle Correlations for Heavy-Ion Reaction Studies
D. A. Brown; P. Danielewicz; A. Enokizono; M. Heffner; R. Soltz; S. Pratt
2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
We report an extension of the source imaging method for analyzing three-dimensional sources from three-dimensional correlations. Our technique consists of expanding the correlation data and the underlying source function in spherical harmonics and inverting the resulting system of one-dimensional integral equations. With this strategy, we can image the source function quickly, even with the finely binned data sets common in three-dimensional analyses.
Imaging three dimensional two-particle correlations for heavy-ion reaction studies
Brown, D.A.; Enokizono, A.; Heffner, M.; Soltz, R.; Danielewicz, P.; Pratt, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)
2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report an extension of the source imaging method for analyzing three-dimensional sources from three-dimensional correlations. Our technique consists of expanding the correlation data and the underlying source function in spherical harmonics and inverting the resulting system of one-dimensional integral equations. With this strategy, we can image the source function quickly, even with the finely binned data sets common in three-dimensional analyses.
Imaging Three Dimensional Two-Particle Correlations for Heavy-Ion Reaction Studies
Brown, D; Enokizono, A; Heffner, M; Soltz, R; Danielewicz, P; Pratt, S
2005-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
The authors report an extension of the source imaging method for analyzing three-dimensional sources from three-dimensional correlations. The technique consists of expanding the correlation data and the underlying source function in spherical harmonics and inverting the resulting system of one-dimensional integral equations. With this strategy, they can image the source function quickly, even with the extremely large data sets common in three-dimensional analyses.
Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon
Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J., E-mail: cch@berkeley.edu [Applied Science and Technology Group and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.
Laser-processed three dimensional graphitic electrodes for diamond radiation detectors
Caylar, Beno?-carett; Pomorski, Michal; Bergonzo, Philippe [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)] [CEA-LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, Gif-sur-Yvette F-91191 (France)
2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z
We have used an original approach for diamond detectors where three dimensional buried graphitic electrodes are processed in the bulk of a diamond substrate via laser-induced graphitization. Prototype made of polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond was fabricated using a nanosecond UV laser. Its charge collection efficiency was evaluated using ?-particles emitted by a 241-Americium source. An improved charge collection efficiency was measured proving that laser micro-machining of diamond is a valid option for the future fabrication of three dimensional diamond detectors.
Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three-Dimensional Shaping
Chen, Yong P.
Nanoscale Strainability of Graphene by Laser Shock-Induced Three- Dimensional Shaping Ji Li,, Ting, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, United States ABSTRACT: Graphene has many promising physical properties. It has been discovered that local strain in a graphene sheet can alter its conducting properties
Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography
Boas, David
application to imaging breast cancer and brain pathology and activity 4Â8 is begin- ning to show more promise problem for DOT is ill-conditioned and generally underdeter- mined, the image quality is compromised
Lin, Yu; Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; He, Lian; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang, E-mail: guoqiang.yu@uky.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)
2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
This study extended our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flowmetry system into noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) for three-dimensional (3-D) flow imaging of deep tissue. A linear array of 15 photodetectors and two laser sources connected to a mobile lens-focusing system enabled automatic and noncontact scanning of flow in a region of interest. These boundary measurements were combined with a finite element framework for DCT image reconstruction implemented into an existing software package. This technique was tested in computer simulations and using a tissue-like phantom with anomaly flow contrast design. The cylindrical tube-shaped anomaly was clearly reconstructed in both simulation and phantom. Recovered and assigned flow contrast changes in anomaly were found to be highly correlated: regression slope?=?1.00, R{sup 2}?=?1.00, and p?imaging of deep tissue blood flow heterogeneities.
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2 ,Nadjette to compute their physical properties. We focus here on base catalyzed and colloidal silica aerogels, which are fractal materials and we use an original method for the reconstruction of these aerogels from TEM images
Three-dimensional imaging and precision metrology for liquid-salt-cooled reactors
Forsberg, C. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6165 (United States); Varma, V. K.; Burgess, T. W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6304 (United States)
2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The liquid-salt-cooled very high temperature reactor, also called the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR), is a new large high-temperature reactor concept that combines in a novel way four established technologies: (1) coated-particle graphite-matrix nuclear fuels, (2) Brayton power cycles, (3) passive safety systems and plant designs previously developed for liquid-metal-cooled fast reactors, and (4) low-pressure liquid-salt coolants. The AHTR will require refueling, in-service inspection, and maintenance (RIM) with supporting instrumentation systems. The fluoride salts that are being evaluated as potential reactor coolants have melting points between 350 and 500 deg. C, values that imply minimum RIM temperatures between 400 and 550 deg. C. These salts are transparent over a wider range of the light spectrum than is water. The high temperatures, the optical characteristics of the coolant, and advances in metrology may enable the use of lasers to create three-dimensional images of the reactor interior to assist refueling, monitor vibrations in components, map fluid flow, and enable inspections of internal reactor components. A description of the reactor and an initial evaluation of the use of optical techniques for AHTR instrumentation are provided. (authors)
Label-free three-dimensional imaging of cell nucleus using third-harmonic generation microscopy
Lin, Jian; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Zi; Huang, Zhiwei, E-mail: biehzw@nus.edu.sg [Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)
2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
We report the implementation of the combined third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy for label-free three-dimensional (3-D) imaging of cell nucleus morphological changes in liver tissue. THG imaging shows regular spherical shapes of normal hepatocytes nuclei with inner chromatin structures while revealing the condensation of chromatins and nuclear fragmentations in hepatocytes of diseased liver tissue. Colocalized THG and TPEF imaging provides complementary information of cell nuclei and cytoplasm in tissue. This work suggests that 3-D THG microscopy has the potential for quantitative analysis of nuclear morphology in cells at a submicron-resolution without the need for DNA staining.
Three-dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles using Atom Probe Tomography
Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Shutthanandan, V.; Prosa, Ty J.; Adusumilli, Praneet; Arey, Bruce W.; Buxbaum, Alex; Wang, Y. C.; Tessner, Ted; Ulfig, Robert M.; Wang, Chong M.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai
2012-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
Analysis of nanoparticles is often challenging especially when they are embedded in a matrix. Hence, we have used laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) to analyze the Au-nanoclusters synthesized in situ using ion beam implantation in single crystal MgO matrix. APT analysis along with scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) indicated that the nanoparticles have an average size ~ 8 - 12 nm. While it is difficult to analyze the composition of individual nanoparticles using STEM, APT analysis can give three dimensional compositions of the same. It was shown that the maximum Au-concentration in the nanoparticles increases with increasing particle size, with a maximum Au-concentration of up to 50%.
Three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of green-state ceramics
Dieckman, S.L.; Gopalsami, N.; Ford, J.M.; Raptis, A.C.; Ellingson, W.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Rizo, P. (CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38 (France). Lab. d'Electronique et de Technologie de l'Informatique); Tracey, D.M.; Pujari, V.K. (Norton Co., Northboro, MA (United States))
1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Objective is the development of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques and technology applicable to the nondestructive characterization of green-state ceramics. To this end, a three-dimensional (3-D) NMR imaging technique has been developed, based on a back-projection acquisition protocol in combination with image reconstruction techniques that are based on 3-D Radon transform inversion. The method incorporates the experimental flexibility to overcome many of the difficulties associated with imaging of solid and semisolid broad-line materials, and also provides contiguously sampled data in three dimensions. This technique has been evaluated as a nondestructive characterizauon method for determining the spatial distribution of organic additves in green-state injection-molded cylindrical Si{sub 3}N{sup 4} tensile specimens. The technique has been evaluated on the basis of providing moderate image resolution over large sample volumes, high resolution over smaller specimen volumes, and sensitivity to variations in the concentration of organics. Resolution of 200{mu}m has been obtained with excellent sensitivity to concentration. A detailed account of the 3-D imaging results obtained from the study, a discussion of the difficulties and limitations of the imaging technique, and suggestions for technique and system improvements are included.
Feng, Chao; Deng, Haixiao; Zhao, Zhentang
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this letter, a simple technique is proposed to induce strong density modulation into the electron beam with small energy modulation. By using the combination of a transversely dispersed electron beam and a wave-front tilted seed laser, three-dimensional manipulation of the electron beam phase space can be utilized to significantly enhance the micro-bunching of seeded free-electron laser schemes, which will improve the performance and extend the short-wavelength range of a single-stage seeded free-electron laser. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate the capability of the proposed technique in a soft x-ray free-electron laser.
Frederick, B.deB. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)
1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic imaging of {sup 23}Na holds promise as a non-invasive method of mapping Na{sup +} distributions, and for differentiating pools of Na{sup +} ions in biological tissues. However, due to NMR relaxation properties of {sup 23}Na in vivo, a large fraction of Na{sup +} is not visible with conventional NMR imaging methods. An alternate imaging method, based on stochastic excitation and oscillating gradients, has been developed which is well adapted to measuring nuclei with short T{sub 2}. Contemporary NMR imaging techniques have dead times of up to several hundred microseconds between excitation and sampling, comparable to the shortest in vivo {sup 23}Na T{sub 2} values, causing significant signal loss. An imaging strategy based on stochastic excitation has been developed which greatly reduces experiment dead time by reducing peak radiofrequency (RF) excitation power and using a novel RF circuit to speed probe recovery. Continuously oscillating gradients are used to eliminate transient eddy currents. Stochastic {sup 1}H and {sup 23}Na spectroscopic imaging experiments have been performed on a small animal system with dead times as low as 25{mu}s, permitting spectroscopic imaging with 100% visibility in vivo. As an additional benefit, the encoding time for a 32x32x32 spectroscopic image is under 30 seconds. The development and analysis of stochastic NMR imaging has been hampered by limitations of the existing phase demodulation reconstruction technique. Three dimensional imaging was impractical due to reconstruction time, and design and analysis of proposed experiments was limited by the mathematical intractability of the reconstruction method. A new reconstruction method for stochastic NMR based on Fourier interpolation has been formulated combining the advantage of a several hundredfold reduction in reconstruction time with a straightforward mathematical form.
Lee, Hau-Wei; Chen, Chieh-Li [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1, University Road, Tainan City 701, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chien-Hung [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, Huwei, Yunlin 632, Taiwan (China)
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Laser trackers are widely used in industry for tasks such as the assembly of airplanes and automobiles, contour measurement, and robot calibration. However, laser trackers are expensive, and the corresponding solution procedure is very complex. The influence of measurement uncertainties is also significant. This study proposes a three-dimensional space position measurement system which consists of two tracking modules, a zero tracking angle return subsystem, and a target quadrant photodiode (QPD). The target QPD is placed on the object being tracked. The origin locking method is used to keep the rays on the origin of the target QPD. The position of the target QPD is determined using triangulation since the two laser rays are projected onto one QPD. Modulation and demodulation are utilized to separate the coupled positional values. The experiment results show that measurement errors in the X, Y, and Z directions are less than {+-}0.05% when the measured object was moved by 300, 300, and 200 mm in the X, Y, and Z axes, respectively. The theoretical measurement error estimated from the measurement model is between {+-}0.02% and {+-}0.07% within the defined measurable range. The proposed system can be applied to the measurements of machine tools and robot arms.
Lee, H.R.
1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.
Lee, Heung-Rae (Dublin, CA)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.
ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION OF STEREO IMAGES
Joshi, Anand D.; Srivastava, Nandita, E-mail: janandd@prl.res.in [Udaipur Solar Observatory, Physical Research Laboratory, P.O. Box 198, Badi Road, Udaipur 313001 (India)
2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
We employ a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique for the first time to study the kinematics of six coronal mass ejections (CMEs), using images obtained from the COR1 and COR2 coronagraphs on board the twin STEREO spacecraft, and also the eruptive prominences (EPs) associated with three of them using images from the Extreme UltraViolet Imager. A feature in the EPs and leading edges (LEs) of all the CMEs was identified and tracked in images from the two spacecraft, and a stereoscopic reconstruction technique was used to determine the 3D coordinates of these features. True velocity and acceleration were determined from the temporal evolution of the true height of the CME features. Our study of the kinematics of the CMEs in 3D reveals that the CME LE undergoes maximum acceleration typically below 2 R{sub sun}. The acceleration profiles of CMEs associated with flares and prominences exhibit different behaviors. While the CMEs not associated with prominences show a bimodal acceleration profile, those associated with prominences do not. Two of the three associated prominences in the study show a high and increasing value of acceleration up to a distance of almost 4 R{sub sun}, but acceleration of the corresponding CME LE does not show the same behavior, suggesting that the two may not be always driven by the same mechanism. One of the CMEs, although associated with a C-class flare, showed unusually high acceleration of over 1500 m s{sup -2}. Our results therefore suggest that only the flare-associated CMEs undergo residual acceleration, which indicates that the flux injection theoretical model holds well for the flare-associated CMEs, but a different mechanism should be considered for EP-associated CMEs.
Three-dimensional laser micromachining and imaging of biocompatible polymers
Oldenburg, Amy
lamination [3], and 3D printing [4]. All of these methods, with the exception of melt molding, require
Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for sub-nanometer three-dimensional positioning
Moon, Euclid E. (Euclid Eberle), 1965-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Current alignment technology is incapable of satisfying the needs of imminent generations of lithography. This dissertation delineates a novel method of alignment and three-dimensional position metrology that is compatible ...
Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating
Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.
Parker, Sherwood (Berkeley, CA)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.
Parker, S.
1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z{sub 1} above upper collimator plane, distance z{sub 2} above the lower collimator plane, and distance z{sub 3} above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}, v{sub 3} proportional to z{sub 1}, z{sub 2} and z{sub 3}, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site. 5 figs.
Ramis, R., E-mail: rafael.ramis@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, P. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Temporal, M. [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B.; Brandon, V. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The symmetry of a Direct-Drive (DD) irradiation scheme has been analyzed by means of three-dimensional (3D) simulations carried out by the code MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475 (1988)) that includes hydrodynamics, heat transport, and 3D laser ray-tracing. The implosion phase of a target irradiated by the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility in the context of the Shock Ignition scheme has been considered. The LMJ facility has been designed for Indirect-Drive, and by this reason that the irradiation scheme must be modified when used for DD. Thus, to improve the implosion uniformity to acceptable levels, the beam centerlines should be realigned and the beam power balance should be adjusted. Several alternatives with different levels of complexity are presented and discussed.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL IMAGING OF NANOSCALE MATERIALS BY UISNG COHERENT X-RAYS
Jianwei Miao
2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z
X-ray crystallography is currently the primary methodology used to determine the 3D structure of materials and macromolecules. However, many nanostructures, disordered materials, biomaterials, hybrid materials and biological specimens are noncrystalline and, hence, their structures are not accessible by X-ray crystallography. Probing these structures therefore requires the employment of different approaches. A very promising technique currently under rapid development is X-ray diffraction microscopy (or lensless imaging), in which the coherent X-ray diffraction pattern of a noncrystalline specimen is measured and then directly phased to obtain a high-resolution image. Through the DOE support over the past three years, we have applied X-ray diffraction microscopy to quantitative imaging of GaN quantum dot particles, and revealed the internal GaN-Ga2O3 core shell structure in three dimensions. By exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross-section near electronic resonances, we carried out the first experimental demonstration of resonant X-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si crystal by directly phasing coherent X-ray diffraction patterns acquired below and above the Bi M5 edge. We have also applied X-ray diffraction microscopy to nondestructive imaging of mineral crystals inside biological composite materials - intramuscular fish bone - at the nanometer scale resolution. We identified mineral crystals in collagen fibrils at different stages of mineralization and proposed a dynamic mechanism to account for the nucleation and growth of mineral crystals in the collagen matrix. In addition, we have also discovered a novel 3D imaging modality, denoted ankylography, which allows for complete 3D structure determination without the necessity of sample titling or scanning. We showed that when the diffraction pattern of a finite object is sampled at a sufficiently fine scale on the Ewald sphere, the 3D structure of the object is determined by the 2D spherical pattern. We confirmed the theoretical analysis by performing 3D numerical reconstructions of a sodium silicate glass structure at 2 Ã? resolution from a 2D spherical diffraction pattern alone. As X-ray free electron lasers are under rapid development worldwide, ankylography may open up a new horizon to obtain the 3D structure of a non-crystalline specimen from a single pulse and allow time-resolved 3D structure determination of disordered materials.
Holkundkar, Amol R. [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333 031 (India)] [Department of Physics, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333 031 (India)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this article is to report the parallel implementation of the 3D molecular dynamic simulation code for laser-cluster interactions. The benchmarking of the code has been done by comparing the simulation results with some of the experiments reported in the literature. Scaling laws for the computational time is established by varying the number of processor cores and number of macroparticles used. The capabilities of the code are highlighted by implementing various diagnostic tools. To study the dynamics of the laser-cluster interactions, the executable version of the code is available from the author.
Ultrafast-laser inscription of a three dimensional fan-out device for multicore fiber coupling
applications R. R. Thomson*, H. T. Bookey, N. D. Psaila, A. Fender, S. Campbell, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton. Cerullo, G. Brown, A. Jha, and S. Shen, "Femtosecond laser inscription of optical waveguides in Bismuth). 13. R. R. Thomson, H. T. Bookey, N. Psaila, S. Campbell, D. T. Reid, S. Shen. A. Jha, A. K. Kar
Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects
Lu, S.Y.
1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.
Prerna Sharma; P. Aswathi; Anit Sane; Shankar Ghosh; S. Bhattacharya
2011-03-22T23:59:59.000Z
Two-fluid interfaces in porous media, an example of driven disordered systems, were studied by a real time three-dimensional imaging technique with pore scale resolution for a less viscous fluid displacing a more viscous one. With increasing flow rate the interface transforms from flat to fingers and thence to droplets for both drainage and imbibition. The results compare and contrast the effects of randomness, both physical (geometry of the pore space) and chemical (wettability of the fluids), on the dynamical instability and identify the origin of the pore-scale processes that govern them.
Color Images for LBL 38618 June 10, 1996 4 Figure 7. Three dimensional view of reservoir to UTCHEM. In a simulation of a waterflood, a finger of unswept oil is detected (3a) then removed
Kim, Kyoohyun
We present high-resolution optical tomographic images of human red blood cells (RBC) parasitized by malaria-inducing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-RBCs. Three-dimensional (3-D) refractive index (RI) tomograms are reconstructed ...
Kim, Daekeun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The availability of lasers with femtosecond, ultrafast light pulses provides new opportunities and challenges in instrument design. This thesis addresses three aspects of utilizing ultrafast light pulses in two-photon ...
Chen, Yu
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...
Gowda, Ashok
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for mathematical analysis, image processing, and graphical display techniques (IMSL/IDL Inc. Sugarland, TX). The sofiware was run on a Sparc2 workstation (Sun Microsystems, Inc. , Mountain View, CA). After the files of the cross- sectional ultrasound images... and the digital angiographic images were transferred &om the PC to the Sparc2 workstation, the program was modified to access each set of images separately. First, the program was calibrated using the 5 x 5 crn grid such that distances measured on the digitized...
Suzuki, Shigeru, E-mail: shig.suz@gmail.com [Saitama Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamaguchi, Ichiro [National Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health (Japan); Kidouchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Asako [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Masumoto, Tomohiko [Tsukuba University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ozaki, Yutaka [Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)
2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose during abdominal three-dimensional (3D) imaging on phantoms and estimate the dose-area product (DAP) for effective dose conversion factors for three types of angiographic units. Three-dimensional imaging was performed for three sizes (small, medium, large) of human-shaped phantoms using three types of angiographic units (Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, AXIOM Artis dTA). We calculated 25 organ doses and effective doses using Monte Carlo technique for the three phantoms with a program for a personal computer. As benchmark studies to back up the results by Monte Carlo technique, we measured the organ doses directly on the small phantom using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. The DAP value increased as the phantom size increased. The organ doses and the effective doses during the 3D imaging increased as the phantom size increased. The effective doses for the small phantom by Monte Carlo technique were 1.9, 2.2, and 2.1 mSv for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively, while those by direct measurement were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.6 mSv. The effective doses to DAP ratios by Monte Carlo technique were 0.37-0.45, 0.26-0.32, and 0.13-0.15 (mSv Gy{sup -1}cm{sup -2}) for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively. In conclusion, the effective doses during 3D imaging and the dose-to-DAP ratios differ among angiographic units, and the effective dose can be estimated using a proper conversion factor for each angiographic unit.
Three-Dimensional Imaging of Individual Dopant Atoms in SrTiO3
Hwang, Jinwoo; Zhang, Jack Y; D’Alfonso, Adrian J; Allen, Leslie J; Stemmer, Susanne
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
for a specific 3D dopant atom configuration. The methodto have more than 2 Gd atoms in a column is still less thanImaging of Individual Dopant Atoms in SrTiO 3 Jinwoo Hwang,
Three-Dimensional Imaging and Quantification of Biomass and Biofilms in Porous Media
Dorthe Wildenschild
2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
A new method to resolve biofilms in three dimensions in porous media using high-resolution synchrotron-based x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) has been developed. Imaging biofilms in porous media without disturbing the natural spatial arrangement of the porous media and associated biofilm has been a challenging task, primarily because porous media generally precludes conventional imaging via optical microscopy; x-ray tomography offers a potential alternative. One challenge for using this method is that most conventional x-ray contrast agents are water-soluble and easily diffuse into biofilms. To overcome this problem, silver-coated microspheres were added to the fluid phase to create an x-ray contrast that does not diffuse into the biofilm mass. Using this approach, biofilm imaging in porous media was accomplished with sufficient contrast to differentiate between the biomass- and fluid-filled pore spaces. The method was validated by using a two-dimensional micro-model flow cell where both light microscopy and CMT imaging were used to im age the biofilm. The results of this work has been published in Water Resources Research (Iltis et al., 2010). Additional work needs to be done to optimize this imaging approach, specifically, we find that the quality of the images are highly dependent on the coverage of the biofilm with Ag particles, - which means that we may have issues in dead-end pore space and for very low density (fluffy) biofilms. What we can image for certain with this technique is the biofilm surface that is well-connected to flow paths and thus well-supplied with nutrients etc.
Gao, J. M., E-mail: gaojm@swip.ac.cn; Liu, Y.; Li, W.; Cui, Z. Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Lu, J.; Xia, Z. W.; Yi, P.; Yang, Q. W. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)] [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Linear regularization has been applied to the HL-2A infrared imaging bolometer to reconstruct local plasma emission with one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) modeling under the assumption of toroidal symmetry. In the 3D modeling, a new method to calculate the detector point response function is introduced. This method can be adapted to an arbitrarily shaped pinhole. With the full 3D treatment of the detector geometry, up to 50% of the mean-squared error is reduced compared with the 1D modeling. This is attributed to the effects of finite detector size being taken into account in the 3D modeling. Meanwhile, the number of the bolometer pixels has been optimized to 20 × 20 by making a trade-off between the number of bolometer pixels and the sensitivity of the system. The plasma radiated power density distributions have been calculated as a demonstration using 1D modeling and 3D modeling, respectively.
NONE
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The concept developed under this applied research and development contract is a novel Ground Penetrating Radar system capable of remotely detecting, analyzing, and mapping buried waste containers from a mobile platform. From the testing and analysis performed to date, the 3-D SISAR has achieved the detection, accurate location, and three-dimensional imaging of buried test objects from a stand-off geometry. Tests have demonstrated that underground objects have been located to within 0.1 meter of their actual position. This work validates that the key elements of the approach are performing as anticipated. The stand-off synthetic aperture radar (SAR) methodology has been demonstrated to be a feasible approach as a remote sensing technique. The radar sensor constructed under this project is providing adequate quality data for imaging, and the matched filters have been demonstrated to provide enhanced target detection. Additional work is on-going in the area of underground propagation and scattering phenomena to provide enhanced depth performance, as the current imaging results have been limited to a few feet of depth underground.
Hill, Samuel L. (Samuel Lincoln), 1978-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The number of three-dimensional displays available is escalating and yet the capturing devices for multiple view content are focused on either single camera precision rigs that are limited to stationary objects or the use ...
Kubaczyk, Daniel Mark
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents a numerical study of the effects of radial image distortion and spherical aberration on reconstruction quality of synthetic aperture particle image velocimetry (SAPIV) measurements. A simulated SAPIV ...
Mori, Warren, B.
2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from the grant entitled, Ã?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.Ã?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.
Costes, Sylvain Vincent
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
DEVELOPMENT OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY ALGORITHM AND ANALYSIS OF SYNTHETIC AND EXPERIMENTAL FLOWS IN THREE-DIMENSIONS A Thesis by S YLVAIN VINCENT COSTES Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8t... . . . . 7 . . . . 8 . . . . 8 9 . . . . . 9 . . . 10 . 10 . . 12 13 . . . . 19 19 . . . . 19 19 . . 22 vu CHAPTER IV. B. 3. Determination of ph pih pj and prj IV. B. 4. Determination of horizontal refraction angles . . . . . IV. C...
Three-dimensional photovoltaics
Myers, Bryan
The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...
Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.
Kim, Daekeun
Laser scanning systems for two-photon microscopy and fabrication have been proven to be excellent in depth-resolving capability for years. However, their applications have been limited to laboratory use due to their intrinsic ...
Yassin Hassan
2001-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
Develop a state-of-the-art non-intrusive diagnostic tool to perform simultaneous measurements of both the temporal and three-dimensional spatial velocity of the two phases of a bubbly flow. These measurements are required to provide a foundation for studying the constitutive closure relations needed in computational fluid dynamics and best-estimate thermal hydraulic codes employed in nuclear reactor safety analysis and severe accident simulation. Such kinds of full-field measurements are not achievable through the commonly used point-measurement techniques, such as hot wire, conductance probe, laser Doppler anemometry, etc. The results can also be used in several other applications, such as the dynamic transport of pollutants in water or studies of the dispersion of hazardous waste.
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)
2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
Weishaupt, Dominik; Hilfiker, Paul R.; Schmidt, Michaela; Debatin, Joerg F. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland)
1999-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To describe the three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (3D MRA) imaging appearance of the pulmonary arteries following administration of a superparamagnetic iron oxide blood pool agent to human volunteers, and to demonstrate in an animal model (pigs) how this technique can be used to detect pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage. Methods: Two volunteers were examined following the intravenous administration of a superparamagnetic iron oxide blood pool agent (NC100150 Injection, Nycomed Amersham Imaging, Wayne, PA, USA). T1-weighted 3D gradient recalled echo (GRE) image sets (TR/TE 5.1/1.4 msec, flip angle 30 deg.) were acquired breathheld over 24 sec. To assess the detectability of pulmonary bleeding with intravascular MR contrast, pulmonary parenchymal injuries were created in two animals under general anesthesia, and fast T1-weighted 3D GRE image sets collected before and after the injury. Results: Administration of the intravascular contrast in the two volunteers resulted in selective enhancement of the pulmonary vasculature permitting complete visualization and excellent delineation of central, segmental, and subsegmental arteries. Following iatrogenic injury in the two animals, pulmonary hemorrhage was readily detected on the 3D image sets. Conclusion: The data presented illustrate that ultrafast 3D GRE MR imaging in conjunction with an intravenously administered intravascular blood pool agent can be used to perform high-quality pulmonary MRA as well as to detect pulmonary hemorrhage.
E-Print Network 3.0 - anatomic-based three-dimensional planning...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
a three-dimensional shape of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), from... a limited number of computed tomography (CT) images. The three-dimensional template geometry of...
Creating a three dimensional holographic movie
Guerra, Marvin J
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental study was carried out on the ability to create a three-dimensional holographic movie. Holograms were written on VRP-M emulsion film with the green line of an Argon-Ion laser. The type of hologram write setup ...
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, S.J.
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, Steven J. (Boston, MA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.
Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Many imaging applications require increasingly bright illumination sources, motivating the replacement of conventional thermal light sources with light emitting diodes (LEDs), superluminescent diodes (SLDs) and lasers. Despite their brightness, lasers and SLDs are poorly suited for full-field imaging applications because their high spatial coherence leads to coherent artifacts known as speckle that corrupt image formation. We recently demonstrated that random lasers can be engineered to provide low spatial coherence. Here, we exploit the low spatial coherence of specifically-designed random lasers to perform speckle-free full-field imaging in the setting of significant optical scattering. We quantitatively demonstrate that images generated with random laser illumination exhibit higher resolution than images generated with spatially coherent illumination. By providing intense laser illumination without the drawback of coherent artifacts, random lasers are well suited for a host of full-field imaging applicatio...
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Vargas, M.; Schumaker, W.; He, Z.-H.; Zhao, Z.; Behm, K.; Chvykov, V.; Hou, B.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Yanovsky, V.; Thomas, A. G. R., E-mail: agrt@umich.edu [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
High intensity, short pulse lasers can be used to accelerate electrons to ultra-relativistic energies via laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) [T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)]. Recently, it was shown that separating the injection and acceleration processes into two distinct stages could prove beneficial in obtaining stable, high energy electron beams [Gonsalves et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 862 (2011); Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 035001 (2011); Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045001 (2011)]. Here, we use a stereolithography based 3D printer to produce two-stage gas targets for LWFA experiments on the HERCULES laser system at the University of Michigan. We demonstrate substantial improvements to the divergence, pointing stability, and energy spread of a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam compared with a single-stage gas cell or gas jet target.
Stytz, M.R.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The dissertation outlines development of a medical imaging machine which renders 3D images from voxel data within a MIMD multiprocessor architecture at interactive rates. Interactive performance is achieved using local dynamic selection of the optimum adaptive recursive hidden-surface removal algorithm. A survey of the medical imaging, graphics, and medical imaging modality literature is provided. A description of Computerized Technology, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, and Ultrasound imaging modalities is presented Previous work in 3D volume rendering graphics techniques and data models is introduced. Eleven medical imaging machines are examined with emphasis on characterization of the major innovation(s) and performance of each machine. A five stage image processing pipeline is described.
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.
Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand
Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid (UWA)
2012-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.
E-Print Network 3.0 - arbitrary three-dimensional geometries...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
4 ARTICLE IN PRESS Computer-Aided Design ( ) Summary: a limited number of computed tomography (CT) images. The three-dimensional template geometry of a healthy... a limited...
Alt, C; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, J; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J.G; Csato, P; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gal, J; Gazdzicki, M; Genchev, V; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Hohne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kikola, D; Kliemant, M; Kniege, S; Kolesnikov, V.I; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; van Leeuwen, M; Levai, P; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A.I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G.L; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnar, J; Mrowczynski, St; Nicolic, V; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A.D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Peryt, W; Pikna, M; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Puhlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T; Seyboth, P; Sikler, F; Sitar, B; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strabel, C; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szentpetery, I; Sziklai, J; Szuba, M; Szymanski, P; Trubnikov, V; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G.I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek, A; Yoo, I.K; Zimanyi, J; Alexander, J.M; Danielewicz, P; Kisiel, A; Pratt, S; 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.01.029
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Source imaging methodology is used to provide a three-dimensional two-pion source function for mid-rapidity pion pairs with $p_T<70$ MeV/c in central ($0-7%$) Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt s_{NN}$=17.3 GeV. Prominent non-Gaussian tails are observed in the pion pair transverse momentum (outward) and in the beam (longitudinal) directions. Model calculations reproduce them with the assumption of Bjorken longitudinal boost invariance and transverse flow blast-wave dynamics coupled with "outside-in burning" in the transverse direction; they also yield a proper time for breakup and emission duration for the pion source.
Martin, N.; Bertheau, J.; Charbonnier, J.; Hugonnard, P.; Lorut, F. [ST Microelectronics, 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles (France); Bleuet, P.; Tabary, J. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Laloum, D. [ST Microelectronics, 850 Rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)
2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
While microelectronic devices are frequently characterized with surface-sensitive techniques having nanometer resolution, interconnections used in 3D integration require 3D imaging with high penetration depth and deep sub-micrometer spatial resolution. X-ray tomography is well adapted to this situation. In this context, the purpose of this study is to assess a versatile and turn-key tomographic system allowing for 3D x-ray nanotomography of copper pillars. The tomography tool uses the thin electron beam of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to provoke x-ray emission from specific metallic targets. Then, radiographs are recorded while the sample rotates in a conventional cone beam tomography scheme that ends up with 3D reconstructions of the pillar. Starting from copper pillars data, collected at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, we build a 3D numerical model of a copper pillar, paying particular attention to intermetallics. This model is then used to simulate physical radiographs of the pillar using the geometry of the SEM-hosted x-ray tomography system. Eventually, data are reconstructed and it is shown that the system makes it possible the quantification of 3D intermetallics volume in copper pillars. The paper also includes a prospective discussion about resolution issues.
Marchand, Roger T.; Ackerman, Thomas P.
2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
In December 1999, NASA launched the Terra satellite. This platform carries five instruments that measure important properties of the Earth climate system. One of these instruments is the Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MISR. This instrument measures light reflected from the Earth at a spatial resolution of 275-1100 m, at four wavelengths (446, 558, 672, and 866 nm), and at nine different viewing angles that vary from +70 to -70 degrees along the direction of flight [Diner et al., 2002]. These multiangle data have the potential to provide information on aerosols, surface, and cloud characteristics that compliments traditional single-view-direction satellite measurements. Before this potential can be realized, the accuracy of the satellite radiance measurements must be carefully assessed, and the implications of the radiometric accuracy on remote-sensing algorithms must be evaluated. In this article, we compare MISR multiangle measurements against two-dimensional (2-D) and 3-D radiative transfer calculations from an inhomogeneous cloud scene. Inputs to the radiative transfer code are based entirely on independently gathered data (ground-based radar, lidar, microwave radiometer, in situ aircraft data, etc.). The 2-D radiative transfer calculations compare favorably near nadir and in most of the forward scattering directions, but differ by as much as 10% in the backscattering directions. Using 3-D radiative transfer modeling, we show that this difference is due to the 3-D structure of the cloud deck, including variations in the cloud top height on scales less than 275 m, which are not resolved in the 2-D simulations. Comparison of the 2-D calculations to the MISR measurements, after accounting for the 3-D structure, show residual differences that are less than 4% at all angles at the MISR blue and green wavelengths. The comparison also reveals that the MISR measurements at the red and near-infrared wavelengths are too bright relative to measurements in the blue and green bands. On the basis of the results of this study, along with results from five other comparisons, the MISR calibration is being adjusted to reduce the red and nearinfrared Radiances.
Three-dimensional charge coupled device
Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.
Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches
Dvir, Tal
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds1, 2, 3. These biomaterials, which are ...
Ritchie, Robert
, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 Three-dimensional (3-D) images of two ceramic-matrix textile composites were studied represent a new class of integrally woven ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature appliCharacterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and...
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in...
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichert, Anke (Albany, CA)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, J.L.
1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA) [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wise, James A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA
2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA); York, Jeremy (Bothell, WA)
2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Two component-three dimensional catalysis
Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry
Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.
Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device
Vann, C.S.
1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation
Twente, Universiteit
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation A.H. Koop #12;Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Three-Dimensional Sheet Cavitation A.H. Koop Thesis University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands #12;NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF UNSTEADY THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHEET CAVITATION PROEFSCHRIFT ter
Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microstructures from multiwalled carbon nanotubes
Cronin, Steve
Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microstructures from multiwalled carbon nanotubes Wei Hsuan-dimensional carbon nanotube structures, whereby a focused laser beam is used to selectively burn local regions of a dense forest of multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy
NMR Experiments on a Three-Dimensional Vibrofluidized Granular Medium
Chao Huan; Xiaoyu Yang; D. Candela; R. W. Mair; R. L. Walsworth
2003-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional granular system fluidized by vertical container vibrations was studied using pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR coupled with one-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The system consisted of mustard seeds vibrated vertically at 50 Hz, and the number of layers N_ell <= 4 was sufficiently low to achieve a nearly time-independent granular fluid. Using NMR, the vertical profiles of density and granular temperature were directly measured, along with the distributions of vertical and horizontal grain velocities. The velocity distributions showed modest deviations from Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, except for the vertical velocity distribution near the sample bottom which was highly skewed and non-Gaussian. Data taken for three values of N_ell and two dimensionless accelerations Gamma=15,18 were fit to a hydrodynamic theory, which successfully models the density and temperature profiles including a temperature inversion near the free upper surface.
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
1 4.6.1 Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs Presentation Number: 028 Investigator: Ghassemi, Ahmad (Texas A&M University) Objectives: To...
Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso...
EM noise interference. These data have been inverted to a fully three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. This model shows the controlling geological structures possibly...
Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC,...
Coso Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Three-Dimensional Inversion of Magnetotelluric Data on a PC,...
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean...
THREE DIMENSIONAL Lecture 6: The Lorenz
Read, Peter L.
in planetary atmospheres, mod- els of lasers and dynamos etc. Willem Malkus also devised a water-wheel demonstration... 1 #12;Malkus' water wheel This simple-looking deterministic system turns out to have be no limit cycles or chaos for r Subcritical Hopf bifurcation occurs at r = ( + b + 3) - b - 1 r
Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models
R. C. Thomas
2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.
AN ENERGY-BASED THREE DIMENSIONAL SEGMENTATION APPROACH FOR THE QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION
Minnesota, University of
, not limited to imaging in 2D. Using emerging methods in electron tomography (see [1] for a recent review tomography allows determination of the three-dimensional structures of cells and tissues at resolutions of electron tomograms, and will be especially useful given the rapid increases in the rate of data acquisition
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.
1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow dummy chips'' are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Petersen, Robert W. (Pleasanton, CA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow "dummy chips" are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned o the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Characterization of three dimensional fiber orientation in short-fiber composites
Zhu, Yuntian T.; Blumenthal, W.R.
1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A mathematical procedure for recovering from image analysis the three dimensional nonsymmetric fiber-orientation distribution in short-fiber composites is proposed. Microphotographs from two orthogonal faces of a composite sample are needed to determine the three dimensional fiber orientation. A simple weighting function is derived to take into account the probability of intercepting fibers at varying inclination angles. The present procedure improves the previous works of other researchers in the following two aspects. First, it can obtain the single-angle fiber-orientation distribution from one micrograph in reference to the normal of the photographed surface. This distribution is often needed in predicting the mechanical and physical properties of short-fiber composites in this direction. Second, no symmetry in fiber-orientation distribution is assumed in the determination of the three dimensional fiber-orientation, which makes the present procedure more practical and versatile.
Properties of original impactors estimated from three-dimensional analysis of whole Stardust tracks
Greenberg, Michael; Ebel, Denton S. (AMNH)
2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
The Stardust mission captured comet Wild 2 particles in aerogel at 6.1 km s{sup -1}. We performed high-resolution three-dimensional imaging and X-ray fluorescence mapping of whole cometary tracks in aerogel. We present the results of a survey of track structures using laser scanning confocal microscopy, including measurements of track volumes, entry hole size, and cross-sectional profiles. We compare various methods for measuring track parameters. We demonstrate a methodology for discerning hypervelocity particle ablation rates using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence, combined with mass and volume estimates of original impactors derived from measured track properties. Finally, we present a rough framework for reconstruction of original impactor size, and volume of volatilized material, using our measured parameters. The bulk of this work is in direct support of nondestructive analysis and identification of cometary grains in whole tracks, and its eventual application to the reconstruction of the size, shape, porosity, and chemical composition of whole Stardust impactors.
Three dimensional characterization and archiving system
Clark, R.; Gallman, P.; Gaudreault, J.; Mosehauer, R.; Slotwinski, A.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This system (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. It is in the final phase of a 3-phase program to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and radioactive and organic contamination is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of dangerous inorganic materials such as asbestos and transite. 3D-ICAS robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected, using coherent laser radar tracking, which also provides 3D facility maps. High-speed automated organic analysis is provided by means of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer sensor which can process a sample without contact in one minute. Volatile organics are extracted directly from contaminated surfaces without sample removal; multiple stage focusing is used for high time resolution. Additional discrimination is obtained through a final stage time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The radionuclide sensors combines {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} counting with energy discrimination of the {alpha} channel; this quantifies isotopes of U, Pu, Th, Tc, Np, and Am in one minute. The Molecular Vibrational Spectrometry sensor is used to characterize substrate material such as concrete, transite, wood, or asbestos; this can be used to provide estimates of the depth of contamination. The 3D-ICAS will be available for real-time monitoring immediately after each 1 to 2 minute sample period. After surface mapping, 3-D displays will be provided showing contours of detected contaminant concentrations. Permanent measurement and contaminant level archiving will be provided, assuring data integrity and allowing regulatory review before and after D&D operations.
CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals
A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh
2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.
Mertens, J. C. E.; Williams, J. J.; Chawla, Nikhilesh [Materials Science and Engineering, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, ISTB4, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5604 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, Security and Defense Systems Initiative, Arizona State University, 781 E. Terrace Road, ISTB4, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5604 (United States)
2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
The design and construction of a high resolution modular x-ray computed tomography (XCT) system is described. The approach for meeting a specified set of performance goals tailored toward experimental versatility is highlighted. The instrument is unique in its detector and x-ray source configuration, both of which enable elevated optimization of spatial and temporal resolution. The process for component selection is provided. The selected components are specified, the custom component design discussed, and the integration of both into a fully functional XCT instrument is outlined. The novelty of this design is a new lab-scale detector and imaging optimization through x-ray source and detector modularity.
Origami nanofabrication of three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage devices
In, Hyun Jin
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Nanostructured (TM) 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process was developed as a novel method of creating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured devices using two- dimensional micro- and nanopatterning tools and techniques. ...
Spatial reasoning about three-dimensional mechanical assemblies
Mohammad, Riaz
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
A methodology has been developed to generate selected assembly sequences of three-dimensional, tri-axial mechanical products. A feature-based design system is first introduced and its representation scheme briefly explained. This representation...
Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)
Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.
2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.
Copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration
Chen, Kuan-Neng, 1974-
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) integration, in which multiple layers of devices are stacked with high density of interconnects between the layers, offers solutions for problems when the critical dimensions in integrated circuits ...
Tungsten carbide-cobalt by Three Dimensional Printing
Kelley, Andrew, III
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing process for rapid prototyping ceramic and metallic parts [Sachs, et al, 1990]. Green (not sintered) tungsten carbide-cobalt parts must have a density greater than 50% ...
Three dimensional thermohydrodynamic analysis of multi-lobed bearings
Mulchandani, Rajesh R.
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of bearing using variable viscosity model are derived and compared to isoviscous results-Thermohydrodynamic simulation of multi-lobed journal bearings is presented using more realistic three dimensional boundary conditions on the model....
Three-Dimensional Multifluid Flow and Transport at the Brooklawn...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Multifluid Flow and Transport at the Brooklawn Site near Baton Rouge, LA: A Case Study. Three-Dimensional Multifluid Flow and Transport at the Brooklawn Site near Baton Rouge, LA:...
Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing
Yoo, Helen Jean
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...
Subcritical Dissipation in Three-dimensional Superflows , C. Huepe2
Nore, Caroline
Subcritical Dissipation in Three-dimensional Superflows C. Nore1 , C. Huepe2 and M. E. Brachet2 1 be responsible for the subcritical (below Mc 2D) dissipation observed by Ra- man et al.7 . We study the effect
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional electrical flow through geomaterials
Akhtar, Anwar Saeed
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
components in different arrangements (Mitchell 1993; Shang et al. 1995). These are very simple models and have been verified by experiments that consider only one-dimensional flow of current. In actual practice, current flow is three-dimensional around... the source. Methods do not exist to analyze three-dimensional current flow through circuit elements other than resistors. Thus, there is a need to develop methods to overcome these shortcomings. Electrical cone penetrometers have been used to convey...
Effect of three-dimensionality on compressible mixing
Papamoschou, D. (California, University, Irvine (United States))
1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Existing experimental data and hypotheses on the growth rates of compressible and incompressible turbulent shear layers are used to estimate the effect of three-dimensionality in the turbulent mixing enhancement in compressible shear flows that is critically important to the efficiency of scramjet powerplants. The general trend is found to be a decrease in growth rate with increasing three-dimensionality, excepting only the restricted regime, where the growth-rate increase is modest. 9 refs.
Active Reflection Absorption for a Three Dimensional Multidirectional Wave Generator
Cruz Castro, Oscar
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
ACTIVE REFLECTION ABSORPTION FOR A THREE DIMENSIONAL MULTIDIRECTIONAL WAVE GENERATOR A Dissertation by OSCAR CRUZ CASTRO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY August 2009 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering ACTIVE REFLECTION ABSORPTION FOR A THREE DIMENSIONAL MULTIDIRECTIONAL WAVE GENERATOR A Dissertation by OSCAR CRUZ CASTRO Submitted...
Advances in three-dimensional turbulence measurement capability
Connell, J.R.; Morris, V.R.
1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Requirements for three-dimensional turbulence velocity measurements for wind turbine purposes have recently led to advances in anemometer accuracy and resolution, particularly for situations when the angle of the wind relative to the anemometer axis is large. New precision calibration data for a complete three-dimensional UVW propeller anemometer are presented. Repeatability of calibration data and comparison with previous calibrations are shown. Special attention is given to the calibration of the crosswind components, V and W. 4 refs., 9 figs.
Porosity in millimeter-scale welds of stainless steel : three-dimensional characterization.
Aagesen, Larry K. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Madison, Jonathan D.
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A variety of edge joints utilizing a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser have been produced and examined in a 304-L stainless steel to advance fundamental understanding of the linkage between processing and resultant microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Acquisition of three-dimensional reconstructions via micro-computed tomography combined with traditional metallography has allowed for qualitative and quantitative characterization of weld joints in a material system of wide use and broad applicability. The presence, variability and distribution of porosity, has been examined for average values, spatial distributions and morphology and then related back to fundamental processing parameters such as weld speed, weld power and laser focal length.
Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity
Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.
Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron
2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.
Fish embryo multimodal imaging by laser Doppler digital holography
Verrier, Nicolas; Picart, Pascal; Gross, Michel
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A laser Doppler imaging scheme combined to an upright microscope is proposed. Quantitative Doppler imaging in both velocity norm and direction, as well as amplitude contrast of either zebrafish flesh or vasculature is demonstrated.
Imaging Three-Dimensional Heliosphere in EUV Mike Gruntman1
California at Berkeley, University of
-2025 at the distance 150 AU because of the decreasing efficiency of its radioisotope thermoelectric generators
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
hydrothermal al- teration would combine to reduce the effectiveness of standard 3-D seismic processing.
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
at Well 46-28, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,Seismic Survey, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,Seismic Survey, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,
Three-dimensional Chemical Imaging of Embedded Nanoparticles using Atom
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 andThe1A: HandlingJefferson
Three dimensional seismic imaging of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump JumpAl., 1978) |Thrall, Texas: EnergyThree RiversOpen Energy
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector
Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel
2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.
Nonlinear formation of holographic images of obscurations in laser beams
Nonlinear formation of holographic images of obscurations in laser beams C. Clay Widmayer, David of obscurations in laser beams. The predictions of the model are found to be in good agreement with measurements the intensity and fluence of the beam at each component in the laser chain. Dam- age threats to the system can
3D Laser Imaging at Highway Speed Kelvin CP Wang
3D Laser Imaging at Highway Speed Kelvin CP Wang And the Team Formerly at the University Concrete Consortium Meeting Oklahoma City Sheraton Hotel #12;3D Laser Imaging for Pavements Mature Potential to Cover Most if Not All Data Collection on Pavement Surface How to Obtain True 1mm 3D Visual
E-Print Network 3.0 - angular resolution three-dimensional Sample...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Summary: , which may ultimately prove amenable to global three-dimensional numerical simulation. I hate being... of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) codes and their...
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic
Rogers, John A.
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic Devices Seokwoo Jeon in the channels of microfluidic systems. Near field scanning optical measurements reveal the optics associated with the fabrication process and the key features that enable its application to the area of microfluidics. Confocal
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods for Three Dimensional Linear Elasticity
Waterloo, University of
Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods for Three Dimensional Linear Elasticity by John Kenneth. A brief review is also made of stopping criteria for conjugate gradient solvers. One method based and tested with poor results. iv #12;Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient Methods
Heart motion measurement with three dimensional sonomicrometry and acceleration sensing
Cavusoglu, Cenk
Heart motion measurement with three dimensional sonomicrometry and acceleration sensing Tetsuya Horiuchi, E. Erdem Tuna, Ken Masamune, M. Cenk CÂ¸ avusÂ¸oglu Abstract--In robotic assisted beating heart surgery, the goal is to develop a robotic system that can actively cancel heart motion by closely
Three-Dimensional and Multilayer Nanostructures Formed by Nanotransfer
Rogers, John A.
ABSTRACT This letter describes the use of nanotransfer printing (nTP) for forming three-dimensional (3D to as nanotransfer printing (nTP),8-11 can be used to build a range of complex 3D structures with feature sizes patterning. Furthermore, the purely additive nature of nTP allows these 2D and 3D printing steps
Three dimensional visualization and comparison of impressions on fired bullets
Tokyo, University of
obtain fine 3D maps of striation surfaces. The shape of striation surface is expected to be printed utilize three dimensional (3D) geometric data of tool marks that are free from lighting condition. In this study, we focused on 3D geometric data of landmark impressions on fired bullets for identification. We
Three-Dimensional Routing in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks
Pompili, Dario
Three-Dimensional Routing in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks Dario Pompili and Tommaso Melodia applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention in a 3D underwa- ter acoustic sensor network is investigated at the network layer, by considering
Strategies for three-dimensional particle tracking with holographic video
Grier, David
Strategies for three-dimensional particle tracking with holographic video microscopy Fook Chiong Research, New York University, New York, NY 10003 Abstract: The video stream captured by an in References and links 1. J. C. Crocker and D. G. Grier, "Methods of digital video microscopy for colloidal
Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model
Infrared regular representation of the three dimensional massless Nelson model J#19;ozsef L this Gaussian measure space. KEYWORDS: Nelson's scalar #12;eld model, infrared regular representation, ground] of a spinless electron coupled to a scalar massless Bose #12;eld is infrared divergent in 3 space dimensions
Automation of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture in Arrayed Microfluidic
Beebe, David J.
. A Peltier cooler maintains the collagen as a liquid at 4 C during cell seeding, followed by polymerizationAutomation of Three-Dimensional Cell Culture in Arrayed Microfluidic Devices Sara I. Montanez of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI The increasing interest in studying the interactions between cells
Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations?
Blackledge, Todd
LETTER Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Todd A. Blackledge1 *, Jonathan A-mail: tab42@cornell.edu Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting
Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage C. Trinitis
Stamatakis, Alexandros
Field Optimization of Three Dimensional High Voltage Equipment C. Trinitis Lehrstuhl f The goal of finding an optimal electric field strength distribution for arbitrary three diÂ mensionalÂ cal optimization algorithm. The package obÂ tained from these three components is then able
Fabrication Technologies for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits Rafael Reif
He, Lei
Fabrication Technologies for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits Rafael Reif Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT Cambridge, MA reif@mit.edu Andy Fan Dept. of Electrical Engineering, MIT Cambridge, MA knchen@mit.edu Shamik Das Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, MIT
A new acoustic three dimensional intensity and energy density probe
Boyer, Edmond
A new acoustic three dimensional intensity and energy density probe F. Aymea , C. Carioub , M is a great advantage. In this frame, a new intensity acoustic probe has been developed to compute acoustic quantities which can be input data for energetic identification methods. 1 Introduction Noise matters
Multifunctional three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks for smart materials
Heller, Eric
Multifunctional three-dimensional macroporous nanoelectronic networks for smart materials Jia Liua incorporation of active nanoelec- tronic networks within 3D materials reveals a powerful approach to smart for creating "very smart" systems, because this would transform conventional inactive materials into active
CASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic
Schofield, Damian
CASE REPORT Three-Dimensional Computer Visualization of Forensic Pathology Data Jack March, BA in US courtrooms, it is only recently that forensic computer animations have become an increas- ingly of Nottingham has been influential in the critical investigation of forensic computer graphics reconstruction
Correlation buildup during recrystallization in three-dimensional dusty plasma clusters
Schella, André; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The recrystallization process of finite three-dimensional dust clouds after laser heating is studied experimentally. The time-dependent Coulomb coupling parameter is presented, showing that the recrystallization starts with an exponential cooling phase where cooling is slower than damping by the neutral gas friction. At later times, the coupling parameter oscillates into equilibrium. It is found that a large fraction of cluster states after recrystallization experiments is in metastable states. The temporal evolution of the correlation buildup shows that correlation occurs on even slower time scale than cooling.
Plume Image Profiling of UV Laser Desorbed Biomolecules
Merrigan, T. L.; Hunniford, C.A.; McCullough, R. W. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Timson, D. J. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK, BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Catney, M. [Andor Technology plc., 7 Millennium Way, Springvale Business Park, Belfast, UK, BT12 7AL (United Kingdom)
2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental system, based upon the techniques of UV and IR laser desorption with time of flight mass spectrometry, has been constructed to enable the production and characterization of neutral biomolecular targets. The feasibility of the laser desorption technique for the purpose of radiation interaction experiments is investigated here. Fluorescent dye tagging and laser induced fluorescence imaging has been used to help characterize the laser produced plumes of biomolecules revealing their spatial density profiles and temporal evolution. Peak target thicknesses of 2x10{sup 12} molecules cm{sup -2} were obtained 30 {mu}s after laser desorption.
Well correction factors for three-dimensional reservoir simulation
Fjerstad, Paul Albert
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. D. Von Gonten A three-dimensional reservoir simulation model does not calculate the correct bottomhole flowing pressure, p f, for a partially penetrating well. The simulator well cell pressure must be corrected ro obtain... an accurate value for p f. Simulation model results have wf' been used in this part to develop a new inflow equation relating cell pressure to actual bottomhole flowing pressure for a partially penetrating well. Based on the new inflow equation, an equation...
Improved data representation for three-dimensional analysis
Olah, Desiree Jeanine
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. OB JECTIVES The purpose of this research was to evaluate the capabilities of spatially-oriented software to improve data representation for three-dimensional analysis. The specific objectives were to: I) Select appropriate spatial analysis... to perform their study. Manley and Tallet (1990) found that the 1VM gave them the capability to calculate volumes between complex surfaces within user defined regions and to provide them with information about specific features or water masses that are far...
Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability
Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.
Dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces
A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko
2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that there are seven types of solutions described in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT), the dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces. Solution of the equations of GRT, which describes the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, in the limiting case of vanishingly small effect of matter on the metric properties of space must go to one of them.
Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.
Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rogomentich, Fran J. (Concord, MA)
1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.
Singular eigenfunctions for the three-dimensional radiative transport equation
Manabu Machida
2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z
Case's method obtains solutions to the radiative transport equation as superpositions of elementary solutions when the specific intensity depends on one spatial variable. In this paper, we find elementary solutions when the specific intensity depends on three spatial variables in three-dimensional space. By using the reference frame whose z-axis lies in the direction of the wave vector, the angular part of each elementary solution becomes the singular eigenfunction for the one-dimensional radiative transport equation. Thus Case's method is generalized.
Three-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays: Static magnetic response
De Luca, R.; Di Matteo, T. [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy)] [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy); Tuohimaa, A.; Paasi, J. [Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism, Tampere University of Technology, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)] [Laboratory of Electricity and Magnetism, Tampere University of Technology, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work we present a simple three-dimensional Josephson-junction array model: a cube with twelve junctions, one on each edge. The low-field magnetic response of the system is studied numerically for arbitrary directions of the applied field. In this model the magnetic energy of the circulating currents is taken into account by introducing an effective mutual inductance matrix. The lower threshold field for flux penetration is determined in a closed analytic form for field directions perpendicular to one cube side. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant
J. Berra-Montiel; J. E. Rosales-Quintero
2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.
Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies
Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Carlsbad, NM); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Artz, Gregory J. (Tucson, AZ); Gafner, Felix H. (Tucson, AZ); Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji (Tucson, AZ)
2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.
Three Dimensional Anodes and Architectures | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage Â»of EnergyThe EnergyDepartment7 th , 2007 Anthony J.Three Dimensional
Schollmeier, M.; Geissel, M.; Sefkow, A. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Flippo, K. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
An improved method to unfold the space-resolved proton energy distribution function of laser-accelerated proton beams using a layered, radiochromic film (RCF) detector stack has been developed. The method takes into account the reduced RCF response near the Bragg peak due to a high linear energy transfer (LET). This LET dependence of the active RCF layer has been measured, and published data have been re-interpreted to find a nonlinear saturation scaling of the RCF response with stopping power. Accounting for the LET effect increased the integrated particle yield by 25% after data unfolding. An iterative, analytical, space-resolved deconvolution of the RCF response functions from the measured dose was developed that does not rely on fitting. After the particle number unfold, three-dimensional interpolation is performed to determine the spatial proton beam distribution for proton energies in-between the RCF data points. Here, image morphing has been implemented as a novel interpolation method that takes into account the energy-dependent, changing beam topology.
Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles
Neal, Daniel R. (Tijeras, NM)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focussed beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focussed beams creates a "light cage" and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained.
NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration
Bentz, Dale P.
NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration and Microstructure Development Modeling Package. Version 3.0 Dale P. Bentz #12;NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration
Surfactant effects on the interaction of a three dimensional vortex pair with a free surface; and,
Zhang, Xiang, 1969-
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In part I of the thesis, a canonical problem of three dimensional surfactant hydrody namics, the three-dimensional laminar interaction between a clean or contaminated free surface and a vortical flow underneath is considered. ...
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering
Sacks, Rafael
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments
Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments
Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun
2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.
Plasma-Ion Processing of Three-Dimensional Components
Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe 610-0321 (Japan); Wei Ronghua [Surface Engineering Section, Materials Engineering Department, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas 78238-5166 (United States)
2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII and D) technology has been developed rapidly in the past decade. This technique is especially promising for modifying three-dimensional components. In PBII and D, plasma is generated in the entire processing chamber and then surrounds the components. When a train of negative voltage pulses are applied to the parts, ions are drawn to all the surfaces exposed to the plasma. At a high energy, ions are implanted to the surfaces, but at a low energy and with a proper precursor gases, ions are deposited to form a film. This technology has found applications in many areas including semiconductors, automotive, aerospace, energy and biomedical. This article reviews PBII and D fundamentals, describes features of various PBII and D systems and plasma sources, and discusses implantation and deposition techniques. The paper will also present application examples of this technology.
Accurate complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials
Cerioni, Alessandro [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Horowitz, BP220 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Genovese, Luigi; Duchemin, Ivan; Deutsch, Thierry [Laboratoire de simulation atomistique (L-Sim), SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble F-38054 (France)
2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The complex scaling method, which consists in continuing spatial coordinates into the complex plane, is a well-established method that allows to compute resonant eigenfunctions of the time-independent Schroedinger operator. Whenever it is desirable to apply the complex scaling to investigate resonances in physical systems defined on numerical discrete grids, the most direct approach relies on the application of a similarity transformation to the original, unscaled Hamiltonian. We show that such an approach can be conveniently implemented in the Daubechies wavelet basis set, featuring a very promising level of generality, high accuracy, and no need for artificial convergence parameters. Complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials can be efficiently and accurately performed. By carrying out an illustrative resonant state computation in the case of a one-dimensional model potential, we then show that our wavelet-based approach may disclose new exciting opportunities in the field of computational non-Hermitian quantum mechanics.
Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).
Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul
2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.
A three-dimensional fast solver for arbitrary vorton distributions
Strickland, J.H.; Baty, R.S.
1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A method which is capable of an efficient calculation of the three-dimensional flow field produced by a large system of vortons (discretized regions of vorticity) is presented in this report. The system of vortons can, in turn, be used to model body surfaces, container boundaries, free-surfaces, plumes, jets, and wakes in unsteady three-dimensional flow fields. This method takes advantage of multipole and local series expansions which enables one to make calculations for interactions between groups of vortons which are in well-separated spatial domains rather than having to consider interactions between every pair of vortons. In this work, series expansions for the vector potential of the vorton system are obtained. From such expansions, the three components of velocity can be obtained explicitly. A Fortran computer code FAST3D has been written to calculate the vector potential and the velocity components at selected points in the flow field. In this code, the evaluation points do not have to coincide with the location of the vortons themselves. Test cases have been run to benchmark the truncation errors and CPU time savings associated with the method. Non-dimensional truncation errors for the magnitudes of the vector potential and velocity fields are on the order of 10{sup {minus}4}and 10{sup {minus}3} respectively. Single precision accuracy produces errors in these quantities of up to 10{sup {minus}5}. For less than 1,000 to 2,000 vortons in the field, there is virtually no CPU time savings with the fast solver. For 100,000 vortons in the flow, the fast solver obtains solutions in 1 % to 10% of the time required for the direct solution technique depending upon the configuration.
Identification marking by means of laser peening
Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz (Rocklin, CA)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.
Rapid Prototyping of Solid ThreeDimensional Parts
McMains, Sara
, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, ballistic particle manufacturing, selective laser sintering : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4 Fused Deposition Modeling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 5 3D Printing
New advances in three-dimensional controlled-sourceelectromagnetic inversion
Commer, Michael; Newman, Gregory A.
2007-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
New techniques for improving both the computational andimaging performance of the three dimensional (3D) electromagnetic inverseproblem are presented. A non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm is theframework of the inversion scheme. Full wave equation modelling forcontrolled sources is utilized for data simulation along with anefficient gradient computation approach for the model update. Improvingthe modelling efficiency of the 3D finite difference method involves theseparation of the potentially large modelling mesh, defining the set ofmodel parameters, from the computational finite difference meshes usedfor field simulation. Grid spacings and thus overall grid sizes can bereduced and optimized according to source frequencies and source-receiveroffsets of a given input data set. Further computational efficiency isobtained by combining different levels of parallelization. While theparallel scheme allows for an arbitrarily large number of parallel tasks,the relative amount of message passing is kept constant. Imageenhancement is achieved by model parameter transformation functions,which enforce bounded conductivity parameters and thus prevent parameterovershoots. Further, a remedy for treating distorted data within theinversion process is presented. Data distortions simulated here includepositioning errors and a highly conductive overburden, hiding the desiredtarget signal. The methods are demonstrated using both synthetic andfield data.
Models of three-dimensional fractional topological insulators
Joseph Maciejko; Xiao-Liang Qi; Andreas Karch; Shou-Cheng Zhang
2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
Time-reversal invariant three-dimensional topological insulators can be defined fundamentally by a topological field theory with a quantized axion angle theta of zero or pi. It was recently shown that fractional quantized values of theta are consistent with time-reversal invariance if deconfined, gapped, fractionally charged bulk excitations appear in the low-energy spectrum due to strong correlation effects, leading to the concept of a fractional topological insulator. These fractionally charged excitations are coupled to emergent gauge fields which ensure that the microscopic degrees of freedom, the original electrons, are gauge-invariant objects. A first step towards the construction of microscopic models of fractional topological insulators is to understand the nature of these emergent gauge theories and their corresponding phases. In this work, we show that low-energy effective gauge theories of both Abelian or non-Abelian type are consistent with a fractional quantized axion angle if they admit a Coulomb phase or a Higgs phase with gauge group broken down to a discrete subgroup. The Coulomb phases support gapless but electrically neutral bulk excitations while the Higgs phases are fully gapped. The Higgs and non-Abelian Coulomb phases exhibit multiple ground states on boundaryless spatial 3-manifolds with nontrivial first homology, while the Abelian Coulomb phase has a unique ground state. The ground state degeneracy receives an additional contribution on manifolds with boundary due to the induced boundary Chern-Simons term.
Propagation of three-dimensional electron-acoustic solitary waves
Shalaby, M.; El-Sherif, L. S. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); El-Labany, S. K. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Sabry, R. [Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mansoura University, Damietta Branch, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Physics Department, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Alkharj University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)
2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Theoretical investigation is carried out for understanding the properties of three-dimensional electron-acoustic waves propagating in magnetized plasma whose constituents are cold magnetized electron fluid, hot electrons obeying nonthermal distribution, and stationary ions. For this purpose, the hydrodynamic equations for the cold magnetized electron fluid, nonthermal electron density distribution, and the Poisson equation are used to derive the corresponding nonlinear evolution equation, Zkharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, in the small- but finite- amplitude regime. The ZK equation is solved analytically and it is found that it supports both solitary and blow-up solutions. It is found that rarefactive electron-acoustic solitary waves strongly depend on the density and temperature ratios of the hot-to-cold electron species as well as the nonthermal electron parameter. Furthermore, there is a critical value for the nonthermal electron parameter, which decides whether the electron-acoustic solitary wave's amplitude is decreased or increased by changing various plasma parameters. Importantly, the change of the propagation angles leads to miss the balance between the nonlinearity and dispersion; hence, the localized pulses convert to explosive/blow-up pulses. The relevance of this study to the nonlinear electron-acoustic structures in the dayside auroral zone in the light of Viking satellite observations is discussed.
Lyapunov modes in three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids
M. Romero-Bastida; E. Braun
2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recent studies on the phase-space dynamics of a one-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid reveal the existence of regular collective perturbations associated with the smallest positive Lyapunov exponents of the system, called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which previously could only be identified in hard-core fluids. In this work we present a systematic study of the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov vectors, i.e. perturbations along each direction of phase space, of a three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid. By performing the Fourier transform of the spatial density of the coordinate part of the Lyapunov vector components and then time-averaging this result we find convincing signatures of longitudinal modes, with inconclusive evidence of transverse modes for all studied densities. Furthermore, the longitudinal modes can be more clearly identified for the higher density values. Thus, according to our results, the mixing of modes induced both by the dynamics and the dimensionality induce a hitherto unknown type of order in the tangent space of the model herein studied at high density values.
The three-dimensional matrix -- An evolution in project management
Glidewell, D.
1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the Functional Department Dimension, functional departments such as project management, design, and construction would be maintained to maximize consistency among project teams, evenly allocate training opportunities, and facilitate the crossfeeding of lessons learned and innovative ideas. Functional departments were also determined to be the surest way of complying uniformly with all project control systems required by the Department of Energy (Sandia`s primary external customer). The Technical Discipline dimension was maintained to enhance communication within the technical disciplines, such as electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, civil engineering, etc., and to evenly allocate technical training opportunities, reduce technical obsolescence, and enhance design standards. The third dimension, the Project Dimension, represents the next step in the project management evolution at Sandia, and together with Functional Department and Technical Discipline Dimensions constitutes the three-dimensional matrix. It is this Project Dimension that will be explored thoroughly in this paper, including a discussion of the specific roles and responsibilities of both management and the project team.
Hamiltonian thermodynamics of three-dimensional dilatonic black holes
Dias, Goncalo A. S.; Lemos, Jose P. S. [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica-CENTRA, Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico-IST, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa-UTL, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The action for a class of three-dimensional dilaton-gravity theories with a negative cosmological constant can be recast in a Brans-Dicke type action, with its free {omega} parameter. These theories have static spherically symmetric black holes. Those with well formulated asymptotics are studied through a Hamiltonian formalism, and their thermodynamical properties are found out. The theories studied are general relativity ({omega}{yields}{infinity}), a dimensionally reduced cylindrical four-dimensional general relativity theory ({omega}=0), and a theory representing a class of theories ({omega}=-3). The Hamiltonian formalism is set up in three dimensions through foliations on the right region of the Carter-Penrose diagram, with the bifurcation 1-sphere as the left boundary, and anti-de Sitter infinity as the right boundary. The metric functions on the foliated hypersurfaces are the canonical coordinates. The Hamiltonian action is written, the Hamiltonian being a sum of constraints. One finds a new action which yields an unconstrained theory with one pair of canonical coordinates (M,P{sub M}), M being the mass parameter and P{sub M} its conjugate momenta The resulting Hamiltonian is a sum of boundary terms only. A quantization of the theory is performed. The Schroedinger evolution operator is constructed, the trace is taken, and the partition function of the canonical ensemble is obtained. The black hole entropies differ, in general, from the usual quarter of the horizon area due to the dilaton.
Interactive graphical tools for three-dimensional mesh redistribution
Dobbs, L.A.
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional meshes modeling nonlinear problems such as sheet metal forming, metal forging, heat transfer during welding, the propagation of microwaves through gases, and automobile crashes require highly refined meshes in local areas to accurately represent areas of high curvature, stress, and strain. These locally refined areas develop late in the simulation and/or move during the course of the simulation, thus making it difficult to predict their exact location. This thesis is a systematic study of new tools scientists can use with redistribution algorithms to enhance the solution results and reduce the time to build, solve, and analyze nonlinear finite element problems. Participatory design techniques including Contextual Inquiry and Design were used to study and analyze the process of solving such problems. This study and analysis led to the in-depth understanding of the types of interactions performed by FEM scientists. Based on this understanding, a prototype tool was designed to support these interactions. Scientists participated in evaluating the design as well as the implementation of the prototype tool. The study, analysis, prototype tool design, and the results of the evaluation of the prototype tool are described in this thesis.
Three dimensional Casimir piston for massive scalar fields
S. C. Lim; L. P. Teo
2008-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
We consider Casimir force acting on a three dimensional rectangular piston due to a massive scalar field subject to periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Exponential cut-off method is used to derive the Casimir energy in the interior region and the exterior region separated by the piston. It is shown that the divergent term of the Casimir force acting on the piston due to the interior region cancels with that due to the exterior region, thus render a finite well-defined Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit expressions for the total Casimir force acting on the piston is derived, which show that the Casimir force is always attractive for all the different boundary conditions considered. As a function of a -- the distance from the piston to the opposite wall, it is found that the magnitude of the Casimir force behaves like $1/a^4$ when $a\\to 0^+$ and decays exponentially when $a\\to \\infty$. Moreover, the magnitude of the Casimir force is always a decreasing function of a. On the other hand, passing from massless to massive, we find that the effect of the mass is insignificant when a is small, but the magnitude of the force is decreased for large a in the massive case.
A novel three dimensional semimetallic MoS{sub 2}
Tang, Zhen-Kun [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Departments of Physics and Electronics, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, Hui; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Hao [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have many potential applications, while the performances of TMDs are generally limited by the less surface active sites and the poor electron transport efficiency. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) with larger surface area was proposed based on first-principle calculations. 3D layered MoS{sub 2} structure contains the basal surface and joint zone between the different nanoribbons, which is thermodynamically stable at room temperature, as confirmed by first principles molecular dynamics calculations. Compared the two-dimensional layered structures, the 3D MoS{sub 2} not only owns the large surface areas but also can effectively avoid the aggregation. Interestingly, although the basal surface remains the property of the intrinsic semiconductor as the bulk MoS{sub 2}, the joint zone of 3D MoS{sub 2} exhibits semimetallic, which is derived from degenerate 3d orbitals of the Mo atoms. The high stability, large surface area, and high conductivity make 3D MoS{sub 2} have great potentials as high performance catalyst.
Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.
Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank
Three-dimensional Casimir piston for massive scalar fields
Lim, S.C. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: sclim@mmu.edu.my; Teo, L.P. [Faculty of Information Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, Cyberjaya 63100, Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)], E-mail: lpteo@mmu.edu.my
2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider Casimir force acting on a three-dimensional rectangular piston due to a massive scalar field subject to periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Exponential cut-off method is used to derive the Casimir energy. It is shown that the divergent terms do not contribute to the Casimir force acting on the piston, thus render a finite well-defined Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit expressions for the total Casimir force acting on the piston is derived, which show that the Casimir force is always attractive for all the different boundary conditions considered. As a function of a - the distance from the piston to the opposite wall, it is found that the magnitude of the Casimir force behaves like 1/a{sup 4} when a{yields}0{sup +} and decays exponentially when a{yields}{infinity}. Moreover, the magnitude of the Casimir force is always a decreasing function of a. On the other hand, passing from massless to massive, we find that the effect of the mass is insignificant when a is small, but the magnitude of the force is decreased for large a in the massive case.
Three Dimensional Simulation of the Baneberry Nuclear Event
Lomov, I
2003-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
Baneberry, a 10-kiloton nuclear event, was detonated at a depth of 278 m at the Nevada Test Site on December 18, 1970. Shortly after detonation, radioactive gases emanating from the cavity were released into the atmosphere through a shock-induced fissure near surface ground zero. Extensive geophysical investigations, coupled with a series of 1D and 2D computational studies were used to reconstruct the sequence of events that led to the catastrophic failure. However, the geological profile of the Baneberry site is complex and inherently three-dimensional, which meant that some geological features had to be simplified or ignored in the 2D simulations. This left open the possibility that features unaccounted for in the 2D simulations could have had an important influence on the eventual containment failure of the Baneberry event. This paper presents results from a high-fidelity 3D Baneberry simulation based on the most accurate geologic and geophysical data available. The results are compared with available data, and contrasted against the results of the previous 2D computational studies.
Near-field imaging of quantum cascade laser transverse modes
. Lahrech, R. Bachelot, P. Gleyzes, and A. C. Boccara, "Infrared-reflection-mode near-field microscopy using: We report near field imaging of the transverse lasing modes of quantum cascade lasers. A mid-infrared. Nagar, G. Fish, K. Lieberman, G. Eisenstein, A. Lewis, J. M. Nielsen, and A. Møeller-Larsen, "Near-infrared
Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control
Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hofmeister, William H. (Nashville, TN); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Smugeresky, John E. (Pleasanton, CA)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.
LASER ULTRASONIC IMAGING FOR IMPACT DAMAGE VISUALIZATION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE
Boyer, Edmond
LASER ULTRASONIC IMAGING FOR IMPACT DAMAGE VISUALIZATION IN COMPOSITE STRUCTURE Chao Zhang1 , Jinhao Qiu1* , Hongli Ji1 1 State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures ultrasonic scanning technique has great potential for damage evaluation in various applications. In order
Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software
Goumnerov, Hristo
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
reconstruction. For the experimental assessment, the OpenPTV results are compared with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry study, as well as results from the in-house two dimensional particle tracking velocimetry software. As contributions to the consortium, the author...
Probe of Three-Dimensional Chiral Topological Insulators in an Optical Lattice
Sheng-Tao Wang; Dong-Ling Deng; Lu-Ming Duan
2014-07-17T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a feasible experimental scheme to realize a three-dimensional chiral topological insulator with cold fermionic atoms in an optical lattice, which is characterized by an integer topological invariant distinct from the conventional $Z_2$ topological insulators and has a remarkable macroscopic zero-energy flat band. To probe its property, we show that its characteristic surface states---the Dirac cones---can be probed through time-of-flight imaging or Bragg spectroscopy and the flat band can be detected via measurement of the atomic density profile in a weak global trap. The realization of this novel topological phase with a flat band in an optical lattice will provide a unique experimental platform to study the interplay between interaction and topology and open new avenues for application of topological states.
Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen K? x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-?m scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.
Hadron Optics in Three-Dimensional Invariant Coordinate Space from Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary
2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
The Fourier transform of the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude (DVCS) with respect to the skewness parameter \\zeta= Q^2/ 2 p.q can be used to provide an image of the target hadron in the boost-invariant variable \\sigma, the coordinate conjugate to light-front time \\tau=t+ z/ c. As an illustration, we construct a consistent covariant model of the DVCS amplitude and its associated generalized parton distributions using the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED, thus providing a representation of the light-front wavefunctions of a lepton in \\sigma space. A consistent model for hadronic amplitudes can then be obtained by differentiating the light-front wavefunctions with respect to the bound-state mass. The resulting DVCS helicity amplitudes are evaluated as a function of \\sigma and the impact parameter \\vec b_\\perp, thus providing a light-front image of the target hadron in a frame-independent three-dimensional light-front coordinate space. Models for the LFWFs of hadrons in (3+1) dimensions displaying confinement at large distances and conformal symmetry at short distances have been obtained using the AdS/CFT method. We also compute the LFWFs in this model in invariant three dimensional coordinate space. We find that in the models studied, the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitudes exhibit diffraction patterns. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics where the distribution in \\sigma measures the physical size of the scattering center in a one-dimensional system.
Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation
Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.
E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced three-dimensional environmental...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
To capture three-dimensional flow 12;March 4 2010 2 effects and their impact on turbine... been looking at advancing free stream turbine performance to achieve economic...
alter three-dimensional collagen: Topics by E-print Network
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Peeters, Arthur; Zarzoso, David; Poli, Emanuele; Casson, Francis 2014-01-01 499 NISTIR 7232 CEMHYD3D: A Three-Dimensional Cement Hydration Engineering Websites Summary: NISTIR...
Prellberg, Thomas
of three-dimensional lattice trails Andrea Bedini* and Aleksander L. Owczarek Department of Mathematics
Holographic laser Doppler imaging of pulsatile blood flow
Bencteux, Jeffrey; Kostas, Thomas; Bayat, Sam; Atlan, Michael
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile motion induced by blood flow using heterodyne holographic interferometry on the thumb of a healthy volunteer, in real-time. Optical Doppler images were measured with green laser light by a frequency-shifted Mach-Zehnder interferometer in off-axis configuration. The recorded optical signal was linked to local instantaneous out-of-plane motion of the skin at velocities of a few hundreds of microns per second, and compared to blood pulse monitored by plethysmoraphy during an occlusion-reperfusion experiment.
Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser
Loss, Daniel
LETTERS Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser HENRY N. CHAPMAN1 of this principle using the FLASH soft-X-ray free-electron laser. An intense 25 fs, 4 Ã? 1013 W cm-2 pulse by one10 . X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are expected to permit diffractive imaging at high
Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Wang, Zhong L.
Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Yaguang Wei, Chen to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) by integrating planar optical waveguide cells that can be expanded to organic- and inorganic-based solar cells. KEYWORDS Dye-sensitized solar
Three-dimensional spectral element simulations of variable density and viscosity, miscible
Meiburg, Eckart H.
are encountered under a wide variety of circumstances, ranging from lubrication applications to enhanced oil very slow flows display significant three-dimensional effects. As a result, the early axisymmetric the observed differences. Hence, the possible role of three-dimensional flow effects in this parameter ran
Esener, Sadik C.
Analysis of free-space optical interconnects for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked of free-space optical interconnect for the three-dimensional optoelectronic stacked processor (3DOESP) has VLSI; Optoelectronics; VCSELs 1. Introduction Current electronic interconnection technology cannot keep
Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise radiated by a three-dimensional bluff body
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Experimental investigation of the aerodynamic noise radiated by a three-dimensional bluff body J.fischer@univ-poitiers.fr Proceedings of the Acoustics 2012 Nantes Conference 23-27 April 2012, Nantes, France 2335 #12;Aerodynamic. The present work is an experimental study of the aerodynamic noise radiated by a three-dimensional simplified
ON THE DERIVATION OF NONLINEAR SHELL MODELS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELASTICITY
, 74G10, 74G65. Key words and phrases. Elasticity, shells, energy minimization, Koiter. hal-00392028ON THE DERIVATION OF NONLINEAR SHELL MODELS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELASTICITY Cristinel Mardare. A nonlinearly elastic shell is modeled either by the nonlinear three- dimensional shell model or by a nonlinear
Three-dimensional Josephson junction networks with coupling inhomogeneities in magnetic fields
Di Matteo, Tiziana
Three-dimensional Josephson junction networks with coupling inhomogeneities in magnetic fields A on the static magnetic response of a three-dimensional 8 Â· 8 Â· 8 network of Josephson junctions is studied of one-dimensional and two-dimensional Josephson junction networks (1D, 2D-JJNs) has been extensively
Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization
Teich, Malvin C.
Acrylic-based resin with favorable properties for three-dimensional two-photon polymerization suited for the fabrication of three-dimensional structures with two-photon polymerization. We a polymerization chain-reaction, thereby hardening the resin locally. Once fabrication is complete, the unexposed
Ris-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE
, REACTOR KINETICS, ROD DROP ACCIDENTS, THREE- DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621 more or less by change. The calculation is there- fore not representative of any existing reactorRisÃ¸-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI; ROD EJECTION TEST CALCULATION A
Simple scenarios of onset of chaos in three-dimensional maps
Alexander Gonchenko; Sergey Gonchenko; Alexey Kazakov; Dmitry Turaev
2014-11-30T23:59:59.000Z
We give a qualitative description of two main routes to chaos in three-dimensional maps. We discuss Shilnikov scenario of transition to spiral chaos and a scenario of transition to discrete Lorenz-like and figure-eight strange attractors. The theory is illustrated by numerical analysis of three-dimensional Henon-like maps and Poincare maps in models of nonholonomic mechanics.
Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Architecture Tulika Mitra Tzi-cker Chiueh
Mitra, Tulika
Three-Dimensional Computer Graphics Architecture Tulika Mitra Tzi-cker Chiueh Computer Science,chiuehg@cs.sunysb.edu March 7, 2000 Abstract Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics hardware has emerged to become an integral part of mainstream desktop PC systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the 3D graphics
Vermont, University of
Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport forecasts, and D. M. Rizzo (2008), Addressing model bias and uncertainty in three dimensional groundwater transport. Introduction [2] Eigbe et al. [1998] provide an excellent review of groundwater applications of the linear
Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)
2006-06-20T23:59:59.000Z
A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.
Srinivasarao, Mohan
Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy Study of Dye Diffusion in Fibers Ye Song, Mohan Srinivasarao to noninvasively obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of the spatial distribution of dyes (fluorescein) in fibers dyed for various length of times. Integration over the dye distribution yields the total amount
Hammel, P.C.; Moore, G.; Roukes, M.; Zhenyong Zhang
1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project successfully developed a magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM) instrument to mechanically detect magnetic resonance signals. This technique provides an intrinsically subsurface, chemical-species-specific probe of structure, constituent density and other properties of materials. As in conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an applied magnetic field gradient selects a well defined volume of the sample for study. However mechanical detection allows much greater sensitivity, and this in turn allows the reduction of the size of the minimum resolvable volume. This requires building an instrument designed to achieve nanometer-scale resolution at buried semiconductor interfaces. High-resolution, three-dimensional depth profiling of semiconductors is critical in the development and fabrication of semiconductor devices. Currently, there is no capability for direct, high-resolution observation and characterization of dopant density, and other critical features of semiconductors. The successful development of MRFM in conjunction with modifications to improve resolution will enable for the first time detailed structural and electronic studies in doped semiconductors and multilayered nanoelectronic devices, greatly accelerating the current pace of research and development.
Geodesic flow on three dimensional ellipsoids with equal semi-axes
Chris M. Davison; Holger R. Dullin
2006-11-22T23:59:59.000Z
Following on from our previous study of the geodesic flow on three dimensional ellipsoid with equal middle semi-axes, here we study the remaining cases: Ellipsoids with two sets of equal semi-axes with $SO(2) \\times SO(2)$ symmetry, ellipsoids with equal larger or smaller semi-axes with SO(2) symmetry, and ellipsoids with three semi-axes coinciding with SO(3) symmetry. All of these cases are Liouville-integrable, and reduction of the symmetry leads to singular reduced systems on lower-dimensional ellipsoids. The critical values of the energy-momentum maps and their singular fibers are completely classified. In the cases with SO(2) symmetry there are corank 1 degenerate critical points; all other critical points are non-degenreate. We show that in the case with $SO(2) \\times SO(2)$ symmetry three global action variables exist and the image of the energy surface under the energy-momentum map is a convex polyhedron. The case with SO(3) symmetry is non-commutatively integrable, and we show that the fibers over regular points of the energy-casimir map are $T^2$ bundles over $S^2$.
Structure and trapping of three-dimensional dust clouds in a capacitively coupled rf-discharge
Arp, O.; Block, D.; Piel, A. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-University, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)
2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
In this survey the recently found 'Coulomb balls' are discussed, which show an unusual kind of crystalline order. These three-dimensional dust clouds consisting of hundreds or thousands of micrometer-sized dust particles have a spherical shape and exist in a wide range of plasma conditions. Coulomb balls are optically highly transparent and have macroscopic dimensions of several millimeters in diameter. The clouds allow for the observation of each single particle and thus the complete reconstruction of the crystal structure by means of video microscopy techniques. The particles are arranged in distinct nested shells in which they form patterns with mostly five and six neighbors. The confinement of Coulomb balls by dielectric walls involves electric forces, surface charges, ion drag forces, and thermophoretic levitation. The thermophoretic force field is measured with tracer particles and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The electric forces are derived from simulations with the two-dimensional SIGLO-2D code. It is shown the the sum of all confining forces results in a stable potential well that describes levitation and spherical confinement of the Coulomb ball.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING OF PROPAGATING DISTURBANCES IN FAN-LIKE CORONAL LOOPS
Wang, Tongjiang; Ofman, Leon [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: tongjiang.wang@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States)
2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
Quasi-periodic propagating intensity disturbances (PDs) have been observed in large coronal loops in EUV images over a decade, and are widely accepted to be slow magnetosonic waves. However, spectroscopic observations from Hinode/EIS revealed their association with persistent coronal upflows, making this interpretation debatable. Motivated by the scenario that the coronal upflows could be the cumulative result of numerous individual flow pulses generated by sporadic heating events (nanoflares) at the loop base, we construct a velocity driver with repetitive tiny pulses, whose energy frequency distribution follows the flare power-law scaling. We then perform three-dimensional MHD modeling of an idealized bipolar active region by applying this broadband velocity driver at the footpoints of large coronal loops which appear open in the computational domain. Our model successfully reproduces the PDs with similar features as the observed, and shows that any upflow pulses inevitably excite slow magnetosonic wave disturbances propagating along the loop. We find that the generated PDs are dominated by the wave signature as their propagation speeds are consistent with the wave speed in the presence of flows, and the injected flows rapidly decelerate with height. Our simulation results suggest that the observed PDs and associated persistent upflows may be produced by small-scale impulsive heating events (nanoflares) at the loop base in the corona, and that the flows and waves may both contribute to the PDs at lower heights.
Three-dimensional vortical structures in the wake of a flexible flapping foil
Krueger, Matthew J
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This project aims to gain a qualitative view of the three-dimensional vortical structures of a flexible flapping foil at Reynolds number 164. Flexible foils were fabricated, coated with fluorescent dye, and towed with heave ...
Thermal Modeling and Device Noise Properties of Three-Dimensional-SOI Technology
Chen, Tze Wee
Thermal test structures and ring oscillators (ROs) are fabricated in 0.18-mum three-dimensional (3-D)-SOI technology. Measurements and electrothermal simulations show that thermal and parasitic effects due to 3-D packaging ...
Ko, Min Seok
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation presents a numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a channel with a backward-facing step. Flow was considered to be steady, incompressible, and laminar. The flow medium was treated to be radiatively...
Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks q
Pompili, Dario
Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks q Accepted 23 July 2008 Available online 7 August 2008 Keywords: Underwater acoustic sensor networks data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation
Gregorski, Steven Joseph
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The material properties and dimensional accuracy of metal tooling produced by the Three Dimensional Printing process can be enhanced by increasing the green density of the 3D printed part. Green density is the ratio of ...
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael
2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Characterization and requirements for Cu-Cu bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits
Tadepalli, Rajappa, 1979-
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) technology enables heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from different technologies, and reduces global RC delay by increasing the device density per unit chip area. ...
An interactive three-dimensional computer graphic simulation of the upper extremity
Pickard, Julie Marie
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional computer graphic simulation which hics. allows for the arbitrary placement of axes of motion with respect to skeletal structures is described. The simulation, developed on a Sum UItraSPARC high performance workstation integrated...
Mann, Jennifer L. (Jennifer Lynn)
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An effective physics-based model has been developed that is capable of reliably predicting the motion of a three-dimensional mine-shaped object impacting the water surface from air and subsequently dropping through the ...
Membrane technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals
Patel, Amil Ashok, 1979-
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional photonic crystals hold tremendous promise toward the realization of truly integrated photonic circuits on a single substrate. Nanofabrication techniques currently limit the ability to create the multilayer ...
Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures
Farahat, Waleed A.
We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...
E-Print Network 3.0 - accelerated hypofractionated three-dimensional...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
System Summary: three-dimensional movements while the former can only sense single-axis movements. Also, the data rate... cm with an acceleration of 10 ms2 and the distance...
Three-Dimensional Simulation of Carmustine Delivery to a Patient-Specific Brain Tumor
Arifin, Davis Yohanes
This study presents the recent development of three-dimensional patient-specific simulation of carmustine delivery to brain tumor that highlights several crucial factors affecting the delivery. The simulation utilizes the ...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS
Braun, Paul
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY KEVIN interesting for photonic and energy storage applications. Sacrificial templates are commonly used metamaterial, and energy storage applications. 3D metallic architectures are useful for solar
Green Water Flow Kinematics and Impact Pressure on a Three Dimensional Model Structure
Ariyarathne, Hanchapola Appuhamilage Kusalika Suranjani
2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Flow kinematics of green water due to plunging breaking waves interacting with a simplified, three-dimensional model structure was investigated in laboratory. Two breaking wave conditions were tested: one with waves impinging and breaking...
Fucetola, Corey Patrick
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis considers the viability of nanomembrane handling and stacking approaches to enable the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured materials. Sequentially stacking previously-patterned membranes to ...
Author's personal copy Mesoscale modeling of electric double layer capacitors with three-dimensional
Pilon, Laurent
, cylindrical, and spherical electrodes or pores. EDLCs with highly ordered porous electrodes. EDLC with ordered bimodal meso- porous formulations for simulating electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) with three-dimensional ordered structures
Accelerated Publications Three-Dimensional Structure of DesVI from Streptomyces Venezuelae: A Sugar
Holden, Hazel
Accelerated Publications Three-Dimensional Structure of DesVI from Streptomyces Venezuelae: A Sugar for the biosynthesis of dTDP-desosamine in Streptomyces Venezuelae, with the last step catalyzed by DesVI, an N
Modeling of three-dimensional viscoelastic flows with free surfaces using a finite element method
Adrian, David Joseph
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A framework and code have been developed to simulate fiber and film processes; the code can handle three-dimensional, isothermal, incompressible, creeping flow of a Giesekus fluid with free surfaces at infinite capillary ...
Three-dimensional airfoil performance measurements on a rotating wing
Butterfield, C.P.
1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this comprehensive research program was to study the effects of horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade rotation on aerodynamic behavior below, near, and beyond stall. This paper describes the flow angle sensor used to measure angle of attack (AOA) and how the sensor was calibrated, and it gives results of pressure integrations on the blade. Aerodynamic, load, flow-visualization, and inflow measurements were made on a 10-m, three-bladed, downwind HAWT. A video camera was mounted on the rotor to record video images of tufts attached to the low-pressure side of a constant-chord, zero-twist blade. Load measurements were made using strain gages mounted every 10% of the blade's span. Pressure taps were located at 32 chordwise positions and revealed pressure distributions comparable with wind tunnel data. Inflow was measured using a vertical-plane array of eight propvane and five triaxial (U-V-W) prop-type anemometers located 10 m upwind in the predominant wind direction. Results show evidence of stall hysteresis and unsteadiness at high AOA. Correlations with analytical predictions and wind tunnel tests show good agreement at low AOA and poor agreement at high AOA. 7 refs., 12 figs.
Turbulence prediction in two- and three-dimensional bundle flows using Large Eddy Simulation
Ibrahim, Wael Abdul-Hamid
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
TURBULENCE PREDICTION IN TWO- AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL BUNDLE FLOWS USING LARGE EDDY SIMULATION A Thesis by WAEL ABDUL-HAMID IBRAHIM Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... Prediction in Two- and Three-Dimensional Bundle Flows Using Large Eddy Simulation. (May 1994) Wael Abdul-Hamid Ibrahim, B. S. Alexandria University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Yassin A. Hassan Flow turbulence is a familiar phenomenon in everyday life...
Zocher, Marvin Anthony
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT CODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE IN HELICALLY WOUND COMPOSITE CYLINDERS A Thesis MARVIiN AiNTHONY ZOCHER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas Ag:M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject; Aerospace Engineering A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE ELEMENT CODE FOR THE ANALYSIS OF DAMAGE IN HELICALLY WOUND COMPOSITE CYLINDERS A Thesis by i%1ARVIN ANTHONY ZOCHER Approved...
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z
Florida, University of
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z J. R. Smith,* D. P In this initial study the electrochemically active region of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode an actual three-dimensional 3D model of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode and its interface
Autonomous three dimensional Newtonian systems which admit Lie and Noether point symmetries
M. Tsamparlis; A. Paliathanasis; L. Karpathopoulos
2012-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
We determine the autonomous three dimensional Newtonian systems which admit Lie point symmetries and the three dimensional autonomous Newtonian Hamiltonian systems, which admit Noether point symmetries. We apply the results in order to determine the two dimensional Hamiltonian dynamical systems which move in a space of constant non-vanishing curvature and are integrable via Noether point symmetries. The derivation of the results is geometric and can be extended naturally to higher dimensions.
Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States) and Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping (Sweden); Pattern Recognition Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91054, Erlangen (Germany); Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Siemens AG Healthcare, Forchheim 91301 (Germany); Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold speed-up of the processing (from 1336 to 150 s). Conclusions: Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the potential to substantially improve image quality and/or reduce the radiation dose required for obtaining 3D image data using cone beam CT.
Hayat, Majeed M.
Technology Materials and Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1356, USA 3 Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, The University, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131-1356, USA 2 Department of Physics & Astronomy, The University of New Mexico
Guo, David, 1976-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid freeform fabrication process used to generate solid parts directly from three-dimensional computer models. A part geometry is created by selectively depositing binder into ...
Kulkarni, Ramaprasad; Tuller, Markus; Fink, Wolfgang; Wildschild, Dorthe (Oregon State U.); (Ariz)
2012-07-27T23:59:59.000Z
Advancements in noninvasive imaging methods such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) have led to a recent surge of applications in porous media research with objectives ranging from theoretical aspects of pore-scale fluid and interfacial dynamics to practical applications such as enhanced oil recovery and advanced contaminant remediation. While substantial efforts and resources have been devoted to advance CT technology, microscale analysis, and fluid dynamics simulations, the development of efficient and stable three-dimensional multiphase image segmentation methods applicable to large data sets is lacking. To eliminate the need for wet-dry or dual-energy scans, image alignment, and subtraction analysis, commonly applied in X-ray micro-CT, a segmentation method based on a Bayesian Markov random field (MRF) framework amenable to true three-dimensional multiphase processing was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, several heuristic and deterministic combinatorial optimization schemes required to solve the labeling problem of the MRF image model were implemented and tested for computational efficiency and their impact on segmentation results. Test results for three grayscale data sets consisting of dry glass beads, partially saturated glass beads, and partially saturated crushed tuff obtained with synchrotron X-ray micro-CT demonstrate great potential of the MRF image model for three-dimensional multiphase segmentation. While our results are promising and the developed algorithm is stable and computationally more efficient than other commonly applied porous media segmentation models, further potential improvements exist for fully automated operation.
Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.
Hamedani, Amani; Baniassadi, Majid; Sheidaei, A.; Pourboghrat, F.; Remond, Y.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid
2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
In this study, microstructure of a porosity-graded lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been characterized using focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) combined with image processing. Two-point correlation functions of the two-dimensional (2D) images taken along the direction of porosity gradient are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. The effective elastic modulus of the two-phase porosity-graded cathode is predicted using strong contrast (SC) and composite inclusion (CI) homogenization techniques. The effectiveness of the two methods in predicting the effective elastic properties of the porositygraded LSM cathode is investigated in comparison with the results obtained from the finite element model (FEM).
A new TriBeam system for three-dimensional multimodal materials analysis
Echlin, McLean P.; Mottura, Alessandro; Torbet, Christopher J.; Pollock, Tresa M. [Materials Department, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93101 (United States)
2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The unique capabilities of ultrashort pulse femtosecond lasers have been integrated with a focused ion beam (FIB) platform to create a new system for rapid 3D materials analysis. The femtosecond laser allows for in situ layer-by-layer material ablation with high material removal rates. The high pulse frequency (1 kHz) of ultrashort (150 fs) laser pulses can induce material ablation with virtually no thermal damage to the surrounding area, permitting high resolution imaging, as well as crystallographic and elemental analysis, without intermediate surface preparation or removal of the sample from the chamber. The TriBeam system combines the high resolution and broad detector capabilities of the DualBeam{sup TM} microscope with the high material removal rates of the femtosecond laser, allowing 3D datasets to be acquired at rates 4-6 orders of magnitude faster than 3D FIB datasets. Design features that permit coupling of laser and electron optics systems and positioning of a stage in the multiple analysis positions are discussed. Initial in situ multilayer data are presented.
Imaging laser analysis of building materials - practical examples
Wilsch, G.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [BAM, Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)
2011-06-23T23:59:59.000Z
The Laser induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is supplement and extension of standard chemical methods and SEM- or Micro-RFA-applications for the evaluation of building materials. As a laboratory method LIBS is used to gain color coded images representing composition, distribution of characteristic ions and/or ingress characteristic of damaging substances. To create a depth profile of element concentration a core has to be taken and split along the core axis. LIBS was proven to be able to detect all important elements in concrete, e. g. Chlorine, Sodium or Sulfur, which are responsible for certain degradation mechanisms and also light elements like lithium or hydrogen. Practical examples are given and a mobile system for on-site measurements is presented.
Single molecule imaging with longer x-ray laser pulses
Martin, Andrew V; Caleman, Carl; Quiney, Harry M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In serial femtosecond crystallography, x-ray laser pulses do not need to outrun all radiation damage processes because Bragg diffraction exceeds the damage-induced background scattering for longer pulses ($\\sim$ 50--100 fs). This is due to a "self-gating pulse" effect whereby damage terminates Bragg diffraction prior to the pulse completing its passage through the sample, as if that diffraction were produced by a shorter pulse of equal fluence. We show here that a similar gating effect applies to single molecule diffraction with respect to spatially uncorrelated damage processes like ionization and ion diffusion. The effect is clearly seen in calculations of the diffraction contrast, by calculating the diffraction of average structure separately to the diffraction from statistical fluctuations of the structure due to damage ("damage noise"). Our results suggest that sub-nanometer single molecule imaging with longer pulses, like those produced at currently operating facilities, should not yet be ruled out. The...
New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields
Crawfis, R.A.
1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.
Three-dimensional liver motion tracking using real-time two-dimensional MRI
Brix, Lau, E-mail: lau.brix@stab.rm.dk [Department of Procurement and Clinical Engineering, Region Midt, Olof Palmes Allé 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark)] [Department of Procurement and Clinical Engineering, Region Midt, Olof Palmes Allé 15, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Ringgaard, Steffen [MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark)] [MR Research Centre, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Sørensen, Thomas Sangild [Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Aabogade 34, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark)] [Department of Computer Science, Aarhus University, Aabogade 34, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N (Denmark); Poulsen, Per Rugaard [Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark and Department of Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Nørrebrogade 44, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Combined magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and linear accelerators for radiotherapy (MR-Linacs) are currently under development. MRI is noninvasive and nonionizing and can produce images with high soft tissue contrast. However, new tracking methods are required to obtain fast real-time spatial target localization. This study develops and evaluates a method for tracking three-dimensional (3D) respiratory liver motion in two-dimensional (2D) real-time MRI image series with high temporal and spatial resolution. Methods: The proposed method for 3D tracking in 2D real-time MRI series has three steps: (1) Recording of a 3D MRI scan and selection of a blood vessel (or tumor) structure to be tracked in subsequent 2D MRI series. (2) Generation of a library of 2D image templates oriented parallel to the 2D MRI image series by reslicing and resampling the 3D MRI scan. (3) 3D tracking of the selected structure in each real-time 2D image by finding the template and template position that yield the highest normalized cross correlation coefficient with the image. Since the tracked structure has a known 3D position relative to each template, the selection and 2D localization of a specific template translates into quantification of both the through-plane and in-plane position of the structure. As a proof of principle, 3D tracking of liver blood vessel structures was performed in five healthy volunteers in two 5.4 Hz axial, sagittal, and coronal real-time 2D MRI series of 30 s duration. In each 2D MRI series, the 3D localization was carried out twice, using nonoverlapping template libraries, which resulted in a total of 12 estimated 3D trajectories per volunteer. Validation tests carried out to support the tracking algorithm included quantification of the breathing induced 3D liver motion and liver motion directionality for the volunteers, and comparison of 2D MRI estimated positions of a structure in a watermelon with the actual positions. Results: Axial, sagittal, and coronal 2D MRI series yielded 3D respiratory motion curves for all volunteers. The motion directionality and amplitude were very similar when measured directly as in-plane motion or estimated indirectly as through-plane motion. The mean peak-to-peak breathing amplitude was 1.6 mm (left-right), 11.0 mm (craniocaudal), and 2.5 mm (anterior-posterior). The position of the watermelon structure was estimated in 2D MRI images with a root-mean-square error of 0.52 mm (in-plane) and 0.87 mm (through-plane). Conclusions: A method for 3D tracking in 2D MRI series was developed and demonstrated for liver tracking in volunteers. The method would allow real-time 3D localization with integrated MR-Linac systems.
Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.
1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.
Nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of three dimensional current shear instability
Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Das, Amita; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)
2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with detailed nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a three dimensional current shear driven instability in slab geometry. The simulations show the development of the instability in the current shear layer in the linear regime leading to the generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the nonlinear regime. The electromagnetic turbulence is first generated in the unstable shear layer and then spreads into the stable regions. The turbulence spectrum shows a new kind of anisotropy in which power transfer towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow. Results of the present three dimensional simulations of the current shear instability are compared with those of our earlier two dimensional simulations of sausage instability. It is found that the flattening of the mean velocity profile and thus reduction in the electron current due to generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the three dimensional case is more effective as compared to that in the two dimensional case.
Landy, N I; Smith, D R
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce an approach to the design of three-dimensional transformation optical (TO) media based on a generalized quasi-conformal mapping approach. The generalized quasi-conformal TO (QCTO) approach enables the design of media that can, in principle, be broadband and low-loss, while controlling the propagation of waves with arbitrary angles of incidence and polarization. We illustrate the method in the design of a three-dimensional "carpet" ground plane cloak and of a flattened Luneburg lens. Ray-trace studies provide a confirmation of the performance of the QCTO media, while also revealing the limited performance of index-only versions of these devices.
Waveguides in three-dimensional metallic photonic band-gap materials
Sigalas, M.M.; Biswas, R.; Ho, K.M.; Soukoulis, C.M. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)] [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States); Crouch, D.D. [Advanced Electromagnetic Technologies Center, Raytheon Corporation, Rancho Cucamonga, California 91729 (United States)] [Advanced Electromagnetic Technologies Center, Raytheon Corporation, Rancho Cucamonga, California 91729 (United States)
1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
We theoretically investigate waveguide structures in three-dimensional metallic photonic band-gap (MPBG) materials. The MPBG materials used in this study consist of a three-dimensional mesh of metallic wires embedded in a dielectric. An {ital L}-shaped waveguide is created by removing part of the metallic wires. Using finite difference time domain simulations, we found that an 85{percent} transmission efficiency can be achieved through the 90{degree} bend with just three unit cell thickness MPBG structures. thinsp {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Geometry and scaling of tangled vortex lines in three-dimensional random wave fields
Alexander J. Taylor; Mark R. Dennis
2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
The short- and long-scale behaviour of tangled wave vortices (nodal lines) in random three-dimensional wave fields is studied via computer experiment. The zero lines are tracked in numerical simulations of periodic superpositions of three-dimensional complex plane waves. The probability distribution of local geometric quantities such as curvature and torsion are compared to previous analytical and new Monte Carlo results from the isotropic Gaussian random wave model. We further examine the scaling and self-similarity of tangled wave vortex lines individually and in the bulk, drawing comparisons with other physical systems of tangled filaments.
Three-Dimensional Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Laser Wakefield Experiments
Geddes, Cameron Guy Robinson
experiments, and probe parameters that are not yet available. Thereby providing a "road map" for generating high-energy physics to continue exploring the energy frontier in the ensuing decades. Figure 1
High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Hantke, Max, F.
Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell
Victoria, University of
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve
Three-Dimensional Unsteady Multi-stage Turbomachinery Simulations using the Harmonic
Jameson, Antony
Three-Dimensional Unsteady Multi-stage Turbomachinery Simulations using the Harmonic Balance-stage turbomachinery problems modeled by the Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations. This time. Turbomachinery flows are naturally unsteady mainly due to the relative motion of rotors and stators
A THREE DIMENSIONAL NAVIER-STOKES CODE FOR AEROELASTICITY IN TURBOMACHINERY
Liu, Feng
A THREE DIMENSIONAL NAVIER-STOKES CODE FOR AEROELASTICITY IN TURBOMACHINERY I.W. MCBEAN Department. Introduction As designers in the turbomachinery industry strive to design machines that are lighter, more already been used in a 2- dimensional model of aeroelasticity in turbomachinery [17, 9]. The devel- opment
Three-Dimensional Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Swirling Flow in Turbomachinery
Giles, Mike
Three-Dimensional Nonreflecting Boundary Conditions for Swirling Flow in Turbomachinery Pierre turbomachinery problems. Based on the use of precalculated far-field acoustic eigenmodes for a mean flow THERE are different approaches to analyze turbomachinery unsteadiness. These methods vary from the use of linearized
Texas at Arlington, University of
18TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS Abstract Accurate three-dimensional stress for materials with highly anisotropic mechanical properties. Among such materials, glass-fiber and carbon properties for composite materials, and that can enable a major shift toward accurate 3D material
Jablonowski, Christiane
Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models blocks and splits a block as refinements occur. The current functionality provides automatic generation the use of a longer time step. We have developed an Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) dynamical core
Cao, Guozhong
Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage Properties Laifa Shen,, Evan Uchaker, Changzhou Yuan, Ping Nie, Ming Zhang, Xiaogang Zhang,*, and Guozhong into the channels of surface- oxidized mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) by means of electrostatic interaction, followed
The Effects of Three-Dimensional Canopy Management on Overseeded Warm-Season Fairway Turf
as a sustainable warm-season turfgrass but a lack of cultural management data has hindered its acceptance. FineThe Effects of Three-Dimensional Canopy Management on Overseeded Warm-Season Fairway Turf Scientist: Kurt Steinke, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences Funding: $7,000 The objectives are to 1) discover
Predicting Three-Dimensional Structures of Transmembrane Domains of -Barrel Membrane Proteins
Dai, Yang
for -barrel membrane proteins, and the lack of an overall quantitative theoretical understandingPredicting Three-Dimensional Structures of Transmembrane Domains of -Barrel Membrane Proteins Information ABSTRACT: -Barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
Direct three-dimensional visualization of membrane disruption by amyloid fibrils
Jelinek, Raz
Direct three-dimensional visualization of membrane disruption by amyloid fibrils Lilia Milanesia damage by specific interactions of a lipid bilayer with amyloid-like fibrils formed in vitro from 2-microglobulin (2m). Using cryoelectron tomography, we demonstrate that frag- mented 2m amyloid fibrils interact
Two-and three-dimensional folding of thin film single-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic
Lewis, Jennifer
Two- and three-dimensional folding of thin film single-crystalline silicon for photovoltaic power of a functional, nonpla- nar photovoltaic (PV) device. A mechanics model based on the theory of thin plates self-folding photovoltaics capillary force Silicon, in crystalline and amorphous forms, is currently
Computations of Three-Dimensional Overturning Waves in Shallow Water: Dynamics and Kinematics
Grilli, StÃ©phan T.
Computations of Three-Dimensional Overturning Waves in Shallow Water: Dynamics and Kinematics P. A detailed analysis of wave profiles and wave kinematics (both on the free surface and within the flow waves over constant depth, greatly contributed to our understandingof breakingwave kinemat- ics
Brown, Michael R.
Three-dimensional MHD simulations of counter-helicity spheromak merging in the Swarthmore Spheromak September 2011) Recent counter-helicity spheromak merging experiments in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment spheromak- and FRC-like characteristics. In this paper, the SSX merging process is studied in detail using
Three-dimensional optical tomography with the equation of radiative transfer
Hielscher, Andreas
on a transport-backtransport method applied to the two-dimensional time-dependent equation of radiative transferThree-dimensional optical tomography with the equation of radiative transfer Gassan S. Abdoulaev reconstruction scheme that is based on the time-independent equation of radiative transfer (ERT) and allows
Island formation and destruction of flux surfaces in three-dimensional MHD equilibria
Reiman, A.H.; Boozer, A.H.
1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the physics involved in the appearance of islands due to resonant pressure driven currents in three-dimensional MHD equilibria. Estimates of island widths are obtained by an expansion in ..beta... The theory is applied to Princeton's heliac reference design.
Takle, Eugene S.
-dimensional aerodynamic structure of a green ash shelterbelt X.H. Zhoua,, J.R. Brandlea, E.S. Takleb,c, C.W. Mized Abstract The three-dimensional aerodynamic structure of a tree shelterbelt is described by two structural be predicted by associating its aerodynamic influence with its struc- ture. The more complex the shelterbelt
A three-dimensional validation of crack curvature in muscovite mica
J. C. Hill; J. W. Foulk III; P. A. Klein; E. P. Chen
2001-01-07T23:59:59.000Z
Experimental and computational efforts focused on characterizing crack tip curvature in muscovite mica. Wedge-driven cracks were propagated under monochromatic light. Micrographs verified the subtle curvature of the crack front near the free surface. A cohesive approach was employed to model mixed-mode fracture in a three-dimensional framework. Finite element calculations captured the crack curvature observed in experiment.
Uplift of Beta Regio: Three-dimensional models A. V. Vezolainen and V. S. Solomatov
Solomatov, Slava
Uplift of Beta Regio: Three-dimensional models A. V. Vezolainen and V. S. Solomatov Department of Beta Regio caused by a mantle plume satisfy constraints on gravity, topography, rheology, and the uplift rate substantially better than two-dimensional models. In particular, the uplift time of Beta
he edge of a torn plastic sheet forms a complex three-dimensional fractal
Texas at Austin. University of
T he edge of a torn plastic sheet forms a complex three-dimensional fractal shape. We have found to the generation of characteristic wavy shapes. We used rectangular plastic sheets pulled from the sides (in the y produce an irreversible plastic deforma- tion of the sheet and, as they are relieved, the deformed sheet
Roy, Subrata
devices. Mechanical micropumps drive the working fluid through a membrane or diaphragm, while non-mechanical1 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Three-dimensional Plasma and Fluid Flow Plasma Dynamics Laboratory and Test Facility Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department University
Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind
Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind S to the well--known thermal expansion of the solar corona [Parker, 1958, 1963, 1991]. In particular Alfv'en waves in the solar atmosphere and wind, taking into account relevant physical effects
Trikania, Andra
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study reports an investigation of the structure and stratigraphy of the downdip Yegua sandstones at Edna Field, Jackson County, South Texas. The study is based on 22.9 square miles of three dimensional (3-D) seismic data, well-logs from 15...
Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA
HÃ¶gberg, BjÃ¶rn
Self-assembly of three-dimensional prestressed tensegrity structures from DNA Tim Liedl1,2,3 , Bjo DNA that act as tension-bearing cables. Our DNA ten- segrity structures can self-assemble against of oligodeoxyribonucleotide `staple strands' that self-assemble into tensed structures despite kinetic barriers imposed
Self-Assembly of 10-m-Sized Objects into Ordered Three-Dimensional Arrays
Tien, Joe
Self-Assembly of 10-Âµm-Sized Objects into Ordered Three-Dimensional Arrays Thomas D. Clark, JoeVed March 9, 2001 Abstract: This paper describes the self-assembly of small objectsspolyhedral metal plates functionalized to be hydrophobic or hydrophilic using self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Self-assembly occurs
The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells
Schmidt, Volker
1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three
TERMES: An Autonomous Robotic System for Three-Dimensional Collective Construction
Napp, Nils
TERMES: An Autonomous Robotic System for Three-Dimensional Collective Construction Kirstin Petersen is the research area in which autonomous multi-robot systems build structures according to user specifications. Here we present a hardware system and high-level control scheme for autonomous construction of 3D
Photodeposition Method For Fabricating A Three-Dimensional, Patterned Polymer Microstructure
Walt, David R. (Lexington, MA); Healey, Brian G. (Sommerville, MA)
2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention is a photodeposition methodology for fabricating a three-dimensional patterned polymer microstructure. A variety of polymeric structures can be fabricated on solid substrates using unitary fiber optic arrays for light delivery. The methodology allows micrometer-scale photopatterning for the fabricated structures using masks substantially larger than the desired dimensions of the microstructure.
A three-dimensional adaptive method based on the iterative grid redistribution
Wang, Desheng
such as fluid dynamics, combustion and heat transfer and others, the required density of grid pointsA three-dimensional adaptive method based on the iterative grid redistribution Desheng Wang on iterative grid redistribution technique introduced in [J. Comput. Phys. 159 (2000) 246]. The key step
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves
Iooss, GÃ©rard
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves GÂ´erard Iooss , Pavel of Sciences, Lavryentyev pr. 15, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia gerard.iooss@inln.cnrs.fr, plotnikov@hydro of small divisors, the main difficulty is the inversion of the linearized operator at a non trivial point
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels
Victoria, University of
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model accounts for important transport phenomena in a fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode
Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations
Gupta, Amit
is cycloning, where particles are separated from a fluid owing to centrifugal forces imparted by a swirling axial. But a few cylin- drical cyclones of the type described here have been used to separate liquid Abstract Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were
RIS-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL
, PWR TYPE REACTORS, REACTOR KINETICS, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621.039.514 : 621 calculations for the PWR core. It combines a nodal theory neutron kinetics calculation with transient sub calculations. The present report describes the input for ANTI. INIS descriptors; A CODES, BURNUP, HYDRAULICS
Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive
Mathis, Wayne N.
LETTER Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs risk in the evolution of web architecture. The ecological success of spiders has been attributed to key
Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?
Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina
2010-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.
Three-dimensional MHD modeling of the solar corona and Arcadi V. Usmanov
Usmanov, Arcadi V.
Three-dimensional MHD modeling of the solar corona and solar wind Arcadi V. Usmanov and Melvyn L with a different numerical algorithm and rotated to match the inclination inferred for the solar dipole from of plasma and magnetic field parameters and in particular the extension of slow wind belt agree fairly well
Joint inversion for three dimensional S velocity mantle structure along the Tethyan margin
van der Lee, Suzan
construct a new three dimensional S velocity model and Moho map by jointly inverting regional S and Rayleigh and overlapping nature of the different data sets' resolving power has reduced disparities in resolving power that exist for individual data sets, for example between resolving power for crustal and lower mantle
Kelley, Kirk Lee
2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...
Three Dimensional Simulation of Jet Formation in Collapsing Condensates Weizhu Bao1
Markowich, Peter A.
Three Dimensional Simulation of Jet Formation in Collapsing Condensates Weizhu Bao1 , D. Jaksch2, 2003) We numerically study the behavior of collapsing and exploding condensates using the parameters body loss rate from the number of remnant condensate atoms and collapse times and obtain only one
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential
Ligare, Martin
Numerical analysis of BoseÂEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator in the undergraduate physics curriculum. Standard textbook treatments of BoseÂEinstein condensation5 investigate a gas 24 March 1997; accepted 12 May 1997 BoseÂEinstein condensation is the anomalous accumulation
Towards Printable Robotics: Origami-Inspired Planar Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Mechanisms
Wood, Robert
a fast and low-cost fabrication method to modern, real-world robotic applications. To this end, we employTowards Printable Robotics: Origami-Inspired Planar Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Mechanisms in the way engineers develop robotic hardware with speed and low cost in a straightforward procedure
Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain
Cai, Long
Ultramicroscopy: three-dimensional visualization of neuronal networks in the whole mouse brain Hans entire neuronal networks for analysis in the intact brain has been impossible up to now. Techniques like in micro computer tomogrpahy and mMRI does not resolve individual cells1,2. On a microscopic scale
Development of a Three-Dimensional Ball Rotation Sensing System using Optical Mouse Sensors
to the case of a ball wheel. The system measures surface speed by using two or more optical mouse sensorsDevelopment of a Three-Dimensional Ball Rotation Sensing System using Optical Mouse Sensors Masaaki Kumagai and Ralph L. Hollis Abstract-- Robots using ball(s) as spherical wheels have the advantage
GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 14, Three-dimensional energetic ion sounding of the
,4 Abstract. We present new results using energetic parti- cles to remotely sound the highGEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. , NO. , PAGES 14, Three-dimensional energetic ion sounding present a new technique to remotely sense the magnetopause in three dimensions as a function of time
Three Dimensional Graphics Algorithms on the MicroGrain Array ProcessorII
Bishop, Benjamin
Three Dimensional Graphics Algorithms on the MicroÂGrain Array ProcessorÂII Benjamin Bishop Yan The Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA 16802 Abstract ThreeÂdimensional graphics processors play tools, architectural CAD tools, and physical modeling. But high perÂ formance graphics subsystems
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment on deformation associated with the Mw Â¼ 6.5 Bam earthquake in Iran determined using the SAR data from the ERS
High Accuracy Three-Dimensional Radar Sensor Design based on Fuzzy Logic Control Approach
Fan, Jeffrey
High Accuracy Three-Dimensional Radar Sensor Design based on Fuzzy Logic Control Approach Lilin Guo in target tracking. Furthermore, a fuzzy logic controller is proposed to minimize the error between Tracking, Doppler Effect, Fuzzy Logic Controller I. INTRODUCTION Typically, radar sensors are comprised
Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a
Byer, Robert L.
Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a chip@physics.anu.edu.au Abstract: The quest for less costly and more compact high-energy particle accelerators of suggested concepts, the photonic accelerator design by B. M. Cowan [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 011301
Three-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the Earth-ionosphere cavity resonances
Pasko, Victor
domain (FDTD) model of Schumann resonances (SR) with a set of classical eigenfrequency and quality factorThree-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the Earth-ionosphere cavity resonances-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the Earth-ionosphere cavity resonances, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32
Three-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the Schumann resonance
Pasko, Victor
Three-dimensional finite difference time domain modeling of the Schumann resonance parameters to as Schumann resonances and are excited by lightning discharges. The detection of such resonances on other frequency propagation is employed to study the Schumann resonance problems on Titan, Venus, and Mars
A Stochastic Model of Transport in Three-Dimensional Porous Media1
Boyer, Edmond
Lee2 Modeling of solute transport remains a key issue in the area of groundwater contamination transport, non-Fickian dispersion, random walk, stochastic processes. INTRODUCTION Solute transport modelA Stochastic Model of Transport in Three-Dimensional Porous Media1 Cyril Fleurant2 and Jan van der
An Effective Approach for Identifying Evolving Three-Dimensional Structural Motifs in Protein
Yang, Hui
have been employed to study the protein folding process, in which a protein acquires its func- tional three-dimensional structure. This has resulted in a large number of protein folding trajectories of the protein folding mechanism. In this paper, we focus on identifying im- portant 3D structural motifs
Mayer, Alexandre
Three-dimensional calculation of field emission from carbon nanotubes using a transfer- matrix simulations of field emission from carbon nanotubes, using a transfer-matrix methodology. By repeating field, as shown by recent ab-initio calculations [10]. To study field emission from carbon nanotubes, we
A convenient alignment approach for x-ray imaging experiments based on laser positioning devices
Zhang Da; Donovan, Molly; Wu Xizeng; Liu Hong [Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233 (United States); Center for Bioengineering and School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 (United States)
2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
This study presents a two-laser alignment approach for facilitating the precise alignment of various imaging and measuring components with respect to the x-ray beam. The first laser constantly pointed to the output window of the source, in a direction parallel to the path along which the components are placed. The second laser beam, originating from the opposite direction, was calibrated to coincide with the first laser beam. Thus, a visible indicator of the direction of the incident x-ray beam was established, and the various components could then be aligned conveniently and accurately with its help.
Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si
Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ?50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.
Ebel, Denton S.; Greenberg, Michael; Rivers, Mark L.; Newville, Matthew; (AMNH)
2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
We report analyses of aerogel tracks using (1) synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography (XRCMT), (2) laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM), and (3) synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) of particles and their paths resulting from simulated hypervelocity impacts (1-2), and a single {approx}1 mm aerogel track from the Stardust cometary sample collector (1-3). Large aerogel pieces can be imaged sequentially, resulting in high spatial resolution images spanning many tomographic fields of view ('lambda-tomography'). We report calculations of energy deposited, and tests on aromatic hydrocarbons showing no alteration in tomography experiments. Imaging at resolutions from -17 to -1 micron/pixel edge (XRCMT) and to <100 nm/pixel edge (LCSM) illustrates track geometry and interaction of particles with aerogel, including rifling, particle fragmentation, and final particle location. We present a 3-D deconvolution method using an estimated point-spread function for aerogel, allowing basic corrections of LCSM data for axial distortion. LCSM allows rapid, comprehensive, non-destructive, high information return analysis of tracks in aerogel keystones, prior to destructive grain extraction. SRXRF with LCSM allows spatial correlation of grain size, chemical, and mineralogical data. If optical methods are precluded in future aerogel capture missions, XRCMT is a viable 3D imaging technique. Combinations of these methods allow for complete, nondestructive, quantitative 3-D analysis of captured materials at high spatial resolution. This data is fundamental to understanding the hypervelocity particle-aerogel interaction histories of Stardust grains.
Chiavassa, A; Faurobert, M; Ricort, G; Tanga, P; Magic, Z; Collet, R; Asplund, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Stellar activity and, in particular, convection-related surface structures, potentially cause fluctuations that can affect the transit light curves. Surface convection simulations can help the interpretation of ToV. We used realistic three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamical simulation of the Sun from the Stagger-grid and synthetic images computed with the radiative transfer code Optim3D to provide predictions for the transit of Venus in 2004 observed by the satellite ACRIMSAT. We computed intensity maps from RHD simulation of the Sun and produced synthetic stellar disk image. We computed the light curve and compared it to the ACRIMSAT observations and also to the light curves obtained with solar surface representations carried out using radial profiles with different limb-darkening laws. We also applied the same spherical tile imaging method to the observations of center-to-limb Sun granulation with HINODE. We managed to explain ACRIMSAT observations of 2004 ToV and showed that the granulation pattern cause...
Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional models for mass transport of radionuclides
Prickett, T.A.; Voorhees, M.L.; Herzog, B.L.
1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This technical memorandum compares one-, two-, and three-dimensional models for studying regional mass transport of radionuclides in groundwater associated with deep repository disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. In addition, this report outlines the general conditions for which a one- or two-dimensional model could be used as an alternate to a three-dimensional model analysis. The investigation includes a review of analytical and numerical models in addition to consideration of such conditions as rock and fluid heterogeneity, anisotropy, boundary and initial conditions, and various geometric shapes of repository sources and sinks. Based upon current hydrologic practice, each review is taken separately and discussed to the extent that the researcher can match his problem conditions with the minimum number of model dimensions necessary for an accurate solution.
Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator, Bi 2Te3
Siemons, W.
2010-02-24T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional topological insulators are a new state of quantum matter with a bulk gap and odd number of relativistic Dirac fermions on the surface. By investigating the surface state of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the surface state consists of a single nondegenerate Dirac cone. Furthermore, with appropriate hole doping, the Fermi level can be tuned to intersect only the surface states, indicating a full energy gap for the bulk states. Our results establish that Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is a simple model system for the three-dimensional topological insulator with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The large bulk gap of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} also points to promising potential for high-temperature spintronics applications.
An experimental and computational study of transonic three-dimensional flow in a turbine cascade
Camus, J.J.; Denton, J.D.; Scrivener, C.T.J.; Soulis, J.V.
1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Detailed experimental measurements of the flow in a cascade of turbine rotor blades with a nonplanar end wall are reported. The cascade geometry was chosen to model as closely as possible that of a H.P. gas turbine rotor blade. The blade section is designed for supersonic flow with an exit Mach number of 1.15 and the experiments covered a range of exit Mach numbers from 0.7-1.2. Significant three-dimensional effects were observed and the origin of these is discussed. The measurements are compared with data for the same blade section in a two-dimensional cascade and also with the predictions of two different fully three-dimensional inviscid flow calculation methods. It is found that both these calculations predict the major threedimensional effects on the flow correctly.
Chen, Y.J. [AIA, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
Stick system curtain wall leak problems are frequently caused by water entry at the splice joints of the curtain wall frame and failure of the internal metal joinery seals. Remedial solutions involving occupied buildings inevitably face the multiple constraints of existing construction and business operations not present during the original curtain wall construction. In most cases, even partial disassembly of the curtain wall for internal seal repairs is not feasible. Remedial solutions which must be executed from the exterior of the curtain wall often involve wet-applied or preformed sealant tape bridge joints. However, some of the more complex joints cannot be repaired effectively or economically with the conventional bridge joint. Fortunately, custom fabricated three-dimensional preformed sealant boots are becoming available to address these situations. This paper discusses the design considerations and the selective use of three-dimensional preformed boots in sealing complex joint geometry that would not be effective with the conventional two-dimensional bridge joint.
Three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
Sabry, R. [Department of Physics, College of Science and Humanitarian Studies, Alkharj University, Alkharj 11942 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta, 34517 Damietta (Egypt); Moslem, W. M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said (Egypt); El-Shamy, E. F. [Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Damietta-Branch, New Damietta, 34517 Damietta (Egypt); Shukla, P. K. [RUB International Chair, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional ion-acoustic envelope soliton excitations in electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas are interpreted. This is accomplished through the derivation of three-dimensional nonlinear Schroedinger equation, where the nonlinearity is balancing with the dispersive terms. The latter contains both an external magnetic field besides the usual plasma parameter effects. Based on the balance between the nonlinearity and the dispersion terms, the regions for possible envelope solitons are investigated indicating that new regimes for modulational instability of envelope ion-acoustic waves could be obtained, which cannot exist in the unmagnetized case. This will allow us to establish additional new regimes, different from the usual unmagnetized plasma, for envelope ion-acoustic waves to propagate in multicomponent plasma that may be observed in space or astrophysics.
Analytical Derivation of Three Dimensional Vorticity Function for wave breaking in Surf Zone
Dutta, R
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this report, Mathematical model for generalized nonlinear three dimensional wave breaking equations was de- veloped analytically using fully nonlinear extended Boussinesq equations to encompass rotational dynamics in wave breaking zone. The three dimensional equations for vorticity distributions are developed from Reynold based stress equations. Vorticity transport equations are also developed for wave breaking zone. This equations are basic model tools for numerical simulation of surf zone to explain wave breaking phenomena. The model reproduces most of the dynamics in the surf zone. Non linearity for wave height predictions is also shown close to the breaking both in shoaling as well as surf zone. Keyword Wave breaking, Boussinesq equation, shallow water, surf zone. PACS : 47.32-y
The ground state energy of the three dimensional Ginzburg-Landau model in the mixed phase
Ayman Kachmar
2010-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the Ginzburg-Landau functional defined over a bounded and smooth three dimensional domain. Supposing that the strength of the applied magnetic field varies between the first and second critical fields, in such a way that $H_{C_1}\\ll H\\ll H_{C_2}$, we estimate the ground state energy to leading order as the Ginzburg-Landau parameter tends to infinity.
Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source
Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming
2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.
Three-dimensional effects of liquid water flooding in the cathode of a PEM fuel cell
Natarajan, Dilip; Van Nguyen, Trung
2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
. Researchers all over the world are focusing on optimizing this system to be cost competitive with energy conversion devices currently available. It is a well known fact that the cathode of the PEM fuel cell is the performance limiting component due...THREE DIMENSIONAL EFFECTS OF LIQUID WATER FLOODING IN THE CATHODE OF A PEM FUEL CELL by Dilip Natarajan and Trung Van Nguyen* Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045, USA Submitted...
Three dimensional simulation of the microstructure development in Ni-20%Fe nanocrystalline deposits
Li, H.; Czerwinski, F.; Szpunar, J.A. [McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering
1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Monte-Carlo computer model was applied to simulate a development of the three dimensional microstructure during electrodeposition of nanocrystalline alloys. The driving force for this process was the minimization of free energy of the system. For a particular deposit of Ni-20%Fe, the influence of the overpotential and current density on the grain size was tested. A strong decrease in grain size with increasing overpotential and current density obtained from the simulation is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.
A three dimensional corner balance method for spatial discretization of the transport equation
Richardson, Rebecca Lynn
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
(ANS) reactor, currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is an excellent example of a real reactor with a complicated three-dimensional geometry. At ORNL, transport problems for this reactor have been modeled using TWODANT... reactor could be represented by a 45' slice with reflecting boundaries. We began with an S4 quadrature set to permit comparison against the analyses performed by ORNL. SNAC allows for different quadrature sets in each energy group, and numerical...
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal
John, Sajeev
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal Ping Kuang,1 opens up a new door for light trapping and near-unity solar absorption over broad s and wide angles://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.004200 There is a great deal of interest in efficient light trapping in thin film solar
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.
Lensfree Holographic On-Chip Imaging and Three-Dimensional Tracking
Su, Ting-Wei
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Opt. Lett. 28, 164–166 (2003). Heng, X. et al. Optofluidic2006). Lew, M. , Cui, X. , Heng, X. & Yang, C. Interference
Zhu, Chun
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in materials science and nanoscience through the use ofin materials science and nanoscience has revived due to thescience, biology and nanoscience, they have their own
Multi-Array EEG Signals Mapped with Three Dimensional Images for Clinical Epilepsy Studies
Boyer, Edmond
, spatially distributed into or over the head of the patient, are basic tools for epilepsy research-frequency representations). The anatomical reference is always required to understand the mechanisms underlying the brain to transient and repetitive interruptions in normal electrical brain activity [1]. The medical application
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 14 (2008) 235245 235 Three-Dimensional Tomographic Imaging
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
, Cleveland Ohio, USA f College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA g microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS of these important roles, iron can also be toxic, with certain forms participating in the production of free radicals
Analysis of multiphase fluid flows via high speed and synthetic aperture three dimensional imaging
Scharfman, Barry Ethan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Spray flows are a difficult problem within the realm of fluid mechanics because of the complicated interfacial physics involved. Complete models of sprays having even the simplest geometries continue to elude researchers ...
Yang, Yu-Hsiang
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
pressure), rr is surface tension, and p, is the shear viscosity of the liquid. Many researchers were interested in cavitation adjacent to a ngid boundary (Naude and Ellis 1961, and Benjamm and Ellis 1966). Cavitation damage induced by flow is often most... is higher than one without a phase change. This is due to the agitation of the hquid in the boundary layer generated by the growing and collapsing bubbles. The name cavitation was given by R. E. Froude, an English naval architect, m 1895 to descnbe...
The Video Mesh: A Data Structure for Image-based Three-dimensional Video Editing
Chen, Jiawen
This paper introduces the video mesh, a data structure for representing video as 2.5D “paper cutouts.” The video mesh allows interactive editing of moving objects and modeling of depth, which enables 3D effects and ...
Vertes, Akos
of the leaf tissue in ~50 ng amounts on a 1 mm diameter area. A mass spectrum recorded on this area included ionization. A separate mass spectrum was obtained on the native area of the tissue (see spectrum in red color 517 532 623 633 637 639 647 653 663 667 731 814 894 950 163 1.00 0.16 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.17 0.87 0.44 0.51
Lensfree Holographic On-Chip Imaging and Three-Dimensional Tracking
Su, Ting-Wei
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
T. M. & Quake, S. R. Microfluidics: Fluid physics at theorigins and the future of microfluidics. Nature 442, 368–373through the fusion of microfluidics and optics. Nature 442,
Robotic three-dimensional imaging system for under-vehicle inspection
Abidi, Mongi A.
of technologies to safeguard military bases, federal buildings, nuclear power plants, and civilian settlements.1117/1.2238565 1 Introduction The current threats to security have led to an increased interest in the development on the data toward threat assessment, and the communica- tions module conveys and shares information from
Handheld Digital Three-Dimensional Color Imaging Camera Peter King Humanik
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky9, 2010 The meetingand Eric Edlund | Princeton Plasma Physics
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov Pty LtdSteen,Ltd Jump JumpAl., 1978) |Thrall, Texas: EnergyThree RiversOpen
Three-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays: Static magnetic response R. De Luca and T. Di Matteo
Di Matteo, Tiziana
Three-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays: Static magnetic response R. De Luca and T. Di Matteo Tampere, Finland Received 17 July 1997 In this work we present a simple three-dimensional Josephson-junction directions perpendicular to one cube side. S0163-1829 98 05502-7 I. INTRODUCTION The interest in Josephson-junction
Di Matteo, Tiziana
Magnetic flux distribution in a three-dimensional inductive network of Josephson junctions A received 20 October 1999 The magnetic response of three-dimensional Josephson junction networks to constant made of n elementary cubic cells, each cell containing 12 resistively shunted ideal Josephson junctions
Ng, Chung-Sang
ABSTRACT FINAL ID: SH51A-1991 TITLE: Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulations of Interaction Between, United States. Title of Team: ABSTRACT BODY: We have recently identified in three-dimensional (3D implications in the generation of Alfven waves and MHD turbulence. This work is supported by a NASA grant NNX08
Walsworth, Ronald L.
an experimental study of a three-dimensional system of mustard seeds fluidized by vertical vibrations imaging (MRI) was used to measure the distribution of positions and short-time displacements of the grains-tagged MRI has been used to measure much slower granular flows than studied here [15]. Seymour et al. have
Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses may be generated up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime due to parametric processes in plasmas. The minimization of unwanted plasma processes leads to operational limits which are discussed here with respect to filamentation. Transverse filamentation, which originally was derived for plane waves, is being investigated for seed pulse propagation in the so called ?-pulse limit. A three-dimensional (3D) three-wave-interaction model is the basis of the present investigation. To demonstrate the applicability of the three-wave-interaction model, the 1D pulse forms are compared with those obtained from 1D particle in cell and Vlasov simulations. Although wave-breaking may occur, the kinetic simulations show that the leading pumped pulse develops a form similar to that obtained from the three-wave-interaction model. In the main part, 2D and 3D filamentation processes of (localized) pulses are investigated with the three-wave-interaction model. It is shown that the leading pulse front can stay filamentation-free, whereas the rear parts show transverse modulations.
Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime
Jae-Hwang Lee
2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.
Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels
Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott
2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.
Fully-automatic laser welding and micro-sculpting with universal in situ inline coherent imaging
Webster, Paul J L; Ji, Yang; Galbraith, Christopher M; Kinross, Alison W; Van Vlack, Cole; Fraser, James M
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Though new affordable high power laser technologies make possible many processing applications in science and industry, depth control remains a serious technical challenge. Here we show that inline coherent imaging, with line rates up to 312 kHz and microsecond-duration capture times, is capable of directly measuring laser penetration depth in a process as violent as kW-class keyhole welding. We exploit ICI's high speed, high dynamic range and robustness to interference from other optical sources to achieve fully automatic, adaptive control of laser welding as well as ablation, achieving micron-scale sculpting in vastly different heterogeneous biological materials.
Electromagnetic three-dimensional reconstruction of targets from free space experimental data
Geffrin, J.-M.; Chaumet, P. C.; Eyraud, C.; Belkebir, K.; Sabouroux, P. [Aix-Marseille Universite, Ecole Centrale Marseille, and CNRS, Institut Fresnel, Domaine Universitaire de St Jerome, 13013 Marseille (France)
2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with the problem of reconstructing the relative permittivity of three-dimensional targets using experimental scattered fields. The fields concerned were measured in an anechoic chamber on the surface of a sphere surrounding the target. The inverse scattering problem is reformulated as an optimization problem that is iteratively solved thanks to a conjugate gradient method and by using the coupled dipoles method as a forward problem solver. The measurement technique and the inversion procedure are briefly described with the inversion results. This work demonstrates the reliability of the experiments and the efficiency of the proposed inverse scattering scheme.
Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.
Black holes and gravitational waves in three-dimensional f(R) gravity
Hongsheng Zhang; Dao-Jun Liu; Xin-Zhou Li
2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z
In the three-dimensional pure Einstein gravity, the geometries of the vacuum space-times are always trivial, and gravitational waves (gravitons) are strictly forbidden. For the first time, we find a vacuum circularly symmetric black hole with nontrivial geometries in $f(R)$ gravity theory, in which a true singularity appears. In this frame with nontrivial geometry, a perturbative gravitational wave does exist. Beyond the perturbative level, we make a constructive proof of the existence of a gravitational wave in $f(R)$ gravity, where the Birkhoff-like theorem becomes invalid. We find two classes of exact solutions of circularly symmetric pure gravitational wave radiation and absorption.
Three-dimensional computer modeling of particulate flow around dust monitors
Nichols, B.D.; Gregory, W.S.
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
SOLA-DM is a three-dimensional finite-difference computer code designed to model the dynamics of an incompressible fluid and the transport of discrete particulate material around obstacles impervious to flow. The numerical methods used in this code are described. SOLA-DM was used to predict the particle flux sampled by the 10-mm Dorr-Oliver Cyclone and MINIRAM dust monitors. Various geometric and dynamic variations of monitor and airflow combinations were tested. The code predictions are shown in computer-generated graphic plots.
Development of a transient three-dimensional neutron transport code with feedback
Waddell, M.W. Jr.
1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z
A new code is being developed at the Y-12 Plant for solving the time-dependent, three-dimensional Boltzmann transport model with feedback. The new code, PADK, uses the quasi-static method in its adiabatic form and is to be utilized to analyze hypothetical criticality accidents. A description of the code along with preliminary results without feedback are presented in this paper. The code is applied to 2 standard benchmark problems and the results are compared to another method. Also, the code is used to model the GODIVA reactor. Further work needed to be completed is described.
All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range
Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)
2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (1–6.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz–18?GHz)
A MATLAB Code for Three Dimensional Linear Elastostatics using Constant Boundary Elements
P, Kirana Kumara
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Present work presents a code written in the very simple programming language MATLAB, for three dimensional linear elastostatics, using constant boundary elements. The code, in full or in part, is not a translation or a copy of any of the existing codes. Present paper explains how the code is written, and lists all the formulae used. Code is verified by using the code to solve a simple problem which has the well known approximate analytical solution. Of course, present work does not make any contribution to research on boundary elements, in terms of theory. But the work is justified by the fact that, to the best of author's knowledge, as of now, one cannot find an open access MATLAB code for three dimensional linear elastostatics using constant boundary elements. Author hopes this paper to be of help to beginners who wish to understand how a simple but complete boundary element code works, so that they can build upon and modify the present open access code to solve complex engineering problems quickly and easi...
Simulation of three-dimensional shear flow around a nozzle-afterbody at high speeds
Baysal, O.; Hoffman, W.B. (Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics Dept., Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States))
1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, turbulent shear flows at supersonic and hypersonic speeds around a nozzle-afterbody are simulated. The three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved by a finite-volume and implicit method. The convective and the pressure terms are differenced by an upwind-biased algorithm. The effect of turbulence is incorporated by a modified Baldwin-Lomax eddy viscosity model. The success of the standard Baldwin-Lomax model for this flow type is shown by comparing it to a laminar case. These modifications made to the model are also shown to improve flow prediction when compared to the standard Baldwin-Lomax model. These modifications to the model reflect the effects of high compressibility, multiple walls, vortices near walls, and turbulent memory effects in the shear layer. This numerically simulated complex flowfield includes a supersonic duct flow, a hypersonic flow over an external double corner, a flow through a non-axisymmetric, internal-external nozzle, and a three-dimensional shear layer. The specific application is for the flow around the nozzle-afterbody of a generic hypersonic vehicle powered by a scramjet engine. The computed pressure distributions compared favorably with the experimentally obtained surface and off-surface flow surveys.
Gribov ambiguity in asymptotically AdS three-dimensional gravity
Anabalon, Andres [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Facultad de Ingenieria y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibanez, Vina Del Mar (Chile); Canfora, Fabrizio [Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile); Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper the zero modes of the de Donder gauge Faddeev-Popov operator for three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant are analyzed. It is found that the AdS{sub 3} vacuum produces (infinitely many) normalizable smooth zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator. On the other hand, it is found that the Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole (including the zero mass black hole) does not generate zero modes. This differs from the usual Gribov problem in QCD where, close to the maximally symmetric vacuum, the Faddeev-Popov determinant is positive definite while 'far enough' from the vacuum it can vanish. This suggests that the zero mass Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black hole could be a suitable ground state of three-dimensional gravity with negative cosmological constant. Because of the kinematic origin of this result, it also applies for other covariant gravity theories in three dimensions with AdS{sub 3} as maximally symmetric solution, such as new massive gravity and topologically massive gravity. The relevance of these results for supersymmetry breaking is pointed out.
Bounds on strong field magneto-transport in three-dimensional composites
Marc Briane; Graeme W. Milton
2011-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with bounds satisfied by the effective non-symmetric conductivity of three-dimensional composites in the presence of a strong magnetic field. On the one hand, it is shown that for general composites the antisymmetric part of the effective conductivity cannot be bounded solely in terms of the antisymmetric part of the local conductivity, contrary to the columnar case. So, a suitable rank-two laminate the conductivity of which has a bounded antisymmetric part together with a high-contrast symmetric part, may generate an arbitrarily large antisymmetric part of the effective conductivity. On the other hand, bounds are provided which show that the antisymmetric part of the effective conductivity must go to zero if the upper bound on the antisymmetric part of the local conductivity goes to zero, and the symmetric part of the local conductivity remains bounded below and above. Elementary bounds on the effective moduli are derived assuming the local conductivity and effective conductivity have transverse isotropy in the plane orthogonal to the magnetic field. New Hashin-Shtrikman type bounds for two-phase three-dimensional composites with a non-symmetric conductivity are provided under geometric isotropy of the microstructure. The derivation of the bounds is based on a particular variational principle symmetrizing the problem, and the use of Y-tensors involving the averages of the fields in each phase.
Scalable three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code BAGIRA
Vasenin, V. A.; Krivchikov, M. A. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kroshilin, V. E.; Kroshilin, A. E.; Roganov, V. A. [All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Nuclear Power Plants (VNIIAES), Ferganskaya 25, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic best-estimate code BAGIRA for modeling of multi-phase flows was developed without any artificial physical assumptions or simplifications. The mathematical model is based on numerical approximations of exact three-dimensional equations, including effective multi-dimensional models for turbulent heat and mass transfer. With use of BAGIRA All-Russian Scientific Research Inst. of Nuclear Power Plants (VNIIAES) has developed a full-scope and analytical simulators using BAGIRA for a number of power plants with VVER-1000 and RBMK type design, which are being used in Kalinin, Kursk, Smolensk, Chernobyl, and Bilibino NPPs. The comparison of calculated and experimental results shows that BAGIRA can successfully reproduce the most important processes observed in experiments. BAGIRA is implemented in FORTRAN. It is a relatively complicated code that tends to decompose task by aspects. Such a style is welcoming for extensions, which can be added without code redesign. We would like to present an aspect-oriented mix-in approach for BAGIRA code extension. It allows to make it scalable in number of directions leaving original code base untouched. It is possible to add new effects/units, and even to produce a supercomputer version of the code. The last is a key point today due to availability of low-cost compact supercomputers, which makes building compact NPP simulators possible. (authors)
Fully Three-dimensional Simulation and Modeling of a Dense Plasma Focus
Meehan, B T
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) is a pulsed-power machine that electromagnetically accelerates and cylindrically compresses a shocked plasma in a Z-pinch. The pinch results in a brief (about 100 nanosecond) pulse of X-rays, and, for some working gases, also a pulse of neutrons. A great deal of experimental research has been done into the physics of DPF reactions, and there exist mathematical models describing its behavior during the different time phases of the reaction. Two of the phases, known as the inverse pinch and the rundown, are approximately governed by magnetohydrodynamics, and there are a number of well-established codes for simulating these phases in two dimensions or in three dimensions under the assumption of axial symmetry. There has been little success, however, in developing fully three-dimensional simulations. In this work we present three-dimensional simulations of DPF reactions and demonstrate that 3D simulations predict qualitatively and quantitatively different behavior than their 2D counterp...
Multiple hot images from an obscuration in an intense laser beam through cascaded Kerr medium disks
Wang Youwen; Wen Shuangchun; You Kaiming; Tang Zhixiang; Deng Jianqin; Zhang Lifu; Fan Dianyuan
2008-10-20T23:59:59.000Z
We present a theoretical investigation on the formation of hot images in an intense laser beam through cascaded Kerr medium disks, to disclose the distribution and intensity of hot images in high-power disk amplifiers. It is shown that multiple hot images from an obscuration may be formed, instead of one hot image as reported previously in the literature. This gives a clear explanation for the curious damage pattern of hot images, namely, damage sites appearing on alternating optics in periodic trains. Further analysis demonstrates that the distribution and intensity of hot images depend closely on the number of Kerr medium disks, the distance from the obscuration to the front of the first disk downstream, the space between two neighboring disks, and the thickness and B integral of each disk. Moreover, we take two cascaded Kerr medium disks for example to detail multiple hot images from an obscuration and confirm the theoretical results by numerical simulations.
Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.
Three-Dimensionally Ordered Macroporous Li4Ti5O12: Effect of Wall Structure on Electrochemical, and the materials evaluated in lithium ion battery cells. The 3DOM architecture was found to markedly improve
Gong, Nan-Wei
We describe the design and implementation of a dense, low-power wireless sensor network for fine-grained three-dimensional thermal characterization of a large open indoor space. To better understand the airflow dynamics ...
Furukawa, Toru
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...
Lee, Howon
The rapid manufacture of complex three-dimensional micro-scale components has eluded researchers for decades. Several additive manufacturing options have been limited by either speed or the ability to fabricate true ...
Griggs, D. P.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development of a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics code for LWR safety analysis has been initiated. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code ...
Karsilayan, Nur
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS...
Li Changqing; Zhao Hongzhi; Anderson, Bonnie; Jiang Huabei [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States); Department of Radiology, Oconee Memorial Hospital, Seneca, South Carolina 29672 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6131 (United States)
2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We describe a compact diffuse optical tomography system specifically designed for breast imaging. The system consists of 64 silicon photodiode detectors, 64 excitation points, and 10 diode lasers in the near-infrared region, allowing multispectral, three-dimensional optical imaging of breast tissue. We also detail the system performance and optimization through a calibration procedure. The system is evaluated using tissue-like phantom experiments and an in vivo clinic experiment. Quantitative two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) images of absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are obtained from these experiments. The ten-wavelength spectra of the extracted reduced scattering coefficient enable quantitative morphological images to be reconstructed with this system. From the in vivo clinic experiment, functional images including deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and water concentration are recovered and tumors are detected with correct size and position compared with the mammography.
Jens, Sjoerd, E-mail: s.jens@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Lucatelli, Pierleone, E-mail: pierleone.lucatelli@gmail.com ['Sapienza' University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)
2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose. To evaluate the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) of the foot compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Technique. For 3DRA, the C-arm was placed in the propeller position with the foot in an isocentric position. The patient's unaffected foot was positioned in a footrest outside the field of view. For correct timing of 3DRA, the delay from contrast injection in the popliteal artery at the level of knee joint to complete pedal arterial enhancement was assessed using DSA. With this delay, 3DRA was started after injection of 15 ml contrast. Imaging of the 3DRA could directly be reconstructed and visualized.Materials and MethodsPatients undergoing 3DRA of the foot were prospectively registered. DSA and 3DRA images were scored separately for arterial patency and presence of collaterals. Treatment strategies were proposed based on DSA with and without the availability of 3DRA. Results. Eleven patients underwent 3DRA of the foot. One 3DRA was not included because the acquisition was focused on the heel instead of the entire foot. Diagnostic quality of 3DRA was good in all ten patients. 3DRA compared with DSA showed additional patent arteries in six patients, patent plantar arch in three patients, and collaterals between the pedal arteries in five patients. Additional information from 3DRA resulted in a change of treatment strategy in six patients. Conclusion, 3DRA of the foot contains valuable additional real-time information to better guide peripheral vascular interventions in patients with CLI and nonhealing tissue lesions.
Terahertz imaging and quantum cascade laser based devices
Lee, Alan Wei Min
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The terahertz (THz) frequency range (f=0.3-10 THz, [lambda]=30-1000 lam) is much less technologically developed that the adjacent microwave and infrared frequency ranges, but offers several advantages for imaging applications: ...
Strong Coupling Expansion in a Correlated Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator
Akihiko Sekine; Takashi Z. Nakano; Yasufumi Araki; Kentaro Nomura
2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z
Motivated by recent studies which show that topological phases may emerge in strongly correlated electron systems, we theoretically study the strong electron correlation effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator, which effective Hamiltonian can be described by the Wilson fermions. We adopt 1/r long-range Coulomb interaction as the interaction between the bulk electrons. Based on the U(1) lattice gauge theory, the strong coupling expansion is applied by assuming that the effective interaction is strong. It is shown that the effect of the Coulomb interaction is equivalent to the renormalization of the bare mass of the Wilson fermions, and that as a result, the topological insulator phase survives in the strong coupling limit.
Development and anisotropy of three-dimensional turbulence in a current sheet
Onofri, M.; Veltri, P.; Malara, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, via P. Bucci, 87036 Rende (Serbia and Montenegro) (Italy)
2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear evolution of three-dimensional reconnection instabilities are studied in a current sheet where many resonant surfaces are simultaneously present at different locations of the simulation domain. The nonlinear evolution produces the development of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. The development of the energy spectrum is followed until the energy is transported to the dissipative length scale and the anisotropy of the spectrum is analyzed. The energy cascade is affected by the Alfven effect and it takes place mainly in the direction perpendicular to the local average magnetic field. Anisotropy is also affected by propagation of perturbations across the main magnetic field, due to the growth of a transverse component related to reconnection. The direction of anisotropy varies with the position in space. The spectral index is different both from what is found in homogeneous isotropic turbulence and from the values predicted for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence with a uniform large-scale magnetic field.
Three-dimensional shock-shock interactions on the scramjet inlet
Singh, D.J.; Tiwari, S.N.; Kumar, A.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The effects of shock impingement on the inlet of a scramjet engine are investigated numerically. The impinging shock is caused by the vehicle forebody. The interaction of this forebody shock with the inlet leading edge shock results in a very complex fully three-dimensional flowfield containing local regions of high pressure and intense heating. In the present investigation, this complex flowfield is calculated by solving the thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations using a finite-volume flux splitting technique due to van Leer. For zero or small sweep angles a Type IV interaction occurs while for moderate sweep of about 25 deg, a Type V interaction occurs. Both Type IV and Type V interactions are investigated. 25 refs.
Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.
Three-dimensional antenna coupling to core plasma in fusion devices
Carter, M.D.; Jaeger, E.F.; Stallings, D.C.; Galambos, J.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; Wang, C.Y.
1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
A complete understanding of the RF physics from the launcher to the plasma core is required to fully analyze RF experiments and to evaluate the performance of RF antenna designs in ITER. This understanding requires a consistent model for the RF power launching system, propagation and absorption through the edge region, and the response of the core plasma to the RF power. As a first step toward such a model, the three-dimensional (3D) antenna modeling code, RANT3D, has been coupled with the reduced order full wave code, PICES. Preliminary results from this model are presented in this paper for parameters similar to those found in the DIII-D experiment.
Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production
Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)
2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.
Two-dimensional and three-dimensional Coulomb clusters in parabolic traps
D'yachkov, L. G., E-mail: dyachk@mail.ru; Myasnikov, M. I., E-mail: miasnikovmi@mail.ru [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Petrov, O. F. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudny 141700, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research (CASPER), Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7310 (United States); Hyde, T. W.; Kong, J.; Matthews, L. [Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research (CASPER), Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7310 (United States)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the shell structure of Coulomb clusters in an axially symmetric parabolic trap exhibiting a confining potential U{sub c}(?,z)=(m?{sup 2}/2)(?{sup 2}+?z{sup 2}). Assuming an anisotropic parameter ??=?4 (corresponding to experiments employing a cusp magnetic trap under microgravity conditions), we have calculated cluster configurations for particle numbers N?=?3 to 30. We have shown that clusters with N???12 initially remain flat, transitioning to three-dimensional configurations as N increases. For N?=?8, we have calculated the configurations of minimal potential energy for all values of ? and found the points of configuration transitions. For N?=?13 and 23, we discuss the influence of both the shielding and anisotropic parameter on potential energy, cluster size, and shell structure.
Striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes in three dimensional simulations for DIII-D
Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Reiter, D. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany)] [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The application of resonant magnetic perturbations results in a non-axisymmetric striation pattern of magnetic field lines from the plasma interior which intersect the divertor targets. The impact on related particle and heat fluxes is investigated by three dimensional computer simulations for two different recycling conditions (controlled via neutral gas pumping). It is demonstrated that a mismatch between the particle and heat flux striation pattern (splitting vs. no splitting), as is repeatedly observed in ITER similar shape H-mode plasmas at DIII-D, can be reproduced by the simulations for high recycling conditions at the onset of partial detachment. These results indicate that a detailed knowledge of the particle and energy balance is at least as important for realistic simulations as the consideration of a change in the magnetic field structure by plasma response effects.
Fluid breakup during simultaneous two-phase flow through a three-dimensional porous medium
Sujit S. Datta; Jean-Baptiste Dupin; David A. Weitz
2014-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We use confocal microscopy to directly visualize the simultaneous flow of both a wetting and a non-wetting fluid through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium. We find that, for small flow rates, both fluids flow through unchanging, distinct, connected 3D pathways; in stark contrast, at sufficiently large flow rates, the non-wetting fluid is broken up into discrete ganglia. By performing experiments over a range of flow rates, using fluids of different viscosities, and with porous media having different geometries, we show that this transition can be characterized by a state diagram that depends on the capillary numbers of both fluids, suggesting that it is controlled by the competition between the viscous forces exerted on the flowing oil and the capillary forces at the pore scale. Our results thus help elucidate the diverse range of behaviors that arise in two-phase flow through a 3D porous medium.
The Three Dimensional Evolution to Core Collapse of a Massive Star
Couch, Sean M; Arnett, W David; Timmes, F X
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first three dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We self-consistently capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical (Chandrasekhar) mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion (turbulent fluctuations) generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse. We examine the impact of such physically-realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and has a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions.
Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.
Development and validation of a two-phase, three-dimensional model for PEM fuel cells.
Chen, Ken Shuang
2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objectives of this presentation are: (1) To develop and validate a two-phase, three-dimensional transport modelfor simulating PEM fuel cell performance under a wide range of operating conditions; (2) To apply the validated PEM fuel cell model to improve fundamental understanding of key phenomena involved and to identify rate-limiting steps and develop recommendations for improvements so as to accelerate the commercialization of fuel cell technology; (3) The validated PEMFC model can be employed to improve and optimize PEM fuel cell operation. Consequently, the project helps: (i) address the technical barriers on performance, cost, and durability; and (ii) achieve DOE's near-term technical targets on performance, cost, and durability in automotive and stationary applications.
Takahiro Kudoh; Shantanu Basu; Youichi Ogata; Takashi Yabe
2007-06-19T23:59:59.000Z
We employ the first fully three-dimensional simulation to study the role of magnetic fields and ion-neutral friction in regulating gravitationally-driven fragmentation of molecular clouds. The cores in an initially subcritical cloud develop gradually over an ambipolar diffusion time while the cores in an initially supercritical cloud develop in a dynamical time. The infall speeds on to cores are subsonic in the case of an initially subcritical cloud, while an extended (\\ga 0.1 pc) region of supersonic infall exists in the case of an initially supercritical cloud. These results are consistent with previous two-dimensional simulations. We also found that a snapshot of the relation between density (rho) and the strength of the magnetic field (B) at different spatial points of the cloud coincides with the evolutionary track of an individual core. When the density becomes large, both relations tend to B \\propto \\rho^{0.5}.
Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.
2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The West Hackberry salt dome, in southwestern Louisiana, is one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the West Hackberry site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary layers, mapped faults, and a portion of the oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the West Hackberry site that can be used in support of future work.
Method to planarize three-dimensional structures to enable conformal electrodes
Nikolic, Rebecca J; Conway, Adam M; Graff, Robert T; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F; Shao, Qinghui
2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z
Methods for fabricating three-dimensional PIN structures having conformal electrodes are provided, as well as the structures themselves. The structures include a first layer and an array of pillars with cavity regions between the pillars. A first end of each pillar is in contact with the first layer. A segment is formed on the second end of each pillar. The cavity regions are filled with a fill material, which may be a functional material such as a neutron sensitive material. The fill material covers each segment. A portion of the fill material is etched back to produce an exposed portion of the segment. A first electrode is deposited onto the fill material and each exposed segment, thereby forming a conductive layer that provides a common contact to each the exposed segment. A second electrode is deposited onto the first layer.
Spontaneous three-dimensional magnetic reconnection in merging toroidal plasma experiment
Ii, Toru [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ono, Yasushi [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)
2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
We investigated a new phenomenon of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic reconnection in TS-4 torus plasma merging experiments by directly measuring the 3D structures of the current sheet. Removal of all toroidal asymmetry of the device reveals that a strong external drive of reconnection inflow increases the toroidal asymmetry of the current sheet only during the reconnection. This spontaneous 3D deformation of the current sheet increases the reconnection outflow as well as the reconnection electric field, probably because local compression of the current sheet to a thickness less than the ion gyroradius triggers its strong dissipation of the current sheet, responsible for the onset of 3D reconnection. These mechanisms indicate that the 3D reconnection is a newly observed spontaneous process of fast reconnection.
Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow
Chabreyrie, Rodolphe
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincar\\'e section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small later...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN MAGNETIZED SOLAR ATMOSPHERE
Vigeesh, G. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM (United States); Fedun, V.; Erdelyi, R. [SP2RC, Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Hasan, S. S. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore (India)
2012-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present results of three-dimensional numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wave propagation in a solar magnetic flux tube. Our study aims at understanding the properties of a range of MHD wave modes generated by different photospheric motions. We consider two scenarios observed in the lower solar photosphere, namely, granular buffeting and vortex-like motion, among the simplest mechanism for the generation of waves within a strong, localized magnetic flux concentration. We show that granular buffeting is likely to generate stronger slow and fast magnetoacoustic waves as compared to swirly motions. Correspondingly, the energy flux transported differs as a result of the driving motions. We also demonstrate that the waves generated by granular buffeting are likely to manifest in stronger emission in the chromospheric network. We argue that different mechanisms of wave generation are active during the evolution of a magnetic element in the intergranular lane, resulting in temporally varying emission at chromospheric heights.
Assembling of three-dimensional crystals by large nonequilibrium depletion force
Deng, Hai-Dong; Fu, Zhi-Cheng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Dai, Qiao-Feng; Wu, Li-Jun; Lan, Sheng; Achanta, Venu Gopal
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We propose and demonstrate a method to achieve large effective Soret coefficient in colloids by suitably mixing two different particles, e.g., silica beads and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. It is shown that the thermophoretic motion of Fe3O4 nanoparticles out of the heating region results in a large nonequlibrium depletion force for silica beads. Consequently, silica beads are driven quickly to the heating region, forming a three-dimensional crystal with few defects and dislocations. The binding of silica beads is so tight that a colloidal photonic crystal can be achieved after the complete evaporation of solvent, water. Thus, for fabrication of defect free colloidal PCs, periodic structures for molecular sieves, among others, the proposed technique could be a low cost alternative. In addition as we use biocompatible materials, this technique could be a tool for biophysics studies where the potential of large effective Soret coefficient could be useful.
Assembling of three-dimensional crystals by large nonequilibrium depletion force
Hai-Dong Deng; Ting Sun; Zhi-Cheng Fu; Hai-Ying Liu; Qiao-Feng Dai; Li-Jun Wu; Sheng Lan; Venu Gopal Achanta
2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z
We propose and demonstrate a method to achieve large effective Soret coefficient in colloids by suitably mixing two different particles, e.g., silica beads and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. It is shown that the thermophoretic motion of Fe3O4 nanoparticles out of the heating region results in a large nonequlibrium depletion force for silica beads. Consequently, silica beads are driven quickly to the heating region, forming a three-dimensional crystal with few defects and dislocations. The binding of silica beads is so tight that a colloidal photonic crystal can be achieved after the complete evaporation of solvent, water. Thus, for fabrication of defect free colloidal PCs, periodic structures for molecular sieves, among others, the proposed technique could be a low cost alternative. In addition as we use biocompatible materials, this technique could be a tool for biophysics studies where the potential of large effective Soret coefficient could be useful.
R. Cameron; L. Gizon; T. L. Duvall Jr
2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
The propagation of solar waves through the sunspot of AR 9787 is observed using temporal cross-correlations of SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams. We then use three-dimensional MHD numerical simulations to compute the propagation of wave packets through self-similar magneto-hydrostatic sunspot models. The simulations are set up in such a way as to allow a comparison with observed cross-covariances (except in the immediate vicinity of the sunspot). We find that the simulation and the f-mode observations are in good agreement when the model sunspot has a peak field strength of 3 kG at the photosphere, less so for lower field strengths. Constraining the sunspot model with helioseismology is only possible because the direct effect of the magnetic field on the waves has been fully taken into account. Our work shows that the full-waveform modeling of sunspots is feasible.
Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion GR-71110, Greece and Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion GR-71003 (Greece)
2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF RELATIVISTIC COLLISIONLESS ION-ELECTRON SHOCKS
Haugboelle, Troels, E-mail: haugboel@nbi.dk [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Oester Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen (Denmark)
2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
Two-dimensional (2D) modeling of collisionless shocks has been of tremendous importance in understanding the physics of nonlinear evolution, momentum transfer, and particle acceleration, but current computer capacities have now reached a point where three-dimensional (3D) modeling is becoming feasible. We present the first 3D model of a fully developed and relaxed relativistic ion-electron shock, and analyze and compare it to similar 2D models. Quantitative and qualitative differences are found with respect to the 2D models. The shock jump conditions are naturally different, because of the extra degree of freedom, but in addition it is found that strong parallel electric fields develop at the shock interface, the level of magnetic field energy is lower, and the non-thermal particle distribution is shallower with a power-law index of {approx}2.2.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.
1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.
Hoffman, E.L.; Ehgartner, B.L.
1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional quasistatic finite element codes are being used at Sandia National Laboratories to simulate the interactions of multiple large room and pillar mines in rock salt. The calculations presented in this paper are of a salt dome which contains multiple closely-spaced room and pillar mines. One of the mines was used as an oil storage facility, supported by the US DOE under the auspices of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. The facility has recently been decommissioned due to the discovery of geotechnical instabilities. The model, validated by field observations, has resulted in a better understanding of the mechanisms which can threaten the stability of an underground excavation, as well as the structural interactions of multiple excavations. Although these calculations were performed in the specific interest of the SPR, the results should be of interest to mine designers concerned with the interactions of multiple mines excavated in a common formation.
Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress
Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V
2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.
Toward atomic resolution diffractive imaging of isolated molecules with x-ray free-electron lasers
Stern, Stephan; Filsinger, Frank; Rouzée, Arnaud; Rudenko, Artem; Johnsson, Per; Martin, Andrew V; Barty, Anton; Bostedt, Christoph; Bozek, John D; Coffee, Ryan N; Epp, Sascha; Erk, Benjamin; Foucar, Lutz; Hartmann, Robert; Kimmel, Nils; Kühnel, Kai-Uwe; Maurer, Jochen; Messerschmidt, Marc; Rudek, Benedikt; Starodub, Dmitri G; Thøgersen, Jan; Weidenspointner, Georg; White, Thomas A; Stapelfeldt, Henrik; Rolles, Daniel; Chapman, Henry N; Küpper, Jochen
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We give a detailed account of the theoretical analysis and the experimental results of an x-ray-diffraction experiment on quantum-state selected and strongly laser-aligned gas-phase ensembles of the prototypical large asymmetric rotor molecule 2,5-diiodobenzonitrile, performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 083002 (2014)]. This experiment is the first step toward coherent diffractive imaging of structures and structural dynamics of isolated molecules at atomic resolution, i. e., picometers and femtoseconds, using x-ray free-electron lasers.
Wadawadigi, G.; Tannehill, J.C.; Buelow, P.E.; Lawrence, S.L. (Iowa State University of Science and Technology, Ames (United States) NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA (United States))
1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A new upwind, parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the three-dimensional (3D) chemically reacting flow in scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) engines. The code is a modification of the 3D upwind PNS (UPS) airflow code which has been extended in the present study to permit internal flow calculations with hydrogen-air chemistry. With these additions, the new code has the capability of computing aerodynamic and propulsive flowfields simultaneously. The algorithm solves the PNS equations using a finite-volume, upwind TVD method based on Roe's approximate Riemann solver that has been modified to account for 'real gas' effects. The fluid medium is assumed to be a chemically reacting mixture of thermally perfect (but calorically imperfect) gases in thermal equilibrium. The new code has been applied to two test cases. These include the Burrows-Kurkov supersonic combustion experiment and a generic 3D scramjet flowfield. The computed results compare favorably with the available experimental data. 38 refs.
Wendel, M.W.; Siman-Tov, M.
1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power accelerator-based pulsed spallation source being designed by a multilaboratory team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve high fluxes of neutrons for scientific experiments. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used to analyze the SNS design. The liquid-mercury target is subjected to the neutronic (internal) heat generation that results from the proton collisions with the mercury nuclei. The liquid mercury simultaneously serves as the neutronic target medium, transports away the heat generated within itself, and cools the metallic target structure. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots. These zones exist because the most feasible target designs include a complete U-turn flow redirection. Although the primary concern is that the target is adequately cooled, the pressure drop from inlet to outlet must also be considered because pressure drop directly affects structural loading and required pumping power. Based on the current design, a three-dimensional CFD model has been developed that includes the stainless steel target structure, the liquid-mercury target flow, and the liquid-mercury cooling jacket that wraps around the nose of the target.
Neutronics code VALE for two-dimensional triagonal (hexagonal) and three-dimensional geometries
Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.
1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents the computer code VALE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with the diffusion theory approximation to neutron transport for a triagonal arrangement of mesh points on planes in two- and three-dimensional geometry. This code parallels the VENTURE neutronics code in the local computation system, making exposure and fuel management capabilities available. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by Reactor Physics RRT Division of the US DOE. The programming in FORTRAN is straightforward, although data is transferred in blocks between auxiliary storage devices and main core, and direct access schemes are used. The size of problems which can be handled is essentially limited only by cost of calculation since the arrays are variably dimensioned. The memory requirement is held down while data transfer during iteration is increased only as necessary with problem size. There is provision for the more common boundary conditions including the repeating boundary, 180/sup 0/ rotational symmetry, and the rotational symmetry conditions for the 30/sup 0/, 60/sup 0/, and 120/sup 0/ triangular grids on planes. A variety of types of problems may be solved: the usual neutron flux eignevalue problem, or a direct criticality search on the buckling, on a reciprocal velocity absorber (prompt mode), or on nuclide concentrations. The adjoint problem and fixed source problem may be solved, as well as the dominating higher harmonic, or the importance problem for an arbitrary fixed source.
Continuous data assimilation for the three-dimensional Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy model
Markowich, Peter A; Trabelsi, Saber
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we introduce and analyze an algorithm for continuous data assimilation for a three-dimensional Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy (3D BFeD) model of porous media. This model is believed to be accurate when the flow velocity is too large for Darcy's law to be valid, and additionally the porosity is not too small. The algorithm is inspired by ideas developed for designing finite-parameters feedback control for dissipative systems. It aims to obtaining improved estimates of the state of the physical system by incorporating deterministic or noisy measurements and observations. Specifically, the algorithm involves a feedback control that nudges the large scales of the approximate solution toward those of the reference solution associated with the spatial measurements. In the first part of the paper, we present few results of existence and uniqueness of weak and strong solutions of the 3D BFeD system. The second part is devoted to the setting and convergence analysis of the data assimilation algorith...
Weaver, C.J. (Applied Research Corp., Landover, MD (United States)); Douglass, A.R.; Rood, R.B. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))
1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The NASA/Goddard three-dimensional chemistry and transport model is driven by winds from a stratospheric data assimilation system. Synoptic- and planetary-scale patterns, apparent in satellite observations of trace constituents, are successfully reproduced for seasonal integrations. As model integrations proceed, however, the quality of simulations decrease, and systematic differences between calculation and measurement appear. The differences are explained by examining the zonal-mean residual circulation. The vertical residual velocity [bar w]* is calculated two ways: (i) from the diabatic heating rates and temperature tendency and (ii) from the Eulerian vertical velocity and the horizontal eddy heat flux convergence. The results from these calculations differ substantially. Periodic insertion of observational data during the assimilation process continually shocks the general circulation model and produces these differences, which leads to an overestimate of the mean vertical heat and constituent transport. Such differences are expected to be general to all data assimilation products. This interpretation is corroborated by two-dimensional (2D) model calculations. When [bar w]* is calculated from (ii), the 2D ozone evolution is unrealistic and qualitatively similar to the 3D model simulation. The 2D ozone evolution is reasonable when [bar w]* is calculated from (i). 23 refs., 6 figs.
Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China) [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, a dielectric-loaded grating for Smith-Purcell device is proposed. The three-dimensional (3D) analytical theory for hot dispersion relation is obtained by using field matched method, which is solved by numerical simulations. The first and second order growth rates for the proposal model are analyzed, which is obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at the operating point. The results show that the dispersion can be effectively weakened by introducing dielectric-loaded grating, in which the cutoff frequency is affected by the grating thickness. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency at the optimum grating parameters. The 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is also performed and the results are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Comparing the first order growth rate with the second one, it reveals that the discrepancy is small when electron beam parameters are selected with small values. Otherwise, the discrepancy is large and cannot be ignored. To accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction, the second order growth rate is necessary to apply.
G. J. Moridis; Y. Seol
2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
The authors investigated colloid transport in the unsaturated fractured zone by means of three-dimensional site-scale numerical model under present-day climate infiltration, considering varying colloid diameters, kinetic declogging, and filtration. The radionuclide transport model was used to simulate continuous release of colloids into fractures throughout the proposed repository, in which any components of engineered barrier system such as waste package or drip shield were not considered. the results of the study indicate the importance of subsurface geology and site hydrology, i.e., the presence of faults (they dominate and control transport), fractures (the main migration pathways), and the relative distribution of zeolitic and vitric tuffs. The simulations indicate that (1) colloid transport is not significantly affected by varying the filtration parameters, (2) travel time to the water table decreases with the colloid size, (3) larger colloids show little retardation whereas very small ones are retarded significantly, and (4) fracture filtration can have an impact on transport. Because of uncertainties in the fundamentals of colloid transport and an extremely conservative approach (based on an improbably adverse worst-case scenario), caution should be exercised in the analysis and interpretation of the 3-D simulation results. The results discussed here should be viewed as an attempt to identify and evaluate the mechanisms, processes, and geological features that control colloidal transport.
Chaotic Properties of Dilute Two and Three Dimensional Random Lorentz Gases I: Equilibrium Systems
H. van Beijeren; A. Latz; J. R. Dorfman
1997-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
We compute the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for a moving particle placed in a dilute, random array of hard disk or hard sphere scatterers - i.e. the dilute Lorentz gas model. This is carried out in two ways: First we use simple kinetic theory arguments to compute the Lyapunov spectrum for both two and three dimensional systems. In order to provide a method that can easily be generalized to non-uniform systems we then use a method based upon extensions of the Lorentz-Boltzmann (LB) equation to include variables that characterize the chaotic behavior of the system. The extended LB equations depend upon the number of dimensions and on whether one is computing positive or negative Lyapunov exponents. In the latter case the extended LB equation is closely related to an "anti-Lorentz-Boltzmann equation" where the collision operator has the opposite sign from the ordinary LB equation. Finally we compare our results with computer simulations of Dellago and Posch and find very good agreement.
Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime
Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez
2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.
Three dimensional neutronics calculation comparison study for a fusion breeder with large channels
Huang, J.H.; Xie, Z.Y.; You, C.L. [Southwestern Inst. of Physics, Chengdu (China)] [and others
1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
A tokamak reactor is characterized by a toroidal geometry with large ports and channels. The three dimensional calculation seems necessary for the prediction of the neutronics parameters of the calculation. People have been attempting to simulate the configuration by one dimensional model. Assuming that the neutronics parameters such as tritium breeding ratio depends almost only on the primary 14 MeV neutron number entering the blanket, the following approximate scheme was proposed: {Alpha} = {Sigma}W{sub i}{sm_bullet}{Alpha}{sub i}, where {Alpha} represents the total value of a parameter; {Alpha}{sub i} is a partial value contributed from the i`th part of the blanket and is calculated by a 1-D cylindrical model; W{sub i} is the fusion number entering the i`th part of the blanket through the first wall. This scheme seems reasonable for a pure fusion reactor with similar inboard and outboard blankets, since neutron flux angular distribution is strongly forward and the mutual influence between similar blankets is weak. A study on influence between inboard and outboard blankets showed a rather strong influence between blankets in a fusion breeder, where the partial blankets are quite different in neutronics characteristics. The explanation is that the neutron source from fission and n,2n reactions in the outboard blanket causes considerable neutron leakage through the inner surface when it faces an {open_quote}inferior{close_quote} inboard blanket.
A statistical conservation law in two and three dimensional turbulent flows
Frishman, Anna; De Lillo, Filippo; Liberzon, Alex
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Particles in turbulence live complicated lives. It is nonetheless sometimes possible to find order in this complexity. It was proposed in [Falkovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214502 (2013)] that pairs of Lagrangian tracers at small scales, in an incompressible isotropic turbulent flow, have a statistical conservation law. More specifically, in a d-dimensional flow the distance $R(t)$ between two neutrally buoyant particles, raised to the power $-d$ and averaged over velocity realizations, remains at all times equal to the initial, fixed, separation raised to the same power. In this work we present evidence from direct numerical simulations of two and three dimensional turbulence for this conservation. In both cases the conservation is lost when particles exit the linear flow regime. In 2D we show that, as an extension of the conservation law, a Evans-Cohen-Morriss/Gallavotti-Cohen type fluctuation relation exists. We also analyse data from a 3D laboratory experiment [Liberzon et al., Physica D 241, 208 (2...
A statistical conservation law in two and three dimensional turbulent flows
Anna Frishman; Guido Boffetta; Filippo De Lillo; Alex Liberzon
2015-01-12T23:59:59.000Z
Particles in turbulence live complicated lives. It is nonetheless sometimes possible to find order in this complexity. It was proposed in [Falkovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 214502 (2013)] that pairs of Lagrangian tracers at small scales, in an incompressible isotropic turbulent flow, have a statistical conservation law. More specifically, in a d-dimensional flow the distance $R(t)$ between two neutrally buoyant particles, raised to the power $-d$ and averaged over velocity realizations, remains at all times equal to the initial, fixed, separation raised to the same power. In this work we present evidence from direct numerical simulations of two and three dimensional turbulence for this conservation. In both cases the conservation is lost when particles exit the linear flow regime. In 2D we show that, as an extension of the conservation law, a Evans-Cohen-Morriss/Gallavotti-Cohen type fluctuation relation exists. We also analyse data from a 3D laboratory experiment [Liberzon et al., Physica D 241, 208 (2012)], finding that although it probes small scales they are not in the smooth regime. Thus instead of $\\left$, we look for a similar, power-law-in-separation conservation law. We show that the existence of an initially slowly varying function of this form can be predicted but that it does not turn into a conservation law. We suggest that the conservation of $\\left$, demonstrated here, can be used as a check of isotropy, incompressibility and flow dimensionality in numerical and laboratory experiments that focus on small scales.
Surface electronic states in three-dimensional SnO{sub 2} nanostructures
Kucheyev, S.O.; Baumann, T.F.; Sterne, P.A.; Wang, Y.M.; Buuren, T. van; Hamza, A.V.; Terminello, L.J.; Willey, T.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
The electronic structure of three-dimensional SnO{sub 2} nanostructures (aerogels) is studied by soft x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. High-resolution O K-edge and Sn M{sub 3}- and M{sub 4,5}-edge XANES spectra of monolithic nanocrystalline rutile SnO{sub 2} aerogels with different surface areas (i.e., different surface-to-volume atom fractions) are compared with spectra of full-density rutile SnO{sub 2} and tetragonal SnO. Spectra are interpreted based on the electronic densities of states in SnO{sub 2} calculated with both cluster (self-consistent real-space multiple scattering) and band-structure (linear muffin-tin orbital) methods. Results show that, in contrast to the currently widely accepted picture, the presence of undercoordinated surface atoms not only affects the Fermi level position but also changes the structure of the conduction band by introducing additional Sn-related electronic states close to the conduction band minimum. These additional states are due to oxygen deficiency and are attributed to a surface reconstruction of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles forming the aerogel skeleton. Results of this study are important for understanding the physical processes underlying the performance of gas sensors based on SnO{sub 2} nanostructures.
Atomic Scale Design and Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ionic Diffusive Nanofluidic Channels
Jin Kyoung Park; Kelin Xia; Guo-Wei We
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advance in nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in nanofluidics, which has been established as a reliable means for a wide variety of applications, including molecular separation, detection, crystallization and biosynthesis. Although atomic and molecular level consideration is a key ingredient in experimental design and fabrication of nanfluidic systems, atomic and molecular modeling of nanofluidics is rare and most simulations at nanoscale are restricted to one- or two-dimensions in the literature, to our best knowledge. The present work introduces atomic scale design and three-dimensional (3D) simulation of ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems. We propose a variational multiscale framework to represent the nanochannel in discrete atomic and/or molecular detail while describe the ionic solution by continuum. Apart from the major electrostatic and entropic effects, the non-electrostatic interactions between the channel and solution, and among solvent molecules are accounted in our modeling. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for nanofluidic systems. Mathematical algorithms, such as Dirichlet to Neumann mapping and the matched interface and boundary (MIB) methods are developed to rigorously solve the aforementioned equations to the second-order accuracy in 3D realistic settings. Three ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems, including a negatively charged nanochannel, a bipolar nanochannel and a double-well nanochannel are designed to investigate the impact of atomic charges to channel current, density distribution and electrostatic potential. Numerical findings, such as gating, ion depletion and inversion, are in good agreements with those from experimental measurements and numerical simulations in the literature.
Three-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells and Stacks
Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Carl Stoots; Stephen Herring
2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) electrochemical model has been created for detailed analysis of a high-temperature electrolysis stack (solid oxide fuel cells operated as electrolyzers). Inlet and outlet plenum flow distributions are discussed. Maldistribution of plena flow show deviations in per-cell operating conditions due to non-uniformity of species concentrations. Models have also been created to simulate experimental conditions and for code validation. Comparisons between model predictions and experimental results are discussed. Mass, momentum, energy, and species conservation and transport are provided via the core features of the commercial CFD code FLUENT. A solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) model adds the electrochemical reactions and loss mechanisms and computation of the electric field throughout the cell. The FLUENT SOFC user-defined subroutine was modified for this work to allow for operation in the electrolysis mode. Model results provide detailed profiles of temperature, Nernst potential, operating potential, activation over-potential, anode-side gas composition, cathode-side gas composition, current density and hydrogen production over a range of stack operating conditions. Variations in flow distribution, and species concentration are discussed. End effects of flow and per-cell voltage are also considered. Predicted mean outlet hydrogen and steam concentrations vary linearly with current density, as expected. Contour plots of local electrolyte temperature, current density, and Nernst potential indicate the effects of heat transfer, reaction cooling/heating, and change in local gas composition.
Puthen-Veettil, B., E-mail: b.puthen-veettil@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; König, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)
2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower “series resistance.” While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.
Three-dimensional theory of quantum memories based on {Lambda}-type atomic ensembles
Zeuthen, Emil; Grodecka-Grad, Anna; Soerensen, Anders S. [QUANTOP, Danish National Research Foundation Center for Quantum Optics, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)
2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
We develop a three-dimensional theory for quantum memories based on light storage in ensembles of {Lambda}-type atoms, where two long-lived atomic ground states are employed. We consider light storage in an ensemble of finite spatial extent and we show that within the paraxial approximation the Fresnel number of the atomic ensemble and the optical depth are the only important physical parameters determining the quality of the quantum memory. We analyze the influence of these parameters on the storage of light followed by either forward or backward read-out from the quantum memory. We show that for small Fresnel numbers the forward memory provides higher efficiencies, whereas for large Fresnel numbers the backward memory is advantageous. The optimal light modes to store in the memory are presented together with the corresponding spin waves and outcoming light modes. We show that for high optical depths such {Lambda}-type atomic ensembles allow for highly efficient backward and forward memories even for small Fresnel numbers F(greater-or-similar sign)0.1.
Takahiro Kudoh; Shantanu Basu
2008-04-27T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate that the formation of collapsing cores in subcritical clouds is accelerated by nonlinear flows, by performing three-dimensional non-ideal MHD simulations. An initial random supersonic (and trans-Alfvenic) turbulent-like flow is input into a self-gravitating gas layer that is threaded by a uniform magnetic field (perpendicular to the layer) such that the initial mass-to-flux ratio is subcritical. Magnetic ambipolar diffusion occurs very rapidly initially due to the sharp gradients introduced by the turbulent flow. It subsequently occurs more slowly in the traditional near-quasistatic manner, but in regions of greater mean density than present in the initial state. The overall timescale for runaway growth of the first core(s) is several times, 10^6 yr, even though previous studies have found a timescale of several times, 10^7 yr when starting with linear perturbations and similar physical parameters. Large-scale supersonic flows exist in the cloud and provide an observationally testable distinguishing characteristic from core formation due to linear initial perturbations. However, the nonlinear flows have decayed sufficiently that the relative infall motions onto the first core are subsonic, as in the case of starting from linear initial perturbations. The ion infall motions are very similar to those of neutrals; however, they lag the neutral infall in directions perpendicular to the mean magnetic field direction and lead the neutral infall in the direction parallel to the mean magnetic field.
Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow
Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith
2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincar\\'e section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time.
Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster
Euaggelos E. Zotos
2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.
Optimization of three-dimensional micropost microcavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics
Jelena Vuckovic; Matthew Pelton; Axel Scherer; Yoshihisa Yamamoto
2002-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
This article presents a detailed analysis, based on the first-principles finite-difference time-domain method, of the resonant frequency, quality factor (Q), mode volume (V), and radiation pattern of the fundamental (HE11) mode in a three-dimensional distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) micropost microcavity. By treating this structure as a one-dimensional cylindrical photonic crystal containing a single defect, we are able to push the limits of Q/V beyond those achievable by standard micropost designs, based on the simple rules established for planar DBR microcavities. We show that some of the rules that work well for designing large-diameter microposts (e.g., high-refractive index contrast) fail to provide high-quality cavities with small diameters. By tuning the thicknesses of mirror layers and the spacer, the number of mirror pairs, the refractive indices of high and low refractive index regions, and the cavity diameter, we are able to achieve Q as high as 10^4, together with a mode volume of 1.6 cubic wavelengths of light in the high-refractive-index material. The combination of high Q and small V makes these structures promising candidates for the observation of such cavity quantum electrodynamics phenomena as strong coupling between a quantum dot and the cavity field, and single-quantum-dot lasing.
Three dimensional thermal-solute phase field simulation of binary alloy solidification
P. C. Bollada; C. E. Goodyer; P. K. Jimack; A. M. Mullis; F. W. Yang
2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
We employ adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time stepping, a nonlinear multigrid solver and parallel computation, to solve a multi-scale, time dependent, three dimensional, nonlinear set of coupled partial differential equations for three scalar field variables. The mathematical model represents the non-isothermal solidification of a metal alloy into a melt substantially cooled below its freezing point at the microscale. Underlying physical molecular forces are captured at this scale by a specification of the energy field. The time rate of change of the temperature, alloy concentration and an order parameter to govern the state of the material (liquid or solid) is controlled by the diffusion parameters and variational derivatives of the energy functional. The physical problem is important to material scientists for the development of solid metal alloys and, hitherto, this fully coupled thermal problem has not been simulated in three dimensions, due to its computationally demanding nature. By bringing together state of the art numerical techniques this problem is now shown here to be tractable at appropriate resolution with relatively moderate computational resources.
Airborne laser induced fluorescence imaging. Innovative technology summary report
NONE
1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) was demonstration as part of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) Plant 1 Large Scale Demonstration and Deployment Project (LSDDP) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area located at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. The demonstration took place on November 19, 1996. In order to allow the contaminated buildings undergoing deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) to be opened to the atmosphere, radiological surveys of floors, walls and ceilings must take place. After successful completion of the radiological clearance survey, demolition of the building can continue. Currently, this process is performed by collecting and analyzing swipe samples for radiological analysis. Two methods are used to analyze the swipe samples: hand-held frisker and laboratory analysis. For the purpose of this demonstration, the least expensive method, swipe samples analyzed by hand-held frisker, is the baseline technology. The objective of the technology demonstration was to determine if the baseline technology could be replaced using LIF.
Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications
Chang, Hsueh-Chia
. #12;2 Abstract The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current
Analysis of high resolution scatter images from laser damage experiments performed on KDP
Runkel, M.; Woods, B.; Yan, M. [and others
1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z
Interest in producing high damage threshold KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KDP) and (D{sub x}H{sub 1-x}){sub 2}PO{sub 4} (KD*P, DKDP) for optical switching and frequency conversion applications is being driven by the system requirements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab (LLNL). Historically, the path to achieving higher damage thresholds has been to improve the purity of crystal growth solutions. Application of advanced filtration technology has increased the damage threshold, but gives little insight into the actual mechanisms of laser damage. We have developed a laser scatter diagnostic to better study bulk defects and laser damage mechanisms in KDP and KD*P crystals. This diagnostic consists of a cavity doubled, kilohertz class, Nd:YLF laser (527 nm) and high dynamic range CCD camera which allows imaging of bulk scatter signals. With it, we have performed damage tests at 355 nm on four different {open_quotes}vintages{close_quotes} of KDP crystals, concentrating on crystals produced via fast growth methods. We compare the diagnostic`s resolution to LLNL`s standard damage detection method of 100X darkfield microscopy and discuss its impact on damage threshold determination. We have observed the disappearance of scatter sites upon exposure to subthreshold irradiation. In contrast, we have seen scatterers appear where none previously existed. This includes isolated, large (high signal) sites as well as multiple small scatter sites which appear at fluences above 7 J/cm{sup 2} (fine tracking). However, we have not observed a strong correlation of preexisting scatter sites and laser damage sites. We speculate on the connection between the laser-induced disappearance of scatter sites and the observed increase in damage threshold with laser conditioning.
Digital holographic imaging of aquatic species
Domínguez-Caballero, José Antonio
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this thesis is to design, develop and implement a digital holographic imaging (DHI) system, capable of capturing three-dimensional (3D) images of aquatic species. The images produced by this system are used in ...
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (CXIDB ID 15)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Chapman, Henry N.
The file contains 125 images corresponding to different tilts of the sample around the y axis at 1 degree intervals. Each image is the result of 4 exposures merged together. For more details see the citation.
Wave EnergyFocusing in aThree-dimensional Numerical WaveTank C. Fochesato*, F. Dias**, S. Grilli***
Grilli, Stéphan T.
Wave EnergyFocusing in aThree-dimensional Numerical WaveTank C. Fochesato*, F. Dias**, S. Grilli Department (University of Rhode Island), Narragansett, RI, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Directional wave energy focusing in space is one of the mechanisms that may contribute to the generation of a rogue wave in the ocean
Kane, Charles
Surface states and topological invariants in three-dimensional topological insulators: Application Brillouin zone. This confirms that the alloy is a strong topological insulator in the 1;111 Z2 topological the surface states. We show that the sign of nM in the topological insulator phase of Bi1-xSbx is related
Boyer, Edmond
- 1 - Implementation of surface tension with wall adhesion effects in a three-dimensional finite element modelling of surface tension. The external stress vectors associated with surface tension a drop of liquid on a plane is treated. Keywords : surface tension, finite element method, average
Fringer, Oliver B.
and the confluence of the SacramentoSan Joaquin Rivers and comprises San Pablo Bay, Suisun Bay and Central Bay and San Joaquin rivers, while high inflows result in enhanced salinity stratification and gravitationalSensitivity analysis of three-dimensional salinity simulations in North San Francisco Bay using
lysozyme in the complex were assigned by using a 15 N-edited three-dimensional nuclear
Miller, Webb
lysozyme in the complex were assigned by using a 15 N-edited three-dimensional nuclear O¨ verhauser. 9, 308315 (2002). 12. Schenk, D. Amyloid-beta immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease: the end fibril formation in vitro. Biochemistry 31, 86548660 (1992). 18. Morozova-Roche, L. A. et al. Amyloid
Brown, Michael R.
Two fluid effects on three-dimensional reconnection in the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment results are reported from spheromak merging studies at the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment M. R. Brown in the plasma flows and heating . In this paper, we discuss three results from the Swarthmore Spheromak
Ma, S.; Sun, D.; Forster, P. M.; Yuan, D.; Zhuang, W.; Chen, Y. S.; Parise, J. B.; Zhou, H. C. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Texas A& M Univ.); (Univ. of Chicago); (Stony Brook Univ.)
2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional porous metal-organic framework (PCN-18) was constructed through interdigitating two-dimensional grid sheets composed of 4,4{prime}-(anthracene-9,10-diyl)dibenzoate and copper paddlewheel secondary building units, and its dynamic features were evidenced by gas sorption isotherms.
Observation of High Coherence in Josephson Junction Qubits Measured in a Three-Dimensional Circuit December 2011) Superconducting quantum circuits based on Josephson junctions have made rapid progress the intrinsic coherence of Josephson junctions, and whether superconducting qubits can be adequately isolated
Stabilization of a Three-Dimensional Limit Cycle Walking Model through Step-to-Step Ankle Control
Collins, Steven H.
Stabilization of a Three-Dimensional Limit Cycle Walking Model through Step-to-Step Ankle Control ankle control. If ankle control can contribute significantly to maintaining balance, even in the presence of active foot placement, this might provide an opportunity to improve balance using robotic ankle
-DIMENSIONAL ELASTIC-PLASTIC STRESS ANALYSIS FOR FRACTURE MECHANICS * N. LEVY, P.V. MARCAL and J.R. RICE Division summarizesprogressin the development of finite element methods for three-dimensionalelastic- plastic stressanalysisin methods for three-dimensional elastic-plastic stress analysis in fracture mechanics, as a part
James, Stephen M.
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
-dimensional axisymmetric beam-element code. ANSYS is used as a code to build three-dimensional non-axisymmetric solid-element casing models. The work done in this thesis opens the scope to incorporate complex non-axisymmetric casing models with XLTRC2....
Marques, Francisco
. INTRODUCTION Interest in natural convection in enclosures has a long history,1 motivated by both relevanceThree-dimensional instabilities in a discretely heated annular flow: Onset of spatio- temporal of the flow in an annular rotor-stator cavity Phys. Fluids 21, 064106 (2009); 10.1063/1.3156859 Stability
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Influence of fracture scale heterogeneity on the flow properties of three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) J.-R. de Dreuzy,1,2 Y. MÃ©heust,2 and G. Pichot3 Received 18 May 2012; revised 28 of fractured media has been so far studied independently at the fracture- and network- scales, we propose
California at Irvine, University of
-array photovoltaics on low-cost and flexible substrates Zhiyong Fan1,2,3 , Haleh Razavi1,2,3 , Jae-won Do1,2,3 , Aimee demonstrate a photovoltaic structure that incorpo- rates three-dimensional, single-crystalline n photovoltaics, may not be applicable for cost-effective solar modules, especially when compound semiconductors
Aickelin, Uwe
residential energy consumers in the UK by considering property energy efficiency levels, the greenness1 A Three-Dimensional Model of Residential Energy Consumer Archetypes for Local Energy Policy lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, i.e. economic/infrastructure, behaviour
Bazant, Martin Z.
Design principle for improved three-dimensional ac electro-osmotic pumps Damian Burch and Martin Z-dimensional 3D ac electro-osmotic ACEO pumps have recently been developed that are much faster and more robust pumps are crucial components of lab-on-a- chip systems. There is growing interest in exploiting various
Fialko, Yuri
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip (Iran) earth- quake using radar data from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Analysis. In this paper we report on deformation associated with the Mw6.5 Bam (Iran) earthquake determined using
To appear in Proc. 48th IEEE CDC Three-Dimensional Motion Coordination in a Time-Invariant Flowfield
Shapiro, Benjamin
in the air [1] and sea [2]. For example, Areosonde unmanned aerial vehicles have flown into hurricanes-scale operating domain. However, motivated by unmanned vehicles that perform volumetric sampling-- such as underwater gliders and unmanned aircraft--we are interested in studying a three-dimensional model. For con
De Zeeuw, Darren L.
Three-dimensional multispecies MHD studies of the solar wind interaction with Mars in the presence of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA K. G. Powell Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA Received 30 January 2002; revised 5 April 2002; accepted 13 May 2002
Mayer, Alexandre
of field emission through an oscillating barrier from an ideal open 10,0 carbon nanotube without adsorption is an extension of our previous investigations of field emission from carbon nanotubes12Â14 to include pho- tonicThree-dimensional simulations of field emission through an oscillating barrier from a ,,10
SASI ACTIVITY IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL NEUTRINO-HYDRODYNAMICS SIMULATIONS OF SUPERNOVA CORES
Hanke, Florian; Mueller, Bernhard; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Marek, Andreas; Janka, Hans-Thomas, E-mail: fhanke@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: bjmuellr@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: annop@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: amarek@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: thj@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
The relevance of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) compared to neutrino-driven convection in three-dimensional (3D) supernova-core environments is still highly controversial. Studying a 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor, we demonstrate, for the first time, that violent SASI activity can develop in 3D simulations with detailed neutrino transport despite the presence of convection. This result was obtained with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code with the same sophisticated neutrino treatment so far used only in one-dimensional and two-dimensional (2D) models. While buoyant plumes initially determine the nonradial mass motions in the postshock layer, bipolar shock sloshing with growing amplitude sets in during a phase of shock retraction and turns into a violent spiral mode whose growth is only quenched when the infall of the Si/SiO interface leads to strong shock expansion in response to a dramatic decrease of the mass accretion rate. In the phase of large-amplitude SASI sloshing and spiral motions, the postshock layer exhibits nonradial deformation dominated by the lowest-order spherical harmonics (l = 1, m = 0, {+-}1) in distinct contrast to the higher multipole structures associated with neutrino-driven convection. We find that the SASI amplitudes, shock asymmetry, and nonradial kinetic energy in three dimensions can exceed those of the corresponding 2D case during extended periods of the evolution. We also perform parameterized 3D simulations of a 25 M{sub Sun} progenitor, using a simplified, gray neutrino transport scheme, an axis-free Yin-Yang grid, and different amplitudes of random seed perturbations. They confirm the importance of the SASI for another progenitor, its independence of the choice of spherical grid, and its preferred growth for fast accretion flows connected to small shock radii and compact proto-neutron stars as previously found in 2D setups.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS ON HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ORBITS
Kataria, T.; Showman, A. P.; Lewis, N. K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, J. J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, M. S.; Freedman, R. S., E-mail: tkataria@lpl.arizona.edu [NASA Ames Research Center 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2013-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
Of the over 800 exoplanets detected to date, over half are on non-circular orbits, with eccentricities as high as 0.93. Such orbits lead to time-variable stellar heating, which has major implications for the planet's atmospheric dynamical regime. However, little is known about the fundamental dynamical regime of such planetary atmospheres, and how it may influence the observations of these planets. Therefore, we present a systematic study of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits using the SPARC/MITgcm, a model which couples a three-dimensional general circulation model (the MITgcm) with a plane-parallel, two-stream, non-gray radiative transfer model. In our study, we vary the eccentricity and orbit-average stellar flux over a wide range. We demonstrate that the eccentric hot Jupiter regime is qualitatively similar to that of planets on circular orbits; the planets possess a superrotating equatorial jet and exhibit large day-night temperature variations. As in Showman and Polvani, we show that the day-night heating variations induce momentum fluxes equatorward to maintain the superrotating jet throughout its orbit. We find that as the eccentricity and/or stellar flux is increased (corresponding to shorter orbital periods), the superrotating jet strengthens and narrows, due to a smaller Rossby deformation radius. For a select number of model integrations, we generate full-orbit light curves and find that the timing of transit and secondary eclipse viewed from Earth with respect to periapse and apoapse can greatly affect what we see in infrared (IR) light curves; the peak in IR flux can lead or lag secondary eclipse depending on the geometry. For those planets that have large temperature differences from dayside to nightside and rapid rotation rates, we find that the light curves can exhibit 'ringing' as the planet's hottest region rotates in and out of view from Earth. These results can be used to explain future observations of eccentric transiting exoplanets.
GENERAL-RELATIVISTIC SIMULATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
Ott, Christian D.; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Moesta, Philipp; Haas, Roland; Drasco, Steve; O'Connor, Evan P.; Reisswig, Christian [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meakin, Casey A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of the post-core-bounce phase of the collapse of a 27 M{sub Sun} star and pay special attention to the development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI) and neutrino-driven convection. To this end, we perform 3D general-relativistic simulations with a three-species neutrino leakage scheme. The leakage scheme captures the essential aspects of neutrino cooling, heating, and lepton number exchange as predicted by radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. The 27 M{sub Sun} progenitor was studied in 2D by Mueller et al., who observed strong growth of the SASI while neutrino-driven convection was suppressed. In our 3D simulations, neutrino-driven convection grows from numerical perturbations imposed by our Cartesian grid. It becomes the dominant instability and leads to large-scale non-oscillatory deformations of the shock front. These will result in strongly aspherical explosions without the need for large-scale SASI shock oscillations. Low-l-mode SASI oscillations are present in our models, but saturate at small amplitudes that decrease with increasing neutrino heating and vigor of convection. Our results, in agreement with simpler 3D Newtonian simulations, suggest that once neutrino-driven convection is started, it is likely to become the dominant instability in 3D. Whether it is the primary instability after bounce will ultimately depend on the physical seed perturbations present in the cores of massive stars. The gravitational wave signal, which we extract and analyze for the first time from 3D general-relativistic models, will serve as an observational probe of the postbounce dynamics and, in combination with neutrinos, may allow us to determine the primary hydrodynamic instability.
FISH: A THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARALLEL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICAL APPLICATIONS
Kaeppeli, R.; Whitehouse, S. C.; Scheidegger, S.; Liebendoerfer, M. [Physics Department, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Pen, U.-L., E-mail: roger.kaeppeli@unibas.ch [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto (Canada)
2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
FISH is a fast and simple ideal magnetohydrodynamics code that scales to {approx}10,000 processes for a Cartesian computational domain of {approx}1000{sup 3} cells. The simplicity of FISH has been achieved by the rigorous application of the operator splitting technique, while second-order accuracy is maintained by the symmetric ordering of the operators. Between directional sweeps, the three-dimensional data are rotated in memory so that the sweep is always performed in a cache-efficient way along the direction of contiguous memory. Hence, the code only requires a one-dimensional description of the conservation equations to be solved. This approach also enables an elegant novel parallelization of the code that is based on persistent communications with MPI for cubic domain decomposition on machines with distributed memory. This scheme is then combined with an additional OpenMP parallelization of different sweeps that can take advantage of clusters of shared memory. We document the detailed implementation of a second-order total variation diminishing advection scheme based on flux reconstruction. The magnetic fields are evolved by a constrained transport scheme. We show that the subtraction of a simple estimate of the hydrostatic gradient from the total gradients can significantly reduce the dissipation of the advection scheme in simulations of gravitationally bound hydrostatic objects. Through its simplicity and efficiency, FISH is as well suited for hydrodynamics classes as for large-scale astrophysical simulations on high-performance computer clusters. In preparation for the release of a public version, we demonstrate the performance of FISH in a suite of astrophysically orientated test cases.
Mathur, S. [High Altitude Observatory, NCAR, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Hekker, S. [Astronomical Institute 'Anton Pannekoek', University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trampedach, R. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, 440 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Ballot, J. [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planetologie, CNRS, 14 avenue E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Kallinger, T. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Buzasi, D. [Eureka Scientific, 2452 Delmer Street Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Garcia, R. A. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot-IRFU/SAp, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Huber, D.; Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Jimenez, A.; Regulo, C. [Dpto de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, Tenerife (Spain); Mosser, B. [LESIA, UMR8109, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, Obs. de Paris, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Elsworth, Y.; Chaplin, W. J.; Hale, S. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); De Ridder, J. [Instituut voor Sterrenkunde, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kinemuchi, K. [Bay Area Environmental Research Inst./NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kjeldsen, H. [Danish AsteroSeismology Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Mullally, F. [SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
The granulation pattern that we observe on the surface of the Sun is due to hot plasma rising to the photosphere where it cools down and descends back into the interior at the edges of granules. This is the visible manifestation of convection taking place in the outer part of the solar convection zone. Because red giants have deeper convection zones than the Sun, we cannot a priori assume that their granulation is a scaled version of solar granulation. Until now, neither observations nor one-dimensional analytical convection models could put constraints on granulation in red giants. With asteroseismology, this study can now be performed. We analyze {approx}1000 red giants that have been observed by Kepler during 13 months. We fit the power spectra with Harvey-like profiles to retrieve the characteristics of the granulation (timescale {tau}{sub gran} and power P{sub gran}). We search for a correlation between these parameters and the global acoustic-mode parameter (the position of maximum power, {nu}{sub max}) as well as with stellar parameters (mass, radius, surface gravity (log g), and effective temperature (T{sub eff})). We show that {tau}{sub eff}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -0.89}{sub max} and P{sub gran}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1.90}{sub max}, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions. We find that the granulation timescales of stars that belong to the red clump have similar values while the timescales of stars in the red giant branch are spread in a wider range. Finally, we show that realistic three-dimensional simulations of the surface convection in stars, spanning the (T{sub eff}, log g) range of our sample of red giants, match the Kepler observations well in terms of trends.
Low-spatial coherence electrically-pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging
Redding, B; Huang, X; Lee, M L; Stone, A D; Choma, M A; Cao, H
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The spatial coherence of laser sources has limited their application to parallel imaging and projection due to coherent artifacts, such as speckle. In contrast, traditional incoherent light sources, such as thermal sources or light emitting diodes (LEDs), provide relatively low power per independent spatial mode. Here, we present a chip-scale, electrically-pumped semiconductor laser based on a novel design, demonstrating high power per mode with much lower spatial coherence than conventional laser sources. The laser resonator was fabricated with a chaotic, D-shaped cavity optimized to achieve highly multimode lasing. Lasing occurs simultaneously and independently in ~1000 modes, and hence the total emission exhibits very low spatial coherence. Speckle-free full-field imaging is demonstrated using the chaotic cavity laser as the illumination source. The power per mode of the sample illumination is several orders of magnitude higher than that of a LED or thermal light source. Such a compact, low-cost source, wh...
Zhang, Yuwen
heat conduction Laser Gaussian profile Conjugate gradient method a b s t r a c t Temperature and heat gradient method Jianhua Zhou, Yuwen Zhang *, J.K. Chen, Z.C. Feng Department of Mechanical and Aerospace gradient method (CGM) with temperature and heat flux measured on back surface (opposite to the heated
Spectroscopic characterization and imaging of laser- and unipolar arc-induced plasmas
Aussems, Damien U. B., E-mail: d.aussems@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER—Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Nieuwegein, NL-3430 BE (Netherlands); Nishijima, Daisuke; Brandt, Christian; Doerner, Russell P. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Cardozo, Niek J. Lopes [Science and Technology of Nuclear Fusion, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven 5612 AZ (Netherlands)
2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
Tungsten plasmas induced by unipolar arcs were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy and imaging, and compared with laser-induced tungsten plasmas. The unipolar arcs were initiated in the linear-plasma simulator PISCES-A at UCSD under fusion relevant conditions. The electron temperature and density of the unipolar arc plasmas were in the range 0.5–0.7?eV and 0.7–2.0?×?10{sup 20?}m{sup ?3}, respectively, and increased with increasing negative bias voltage, but did not correlate with the surface temperature. In comparison, the electron temperature and density of the laser-induced plasmas were in the range 0.6–1.4?eV and 7?×?10{sup 19}–1?×?10{sup 22?}m{sup ?3}, respectively.
Finegan, Timothy Michael
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Microwave heating is an important technology that has been hampered in application by difficulties in measuring temperatures and temperature distributions during the microwave heating process. This thesis describes the ...
Louwe, R. J. W.; Wendling, M.; Herk, M. B. van; Mijnheer, B. J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2007-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
Irradiation of the heart is one of the major concerns during radiotherapy of breast cancer. Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning would therefore be useful but cannot always be performed for left-sided breast treatments, because CT data may not be available. However, even if 3D dose calculations are available and an estimate of the normal tissue damage can be made, uncertainties in patient positioning may significantly influence the heart dose during treatment. Therefore, 3D reconstruction of the actual heart dose during breast cancer treatment using electronic imaging portal device (EPID) dosimetry has been investigated. A previously described method to reconstruct the dose in the patient from treatment portal images at the radiological midsurface was used in combination with a simple geometrical model of the irradiated heart volume to enable calculation of dose-volume histograms (DVHs), to independently verify this aspect of the treatment without using 3D data from a planning CT scan. To investigate the accuracy of our method, the DVHs obtained with full 3D treatment planning system (TPS) calculations and those obtained after resampling the TPS dose in the radiological midsurface were compared for fifteen breast cancer patients for whom CT data were available. In addition, EPID dosimetry as well as 3D dose calculations using our TPS, film dosimetry, and ionization chamber measurements were performed in an anthropomorphic phantom. It was found that the dose reconstructed using EPID dosimetry and the dose calculated with the TPS agreed within 1.5% in the lung/heart region. The dose-volume histograms obtained with EPID dosimetry were used to estimate the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for late excess cardiac mortality. Although the accuracy of these NTCP calculations might be limited due to the uncertainty in the NTCP model, in combination with our portal dosimetry approach it allows incorporation of the actual heart dose. For the anthropomorphic phantom, and for fifteen patients for whom CT data were available to test our method, the average difference between the NTCP values obtained with our method and those resulting from the dose distributions calculated with the TPS was 0.1% {+-}0.3% (1 SD). Most NTCP values were 1%-2% lower than those obtained using the method described by Hurkmans et al. [Radiother. Oncol. 62, 163-171 (2002)], using the maximum heart distance determined from a simulator image as a single pre-treatment parameter. A similar difference between the two methods was found for twelve patients using in vivo EPID dosimetry; the average NTCP value obtained with EPID dosimetry was 0.9%, whereas an average NTCP value of 2.2% was derived using the method of Hurkmans et al. The results obtained in this study show that EPID dosimetry is well suited for in vivo verification of the heart dose during breast cancer treatment, and can be used to estimate the NTCP for late excess cardiac mortality. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using portal dosimetry to calculate a DVH and NTCP of an organ at risk.
Classification of electromagnetic resonances in finite inhomogeneous three-dimensional structures
Budko, N V; Budko, Neil V.; Samokhin, Alexander B.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present a simple and unified classification of macroscopic electromagnetic resonances in finite arbitrarily inhomogeneous isotropic dielectric 3D structures situated in free space. By observing the complex-plane dynamics of the spatial spectrum of the volume integral operator as a function of angular frequency and constitutive parameters we identify and generalize all the usual resonances, including complex plasmons, real laser resonances in media with gain, and real quasi-static resonances in media with negative permittivity and gain.
Villone, F. [Ass. Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DAEIMI, Universita di Cassino, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043, Cassino (Italy); Liu, Y. Q. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Paccagnella, R.; Bolzonella, T. [Consorzio RFX, Ass. Euratom/ENEA, and C.N.R., Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127, Padova (Italy); Rubinacci, G. [Ass. Euratom/ENEA/CREATE, DIEL, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125, Napoli (Italy)
2008-06-27T23:59:59.000Z
In this Letter, the linear stability of the resistive wall modes (RWMs) in toroidal geometry for a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma is studied. Three computational models are used: the cylindrical code ETAW, the toroidal MHD code MARS-F, and the CarMa code, able to take fully into account the effects of a three-dimensional conducting structure which mimics the real shell geometry of a reversed field pinch experimental device. The computed mode growth rates generally agree with experimental data. The toroidal effects and the three-dimensional features of the shell, like gaps, allow a novel interpretation of the RWM spectrum in RFP's and remove its degeneracy. This shows the importance of making accurate modeling of conductors for the RWM predictions also in future devices such as ITER.
Diffusing-wave spectroscopy study of microscopic dynamics of three-dimensional granular systems
Pak, Hyuk Kyu
fluidized-granular systems, such as; channel flow, gas-fluidized beds, avalanche flow, and vibro-fluidized, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI),21,22 X-ray microtomography,23,24 electrical capacitance tomography (ECT
Teaching color theory to children with three-dimensional computer animation
Ju, Yoomi Choi
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
generated images is an effective teaching device for helping children to understand color theory, and enhancing the traditional methods. In this study, a 3-D computer generated presentation was created and it demonstrated the mixing of primary colors...
L e t t e r A two-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cobalt(II) complex with
Gao, Song
; it consists of two-fold interpenetrated a-Po- like networks. The study of inorganic coordination polymersL e t t e r A two-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cobalt(II) complex with dual dicyanamide(II) coordination polymer, Co(4,4º- was constructed using dicyanamide and 4,4º-bpy)[N(CN) 2 ] 2 , bipyridine bridges
Darmadi, Yan
2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUVIAL-DELTAIC SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY PLIOCENE-RECENT MUDA FORMATION, BELIDA FIELD, WEST NATUNA BASIN, INDONESIA A Thesis by YAN DARMADI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University..., WEST NATUNA BASIN, INDONESIA A Thesis by YAN DARMADI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair...
Chung, P., E-mail: pchung@mail.chem.sunysb.ed [Stony Brook University (SUNYSB), Department of Chemistry (United States); Danielewicz, P., E-mail: danielewicz@nscl.msu.ed [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)
2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
A model-independent, three-dimensional source function for pion pairs has been extracted from Pb + Pb collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 17.3 GeV. The extracted source exhibits long-range non-Gaussian tails in the directions of the pion-pair net transverse momentum and of the beam. Comparison with the Therminatormodel allows for an extraction of the pion source proper breakup time and of emission duration in the collisions.
Ren, Lei, E-mail: lren1@hfhs.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Chetty, Indrin J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhang Junan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR (United States); Jin Jianyue [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wu, Q. Jackie; Yan Hui; Brizel, David M.; Lee, W. Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Movsas, Benjamin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Yin Fangfang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)
2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: To develop a three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) estimation method using a deformation field map, and to evaluate and optimize the efficiency and accuracy of the method for use in the clinical setting. Methods and Materials: We propose a method to estimate patient CBCT images using prior information and a deformation model. Patients' previous CBCT data are used as the prior information, and the new CBCT volume to be estimated is considered as a deformation of the prior image volume. The deformation field map is solved by minimizing deformation energy and maintaining new projection data fidelity using a nonlinear conjugate gradient method. This method was implemented in 3D form using hardware acceleration and multi-resolution scheme, and it was evaluated for different scan angles, projection numbers, and scan directions using liver, lung, and prostate cancer patient data. The accuracy of the estimation was evaluated by comparing the organ volume difference and the similarity between estimated CBCT and the CBCT reconstructed from fully sampled projections. Results: Results showed that scan direction and number of projections do not have significant effects on the CBCT estimation accuracy. The total scan angle is the dominant factor affecting the accuracy of the CBCT estimation algorithm. Larger scan angles yield better estimation accuracy than smaller scan angles. Lung cancer patient data showed that the estimation error of the 3D lung tumor volume was reduced from 13.3% to 4.3% when the scan angle was increased from 60 Degree-Sign to 360 Degree-Sign using 57 projections. Conclusions: The proposed estimation method is applicable for 3D DTS, 3D CBCT, four-dimensional CBCT, and four-dimensional DTS image estimation. This method has the potential for significantly reducing the imaging dose and improving the image quality by removing the organ distortion artifacts and streak artifacts shown in images reconstructed by the conventional Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm.
Grilli, StÃ©phan T.
Numerical Analysis of the Internal Kinematics and Dynamics of Three-dimensional Breaking Waves/Navier-Stokes solver. Analysis of wave profiles and kinematics (velocity, vorticity, pressure) are carried out. Keyword the breaking and post-breaking in a three- dimensional numerical wave tank of a solitary wave over a sloping
Ortiz, Michael
Three-dimensional fracture and fragmentation of artificial kidney stones This article has been IOPscience #12;Three-dimensional fracture and fragmentation of artificial kidney stones Alejandro Mota1 Laboratory Livermore, CA 94550, USA July 25, 2006 Abstract The brittle fracture of a gypsum cylinder, which
Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN), Kang; Sukill (Knoxville, TN)
2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.
Goyal, Amit
2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.
Kostko, Oleg; Takahashi, Lynelle K.; Ahmed, Musahid
2011-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
There is enormous interest in visualizing the chemical composition of organic material that comprises our world. A convenient method to obtain molecular information with high spatial resolution is imaging mass spectrometry. However, the internal energy deposited within molecules upon transfer to the gas phase from a surface can lead to increased fragmentation and to complications in analysis of mass spectra. Here it is shown that in laser desorption with postionization by tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation, the internal energy gained during laser desorption leads to minimal fragmentation of DNA bases. The internal temperature of laser-desorbed triacontane molecules approaches 670 K, whereas the internal temperature of thymine is 800 K. A synchrotron-based VUV postionization technique for determining translational temperatures reveals that biomolecules have translational temperatures in the range of 216-346 K. The observed low translational temperatures, as well as their decrease with increased desorption laser power is explained by collisional cooling. An example of imaging mass spectrometry on an organic polymer, using laser desorption VUV postionization shows 5 mu m feature details while using a 30 mu m laser spot size and 7 ns duration. Applications of laser desorption postionization to the analysis of cellulose, lignin and humic acids are briefly discussed.
Visualization of Three-Dimensional Ultra-High Resolution OCT in Virtual Reality
Schulze, JÃ¼rgen P.
to opaque axis-parallel slices without the ability to map opacity to the data values and see through author e-mail: jschulze@ucsd.edu #12;Glittenberg et al. [7] ray-trace 3D OCT image stacks to create
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUX PREDICTION FOR A DISH CONCENTRATOR CAVITY RECEIVER
, for a particular cavity geometry, affects the temperature distribution on the cavity walls, and the location-dimensional flux distribution in the focal region, in particular as an aid to receiver design. Inputs to the ray error on the completed dish. On-sun flux mapping of the image produced by individual mirror panels gave
Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy
Hutchinson, D.P.
1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera`s two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera`s integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting. 8 figs.
Method and apparatus for coherent imaging of infrared energy
Hutchinson, Donald P. (Knoxville, TN)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A coherent camera system performs ranging, spectroscopy, and thermal imaging. Local oscillator radiation is combined with target scene radiation to enable heterodyne detection by the coherent camera's two-dimensional photodetector array. Versatility enables deployment of the system in either a passive mode (where no laser energy is actively transmitted toward the target scene) or an active mode (where a transmitting laser is used to actively illuminate the target scene). The two-dimensional photodetector array eliminates the need to mechanically scan the detector. Each element of the photodetector array produces an intermediate frequency signal that is amplified, filtered, and rectified by the coherent camera's integrated circuitry. By spectroscopic examination of the frequency components of each pixel of the detector array, a high-resolution, three-dimensional or holographic image of the target scene is produced for applications such as air pollution studies, atmospheric disturbance monitoring, and military weapons targeting.
EMSP Project Number 65015 Final Report: Three-dimensional position-sensitive germanium detectors
Amman, Mark; Luke, Paul N.
2001-12-07T23:59:59.000Z
Critical to the DOE effort to deactivate and decommission the weapons complex facilities is the characterization of contaminated equipment and building structures. This characterization includes the isotopic identification of radioactive contaminants and the spatial mapping of these deposits. The penetrating nature of the gamma rays emitted by the radioactive contaminants provides a means to accomplish this task in a passive, non-destructive and non-intrusive manner. Through conventional gamma-ray spectroscopy, the radioactive isotopes in the contaminants can be identified by their characteristic gamma-ray signatures and the amount of each isotope by the intensity of the signature emission. With the addition of gamma-ray imaging, the spatial distributions of the isotopes can simultaneously be obtained. The ability to image radioactive contaminants can reduce waste as well as help ensure the adequate protection of workers and the environment. For example, if equipment and building materials have been subjected to radionuclide contamination, the entire structure must be treated as radioactive waste during demolition. However, only partial removal may be necessary if the contamination can be accurately located and identified. Hand-held survey instrumentation operated in the near vicinity of the contaminated objects is a common method to accomplish this task. This method necessitates long data acquisition times, direct close access, and considerable worker exposure, as well as leads to imprecise information. In contrast, imaging devices operated at a distance from the contaminated objects can accurately acquire the spatially dependent gamma-ray emission information in a single measurement. Consequently, the devices can more efficiently discriminate between contaminated and non-contaminated areas of heterogeneous objects while at the same time reducing worker exposure.
A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh
2008-07-04T23:59:59.000Z
We apply coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) microscopy to characterize director structures in liquid crystals.
Massimini, Daniel Frank
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Knowledge of in-vivo glenohumeral joint biomechanics after total shoulder arthroplasty are important for the improvement of patient function, implant longevity and surgical technique. No data has been published on the ...
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
study was done on 30 quarry samples for three sorts of stones. We first present the principles of x mechanisms is to characterize weathered stones from buildings and unweathered stones extracted from quarries
Bottoni, M.; Lyczkowski, R.; Ahuja, S.
1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Numerical simulation of subcooled boiling in one-dimensional geometry with the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) may yield difficulties related to the very low sonic velocity associated with the HEM. These difficulties do not arise with subcritical flow. Possible solutions of the problem include introducing a relaxation of the vapor production rate. Three-dimensional simulations of subcooled boiling in bundle geometry typical of fast reactors can be performed by using two systems of conservation equations, one for the HEM and the other for a Separated Phases Model (SPM), with a smooth transition between the two models.
Shi-Lei Su; Xiao-Qiang Shao; Hong-Fu Wang; Shou Zhang
2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a dissipative scheme to prepare a three-dimensional entangled state for two atoms trapped in separate coupled cavities. Our work shows that both atomic spontaneous emission and cavity decay, which are two typical obstacles in unitary-dynamics-based schemes, could be utilized as resources for high-dimensional entangled state preparation without specifying initial state and controlling time precisely. Final numerical simulation with one group of experimental parameters indicates that the performance of our scheme is better than the unitary-dynamics-based scheme.
Faber, Derrek M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Moursund, Robert; Carlson, Thomas J.; Adams, Noah; Rhondorf, D.
2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes tests conducted at Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River in the spring of 2000 using three-dimensional acoustic telemetry and computational fluid dynamics hydraulic modeling to observe the response of outmigrating juvenile steelhead and yearling chinook to a prototype surface collector installed at the Powerhouse. The study described in this report was one of several conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prepare a decision document on which of two bypass methods: surface flow bypass or extended-length submersible bar screens to use to help smolts pass around Bonneville dams without going through the turbines.
Coexistence of Two- and Three-dimensional Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in Ar^+ -irradiated KTaO_3
Harashima, S.; Bell, C.; Kim, M.; Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.
2012-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
We report the electron doping in the surface vicinity of KTaO{sub 3} by inducing oxygen-vacancies via Ar{sup +}-irradiation. The doped electrons have high mobility (> 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/Vs) at low temperatures, and exhibit Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations with both two- and three-dimensional components. A disparity of the extracted in-plane effective mass, compared to the bulk values, suggests mixing of the orbital characters. Our observations demonstrate that Ar{sup +}-irradiation serves as a flexible tool to study low dimensional quantum transport in 5d semiconducting oxides.
P. Chung; P. Danielewicz
2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z
A model-independent, three-dimensional source function for pion pairs has been extracted from Pb+Pb collisions at $\\sqrt s_{NN}=17.3$ AGeV. The extracted sourc e exhibits long-range non-Gaussian tails in the directions of the pion-pair net transverse-momentum and of the beam. Comparison with the Therminator model allow s for an extraction of the pion source proper breakup time and of emission durat ion in the collisions.
Nagel, S. R., E-mail: nagel7@llnl.gov; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Ayers, M. J.; Piston, K.; Felker, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Chung, T.; Sammuli, B. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hares, J. D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 (United Kingdom)
2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The DIlation X-ray Imager (DIXI) is a new, high-speed x-ray framing camera at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) sensitive to x-rays in the range of ?2–17 keV. DIXI uses the pulse-dilation technique to achieve a temporal resolution of less than 10 ps, a ?10× improvement over conventional framing cameras currently employed on the NIF (?100 ps resolution), and otherwise only attainable with 1D streaked imaging. The pulse-dilation technique utilizes a voltage ramp to impart a velocity gradient on the signal-bearing electrons. The temporal response, spatial resolution, and x-ray sensitivity of DIXI are characterized with a short x-ray impulse generated using the COMET laser facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. At the NIF a pinhole array at 10 cm from target chamber center (tcc) projects images onto the photocathode situated outside the NIF chamber wall with a magnification of ?64×. DIXI will provide important capabilities for warm-dense-matter physics, high-energy-density science, and inertial confinement fusion, adding important capabilities to temporally resolve hot-spot formation, x-ray emission, fuel motion, and mix levels in the hot-spot at neutron yields of up to 10{sup 17}. We present characterization data as well as first results on electron-transport phenomena in buried-layer foil experiments.
E-Print Network 3.0 - aided ct image Sample Search Results
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
10 ARTICLE IN PRESS Computer-Aided Design ( ) Summary: a limited number of computed tomography (CT) images. The three-dimensional template geometry of a healthy... contour shown...
Lee, Tonghun
2354 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PLASMA SCIENCE, VOL. 39, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2011 Laser Diagnostic Imaging of Energetically Enhanced Flames Using Direct Microwave Plasma Coupling Xing Rao, Stephen Hammack, Campbell Carter in plasma-enhanced flames, where a nonthermal microwave plasma discharge is coupled di- rectly
Isotopic imaging via nuclear resonance fluorescence with laser-based Thomson radiation
Barty, Christopher P. J. (Hayward, CA); Hartemann, Frederic V. (San Ramon, CA); McNabb, Dennis P. (Alameda, CA); Pruet, Jason A. (Brentwood, CA)
2009-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention utilizes novel laser-based, high-brightness, high-spatial-resolution, pencil-beam sources of spectrally pure hard x-ray and gamma-ray radiation to induce resonant scattering in specific nuclei, i.e., nuclear resonance fluorescence. By monitoring such fluorescence as a function of beam position, it is possible to image in either two dimensions or three dimensions, the position and concentration of individual isotopes in a specific material configuration. Such methods of the present invention material identification, spatial resolution of material location and ability to locate and identify materials shielded by other materials, such as, for example, behind a lead wall. The foundation of the present invention is the generation of quasimonochromatic high-energy x-ray (100's of keV) and gamma-ray (greater than about 1 MeV) radiation via the collision of intense laser pulses from relativistic electrons. Such a process as utilized herein, i.e., Thomson scattering or inverse-Compton scattering, produces beams having diameters from about 1 micron to about 100 microns of high-energy photons with a bandwidth of .DELTA.E/E of approximately 10E.sup.-3.
Laser Doppler field sensor for high resolution flow velocity imaging without camera
Voigt, Andreas; Bayer, Christian; Shirai, Katsuaki; Buettner, Lars; Czarske, Juergen
2008-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we present a laser sensor for highly spatially resolved flow imaging without using a camera. The sensor is an extension of the principle of laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). Instead of a parallel fringe system, diverging and converging fringes are employed. This method facilitates the determination of the tracer particle position within the measurement volume and leads to an increased spatial and velocity resolution compared to conventional LDA. Using a total number of four fringe systems the flow is resolved in two spatial dimensions and the orthogonal velocity component. Since no camera is used, the resolution of the sensor is not influenced by pixel size effects. A spatial resolution of 4 {mu}m in the x direction and 16 {mu}m in the y direction and a relative velocity resolution of 1x10{sup -3} have been demonstrated up to now. As a first application we present the velocity measurement of an injection nozzle flow. The sensor is also highly suitable for applications in nano- and microfluidics, e.g., for the measurement of flow rates.
Nucleic Acid Database: a Repository of Three-Dimensional Information about Nucleic Acids
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Berman, H.M.; Olson, W.K.; Beveridge, D.L.; Westbrook, J.; Gelbin, A.; Demeny, T.; Hsieh, S.H.; Srinivasan, A.R.; Schneider, B.
The Nucleic Acid Database (NDB) provides 3-D structural information about nucleic acids. It is a relational database designed to facilitate the easy search for nucleic acid structures using any of the stored primary or derived structural features. Reports can then be created describing any properties of the selected structures and structures may be viewed in several different formats, including the mmCIF format, the NDB Atlas format, the NDB coordinate format, or the PDB coordinate format. Browsing structure images created directly from coordinates in the repository can also be done. More than 7000 structures have been released as of May 2014. This website also includes a number of specialized tools and interfaces. The NDB Project is funded by the National Institutes of Health and has been funded by the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy in the past.
Window-based method for approximating the Hausdorff in three-dimensional range imagery
Koch, Mark W. (Albuquerque, NM)
2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z
One approach to pattern recognition is to use a template from a database of objects and match it to a probe image containing the unknown. Accordingly, the Hausdorff distance can be used to measure the similarity of two sets of points. In particular, the Hausdorff can measure the goodness of a match in the presence of occlusion, clutter, and noise. However, existing 3D algorithms for calculating the Hausdorff are computationally intensive, making them impractical for pattern recognition that requires scanning of large databases. The present invention is directed to a new method that can efficiently, in time and memory, compute the Hausdorff for 3D range imagery. The method uses a window-based approach.
Adamovich, Igor V. [Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional, nonperturbative, semiclassical analytic model of vibrational energy transfer in collisions between a rotating diatomic molecule and an atom, and between two rotating diatomic molecules (Forced Harmonic Oscillator–Free Rotation model) has been extended to incorporate rotational relaxation and coupling between vibrational, translational, and rotational energy transfer. The model is based on analysis of semiclassical trajectories of rotating molecules interacting by a repulsive exponential atom-to-atom potential. The model predictions are compared with the results of three-dimensional close-coupled semiclassical trajectory calculations using the same potential energy surface. The comparison demonstrates good agreement between analytic and numerical probabilities of rotational and vibrational energy transfer processes, over a wide range of total collision energies, rotational energies, and impact parameter. The model predicts probabilities of single-quantum and multi-quantum vibrational-rotational transitions and is applicable up to very high collision energies and quantum numbers. Closed-form analytic expressions for these transition probabilities lend themselves to straightforward incorporation into DSMC nonequilibrium flow codes.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.
1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report presents the status of development of a three-dimensional conceptual model for the unconfined aquifer system at Hanford. A conceptual model is needed to support development of a realistic three-dimensional numerical model for predicting ground-water flow and the transport of contaminants. The report focuses on developing a hydrogeologic framework, assessing available hydraulic property data, describing flow-system boundaries, and evaluating areal recharge and leakage. Geologic descriptions of samples obtained during well drilling were used to prepare cross sections that correlate relatively continuous layers. The layers were defined based on textural differences that are expected to reflect differences in hydraulic properties. Assigning hydraulic properties to the layers is a critical part of the conceptual model. Available hydraulic property data for the study area were compiled and were correlated with the geologic layers where possible. Flow-system boundaries are present within the study area at basalt outcrops and at the Columbia River. Boundary conditions have been evaluated for these areas. Available estimates of areal recharge from precipitation were compiled.
Li, Danda
2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
Breast cancer has a high prevalence among women and most patients suffer from metastasis to bone. The mechanisms involved in breast cancer bone metastasis are poorly understood. Three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture systems are becoming a focus...
Welch, Stephen; Miles, Steward; Kumar, Suresh; Lemaire, Tony; Chan, Alan
A hierarchy of coupling strategies for integrating advanced three-dimensional modelling methodologies for prediction of the thermo-mechanical response of structures in fire has been developed and systematically assessed. ...
Dutkiewicz, Stephanie.
We describe the coupling of a three-dimensional ocean circulation model, with explicit thermodynamic seaice and ocean carbon cycle representations, to a two-dimensional atmospheric/land model. This coupled system has been ...
MRI Investigations of Particle Motion within a Three-Dimensional Vibro-Fluidized Granular Bed
Mick D. Mantle; Andrew J. Sederman; Lynn F. Gladden; Jonathan M. Huntley; Tom W. Martin Ricky D. Wildman; Mark D. Shattuck
2007-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
The unique ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide spatial and temporal information from optically opaque systems, in three dimensions, make it an ideal tool to study the internal motion of rapid granular flows. This paper will focus on the use of ultra-fast velocity compensated MRI measurements to study particle velocity and density distributions in a granular gas, produced by vibrating vertically a bed of mustard seeds at 40 Hz. Specifically, a velocity compensated, double spin-echo, triggered, one-dimensional MRI profiling pulse sequence was developed. This gives an MRI temporal resolution of approximately 2 ms and also minimises MRI velocity artefacts. 12 phase measurements per vibration cycle were used. The data can be used to extract values of the mustard seed average velocity and velocity propagators (probability distributions functions) as a function of the phase of the vibration cycle and vertical height within the cell. The data show strong transient effects during the impact phase of the vibration. A detailed discussion of the temporal passage of the individual phase resolved, height resolved velocity distributions, along with seed velocity propagators at a fix height from the vibrating base is presented.
Grote, D.P.
1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Heavy ion fusion requires injection, transport and acceleration of high current beams. Detailed simulation of such beams requires fully self-consistent space charge fields and three dimensions. WARP3D, developed for this purpose, is a particle-in-cell plasma simulation code optimized to work within the framework of an accelerator`s lattice of accelerating, focusing, and bending elements. The code has been used to study several test problems and for simulations and design of experiments. Two applications are drift compression experiments on the MBE-4 facility at LBL and design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector for the proposed ILSE facility. With aggressive drift compression on MBE-4, anomalous emittance growth was observed. Simulations carried out to examine possible causes showed that essentially all the emittance growth is result of external forces on the beam and not of internal beam space-charge fields. Dominant external forces are the dodecapole component of focusing fields, the image forces on the surrounding pipe and conductors, and the octopole fields that result from the structure of the quadrupole focusing elements. Goal of the design of the electrostatic quadrupole injector is to produce a beam of as low emittance as possible. The simulations show that the dominant effects that increase the emittance are the nonlinear octopole fields and the energy effect (fields in the axial direction that are off-axis). Injectors were designed that minimized the beam envelope in order to reduce the effect of the nonlinear fields. Alterations to the quadrupole structure that reduce the nonlinear fields further were examined. Comparisons were done with a scaled experiment resulted in very good agreement.
Three-dimensional electromagnetic modeling and inversion on massively parallel computers
Newman, G.A.; Alumbaugh, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geophysics Dept.
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report has demonstrated techniques that can be used to construct solutions to the 3-D electromagnetic inverse problem using full wave equation modeling. To this point great progress has been made in developing an inverse solution using the method of conjugate gradients which employs a 3-D finite difference solver to construct model sensitivities and predicted data. The forward modeling code has been developed to incorporate absorbing boundary conditions for high frequency solutions (radar), as well as complex electrical properties, including electrical conductivity, dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability. In addition both forward and inverse codes have been ported to a massively parallel computer architecture which allows for more realistic solutions that can be achieved with serial machines. While the inversion code has been demonstrated on field data collected at the Richmond field site, techniques for appraising the quality of the reconstructions still need to be developed. Here it is suggested that rather than employing direct matrix inversion to construct the model covariance matrix which would be impossible because of the size of the problem, one can linearize about the 3-D model achieved in the inverse and use Monte-Carlo simulations to construct it. Using these appraisal and construction tools, it is now necessary to demonstrate 3-D inversion for a variety of EM data sets that span the frequency range from induction sounding to radar: below 100 kHz to 100 MHz. Appraised 3-D images of the earth`s electrical properties can provide researchers opportunities to infer the flow paths, flow rates and perhaps the chemistry of fluids in geologic mediums. It also offers a means to study the frequency dependence behavior of the properties in situ. This is of significant relevance to the Department of Energy, paramount to characterizing and monitoring of environmental waste sites and oil and gas exploration.