Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling
Okamato, H.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler,effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously withlongitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are
Three-Dimensional Momentum Imaging of Electron Wave Packet Interference in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses
Gopal, R.; Simeonidis, K.; Moshammer, R.; Ergler, Th.; Duerr, M.; Kurka, M.; Kuehnel, K.-U.; Tschuch, S.; Schroeter, C.-D.; Bauer, D.; Ullrich, J.; Rudenko, A.; Herrwerth, O.; Uphues, Th.; Schultze, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Uiberacker, M.; Lezius, M.; Kling, M. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Strasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z
Using a reaction microscope, three-dimensional (3D) electron (and ion) momentum (P) spectra have been recorded for carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stabilized few-cycle (approx5 fs), intense (approx4x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses (740 nm) impinging on He. Preferential emission of low-energy electrons (E{sub e}<15 eV) to either hemisphere is observed as a function of the CEP. Clear interference patterns emerge in P space at CEPs with maximum asymmetry, interpreted as attosecond interferences of rescattered and directly emitted electron wave packets by means of a simple model.
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)
2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope
Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.
Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera
Smithpeter, Colin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoover, Eddie R. (Sandia Park, NM); Pain, Bedabrata (Los Angeles, CA); Hancock, Bruce R. (Altadena, CA); Nellums, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z
An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.
Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials
Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.
2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z
The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.
Computational adaptive optics for live three-dimensional biological imaging
Agard, David
Computational adaptive optics for live three- dimensional biological imaging Z. Kam*, B. Hanser , M. Under their design conditions, modern microscope optics produce nearly ideal aberration-free imaging to the coverslip. When focusing into thick samples, the 3D optical characteristics of the sample itself must
Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers
Worstell, W.A.
1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z
A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.
Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser
Byer, Robert L.
Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser materials across grain boundaries (GBs) in Nd3+ :YAG laser ceramics. It is clearly shown that Nd3+ segregation point the way to further improvements in what is already an impressive class of ceramic laser materials
Rapid three-dimensional manufacturing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system
Rapid three-dimensional manufacturing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system Biao-dimensional manufacturing approach to the rapid processing of microfluidic structures using a scanning laser system. The scanning laser manufacturing technique could be potentially applied to a wide range of materials,10
Optics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation
Chen, Zhongping
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
. A pyrometer, an infrared radiation sensor, is used to monitor surface temperature variation in laser brazingOptics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation of laser-processing performance using optical coherence tomography Youngseop Kima , Eun Seo Choia
Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy
Wang, Lihong
Three-dimensional imaging of skin melanoma in vivo by dual-wavelength photoacoustic microscopy Jung to noninvasively obtain three-dimensional 3-D images of subcutaneous melanomas and their surrounding vasculature in nude mice in vivo. The absorption coefficients of blood and melanin- pigmented melanomas vary greatly
Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon
Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J., E-mail: cch@berkeley.edu [Applied Science and Technology Group and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.
Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung
Lutchen, Kenneth
Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung NORA T morphometric mod- els to predict function relations in the lung. These models, however, are not anatomically explicit. We have advanced a three-dimensional airway tree model to relate dynamic lung function
Yang, Yu-Hsiang
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BUBBLE COLLAPSE PHENOMENA IN SUBCOOLED WATER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A Thesis by YU-HSIANG YANG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1998 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON BUBBLE COLLAPSE PHENOMENA IN SUBCOOLED WATER WITH THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY A Thesis by YU-HSIANG YANG Submitted...
Rosen, Joseph
Fourier, Fresnel and Image CGHs of three-dimensional objects observed from many different of synthesizing three types of computer-generated hologram (CGH); Fourier, Fresnel and image CGHs. These holograms in the computer as a Fourier hologram. Then, it can be converted to either Fresnel or image holograms by computing
Lin, Yu; Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; He, Lian; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang, E-mail: guoqiang.yu@uky.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)
2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z
This study extended our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flowmetry system into noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) for three-dimensional (3-D) flow imaging of deep tissue. A linear array of 15 photodetectors and two laser sources connected to a mobile lens-focusing system enabled automatic and noncontact scanning of flow in a region of interest. These boundary measurements were combined with a finite element framework for DCT image reconstruction implemented into an existing software package. This technique was tested in computer simulations and using a tissue-like phantom with anomaly flow contrast design. The cylindrical tube-shaped anomaly was clearly reconstructed in both simulation and phantom. Recovered and assigned flow contrast changes in anomaly were found to be highly correlated: regression slope?=?1.00, R{sup 2}?=?1.00, and p?imaging of deep tissue blood flow heterogeneities.
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2 ,Nadjette to compute their physical properties. We focus here on base catalyzed and colloidal silica aerogels, which are fractal materials and we use an original method for the reconstruction of these aerogels from TEM images
Salvaggio, Carl
. These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic
Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holograms
Rosen, Joseph
010103-1 Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation our recently proposed single-channel optical system for generating digital Fresnel holograms of 3-D of spherical beams creates the Fresnel hologram of the observed 3-D object. When this hologram is reconstructed
Pizurica, Aleksandra
Three-Dimensional Quantitative Microwave Imaging of Realistic Numerical Breast Phantoms Using Huber detection with microwaves is based on the difference in dielectric properties between normal and malignant microwave scattering is a nonlinear, ill-posed inverse problem. We proposed to use the Huber regularization
Progress in Three-Dimensional Coherent X-Ray Diffraction Imaging
Marchesini, S; Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Howells, M R; Cui, C; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Noy, A; Hau-Riege, S P; Kinney, J M; Shapiro, D; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Lima, E; Minor, A M; He, H
2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
The Fourier inversion of phased coherent diffraction patterns offers images without the resolution and depth-of-focus limitations of lens-based tomographic systems. We report on our recent experimental images inverted using recent developments in phase retrieval algorithms, and summarize efforts that led to these accomplishments. These include ab-initio reconstruction of a two-dimensional test pattern, infinite depth of focus image of a thick object, and its high-resolution ({approx}10 nm resolution) three-dimensional image. Developments on the structural imaging of low density aerogel samples are discussed.
Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser
M. Uddin
2015-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the world's first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.
Three-dimensional folding of pre-strained polymer sheets via absorption of laser light
Liu, Ying; Genzer, Jan, E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu; Dickey, Michael D., E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Miskiewicz, Matthew; Escuti, Michael J., E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2410 Campus Shore Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Patterned light from a laser can induce rapid self-folding of pre-strained polymer sheets. Black ink coated on the sheet absorbs the light, which converts the photon energy into thermal energy that heats the sheet locally; the temperature of the sheet is highest at the surface where the light impinges on the sheet and decreases through the sheet thickness. The gradient of temperature induces a gradient of strain relaxation through the depth of the sheet, which causes folding within seconds of irradiation. The pattern of laser light that irradiates the compositionally homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) substrate dictates the resulting three-dimensional (3D) shape. Unlike most approaches to self-folding, the methodology described here requires no patterning of pre-defined hinges. It opens up the possibility of using a patterning technique that is inherently 2D to form 3D shapes. The use of lasers also enables systematic control of key process parameters such as power, intensity, and the pattern of light (i.e., beam width and shape). The rate of folding and folding angle measured with respect to these parameters provide an indirect quantification of heat loss in the sample and thereby identify the threshold power and power intensity that must be delivered to the hinge for folding to occur.
van der Hilst, Robert D.
We apply a three-dimensional (3D) generalized Radon transform (GRT) to scattered P-waves from 575 local earthquakes recorded at 68 temporary network stations for passive-source imaging of (near-vertical) structures close ...
Protein crystallography: From X-ray diffraction spots to a three dimensional image
Terwilliger, T.C.; Berendzen, J.
1998-02-25T23:59:59.000Z
Proteins are remarkable molecular machines that are essential for life. They can do many things ranging from the precise control of blood clotting to synthesizing complex organic compounds. Pictures of protein molecules are in high demand in biotechnology because they are important for applications such as drug discovery and for engineering enzymes for commercial use. X-ray crystallography is the most common method for determining the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules. When a crystal of a protein is placed in an X-ray beam, scattering of X-rays off the ordered molecules produces a diffraction pattern that can be measured on a position-sensitive CCD or image-plate detector. Protein crystals typically contain thousands of atoms and the diffraction data are generally measured to relatively low resolution. Consequently the direct methods approaches generally cannot be applied. Instead, if the crystal is modified by adding metal atoms at specific sites or by tuning the wavelength of the X-rays to cross an absorption edge of a metal atom in the crystal, then the information from these additional measurements is sufficient to first identify the /locations of the metal atoms. This information is then used along with the diffraction data to make a three-dimensional picture of electron densities. This picture can be used to determine the position of most or all of the atoms in the protein.
Yao, Y. Lawrence
Proceedings of the Second International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing 2003,Munich, June 2003 1 Process Design Of Laser Forming For Three Dimensional Thin Plates J. G. Cheng1 and Y. L. Yao2 1 Engineering, Columbia University Abstract Extensive efforts have been made in analyzing and predicting laser
Lim, Sang-Hyun
materials are described by the director field n r , and noninvasive three-dimensional 3D imaging that align homogeneously with LC molecules. Label- free 3D optical imaging of LCs has been demonstrated provide 3D structural information but the interpretation of a THG image is complicated due
Lee, H.R.
1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.
Three-dimensional laser micromachining and imaging of biocompatible polymers
Oldenburg, Amy
lamination [3], and 3D printing [4]. All of these methods, with the exception of melt molding, require
Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for sub-nanometer three-dimensional positioning
Moon, Euclid E. (Euclid Eberle), 1965-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Current alignment technology is incapable of satisfying the needs of imminent generations of lithography. This dissertation delineates a novel method of alignment and three-dimensional position metrology that is compatible ...
Peterson, J. L., E-mail: peterson76@llnl.gov; Michel, P.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Achieving symmetric hohlraum radiation drive is an important aspect of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, when experimentally delivered laser powers deviate from ideal conditions, the resultant radiation field can become asymmetric. Two situations in which this may arise are random uncorrelated fluctuations, in as-delivered laser power and laser beams that do not participate in the implosion (either intentionally or unintentionally). Furthermore, laser plasma interactions in the hohlraum obfuscate the connection between laser powers and radiation drive. To study the effect of these situations on drive symmetry, we develop a simplified model for crossed-beam energy transfer, laser backscatter, and plasma absorption that can be used in conjunction with view factor calculations to expediently translate laser powers into three-dimensional capsule flux symmetries. We find that crossed-beam energy transfer can alter both the statistical properties of uncorrelated laser fluctuations and the impact of missing laser beams on radiation symmetry. A method is proposed to mitigate the effects of missing laser beams.
Three-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating
Zhang, Jun
in human skin [3]. The #12;rst medical lasers were continuous beam lasers such as CO 2 laser, argon laser and Jun Zhang z Laboratory for High Performance Scienti#12;c Computing and Computer Simulation, Department to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature
van der Hilst, Robert Dirk
the generalized Radon transform Haijiang Zhang,1 Ping Wang,1 Robert D. van der Hilst,1 M. Nafi Toksoz,1 Clifford; published 9 December 2009. [1] We apply a three-dimensional (3D) generalized Radon transform (GRT passive seismic waveform imaging around the SAFOD site, California, using the generalized Radon transform
Parker, Sherwood (Berkeley, CA)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.
Parker, S.
1995-10-24T23:59:59.000Z
A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z{sub 1} above upper collimator plane, distance z{sub 2} above the lower collimator plane, and distance z{sub 3} above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}, v{sub 3} proportional to z{sub 1}, z{sub 2} and z{sub 3}, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site. 5 figs.
Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating
Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.
Ramis, R., E-mail: rafael.ramis@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, P. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Temporal, M. [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B.; Brandon, V. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The symmetry of a Direct-Drive (DD) irradiation scheme has been analyzed by means of three-dimensional (3D) simulations carried out by the code MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475 (1988)) that includes hydrodynamics, heat transport, and 3D laser ray-tracing. The implosion phase of a target irradiated by the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility in the context of the Shock Ignition scheme has been considered. The LMJ facility has been designed for Indirect-Drive, and by this reason that the irradiation scheme must be modified when used for DD. Thus, to improve the implosion uniformity to acceptable levels, the beam centerlines should be realigned and the beam power balance should be adjusted. Several alternatives with different levels of complexity are presented and discussed.
Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects
Lu, S.Y.
1998-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.
Image system for three dimensional, 360 DEGREE, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects
Lu, Shin-Yee (Pleasanton, CA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360.degree. all around coverage of theobject-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120.degree. apart from one another.
Kim, Daekeun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The availability of lasers with femtosecond, ultrafast light pulses provides new opportunities and challenges in instrument design. This thesis addresses three aspects of utilizing ultrafast light pulses in two-photon ...
Chen, Yu
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...
Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging
Velten, Andreas
The recovery of objects obscured by scattering is an important goal in imaging and has been approached by exploiting, for example, coherence properties, ballistic photons or penetrating wavelengths. Common methods use ...
Three-Dimensional Imaging and Quantification of Biomass and Biofilms in Porous Media
Dorthe Wildenschild
2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
A new method to resolve biofilms in three dimensions in porous media using high-resolution synchrotron-based x-ray computed microtomography (CMT) has been developed. Imaging biofilms in porous media without disturbing the natural spatial arrangement of the porous media and associated biofilm has been a challenging task, primarily because porous media generally precludes conventional imaging via optical microscopy; x-ray tomography offers a potential alternative. One challenge for using this method is that most conventional x-ray contrast agents are water-soluble and easily diffuse into biofilms. To overcome this problem, silver-coated microspheres were added to the fluid phase to create an x-ray contrast that does not diffuse into the biofilm mass. Using this approach, biofilm imaging in porous media was accomplished with sufficient contrast to differentiate between the biomass- and fluid-filled pore spaces. The method was validated by using a two-dimensional micro-model flow cell where both light microscopy and CMT imaging were used to im age the biofilm. The results of this work has been published in Water Resources Research (Iltis et al., 2010). Additional work needs to be done to optimize this imaging approach, specifically, we find that the quality of the images are highly dependent on the coverage of the biofilm with Ag particles, - which means that we may have issues in dead-end pore space and for very low density (fluffy) biofilms. What we can image for certain with this technique is the biofilm surface that is well-connected to flow paths and thus well-supplied with nutrients etc.
Robotic three-dimensional imaging system for under-vehicle inspection
Koschan, Andreas
, Tennessee 37996-2100 E-mail: rangan@imaging.utk.edu David J. Gorsich Grant R. Gerhart U.S. Army RDECOM Tank-Automotive to segment the digitized mesh models into smooth patches and represent the automotive scene as a graph, and other potential tech- nologies on mobile robotic platforms. The research consortium aims to achieve
Fu, Yong; Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Ye, Fanghao; Lou, Cunguang, E-mail: louchg@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)
2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Previous studies demonstrated that thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) has great potential for breast tumor detection. However, large field of view (FOV) imaging remains a long-standing challenge for three-dimensional (3D) breast tumor localization. Here, the authors propose a practical TAI system for noninvasive 3D localization of breast tumors with large FOV through the use of ultrashort microwave pulse (USMP). Methods: A USMP generator was employed for TAI. The energy density required for quality imaging and the corresponding microwave-to-acoustic conversion efficiency were compared with that of conventional TAI. The microwave energy distribution, imaging depth, resolution, and 3D imaging capabilities were then investigated. Finally, a breast phantom embedded with a laboratory-grown tumor was imaged to evaluate the FOV performance of the USMP TAI system, under a simulated clinical situation. Results: A radiation energy density equivalent to just 1.6%–2.2% of that for conventional submicrosecond microwave TAI was sufficient to obtain a thermoacoustic signal with the required signal-to-noise ratio. This result clearly demonstrated a significantly higher microwave-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of USMP TAI compared to that of conventional TAI. The USMP TAI system achieved 61 mm imaging depth and 12 × 12 cm{sup 2} microwave radiation area. The volumetric image of a copper target measured at depth of 4–6 cm matched well with the actual shape and the resolution reaches 230 ?m. The TAI of the breast phantom was precisely localized to an accuracy of 0.1 cm over an 8 × 8 cm{sup 2} FOV. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrated that the USMP TAI system offered significant potential for noninvasive clinical detection and 3D localization of deep breast tumors, with low microwave radiation dose and high spatial resolution over a sufficiently large FOV.
Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection in a Solar Eruption
Sun, J Q; Ding, M D; Guo, Y; Priest, E R; Parnell, C E; Edwards, S J; Zhang, J; Chen, P F; Fang, C
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Magnetic reconnection, a change of magnetic field connectivity, is a fundamental physical process in which magnetic energy is released explosively. It is responsible for various eruptive phenomena in the universe. However, this process is difficult to observe directly. Here, the magnetic topology associated with a solar reconnection event is studied in three dimensions (3D) using the combined perspectives of two spacecraft. The sequence of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images clearly shows that two groups of oppositely directed and non-coplanar magnetic loops gradually approach each other, forming a separator or quasi-separator and then reconnecting. The plasma near the reconnection site is subsequently heated from $\\sim$1 to $\\ge$5 MK. Shortly afterwards, warm flare loops ($\\sim$3 MK) appear underneath the hot plasma. Other observational signatures of reconnection, including plasma inflows and downflows, are unambiguously revealed and quantitatively measured. These observations provide direct evidence of magneti...
Hill, Samuel L. (Samuel Lincoln), 1978-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The number of three-dimensional displays available is escalating and yet the capturing devices for multiple view content are focused on either single camera precision rigs that are limited to stationary objects or the use ...
Bryan, W A; Newell, W R; Sanderson, J H
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focussed to $\\approx $ 10$^{16}$ Wcm$^{-2}$ has been investigated by three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. For the first time in a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a Classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, can not. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multi-electronic processes.
W. A. Bryan; W. R. Newell; J. H. Sanderson; A. J. Langley
2006-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focussed to $\\approx $ 10$^{16}$ Wcm$^{-2}$ has been investigated by three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. For the first time in a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a Classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, can not. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multi-electronic processes.
Bryan, W. A.; Newell, W. R.; Sanderson, J. H.; Langley, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focused to {approx_equal}10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2} has been investigated by the three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. In a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three-dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, cannot. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multielectronic processes.
Mori, Warren, B.
2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present results from the grant entitled, Ã?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.Ã?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.
Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography
Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J. [327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); 1011 Richardson Building, Photon Migration Laboratories, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); 327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.
Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.
Three-dimensional photovoltaics
Myers, Bryan
The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)
2012-06-12T23:59:59.000Z
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
Three-Dimensional Momentum Imaging of Electron Wave Packet Interference in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses
Kling, Matthias
Heidelberg, Germany A. Rudenko Max-Planck Advanced Study Group at CFEL, D-22607 Hamburg, Germany O. Herrwerth
Bouaynaya, Nidhal
is an opportunistic human pathogen and a causative agent of a wide range of diseases. Its hallmark feature-dimensional segmentation. 1. Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for diseases shield microorganisms from stressful environmental conditions including the defensive mechanisms
Yoon, D; Jung, J; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea, College of medicine, Department of biomedical engineering (Korea, Republic of)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Purpose of paper is to confirm the feasibility of acquisition of three dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) image from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using Monte Carlo simulation. Methods: In case of simulation, the pixelated SPECT detector, collimator and phantom were simulated using Monte Carlo n particle extended (MCNPX) simulation tool. A thermal neutron source (<1 eV) was used to react with the boron uptake region (BUR) in the phantom. Each geometry had a spherical pattern, and three different BURs (A, B and C region, density: 2.08 g/cm3) were located in the middle of the brain phantom. The data from 128 projections for each sorting process were used to achieve image reconstruction. The ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) reconstruction algorithm was used to obtain a tomographic image with eight subsets and five iterations. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to evaluate the geometric accuracy of reconstructed image. Results: The OSEM image was compared with the original phantom pattern image. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated as the gross area under each ROC curve. The three calculated AUC values were 0.738 (A region), 0.623 (B region), and 0.817 (C region). The differences between length of centers of two boron regions and distance of maximum count points were 0.3 cm, 1.6 cm and 1.4 cm. Conclusion: The possibility of extracting a 3D BNCT SPECT image was confirmed using the Monte Carlo simulation and OSEM algorithm. The prospects for obtaining an actual BNCT SPECT image were estimated from the quality of the simulated image and the simulation conditions. When multiple tumor region should be treated using the BNCT, a reasonable model to determine how many useful images can be obtained from the SPECT could be provided to the BNCT facilities. This research was supported by the Leading Foreign Research Institute Recruitment Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and Future Planning (MSIP)(Grant No.200900420) and the Radiation Technology Research and Development program (Grant No.2013043498), Republic of Korea.
Costes, Sylvain Vincent
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study concerns with the development of a simple three-dimensional technique to determine the velocity of fluid by tracing the motion of seeded particles in a flow in three-dimensions. A correction for light refraction ...
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, S.J.
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, Steven J. (Boston, MA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.
Three-Dimensional Characterization of
Rohrer, Gregory S.
Three-Dimensional Characterization of Microstructure by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction Anthony D scanning, statistical reconstruction, microscopy, texture, EBSD Abstract The characterization;MOTIVATION We review briefly the motivation for the characterization of materials in three dimen- sions. Most
Redding, Brandon; Cao, Hui
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Many imaging applications require increasingly bright illumination sources, motivating the replacement of conventional thermal light sources with light emitting diodes (LEDs), superluminescent diodes (SLDs) and lasers. Despite their brightness, lasers and SLDs are poorly suited for full-field imaging applications because their high spatial coherence leads to coherent artifacts known as speckle that corrupt image formation. We recently demonstrated that random lasers can be engineered to provide low spatial coherence. Here, we exploit the low spatial coherence of specifically-designed random lasers to perform speckle-free full-field imaging in the setting of significant optical scattering. We quantitatively demonstrate that images generated with random laser illumination exhibit higher resolution than images generated with spatially coherent illumination. By providing intense laser illumination without the drawback of coherent artifacts, random lasers are well suited for a host of full-field imaging applicatio...
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software
Goumnerov, Hristo
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the present research, the three dimensional particle tracking software OpenPTV is validated with synthetic images from the Standard PIV project by the Visualization Society of Japan, and with experimental data from the twin-jet facility...
Vargas, M.; Schumaker, W.; He, Z.-H.; Zhao, Z.; Behm, K.; Chvykov, V.; Hou, B.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Yanovsky, V.; Thomas, A. G. R., E-mail: agrt@umich.edu [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
High intensity, short pulse lasers can be used to accelerate electrons to ultra-relativistic energies via laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) [T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)]. Recently, it was shown that separating the injection and acceleration processes into two distinct stages could prove beneficial in obtaining stable, high energy electron beams [Gonsalves et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 862 (2011); Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 035001 (2011); Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045001 (2011)]. Here, we use a stereolithography based 3D printer to produce two-stage gas targets for LWFA experiments on the HERCULES laser system at the University of Michigan. We demonstrate substantial improvements to the divergence, pointing stability, and energy spread of a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam compared with a single-stage gas cell or gas jet target.
Parallel finite element algorithm for three dimensional ...
methods for electromagnetic induction. INTRODUCTION. N umerical modelling of three dimensional conductivity structures in the earth has experienced a rapid ...
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C.; Weierstall, Uwe; Beetz, Tobias; Jacobsen, Chris; Shapiro, David
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.
line, recorded in 1977 by COCORP, reveal coherent events having horizontal to reverse moveouts in geometric coverage as the COCORP survey, demonstrates the utility of the imaging process. The images and seismic reflection targets in general. In 1977, COCORP recorded 27 km of deep crustal reflec- tion data
Zhang, Shi-Chang [Research Center for Advanced Computation, Xihua University, Chengdu SC610039, China and Institute of Photoelectronics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu SC610031 (China)] [Research Center for Advanced Computation, Xihua University, Chengdu SC610039, China and Institute of Photoelectronics, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu SC610031 (China)
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
Analytical formulas of the Larmor rotation are derived in detail for the equilibrium electrons motion in a free-electron laser with combination of a three-dimensional (3-D) helical wiggler and a positive or a reversed guide magnetic field. Generally, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a reversed guide field is much smaller than that in a positive guide field. At non-resonance, a helical orbit governed by the zero-order component of a 3-D wiggler field could hold; meanwhile, the higher-harmonic effect definitely influences those electrons with off-axis guiding centers and induces the electron-beam spreads. At resonance, the Larmor radius in the configuration of a positive guide field has a singularity with a limit tending to infinite, which causes all the electrons to hit the waveguide wall before the exit of the wiggler. Although Larmor-radius singularity does not exist in the configuration of a reversed guide field, at anti-resonance, the first-order harmonic of a 3-D wiggler field induces a transverse displacement which rapidly grows in proportion to a square of time, and leads part of the electron beam to hit the waveguide wall before reaching the wiggler exit, which depends on the specific parameters of the individual electrons. The analytical conclusions derived in the present paper are examined by the nonlinear simulations and the experimental observation. Disagreement with the previous literatures is discussed in detail.
Clayton, Robert W.
. INTRODUCTION The validity of the conventional processof stacking seismic reflection data as an imaging of moderate earthquakes on it. Evaluations of velocities and other seismic characteristics of the region have been included in several studies of seismic activity, such as those by Eaton et al. (1970) and Liu
Three-dimensional charge coupled device
Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.
Three-Dimensional Nonlinear Acoustical Holography
Niu, Yaying
2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) is an acoustic field visualization technique that can be used to reconstruct three-dimensional (3-D) acoustic fields by projecting two-dimensional (2-D) data measured on a hologram surface. However, linear NAH...
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geothermal Reservoirs; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in...
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichert, Anke (Albany, CA)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Towards Three-Dimensional Bethe Ansatz
M. Bellon; S. Boukraa; J-M. Maillard; C-M. Viallet
1993-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a ``pre-Bethe-Ansatz'' system of equations for three dimensional vertex models. We bring to the light various algebraic curves of high genus and discuss some situations where these curves simplify. As a result we describe remarkable subvarieties of the space of parameters.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, J.L.
1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.
Imaging an aligned polyatomic molecule with laser-induced electron diffraction
Pullen, Michael; Le, Anh-Thu; Baudisch, Matthias; Hemmer, Michaël; Senftleben, Arne; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Moshammer, Robert; Lin, Chii-Dong; Biegert, Jens
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laser-induced electron diffraction is an evolving tabletop method, which aims to image ultrafast structural changes in gas-phase polyatomic molecules with sub-{\\AA}ngstr\\"om spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. Here, we provide the general foundation for the retrieval of multiple bond lengths from a polyatomic molecule by simultaneously measuring the C-C and C-H bond lengths in aligned acetylene. Our approach takes the method beyond the hitherto achieved imaging of simple diatomic molecules and is based upon the combination of a 160 kHz mid-IR few-cycle laser source with full three-dimensional electron-ion coincidence detection. Our technique provides an accessible and robust route towards imaging ultrafast processes in complex gas phase molecules with atto- to femto-second temporal resolution.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA); York, Jeremy (Bothell, WA)
2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA) [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wise, James A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA
2001-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Optics -Laser Doppler Imaging. As the name suggests,LDI,Laser Doppler Imaging exploits the Doppler
Floreano, Dario
Optics - Laser Doppler Imaging. As the name suggests,LDI,Laser Doppler Imaging exploits the Doppler effect to generate images,in this case of red blood cells moving within the microcirculatory system the Doppler shifted light we obtain information on all the red cells moving in the illuminated tissue,hence we
Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device
Vann, C.S.
1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.
Isotropic three-dimensional MRI-Fricke-infused gel dosimetry
Cho, Nai-Yu; Chu, Woei-Chyn [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan (China); Huang, Sung-Cheng [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chung, Wen-Yuh [Neurological Institute, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China); Guo, Wan-Yuo [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)
2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Purpose: Fricke-infused gel has been shown to be a simple and attainable method for the conformal measurement of absorbed radiation dose. Nevertheless, its accuracy is seriously hindered by the irreversible ferric ion diffusion during magnetic resonance imaging, particularly when three-dimensional (3D) dose measurement in radiosurgery is considered. In this study, the authors developed a fast three-dimensional spin-echo based Fricke gel dosimetry technique to reduce the adverse effects of ferric ion diffusion and to obtain an accurate isotropic 3D dose measurement. Methods: A skull shaped phantom containing Fricke-infused gel was irradiated using Leksell Gamma Knife. The rapid image-based dosimetry technique was applied with the use of a 3D fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging sequence. The authors mathematically derived and experimentally validated the correlations between dose-response characteristics and parameters of the 3D fast spin-echo MR imaging sequence. Absorbed dose profiles were assessed and compared to the calculated profiles given by the Gamma Knife treatment planning system. Coefficient of variance (CV%) and coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) were used to evaluate the precision of dose-response curve estimation. The agreement between the measured and the planned 3D dose distributions was quantified by gamma-index analysis of two acceptance criteria. Results: Proper magnetic resonance imaging parameters were explored to render an accurate three-dimensional absorbed dose mapping with a 1 mm{sup 3} isotropic image resolution. The efficacy of the dose-response estimation was approved by an R{sup 2} > 0.99 and an average CV% of 1.6%. Average gamma pass-rate between the experimentally measured and GammaPlan calculated dose distributions were 83.8% and 99.7% for 2%/2 and 3%/3 mm criteria, respectively. Conclusions: With the designed MR imaging sequence and parameters, total 3D MR acquisition time was confined to within 20 min postirradiation, during which time ferric ion diffusion effects were negligible, thus enabling an accurate 3D radiation dose measurement.
Two component-three dimensional catalysis
Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
theoretical investigation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped aluminum clusters AI8N- and AI8N. Experimental and theoretical investigation of three-dimensional nitrogen-doped...
Molecular Cell The Three-Dimensional Architecture of a Bacterial
Church, George M.
Molecular Cell Article The Three-Dimensional Architecture of a Bacterial Genome and Its Alteration have determined the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the Caulobacter crescentus genome segregation. INTRODUCTION The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the genome both reflects and regulates
Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues
Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)
2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential
Ligare, Martin
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator 24 March 1997; accepted 12 May 1997 BoseEinstein condensation is the anomalous accumulation the conditions of the recent experiments achieving BoseEinstein condensation in laser-cooled alkali vapors
Wong, Kenneth K.Y.
ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three- dimensional Echocardiography. of Medicine & Therapeutics Keywords: mitral valve, echocardiography, imaging Category: Diagnostic imaging/Nuclear medicine Japanese Circulation Society Circulation Journal #12;ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts...
Superconducting properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Journal Article: Superconducting properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional graphene and carbon structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconducting...
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic
Rogers, John A.
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic Devices Seokwoo Jeon in which large numbers (>2000) of lithographically defined 3D nanofluidic pathways (50-300 nm wide
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
More Documents & Publications Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control...
Ritchie, Robert
Characterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro-Computed-Tomography captured by X-ray micron-resolution com- puted tomography (lCT) on a synchrotron beamline. Com- pared-resolution com- puted micro-tomography (lCT) images captured on a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline. The composites
Three-Dimensional Nanostructures Formed by Single Step, Two-Photon
Rogers, John A.
patterning of 3D structures is possible, with simple setups in which all of the optics can be contained describe the fabrication of unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures using single step, two. Confocal imaging, computational studies, and 3D reconstructions reveal the essential aspects of the flow
Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Robert J. Schneider1 , William C for mechani- cal models predicting valve closure. Current methods for leaflet modeling from ultrasound either. The presented method for modeling the mitral leaflets from three-dimensional ultrasound of an open mitral valve
Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models
R. C. Thomas
2003-10-21T23:59:59.000Z
Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.
1993-08-31T23:59:59.000Z
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow dummy chips'' are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Petersen, Robert W. (Pleasanton, CA)
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow "dummy chips" are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned o the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals
A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh
2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.
Three dimensional characterization and archiving system
Clark, R.; Gallman, P.; Gaudreault, J.; Mosehauer, R.; Slotwinski, A.; Jarvis, G.; Griffiths, P.
1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This system (3D-ICAS) is being developed as a remote system to perform rapid in situ analysis of hazardous organics and radionuclide contamination on structural materials. It is in the final phase of a 3-phase program to support Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) operations. Accurate physical characterization of surfaces and radioactive and organic contamination is a critical D&D task. Surface characterization includes identification of dangerous inorganic materials such as asbestos and transite. 3D-ICAS robotically conveys a multisensor probe near the surfaces to be inspected, using coherent laser radar tracking, which also provides 3D facility maps. High-speed automated organic analysis is provided by means of gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer sensor which can process a sample without contact in one minute. Volatile organics are extracted directly from contaminated surfaces without sample removal; multiple stage focusing is used for high time resolution. Additional discrimination is obtained through a final stage time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The radionuclide sensors combines {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} counting with energy discrimination of the {alpha} channel; this quantifies isotopes of U, Pu, Th, Tc, Np, and Am in one minute. The Molecular Vibrational Spectrometry sensor is used to characterize substrate material such as concrete, transite, wood, or asbestos; this can be used to provide estimates of the depth of contamination. The 3D-ICAS will be available for real-time monitoring immediately after each 1 to 2 minute sample period. After surface mapping, 3-D displays will be provided showing contours of detected contaminant concentrations. Permanent measurement and contaminant level archiving will be provided, assuring data integrity and allowing regulatory review before and after D&D operations.
Tungsten carbide-cobalt by Three Dimensional Printing
Kelley, Andrew, III
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing process for rapid prototyping ceramic and metallic parts [Sachs, et al, 1990]. Green (not sintered) tungsten carbide-cobalt parts must have a density greater than 50% ...
Title of dissertation: THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF
Lathrop, Daniel P.
ABSTRACT Title of dissertation: THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISSIPATION SCALE MEASUREMENTS OF TURBULENT FLOWS Benjamin Wolf Zeff, Doctor of Philosophy, 2002 Dissertation directed by: Professor Daniel P. Lathrop the smallest relevant spatial and temporal scales in three dimensions. This dissertation details
Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing
Yoo, Helen Jean
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...
Design and transformation of three dimensional pupils : diffractive and subwavelength
Gao, Hanhong
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional pupils are investigated in both diffractive and subwavelength regimes and in various applications to shape the flow of light. In diffractive regime, volume holograms are good candidates for pupils of ...
Copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration
Chen, Kuan-Neng, 1974-
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) integration, in which multiple layers of devices are stacked with high density of interconnects between the layers, offers solutions for problems when the critical dimensions in integrated circuits ...
Three-dimensional object registration using wavelet features
Chalfant, Julie Steele
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent developments in shape-based modeling and data acquisition have brought three-dimensional models to the forefront of computer graphics and visualization research. New data acquisition methods are producing large ...
Origami nanofabrication of three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage devices
In, Hyun Jin
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Nanostructured (TM) 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process was developed as a novel method of creating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured devices using two- dimensional micro- and nanopatterning tools and techniques. ...
Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)
Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.
2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.
Porosity in millimeter-scale welds of stainless steel : three-dimensional characterization.
Aagesen, Larry K. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Madison, Jonathan D.
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
A variety of edge joints utilizing a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser have been produced and examined in a 304-L stainless steel to advance fundamental understanding of the linkage between processing and resultant microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Acquisition of three-dimensional reconstructions via micro-computed tomography combined with traditional metallography has allowed for qualitative and quantitative characterization of weld joints in a material system of wide use and broad applicability. The presence, variability and distribution of porosity, has been examined for average values, spatial distributions and morphology and then related back to fundamental processing parameters such as weld speed, weld power and laser focal length.
Three-dimensional induced polarization data inversion for complex resistivity
Commer, M.; Newman, G.A.; Williams, K.H.; Hubbard, S.S.
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
The conductive and capacitive material properties of the subsurface can be quantified through the frequency-dependent complex resistivity. However, the routine three-dimensional (3D) interpretation of voluminous induced polarization (IP) data sets still poses a challenge due to large computational demands and solution nonuniqueness. We have developed a flexible methodology for 3D (spectral) IP data inversion. Our inversion algorithm is adapted from a frequency-domain electromagnetic (EM) inversion method primarily developed for large-scale hydrocarbon and geothermal energy exploration purposes. The method has proven to be efficient by implementing the nonlinear conjugate gradient method with hierarchical parallelism and by using an optimal finite-difference forward modeling mesh design scheme. The method allows for a large range of survey scales, providing a tool for both exploration and environmental applications. We experimented with an image focusing technique to improve the poor depth resolution of surface data sets with small survey spreads. The algorithm's underlying forward modeling operator properly accounts for EM coupling effects; thus, traditionally used EM coupling correction procedures are not needed. The methodology was applied to both synthetic and field data. We tested the benefit of directly inverting EM coupling contaminated data using a synthetic large-scale exploration data set. Afterward, we further tested the monitoring capability of our method by inverting time-lapse data from an environmental remediation experiment near Rifle, Colorado. Similar trends observed in both our solution and another 2D inversion were in accordance with previous findings about the IP effects due to subsurface microbial activity.
Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron
2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.
Three dimensional seismic imaging of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir |
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Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
support in the interpretation of the seismic and tomographicinterpretation is partially supported by the re- h s flection seismic
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
stage used a Vertical Seismic Profile to determine the seis-2. Results From Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) Figure 1P- and S-Wave vertical seismic profile data from the Salton
High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of
Cai, Long
absorption and scattering within the sample are suppressed. Here we report the ability of SPIM to acquire deconvolution of data acquired along multiple directions. Deconvolution algorithms use a priori knowledge
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
deconvolution, time migration, and depth conversion. Thethe final migration (in time and depth) and the stackingKirchhoff Time Migration Disk Ouptut Time/Depth Conversion
Self-imaging-based laser collimation testing technique
Mudassar, Asloob A.; Butt, Saira
2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laser collimation is required in many experiments based on lasers. Some laser experiments demand a high quality of collimation, e.g., the optical coherent processor, image transformer, and Fourier transform generator. A device is required to test the collimation of lasers in such experiments. We have suggested a modification in existing collimation testing techniques by which sensitivity can be improved. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate twice the improvement in sensitivity when used with previous techniques.
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector
Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel
2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.
Bootstrapping the Three-Dimensional Supersymmetric Ising Model
Bobev, Nikolay; Mazac, Dalimil; Paulos, Miguel F
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We implement the conformal bootstrap program for three-dimensional CFTs with $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetry and find universal constraints on the spectrum of operator dimensions in these theories. By studying the bounds on the dimension of the first scalar appearing in the OPE of a chiral and an anti-chiral primary, we find a kink at the expected location of the critical three-dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=2$ Wess-Zumino model, which can be thought of as a supersymmetric analog of the critical Ising model. Focusing on this kink, we determine, to high accuracy, the low-lying spectrum of operator dimensions of the theory.
Blue-phase templated fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures for photonic applications
F. Castles; F. V. Day; S. M. Morris; D. -H. Ko; D. J. Gardiner; M. M. Qasim; S. Nosheen; P. J. W. Hands; S. S. Choi; R. H. Friend; H. J. Coles
2013-10-27T23:59:59.000Z
A promising approach to the fabrication of materials with nanoscale features is the transfer of liquid-crystalline structure to polymers. However, this has not been achieved in systems with full three-dimensional periodicity. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of self-assembled three-dimensional nanostructures by polymer templating blue phase I, a chiral liquid crystal with cubic symmetry. Blue phase I was photopolymerized and the remaining liquid crystal removed to create a porous free-standing cast which retains the chiral three-dimensional structure of the blue phase, yet contains no chiral additive molecules. The cast may in turn be used as a hard template for the fabrication of new materials. By refilling the cast with an achiral nematic liquid crystal, we created templated blue phases which have unprecedented thermal stability in the range -125 to 125 [degrees symbol]C, and that act both as mirrorless lasers and switchable electro-optic devices. Blue-phase templated materials will facilitate advances in device architectures for photonics applications in particular.
Three-dimensional NDE of VHTR core components via simulation-based testing
Guzina, Bojan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Kunerth, Dennis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
A next generation, simulation-driven-and-enabled testing platform is developed for the 3D detection and characterization of defects and damage in nuclear graphite and composite structures in Very High Tempera- ture Reactors (VHTRs). The proposed work addresses the critical need for the development of high-fidelity Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) technologies for as-manufactured and replaceable in-service VHTR com- ponents. Centered around the novel use of elastic (sonic and ultrasonic) waves, this project deploys a robust, non-iterative inverse solution for the 3D defect reconstruction together with a non-contact, laser-based ap- proach to the measurement of experimental waveforms in VHTR core components. In particular, this research (1) deploys three-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (3D SLDV) as a means to accurately and remotely measure 3D displacement waveforms over the accessible surface of a VHTR core component excited by mechanical vibratory source; (2) implements a powerful new inverse technique, based on the concept of Topological Sensitivity (TS), for non-iterative elastic waveform tomography of internal defects – that permits robust 3D detection, reconstruction and characterization of discrete damage (e.g. holes and fractures) in nuclear graphite from limited-aperture NDE measurements; (3) implements state-of-the art computational (finite element) model that caters for accurately simulating elastic wave propagation in 3D blocks of nuclear graphite; (4) integrates the SLDV testing methodology with the TS imaging algorithm into a non-contact, high-fidelity NDE platform for the 3D reconstruction and characterization of defects and damage in VHTR core components; and (5) applies the proposed methodology to VHTR core component samples (both two- and three-timensional) with a priori induced, discrete damage in the form of holes and fractures. Overall, the newly established SLDV-TS testing platform represents a next-generation NDE tool that surpasses all exist- ing techniques for the 3D ultrasonic imaging of material damage from non-contact, limited-aperture waveform measurements. Outlook. The next stage in the development of this technology includes items such as (a) non-contact generation of mechanical vibrations in VHTR components via thermal expansion created by high-intensity laser; (b) development and incorporation of Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) for elevating the accuracy of 3D imaging in highly noisy environments with minimal accessible surface; (c) further analytical and computational developments to facilitate the reconstruction of diffuse damage (e.g. microcracks) in nuclear graphite as they lead to the dispersion of elastic waves, (d) concept of model updating for accurate tracking of the evolution of material damage via periodic inspections; (d) adoption of the Bayesian framework to obtain information on the certainty of obtained images; and (e) optimization of the computational scheme toward real-time, model-based imaging of damage in VHTR core components.
Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object
Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.
2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng-dimensional direct simulations due to obvious numerical difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other;3D Simulation of Parker's model · Magnetic energy limited by disruptions. ==0.000625(64x64x16) =0
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated simulation results. · Parker's nanoflare heating model vs observations · Energy distributions of nanoflares
Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations?
Blackledge, Todd
LETTER Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Todd A. Blackledge1 *, Jonathan A-mail: tab42@cornell.edu Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting
Three-Dimensional and Multilayer Nanostructures Formed by Nanotransfer
Rogers, John A.
ABSTRACT This letter describes the use of nanotransfer printing (nTP) for forming three-dimensional (3D to as nanotransfer printing (nTP),8-11 can be used to build a range of complex 3D structures with feature sizes patterning. Furthermore, the purely additive nature of nTP allows these 2D and 3D printing steps
New examples of three-dimensional dilational materials
Graeme Walter Milton
2015-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
Two-dimensional dilational materials, for which the only easy mode of deformation is a dilation are reviewed and connections are drawn between models previously proposed in the literature. Some models which appear to be dilational materials, but which in fact are not, are also discussed. Finally, four new examples of three-dimensional dilational materials are given.
Structure Preserving Optimal Control of Three-Dimensional Compass Gait
Leyendecker, Sigrid
Structure Preserving Optimal Control of Three-Dimensional Compass Gait Sigrid Leyendecker, David con- siders the optimal control of a bipedal compass gait by modeling the double stance configuration compass biped model. This control task has been previously addressed with various biped models
Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces
Wadley, Haydn
Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces Yichi Lua solid liquid interfaces during single crystal growth. A previously developed two-dimensional ray across solidliquid interfaces in cylindrical bodies where the receiver is located at an arbitrary
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng]. While there have been many observations of the energy distribution of solar flares, there have not been difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated
Three Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Nanostructures on a Micromachined Platform
Dokmeci, Mehmet
Three Dimensional Dielectrophoretic Assembly of Nanostructures on a Micromachined Platform University, Boston, MA-02115, USA ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce a novel platform for selectively. The microfabricated platform based nanoscale assembly is quite versatile and has potential applications in fabricating
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay
Gallay, Thierry
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier UniversitÂ´e de Grenoble I BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay@ujf-grenoble.fr Yasunori Maekawa and then in the general case by Gallay and Wayne [9], see also [2, 12, 13]. Moreover, a lot is known about the spectrum
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay
Three-dimensional stability of Burgers vortices Thierry Gallay Institut Fourier UniversitÂ´e de Grenoble I BP 74 38402 Saint-Martin-d'H`eres, France Thierry.Gallay@ujf-grenoble.fr Yasunori Maekawa and then by Gallay and Wayne [11] in the general case. Moreover, a lot is known about the spectrum of the linearized
The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks
Tseng, Yu-Chee
The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks Chi-Fu Huang, Yu-Chee Tseng- bedded micro-sensing MEMS technologies has made wireless sensor networks possible. Such environments may protocols [7], [8], [9]. Localization and positioning applications of wireless sensor networks are discussed
Correlation buildup during recrystallization in three-dimensional dusty plasma clusters
Schella, André; Mulsow, Matthias; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The recrystallization process of finite three-dimensional dust clouds after laser heating is studied experimentally. The time-dependent Coulomb coupling parameter is presented, showing that the recrystallization starts with an exponential cooling phase where cooling is slower than damping by the neutral gas friction. At later times, the coupling parameter oscillates into equilibrium. It is found that a large fraction of cluster states after recrystallization experiments is in metastable states. The temporal evolution of the correlation buildup shows that correlation occurs on even slower time scale than cooling.
Plume Image Profiling of UV Laser Desorbed Biomolecules
Merrigan, T. L.; Hunniford, C.A.; McCullough, R. W. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Timson, D. J. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK, BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Catney, M. [Andor Technology plc., 7 Millennium Way, Springvale Business Park, Belfast, UK, BT12 7AL (United Kingdom)
2008-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
An experimental system, based upon the techniques of UV and IR laser desorption with time of flight mass spectrometry, has been constructed to enable the production and characterization of neutral biomolecular targets. The feasibility of the laser desorption technique for the purpose of radiation interaction experiments is investigated here. Fluorescent dye tagging and laser induced fluorescence imaging has been used to help characterize the laser produced plumes of biomolecules revealing their spatial density profiles and temporal evolution. Peak target thicknesses of 2x10{sup 12} molecules cm{sup -2} were obtained 30 {mu}s after laser desorption.
Imaging System With Confocally Self-Detecting Laser.
Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rogomentich, Fran J. (Concord, MA)
1996-10-08T23:59:59.000Z
The invention relates to a confocal laser imaging system and method. The system includes a laser source, a beam splitter, focusing elements, and a photosensitive detector. The laser source projects a laser beam along a first optical path at an object to be imaged, and modulates the intensity of the projected laser beam in response to light reflected from the object. A beam splitter directs a portion of the projected laser beam onto a photodetector. The photodetector monitors the intensity of laser output. The laser source can be an electrically scannable array, with a lens or objective assembly for focusing light generated by the array onto the object of interest. As the array is energized, its laser beams scan over the object, and light reflected at each point is returned by the lens to the element of the array from which it originated. A single photosensitive detector element can generate an intensity-representative signal for all lasers of the array. The intensity-representative signal from the photosensitive detector can be processed to provide an image of the object of interest.
Three-dimensional effects on energetic particle confinement and stability
Spong, D. A. [One Bethel Valley Road, Bldg. 5700, P. O. Box 2008, MS-6169, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)
2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Energetic particle populations in magnetic confinement systems are sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects due to their low collisionality and long confined path lengths. Broken symmetry is present to some extent in all toroidal devices. As such effects preclude the existence of an ignorable coordinate, a fully three-dimensional analysis is necessary, beginning with the lowest order (equilibrium) magnetic fields. Three-dimensional techniques that have been extensively developed for stellarator configurations are readily adapted to other devices such as rippled tokamaks and helical states in reversed field pinches. This paper will describe the methods and present an overview of recent examples that use these techniques for the modeling of energetic particle confinement, Alfven mode structure and fast ion instabilities.
Occhipinti, Giovanni "Ninto"
LETTER Earth Planets Space, 63, 847851, 2011 Three-dimensional numerical modeling of tsunami, 2011; Accepted June 30, 2011; Online published September 27, 2011) The tremendous tsunami following, to reproduce the tsunami signature observed in the airglow by the imager located in Hawaii and clearly showing
So, Peter
Quantitative Analysis of Three-Dimensional-Resolved Fiber Architecture in Heterogeneous Skeletal Muscle Tissue Using NMR and Optical Imaging Methods Vitaly J. Napadow,* Qun Chen, Vu Mai, Peter T. C. So Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts ABSTRACT The determination of principal fiber
Dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces
A. V. Klimenko; V. A. Klimenko
2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
It is shown that there are seven types of solutions described in the framework of general relativity theory (GRT), the dynamics of empty homogeneous isotropic three-dimensional spaces. Solution of the equations of GRT, which describes the dynamics of a homogeneous isotropic universe, in the limiting case of vanishingly small effect of matter on the metric properties of space must go to one of them.
A new three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code
Luca Baiotti; Ian Hawke; Pedro J. Montero; Luciano Rezzolla
2010-04-22T23:59:59.000Z
We present a new three-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamics code, the Whisky code. This code incorporates the expertise developed over the past years in the numerical solution of Einstein equations and of the hydrodynamics equations in a curved spacetime, and is the result of a collaboration of several European Institutes. We here discuss the ability of the code to carry out long-term accurate evolutions of the linear and nonlinear dynamics of isolated relativistic stars.
Three-dimensional virtual environment for spatial development
Bateman, Kathleen Suzanne
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
called Java Web Start (JWS) exists to simplify the download process for Java applications. JWS keeps track of the files needed for the software to run and downloads them automatically. Then it stores these files locally for future use. Thus, unlike many... an imagined space and gain knowledge of how spatial transformations work. The developed software, called Viewpoints, presents a virtual three-dimensional environment to be explored and modified by the user. Object and camera manipulations are illustrated...
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Deep-Water Breaking Waves
Brucker, Kyle A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Adams, Paul
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The formulation of a canonical deep-water breaking wave problem is introduced, and the results of a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations for deep-water breaking waves are presented. In this paper fully nonlinear progressive waves are generated by applying a normal stress to the free surface. Precise control of the forcing allows for a systematic study of four types of deep-water breaking waves, characterized herein as weak plunging, plunging, strong plunging, and very strong plunging.
Three-dimensional virtual environment for spatial development
Bateman, Kathleen Suzanne
2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
virtual three-dimensional scene and move through it, I developed a computer program called Viewpoints. The program's graphical interface presents a 3D perspective view of an environment. Simple geometric objects such as boxes and spheres can be placed... manipulations. Functions with similar purposes act and look similar. When appropriate, menu options matched in word choice and purpose to standard menu options available in other computer programs. Consistent use of color plays an important role in revealing...
Three-dimensional Dirac oscillator in a thermal bath
M. H. Pacheco; R. V. Maluf; C. A. S. Almeida; R. R. Landim
2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
The thermal properties of the three-dimensional Dirac oscillator are considered. The canonical partition function is determined, and the high-temperature limit is assessed. The degeneracy of energy levels and their physical implications on the main thermodynamic functions are analyzed, revealing that these functions assume values greater than the one-dimensional case. So that at high temperatures, the limit value of the specific heat is three times bigger.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE ORDINATES REACTOR ASSEMBLY CALCULATIONS ON GPUS
Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.
Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability
Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, P. O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z
The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.
Particle acceleration in three-dimensional tearing configurations
Christoph Nodes; Guido T. Birk; Harald Lesch; R. Schopper
2003-01-17T23:59:59.000Z
In three-dimensional electromagnetic configurations that result from unstable resistive tearing modes particles can efficiently be accelerated to relativistic energies. To prove this resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations are used as input configurations for successive test particle simulations. The simulations show the capability of three-dimensional non-linearly evolved tearing modes to accelerate particles perpendicular to the plane of the reconnecting magnetic field components. The simulations differ considerably from analytical approaches by involving a realistic three-dimensional electric field with a non-homogenous component parallel to the current direction. The resulting particle spectra exhibit strong pitch-angle anisotropies. Typically, about 5-8 % of an initially Maxwellian distribution is accelerated to the maximum energy levels given by the macroscopic generalized electric potential structure. Results are shown for both, non-relativistic particle acceleration that is of interest, e.g., in the context of auroral arcs and solar flares, and relativistic particle energization that is relevant, e.g., in the context of active galactic nuclei.
Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system
Richardson, Thomas William
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
IMAGING OF SEMICONDUCTORS USING A FLYING LASER SPOT SCANNING SYSTEM A Thesis by THOMAS WILLIAM RICHARDSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... December 1982 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering IMAGING OF SEMICONDUCTORS USING A PLYING LASER SPOT SCANNING SYSTEM A Thesis by THOMAS WILLIAM RICHARDSON Approved as to style and content by: D. L. Parker (Chairman) (EE) W. A. Porter (Member...
Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system
Richardson, Thomas William
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
in silicon p-n junctions was a direct result of this research. Verification of the experimental findings include analysis using other characterization techniques such as X-ray topo- graphy, electrical testing and preferential chemical etching... Image (I. R. Radiation) . . 22 Flying Spot Scanner Photo Image (Visible Radiation) . 23 15 Photo Image Showing Crystal Defects 24 16 Sirtl Etch Photomicrograph of Lattice Crystal Defects 25 17 Photo Image Showing Laser Induced Lifetime Changes 26...
Three Dimensioanl Free Electron Laser Dispersion Relation Including Betatron Oscillations
Chin, Y.H.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-Dimensional Free Electron Laser Dispersion RelationInternational Free Electron Laser Conference, Santa Fe, NM,International Free Electron Laser Conference, held in Santa
Direct Observations of Three Dimensional Growth of Hydrates Hosted in Porous Media
Kerkar, P.; Jones, K; Kleinberg, R; Lindquist, W; Tomov, S; Feng, H; Mahajan, D
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The visualization of time-resolved three-dimensional growth of tetrahydrofuran hydrates with glass spheres of uniform size as porous media using synchrotron x-ray computed microtomography is presented. The images of hydrate patches, formed from excess tetrahydrofuran in aqueous solution, show random nucleation and growth concomitant with grain movement but independent of container-wall effect. Away from grain surfaces, hydrate surface curvature was convex showing that liquid, not hydrate, was the wetting phase, similar to ice growth in porous media. The extension of the observed behavior to methane hydrates could have implications in understanding their role in seafloor stability and climate change.
Nelson, G.J.; Chu, Y.; Harris, W.M.; Izzo, J.R.; Grew, K.N., Chiu, W.K.S.; Yi, J.; Andrews, J.C.; Liu, Y., Pierro, P.
2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.
Staggered grids discretization in three-dimensional Darcy convection
B. Karasozen; A. D. Nemtsev; V. G. Tsybulin
2008-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
We consider three-dimensional convection of an incompressible fluid saturated in a parallelepiped with a porous medium. A mimetic finite-difference scheme for the Darcy convection problem in the primitive variables is developed. It consists of staggered nonuniform grids with five types of nodes, differencing and averaging operators on a two-nodes stencil. The nonlinear terms are approximated using special schemes. Two problems with different boundary conditions are considered to study scenarios of instability of the state of rest. Branching off of a continuous family of steady states was detected for the problem with zero heat fluxes on two opposite lateral planes.
Three-dimensional asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell theory
Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert; Pujian Mao
2015-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with non trivial asymptotics at null infinity is solved. The symmetry algebra is a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra that extends the bms3 algebra of the purely gravitational case. Solution space involves logarithms and provides a tractable example of a polyhomogeneous solution space. The associated surface charges are non-integrable and non-conserved due to the presence of electromagnetic news. As in the four dimensional purely gravitational case, their algebra involves a field-dependent central charge.
Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies
Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Carlsbad, NM); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Artz, Gregory J. (Tucson, AZ); Gafner, Felix H. (Tucson, AZ); Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji (Tucson, AZ)
2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.
Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields
Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blazevski, Daniel [Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)
2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by numerically solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The main two problems addressed are: the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ?), and the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. The role of separatrix reconnection of resonant modes in the shear reversal region, and the role of shearless Cantori in the observed phenomena are also discussed.
Discrete canonical analysis of three dimensional gravity with cosmological constant
J. Berra-Montiel; J. E. Rosales-Quintero
2014-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, corresponds to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.
Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems
Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A
2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z
Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.
Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water
Cristiano L. Dias; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Martin Grant; Mikko Karttunen
2009-02-13T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: the anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.
Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousPlasmaP a gHigh4-FD-a < RAPIDâ€Ž |SpaceThe German Windfield | Open Energy Information Three-dimensional
Three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae
M. Reinecke; W. Hillebrandt; J. C. Niemeyer
2002-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the subsonic thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae. The burning front model contains no adjustable parameters so that variations of the explosion outcome can be linked directly to changes in the initial conditions. In particular, we investigate the influence of the initial flame geometry on the explosion energy and find that it appears to be weaker than in 2D. Most importantly, our models predict global properties such as the produced nickel masses and ejecta velocities within their observed ranges without any fine tuning.
Three-dimensional simulations of type Ia supernovae
Reinecke, M; Niemeyer, J C
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the results of three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of the subsonic thermonuclear burning phase in type Ia supernovae. The burning front model contains no adjustable parameters so that variations of the explosion outcome can be linked directly to changes in the initial conditions. In particular, we investigate the influence of the initial flame geometry on the explosion energy and find that it appears to be weaker than in 2D. Most importantly, our models predict global properties such as the produced nickel masses and ejecta velocities within their observed ranges without any fine tuning.
CONSTRAINING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC FIELD EXTRAPOLATIONS USING THE TWIN PERSPECTIVES OF STEREO
Conlon, Paul A.; Gallagher, Peter T. [Astrophysics Research Group, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland)
2010-05-20T23:59:59.000Z
The three-dimensional magnetic topology of a solar active region (NOAA 10956) was reconstructed using a linear force-free field extrapolation constrained using the twin perspectives of STEREO. A set of coronal field configurations was initially generated from extrapolations of the photospheric magnetic field observed by the Michelson Doppler Imager on SOHO. Using an EUV intensity-based cost function, the extrapolated field lines that were most consistent with 171 A passband images from the Extreme UltraViolet Imager on STEREO were identified. This facilitated quantitative constraints to be placed on the twist ({alpha}) of the extrapolated field lines, where {nabla} x B = {alpha}B. Using the constrained values of {alpha}, the evolution in time of twist, connectivity, and magnetic energy were then studied. A flux emergence event was found to result in significant changes in the magnetic topology and total magnetic energy of the region.
Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles
Neal, D.R.
1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z
A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.
Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells Presented at the...
Pandoe, Wahyu Widodo
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
provides a basis for determining how the water circulation three-dimensionally controls the hydrodynamics of the system and ultimately transports the suspended and soluble materials due to combined currents and waves. A three-dimensional circulation model...
Stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded composites
Rahman, Sharif
Stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded composites Sharif: Probabilistic fracture mechanics Polynomial dimensional decomposition Random microstructure Reliability a b for stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional, particle-matrix, functionally graded materials
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering
Sacks, Rafael
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments
Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation
Pilon, Laurent
Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation, growth and shrinkage in three-dimensional flows. The flow is assumed to be laminar for the sake
Identification marking by means of laser peening
Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz (Rocklin, CA)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.
Su, Jianping; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Linfeng; Chen, Zhongping
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe”,three-dimensional microelectromechanical endoscopic swepton a rotational microelectromechanical system (MEMS) probe [
Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data
Buttler, W.T.
1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.
George, Steven C.
Short Communication Automated computation of functional vascular density using laser speckle Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA c Edwards: Laser speckle imaging Functional vascular density Dorsal window chamber Blood flow We report
Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2
Liou, K. N.
Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains Y. Chen,1,2 A. Hall,1 and K November 2006. [1] We developed a three-dimensional radiative transfer model simulating solar fluxes over (2006), Application of three-dimensional solar radiative transfer to mountains, J. Geophys. Res., 111, D
The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; De Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.
2015-07-03T23:59:59.000Z
The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymore »is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.« less
Dynamics of Three-Dimensional Vesicles in DC Electric fields
Ebrahim M. Kolahdouz; David Salac
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical and systematic parameter study of three-dimensional vesicle electrohydrodynamics is presented to investigate the effects of different fluid and membrane properties. The dynamics of vesicles in the presence of DC electric fields is considered, both in the presence and absence of linear shear flow. For suspended vesicles it is shown that the conductivity ratio and viscosity ratio between the interior and exterior fluids, as well as the vesicle membrane capacitance, substantially affect the minimum electric field strength required to induce a full Prolate-Oblate-Prolate transition.In addition, there exists a critical electric field strength above which a vesicle will no longer tumble when exposed to linear shear flow.
Higher Derivative Terms in Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories
Adel Awad; Mir Faizal
2015-03-30T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we systematically analyze higher derivative terms in the effective actions for three dimensional scalar field theories with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. In these effective actions, we show that the auxiliary fields do not acquire kinetic terms and their effective actions can be expressed in terms of physical fields. We use the derivative expansion to generate four, five and six dimensional terms for $\\phi^6$ scalar field theory with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. We show that along with pure fermionic terms, there are various five and six dimensional topological terms that contain bosonic and fermionic fields. Finally, we use these results to obtain higher derivative topological terms in the effective action for two M2-branes. Thus, using an off-shell formalism, we obtain several higher derivative topological terms, which we compare with an earlier study that was done using an on-shell formalism.
Higher Derivative Terms in Three Dimensional Supersymmetric Theories
Awad, Adel
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we systematically analyze higher derivative terms in the effective actions for three dimensional scalar field theories with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. In these effective actions, we show that the auxiliary fields do not acquire kinetic terms and their effective actions can be expressed in terms of physical fields. We use the derivative expansion to generate four, five and six dimensional terms for $\\phi^6$ scalar field theory with $\\mathcal{N} =1$ supersymmetry. We show that along with pure fermionic terms, there are various five and six dimensional topological terms that contain bosonic and fermionic fields. Finally, we use these results to obtain higher derivative topological terms in the effective action for two M2-branes. Thus, using an off-shell formalism, we obtain several higher derivative topological terms, which we compare with an earlier study that was done using an on-shell formalism.
Three-dimensional Radiative Transfer with Multilevel Atoms
P. Fabiani Bendicho; J. Trujillo Bueno
2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z
The efficient numerical solution of Non-LTE multilevel transfer problems requires the combination of highly convergent iterative schemes with fast and accurate formal solution methods of the radiative transfer (RT) equation. This contribution begins presenting a method for the formal solution of the RT equation in three-dimensional (3D) media with horizontal periodic boundary conditions. This formal solver is suitable for both, unpolarized and polarized 3D radiative transfer and it can be easily combined with the iterative schemes for solving non-LTE multilevel transfer problems that we have developed over the last few years. We demonstrate this by showing some schematic 3D multilevel calculations that illustrate the physical effects of horizontal radiative transfer. These Non-LTE calculations have been carried out with our code MUGA 3D, a 3D multilevel Non-LTE code based on the Gauss-Seidel iterative scheme that Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) developed for RT applications.
Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).
Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul
2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.
Axionic superconductivity in three dimensional doped narrow gap semiconductors
Pallab Goswami; Bitan Roy
2014-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
We consider the competition between the conventional s-wave and the triplet Balian-Werthamer or the B-phase pairings in the doped three dimensional narrow gap semiconductors, such as $\\mathrm{Cu}_x\\mathrm{Bi}_2\\mathrm{Se}_3$ and $\\mathrm{Sn}_{1-x}\\mathrm{In}_x\\mathrm{Te}$. When the coupling constants of the two contending channels are comparable, we find a simultaneously time-reversal and parity violating $p + is$ state at low temperatures, which provides an example of dynamic axionic state of matter. In contradistinction to the time-reversal invariant, topological B-phase, the $p + is$ state possesses gapped Majorana fermions as the surface Andreev bound states, which give rise to an anomalous surface thermal Hall effect. The anomalous gravitational and electrodynamic responses of the $p+is$ state can be described by the $\\theta$ vacuum structure, where $\\theta \
Accurate complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials
Cerioni, Alessandro [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Horowitz, BP220 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Genovese, Luigi; Duchemin, Ivan; Deutsch, Thierry [Laboratoire de simulation atomistique (L-Sim), SP2M, UMR-E CEA/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble F-38054 (France)
2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The complex scaling method, which consists in continuing spatial coordinates into the complex plane, is a well-established method that allows to compute resonant eigenfunctions of the time-independent Schroedinger operator. Whenever it is desirable to apply the complex scaling to investigate resonances in physical systems defined on numerical discrete grids, the most direct approach relies on the application of a similarity transformation to the original, unscaled Hamiltonian. We show that such an approach can be conveniently implemented in the Daubechies wavelet basis set, featuring a very promising level of generality, high accuracy, and no need for artificial convergence parameters. Complex scaling of three dimensional numerical potentials can be efficiently and accurately performed. By carrying out an illustrative resonant state computation in the case of a one-dimensional model potential, we then show that our wavelet-based approach may disclose new exciting opportunities in the field of computational non-Hermitian quantum mechanics.
3DD - Three Dimensional Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12449
Dvorakova, Marketa; Slovak, Jiri [Radioactive Waste Repository Authority (RAWRA), Prague (Czech Republic)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three dimensional disposal is being considered as a way in which to store long-term spent nuclear fuel in underground disposal facilities in the Czech Republic. This method involves a combination of the two most common internationally recognised disposal methods in order to practically apply the advantages of both whilst, at the same time, eliminating their weaknesses; the method also allows easy removal in case of potential re-use. The proposed method for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the areal requirements of future deep geological repositories by more than 30%. It will also simplify the container handling process by using gravitational forces in order to meet requirements concerning the controllability of processes and ensuring operational and nuclear safety. With regard to the issue of the efficient potential removal of waste containers, this project offers an ingenious solution which does not disrupt the overall stability of the original disposal complex. (authors)
Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments
Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun
2013-08-27T23:59:59.000Z
An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE ? ANDROMEDAE PLANETARY SYSTEM
Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); McArthur, Barbara; Fritz Benedict, G., E-mail: deitrr@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ? Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the three-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full three-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the three planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer two planets, c and d, are inclined by ?30°, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable three-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ?8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict that b's mass is in the range of 2-9 M {sub Jup} and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 25°. Combined with brightness variations in the combined star/planet light curve ({sup p}hase curve{sup )}, our results imply that planet b's radius is ?1.8 R {sub Jup}, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches >0.1, generating upward of 10{sup 19} W in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation, possibly inflating the radius to an amount consistent with phase curve observations.
Kerr, H.G.; White, N. [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
A general, automatic method for determining the three-dimensional geometry of a normal fault of any shape and size is applied to a three-dimensional seismic reflection data set from the Nun River field, Nigeria. In addition to calculating fault geometry, the method also automatically retrieves the extension direction without requiring any previous information about either the fault shape or the extension direction. Solutions are found by minimizing the misfit between sets of faults that are calculated from the observed geometries of two or more hanging-wall beds. In the example discussed here, the predicted fault surface is in excellent agreement with the shape of the seismically imaged fault. Although the calculated extension direction is oblique to the average strike of the fault, the value of this parameter is not well resolved. Our approach differs markedly from standard section-balancing models in two important ways. First, we do not assume that the extension direction is known, and second, the use of inverse theory ensures that formal confidence bounds can be determined for calculated fault geometries. This ability has important implications for a range of geological problems encountered at both exploration and production scales. In particular, once the three-dimensional displacement field has been constrained, the difficult but important problem of three-dimensional palinspastic restoration of hanging-wall structures becomes tractable.
Table-top Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Aerial Imaging of Lithographic Masks
Brizuela, F.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Table-top Extreme Ultraviolet Laser Aerial Imaging ofmasks realized using a table-top aerial imaging systembased on a table-top X=\\3.2 laser. © 2 0 0 9 Optical Society
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inheritedAdaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Images in aof cone structure using adaptive optics scanning laser
Rapid Prototyping of Solid ThreeDimensional Parts
McMains, Sara
, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, ballistic particle manufacturing, selective laser sintering : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4 Fused Deposition Modeling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 5 3D Printing
Three-dimensional structure of the flow inside the left ventricle of the human heart
Fortini, S; Espa, S; Cenedese, A
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The laboratory models of the human heart left ventricle developed in the last decades gave a valuable contribution to the comprehension of the role of the fluid dynamics in the cardiac function and to support the interpretation of the data obtained in vivo. Nevertheless, some questions are still open and new ones stem from the continuous improvements in the diagnostic imaging techniques. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the three-dimensional structure of the left-ventricular flow during the cardiac cycle. In this paper we investigated in detail this aspect using a laboratory model. The ventricle was simulated by a flexible sack varying its volume in time according to a physiologically shaped law. Velocities measured during several cycles on series of parallel planes, taken from two orthogonal points of view, were combined together in order to reconstruct the phase averaged, three-dimensional velocity field. During the diastole, three main steps are recognized in the evolution of the vortical str...
Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control
Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hofmeister, William H. (Nashville, TN); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Smugeresky, John E. (Pleasanton, CA)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.
Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging
Williams, Thomas K. (Federal Way, WA); Telschow, Kenneth (Des Moines, WA)
2011-01-25T23:59:59.000Z
Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.
Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guerin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.
2015-09-11T23:59:59.000Z
We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmore »at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global disorder is observed in both three-dimensional experiments and simulations from realistic noisy initial conditions. The, erratic tip splitting events promoted by large amplitude oscillations contribute to maintaining the long-range array disorder, unlike in thin sample experiments where long-range coherence of oscillations is experimentally observable.« less
Effective viscosity of active suspensions: Three-dimensional numerical modeling
Levan Jibuti; Walter Zimmermann; Salima Rafaï; Philippe Peyla
2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional model is proposed for Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii swimming with a breaststroke-like beating of its two flagella. The model reveals unusual angular orbits of the active swimmer under a linear shear flow. Namely, the swimmer sustains orientation transiently across the flow when flagella plane is perpendicular to the shear plane, and amplify the shear-induced rotation along the flow. Such behavior is a result of the interplay between shear-induced deformation and swimmer's periodic beating motion that exerts internal torques on the torque-free swimmer. This particular behavior has some significant consequences on the rheological properties of the suspension that tends to confirm previous experimental results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 098102 (2010)]. We calculated the intrinsic viscosity of the suspension with such isolated modeled microswimmers (dilute case) in shear flow using numerical simulations based on Rotne-Prager approximation. The results show an increased intrinsic viscosity for active swimmer suspensions in comparison to non-active ones in accordance with previous experimental measurements. A major enhancement of the active swimmer viscosity occurs due to the effectively extended shape of the deformable swimming cells. We also recover the experimentally observed shear thinning behavior.
Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.
Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.
2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank
A novel three dimensional semimetallic MoS{sub 2}
Tang, Zhen-Kun [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Departments of Physics and Electronics, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang 421008 (China); Zhang, Hui; Liu, Li-Min, E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Hao [Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China); Lau, Woon-Ming [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Chengdu Green Energy and Green Manufacturing Technology R and D Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610207 (China)
2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have many potential applications, while the performances of TMDs are generally limited by the less surface active sites and the poor electron transport efficiency. Here, a novel three-dimensional (3D) structure of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) with larger surface area was proposed based on first-principle calculations. 3D layered MoS{sub 2} structure contains the basal surface and joint zone between the different nanoribbons, which is thermodynamically stable at room temperature, as confirmed by first principles molecular dynamics calculations. Compared the two-dimensional layered structures, the 3D MoS{sub 2} not only owns the large surface areas but also can effectively avoid the aggregation. Interestingly, although the basal surface remains the property of the intrinsic semiconductor as the bulk MoS{sub 2}, the joint zone of 3D MoS{sub 2} exhibits semimetallic, which is derived from degenerate 3d orbitals of the Mo atoms. The high stability, large surface area, and high conductivity make 3D MoS{sub 2} have great potentials as high performance catalyst.
Resonant Interactions in Rotating Homogeneous Three-dimensional Turbulence
Q. Chen; S. Chen; G. L. Eyink; D. D. Holm
2004-04-29T23:59:59.000Z
Direct numerical simulations of three-dimensional (3D) homogeneous turbulence under rapid rigid rotation are conducted to examine the predictions of resonant wave theory for both small Rossby number and large Reynolds number. The simulation results reveal that there is a clear inverse energy cascade to the large scales, as predicted by 2D Navier-Stokes equations for resonant interactions of slow modes. As the rotation rate increases, the vertically-averaged horizontal velocity field from 3D Navier-Stokes converges to the velocity field from 2D Navier-Stokes, as measured by the energy in their difference field. Likewise, the vertically-averaged vertical velocity from 3D Navier-Stokes converges to a solution of the 2D passive scalar equation. The energy flux directly into small wave numbers in the $k_z=0$ plane from non-resonant interactions decreases, while fast-mode energy concentrates closer to that plane. The simulations are consistent with an increasingly dominant role of resonant triads for more rapid rotation.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF CASSIOPEIA A
DeLaney, Tracey [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan College, 59 College Avenue, Buckhannon, WV 26201 (United States); Rudnick, Lawrence; Isensee, Karl, E-mail: delaney_t@wvwc.ed, E-mail: larry@astro.umn.ed, E-mail: isensee@astro.umn.ed [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)
2010-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
We used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to map nearly the entire extent of Cassiopeia A between 5 and 40 {mu}m. Using infrared and Chandra X-ray Doppler velocity measurements, along with the locations of optical ejecta beyond the forward shock, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the remnant. The structure of Cas A can be characterized into a spherical component, a tilted thick disk, and multiple ejecta jets/pistons and optical fast-moving knots all populating the thick disk plane. The Bright Ring in Cas A identifies the intersection between the thick plane/pistons and a roughly spherical reverse shock. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. Some ejecta pistons are bipolar with oppositely directed flows about the expansion center while some ejecta pistons show no such symmetry. Some ejecta pistons appear to maintain the integrity of the nuclear burning layers while others appear to have punched through the outer layers. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. In three dimensions, the Fe jet in the southeast occupies a 'hole' in the Si-group emission and does not represent 'overturning', as previously thought. Although interaction with the circumstellar medium affects the detailed appearance of the remnant and may affect the visibility of the southeast Fe jet, the bulk of the symmetries and asymmetries in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion.
The thermodynamics of Fermi gases in three dimensional fuzzy space
Scholtz, F G; Groenewald, H W
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We use the recently derived density of states for a particle confined to a spherical well in three dimensional fuzzy space to compute the thermodynamics of a gas of non-interacting fermions confined to such a well. Special emphasis is placed on non-commutative effects and in particular non-commutative corrections to the thermodynamics at low densities and temperatures are computed where the non-relativistic approximation used here is valid. Non-commutative effects at high densities are also identified, the most prominent being the existence of a minimal volume at which the gas becomes incompressible. The latter is closely related to a low/high density duality exhibited by these systems, which in turn is a manifestation of an infra-red/ultra violet duality in the single particle spectrum. Both non-rotating and slowly rotating gasses are studied. Approximations are benchmarked against exact numerical computations for the non-rotating case and several other properties of the gas are demonstrated with numerical c...
Interactive graphical tools for three-dimensional mesh redistribution
Dobbs, L.A.
1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional meshes modeling nonlinear problems such as sheet metal forming, metal forging, heat transfer during welding, the propagation of microwaves through gases, and automobile crashes require highly refined meshes in local areas to accurately represent areas of high curvature, stress, and strain. These locally refined areas develop late in the simulation and/or move during the course of the simulation, thus making it difficult to predict their exact location. This thesis is a systematic study of new tools scientists can use with redistribution algorithms to enhance the solution results and reduce the time to build, solve, and analyze nonlinear finite element problems. Participatory design techniques including Contextual Inquiry and Design were used to study and analyze the process of solving such problems. This study and analysis led to the in-depth understanding of the types of interactions performed by FEM scientists. Based on this understanding, a prototype tool was designed to support these interactions. Scientists participated in evaluating the design as well as the implementation of the prototype tool. The study, analysis, prototype tool design, and the results of the evaluation of the prototype tool are described in this thesis.
Lyapunov modes in three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids
M. Romero-Bastida; E. Braun
2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Recent studies on the phase-space dynamics of a one-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid reveal the existence of regular collective perturbations associated with the smallest positive Lyapunov exponents of the system, called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which previously could only be identified in hard-core fluids. In this work we present a systematic study of the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov vectors, i.e. perturbations along each direction of phase space, of a three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid. By performing the Fourier transform of the spatial density of the coordinate part of the Lyapunov vector components and then time-averaging this result we find convincing signatures of longitudinal modes, with inconclusive evidence of transverse modes for all studied densities. Furthermore, the longitudinal modes can be more clearly identified for the higher density values. Thus, according to our results, the mixing of modes induced both by the dynamics and the dimensionality induce a hitherto unknown type of order in the tangent space of the model herein studied at high density values.
Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation
Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.
Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software
Goumnerov, Hristo
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
reconstruction. For the experimental assessment, the OpenPTV results are compared with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry study, as well as results from the in-house two dimensional particle tracking velocimetry software. As contributions to the consortium, the author...
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, D.; Karma, A.; Clarke, A. J.; Gibbs, P. J.; Imhoff, S. D.
2015-06-11T23:59:59.000Z
We present a three-dimensional (3D) extension of a previously proposed multi-scale Dendritic Needle Network (DNN) approach for the growth of complex dendritic microstructures. Using a new formulation of the DNN dynamics equations for dendritic paraboloid-branches of a given thickness, one can directly extend the DNN approach to 3D modeling. We validate this new formulation against known scaling laws and analytical solutions that describe the early transient and steady-state growth regimes, respectively. Finally, we compare the predictions of the model to in situ X-ray imaging of Al-Cu alloy solidification experiments. The comparison shows a very good quantitative agreement between 3D simulationsmore »and thin sample experiments. It also highlights the importance of full 3D modeling to accurately predict the primary dendrite arm spacing that is significantly over-estimated by 2D simulations.« less
Hadron Optics in Three-Dimensional Invariant Coordinate Space from Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary
2006-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
The Fourier transform of the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude (DVCS) with respect to the skewness parameter \\zeta= Q^2/ 2 p.q can be used to provide an image of the target hadron in the boost-invariant variable \\sigma, the coordinate conjugate to light-front time \\tau=t+ z/ c. As an illustration, we construct a consistent covariant model of the DVCS amplitude and its associated generalized parton distributions using the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED, thus providing a representation of the light-front wavefunctions of a lepton in \\sigma space. A consistent model for hadronic amplitudes can then be obtained by differentiating the light-front wavefunctions with respect to the bound-state mass. The resulting DVCS helicity amplitudes are evaluated as a function of \\sigma and the impact parameter \\vec b_\\perp, thus providing a light-front image of the target hadron in a frame-independent three-dimensional light-front coordinate space. Models for the LFWFs of hadrons in (3+1) dimensions displaying confinement at large distances and conformal symmetry at short distances have been obtained using the AdS/CFT method. We also compute the LFWFs in this model in invariant three dimensional coordinate space. We find that in the models studied, the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitudes exhibit diffraction patterns. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics where the distribution in \\sigma measures the physical size of the scattering center in a one-dimensional system.
Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso...
search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal area, California, from...
TURBULENT HEAT TRANSPORT IN TWO-AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE FIELDS
Samaraweera, D.S.A.
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
convective heat and mass transport in pipes, which arisesof three-dimensional heat transfer in pipes by QUARMBY andFully developed pipe flow: Streamwise heat flux profiles
Ultrafast imaging interferometry at femtosecond-laser-excited surfaces
Temnov, Vasily V.; Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Zhou Ping; Linde, Dietrich von der [Experimentelle Physik IIb, Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 45117 Essen (Germany)
2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
A simple and robust setup for femtosecond time-resolved imaging interferometry of surfaces is described. The apparatus is capable of measuring both very small phase shifts ({approx}3x10{sup -2} rad) and amplitude changes ({approx}1%) with micrometer spatial resolution ({approx}1 {mu}m). Interferograms are processed using a 2D-Fourier transform algorithm. We discuss the image formation and the physical interpretation of the measured interferograms. The technique is applied to measure transient changes of a GaAs surface irradiated with intense femtosecond laser pulses with fluences near the ablation threshold.
Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode
Malati, Peter Moneir
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
image of discharged 3D-Ni 25,Si 4mM Li 2 S 12 battery takenimage of discharged 3D-Ni 25,Si 4mM Li 2 S 12 battery takenbattery charging, thus protecting the cell from overcharge. 81,82 Based on the image
An earth image simulation and tracking system for the Mars Laser Communication Demonstration
Balster, Stephanie Karen
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis I created an Earth-image simulation and investigated Earth-tracking algorithms for the Mars Laser Communication Demonstration (MLCD). The MLCD mission will demonstrate the feasibility of high-data-rate laser ...
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam; accepted 9 June 2012; published online 28 June 2012) A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission with a focused beam of electrons to detect the scat- tered electron intensity to form an image. Besides providing
Liu, Hongyu
Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical. (2006), Radiative effect of clouds on tropospheric chemistry in a global three-dimensional chemical frequencies are calculated using the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. The GEOS-3 global cloud optical
Ewing, Richard E.
A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina ABSTRACT: Model equations for transport of nuclearwaste based up on the inherent physics. A threedimensional finite element method for nuclear waste
MICROFABRICATED, ULTRA-DENSE, THREE-DIMENSIONAL METAL COILS F. Herrault1*
to form a three-dimensional coil device. The MEMS- fabricated, ultra-dense coils exhibited a 62% improvement in packing density over conventional wire-wound coils. KEYWORDS Micro-coils, chemical vapor of these microstructures to form a three-dimensional coil device. The polymer material provides electrical insulation
Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals
Fan, Shanhui
Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals that allows the design of single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals the regions of maximal electric-field intensity, and placing the air defects to enclose these regions
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL
Taylor, Gary
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL MODELLING OF THE SHAPE CASTING a three dimensional, thermo-mechanical modelling approach to the cooling and solidi cation phases the non-linear material phenomena of creep and thermo-elasto-visco-plasticity at high temperatures
RIS-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL
RISØ-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI E. Falcon Nielsen A calculations for the PWR core. It combines a nodal theory neutron kinetics calculation with transient sub, PWR TYPE REACTORS, REACTOR KINETICS, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621.039.514 : 621
Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation
Karduna, Andrew
Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation D. David Ebaugh a (active versus passive arm elevation) on three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion. Methods. Twenty during active and passive arm elevation. Muscle activity was recorded from surface electrodes over
Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna
Xu, Xianfan
Three-dimensional mapping of optical near field of a nanoscale bowtie antenna Rui Guo*, Edward C. This paper describes an experimental three-dimensional optical near-field mapping of a bowtie nano. The experimental results also demonstrate the polarization dependence of the transmission through the bowtie
Wang, Yuqing
"ventilation" flow over the TC core), Rossby waves emit energy east- ward and equatorward. As a resultTropical Cyclone Energy Dispersion in a Three-Dimensional Primitive Equation Model: Upper The three-dimensional (3D) Rossby wave energy dispersion of a tropical cyclone (TC) is studied using
Evans, Peter
on the table rolls of a Fourdrinier machine.6 A similar instability in the phosphor coating inside fluorescentThree-dimensional solutions for coating flow on a rotating horizontal cylinder: Theory 2005 We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow of a thin liquid coating
DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY CONTAINER TEMPERATURES DURING FREEZING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORGANS WITH
Dennis, Brian
DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY CONTAINER TEMPERATURES DURING FREEZING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORGANS local freezing rate in an organ while maintaining the local thermal stresses below a specified level on the walls of the three-dimensional freezing container. A time-accurate finite element computer program
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels
Victoria, University of
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong ABSTRACT A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model
Verification of coronal loop diagnostics using realistic three-dimensional hydrodynamic models
Winebarger, Amy R. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121-2910 (United States); Mok, Yung, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov, E-mail: lionel@predsci.com, E-mail: linkerj@predsci.com, E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com, E-mail: ymok@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, 4129 Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)
2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure distributions. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the background. We then determine the density, temperature, and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare these with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to a limitation of the analysis methods, but also to inadequate background subtraction.
Convection Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Turbulent Separated/Reattached Flow
Bassem F. Armaly
2007-10-31T23:59:59.000Z
The measurements and the simulation of convective heat transfer in separated flow have been a challenge to researchers for many years. Measurements have been limited to two-dimensional flow and simulations failed to predict accurately turbulent heat transfer in the separated and reattached flow region (prediction are higher than measurements by more than 50%). A coordinated experimental and numerical effort has been initiated under this grant for examining the momentum and thermal transport in three-dimensional separated and reattached flow in an effort to provide new measurements that can be used for benchmarking and for improving the simulation capabilities of 3-D convection in separated/reattached flow regime. High-resolution and non-invasive measurements techniques are developed and employed in this study to quantify the magnitude and the behavior of the three velocity components and the resulting convective heat transfer. In addition, simulation capabilities are developed and employed for improving the simulation of 3-D convective separated/reattached flow. Such basic measurements and simulation capabilities are needed for improving the design and performance evaluation of complex (3-D) heat exchanging equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) convective air flow adjacent to backward-facing step in rectangular channel is selected for the experimental component of this study. This geometry is simple but it exhibits all the complexities that appear in any other separated/reattached flow, thus making the results generated in this study applicable to any other separated and reattached flow. Boundary conditions, inflow, outflow, and wall thermal treatment in this geometry can be well measured and controlled. The geometry can be constructed with optical access for non-intrusive measurements of the flow and thermal fields. A three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) is employed to measure simultaneously the three-velocity components and their turbulent fluctuations. Infrared thermography is utilized to measure the wall temperature and that information is used to determine the local convective heat transfer coefficient. FLUENT – CFD code is used as the platform in the simulation effort and User Defined Functions are developed for incorporating advanced turbulence models into this simulation code. Predictions of 3-D turbulent convection in separated flow, using the developed simulation capabilities under this grant, compared well with measured results. Results from the above research can be found in the seventeen refereed journal articles, and thirteen refereed publications and presentations in conference proceedings that have been published by the PI during the this grant period. The research effort is still going on and several publications are being prepared for reporting recent results.
High-resolution ab initio Three-dimensional X-ray Diffraction Microscopy
Chapman, H N; Barty, A; Marchesini, S; Noy, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Rosen, R; He, H; Spence, J H; Weierstall, U; Beetz, T; Jacobsen, C; Shapiro, D
2005-08-19T23:59:59.000Z
Coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging non-periodic isolated objects at resolutions only limited, in principle, by the largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate X-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the 3D diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a non-periodic object. We also construct 2D images of thick objects with infinite depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatial resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution using X-ray undulator radiation, and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at X-ray free-electron laser sources.
Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S. [HeteroFoaM Center, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd., Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States); Chu, Yong S. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 703 Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Yi, Jaemock [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Bldg. 438-B007 Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., MS 69 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z
The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.
Ultrahigh performance three-dimensional electromagnetic relativistic kinetic plasma simulation
Bowers, K. J.; Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Bergen, B.; Kwan, T. J. T. [Plasma Theory and Applications (X-1-PTA), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F699, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
The algorithms, implementation details, and applications of VPIC, a state-of-the-art first principles 3D electromagnetic relativistic kinetic particle-in-cell code, are discussed. Unlike most codes, VPIC is designed to minimize data motion, as, due to physical limitations (including the speed of light{exclamation_point}), moving data between and even within modern microprocessors is more time consuming than performing computations. As a result, VPIC has achieved unprecedented levels of performance. For example, VPIC can perform {approx}0.17 billion cold particles pushed and charge conserving accumulated per second per processor on IBM's Cell microprocessor--equivalent to sustaining Los Alamos's planned Roadrunner supercomputer at {approx}0.56 petaflop (quadrillion floating point operations per second). VPIC has enabled previously intractable simulations in numerous areas of plasma physics, including magnetic reconnection and laser plasma interactions; next generation supercomputers like Roadrunner will enable further advances.
Amber T. Krummel; Sujit S. Datta; Stefan Münster; David A. Weitz
2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z
We report an approach to fully visualize the flow of two immiscible fluids through a model three-dimensional (3D) porous medium at pore-scale resolution. Using confocal microscopy, we directly image the drainage of the medium by the non-wetting oil and subsequent imbibition by the wetting fluid. During imbibition, the wetting fluid pinches off threads of oil in the narrow crevices of the medium, forming disconnected oil ganglia. Some of these ganglia remain trapped within the medium. By resolving the full 3D structure of the trapped ganglia, we show that the typical ganglion size, and the total amount of residual oil, decreases as the capillary number Ca increases; this behavior reflects the competition between the viscous pressure in the wetting fluid and the capillary pressure required to force oil through the pores of the medium. This work thus shows how pore-scale fluid dynamics influence the trapped fluid configurations in multiphase flow through 3D porous media.
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael
2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Three-dimensional cardiac architecture determined by two-photon microtomy
Huang, Hayden
Cardiac architecture is inherently three-dimensional, yet most characterizations rely on two-dimensional histological slices or dissociated cells, which remove the native geometry of the heart. We previously developed a ...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS
Braun, Paul
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY KEVIN interesting for photonic and energy storage applications. Sacrificial templates are commonly used metamaterial, and energy storage applications. 3D metallic architectures are useful for solar
Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid | U.S. DOE...
Office of Science (SC) Website
Electrons Move Like Light in Three-Dimensional Solid Tracking electronic motion in a graphene-like bulk material shows fast electrons in all dimensions. Print Text Size: A A A...
Esmen, Ekrem Alp, 1977-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional mixed-mode linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis is presented using domain interaction integrals. An out-of-plane sinusoidal crack was analyzed using a commercially available finite element package ...
An interactive three-dimensional computer graphic simulation of the upper extremity
Pickard, Julie Marie
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional computer graphic simulation which hics. allows for the arbitrary placement of axes of motion with respect to skeletal structures is described. The simulation, developed on a Sum UItraSPARC high performance workstation integrated...
Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures
Farahat, Waleed A.
We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...
Bimetallic bars with local control of composition by three-dimensional printing
Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee, 1979-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a process that enables the fabrication of geometrically complex parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The success of 3DP as an alternative manufacturing technology to ...
Membrane technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals
Patel, Amil Ashok, 1979-
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional photonic crystals hold tremendous promise toward the realization of truly integrated photonic circuits on a single substrate. Nanofabrication techniques currently limit the ability to create the multilayer ...
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes Swagato Acharjee and Nicholas Zabaras Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory, Sibley School processes. The optimization is based on the continuum sensitivity method (CSM). CSM involves differentiation
E. Paal; J. Virkepu
2010-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
Operadic Lax representations for the harmonic oscillator are used to construct the quantum counterparts of three-dimensional real Lie algebras. The Jacobi operators of these quantum algebras are explicitly calculated.
Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding
Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Hu, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bridgeport, Bridgeport, Connecticut 06604 (United States)
2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.
Calabro, Joshua D.
Fundamental to the development of three-dimensional microelectronic fabrication is a material that enables vertical geometries. Here we show low-melting-point metal alloys containing iron dispersions that can be remotely ...
Ko, Min Seok
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation presents a numerical simulation of three-dimensional flow and heat transfer in a channel with a backward-facing step. Flow was considered to be steady, incompressible, and laminar. The flow medium was treated to be radiatively...
Waveguiding at the Edge of a Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal
Joannopoulos, John D.
We find that electromagnetic waves can be guided at the edge of a three-dimensional photonic crystal in air. When the waveguide is defined by the intersection of two surface planes, the edge modes are associated with the ...
A three dimensional corner balance method for spatial discretization of the transport equation
Richardson, Rebecca Lynn
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The three-dimensional comer balance method is a new spatial discretization scheme for solving the transport equation on meshes consisting of "layers" of arbitrary polygonal meshes in the x-y plane. It is a conceptually and algebraically simple...
Fabrication of complex oral drug delivery forms by Three Dimensional Printing (tm)
Katstra, Wendy E. (Wendy Ellen), 1974-
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing 3DPTM is a novel solid freeform fabrication technology that has been applied to the fabrication of complex pharmaceutical drug devices. Limitations of the technology as relating to pharmaceuticals ...
Characterization and requirements for Cu-Cu bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits
Tadepalli, Rajappa, 1979-
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) technology enables heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from different technologies, and reduces global RC delay by increasing the device density per unit chip area. ...
Gregorski, Steven Joseph
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The material properties and dimensional accuracy of metal tooling produced by the Three Dimensional Printing process can be enhanced by increasing the green density of the 3D printed part. Green density is the ratio of ...
Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...
Fucetola, Corey Patrick
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis considers the viability of nanomembrane handling and stacking approaches to enable the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured materials. Sequentially stacking previously-patterned membranes to ...
Hybrid Geometric Feedback Control of Three-Dimensional Bipedal Robotic Walkers with Knees and Feet
Sinnet, Ryan Wesley
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
HYBRID GEOMETRIC FEEDBACK CONTROL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIPEDAL ROBOTIC WALKERS WITH KNEES AND FEET A Thesis by RYAN WESLEY SINNET Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2011 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HYBRID GEOMETRIC FEEDBACK CONTROL OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIPEDAL ROBOTIC WALKERS WITH KNEES AND FEET A Thesis by RYAN WESLEY SINNET Submitted to the Office of Graduate...
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z
Florida, University of
Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Porous LSCF Cathodes D. Gostovic,*,z J. R. Smith,* D. P In this initial study the electrochemically active region of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode an actual three-dimensional 3D model of a La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3- LSCF cathode and its interface
Guo, David, 1976-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid freeform fabrication process used to generate solid parts directly from three-dimensional computer models. A part geometry is created by selectively depositing binder into ...
Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z
Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.
Laser-sheet imaging of HE-driven interfaces
Benjamin, R.F.; Rightley, P.M.; Kinkead, S.; Martin, R.A.; Critchfield, R.; Sandoval, D.L.; Holmes, R.; Gorman, T.
1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z
This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors made substantial progress in developing the MILSI (Multiple Imaging of Laser-Sheet Illumination) technique for high explosive (HE)-driven fluid interfaces. They observed the instability, but have not yet measured the instability growth rate. They developed suitable sample containers and optical systems for studying the Rightmyer-Meshkov instability of perturbed water/bromoform interfaces and they successfully fielded the new MILSI diagnostic at two firing-site facilities. The problem continues to be of central importance to the inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and weapons physics communities.
Hamedani, Amani; Baniassadi, Majid; Sheidaei, A.; Pourboghrat, F.; Remond, Y.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid
2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
In this study, microstructure of a porosity-graded lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been characterized using focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) combined with image processing. Two-point correlation functions of the two-dimensional (2D) images taken along the direction of porosity gradient are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. The effective elastic modulus of the two-phase porosity-graded cathode is predicted using strong contrast (SC) and composite inclusion (CI) homogenization techniques. The effectiveness of the two methods in predicting the effective elastic properties of the porositygraded LSM cathode is investigated in comparison with the results obtained from the finite element model (FEM).
A THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEW OF THE REMNANT OF NOVA PERSEI 1901 (GK Per)
Liimets, T.; Verro, K.; Kolka, I. [Tartu Observatory, 61602 Toravere (Estonia); Corradi, R. L. M.; Rodriguez-Gil, P. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Santander-Garcia, M. [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Ap. de Correos 112, E-28803 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)
2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z
We present a kinematical study of the optical ejecta of GK Per. It is based on proper-motion measurements of 282 knots from {approx}20 images spanning 25 years. Doppler shifts are also computed for 217 knots. The combination of proper motions and radial velocities allows a unique three-dimensional view of the ejecta to be obtained. The main results are as follows: (1) the outflow is a thick shell in which knots expand with a significant range of velocities, mostly between 600 and 1000 km s{sup -1}, (2) kinematical ages indicate that knots have suffered only a modest deceleration since their ejection a century ago, (3) no evidence for anisotropy in the expansion rate is found, (4) velocity vectors are generally aligned along the radial direction, but a symmetric pattern of non-radial velocities is also observed at specific directions, and (5) the total H{alpha}+[N II] flux has been linearly decreasing at a rate of 2.6% per year in the past decade. The eastern nebular side is fading at a slower rate than the western side. Some of the knots were displayed a rapid change of brightness during the 2004-2011 period. Over a longer timescale, a progressive circularization and homogenization of the nebula are taking place; (6) a kinematic distance of 400 {+-} 30 pc is determined. These results raise some problems with the previous interpretations of the evolution of GK Per. In particular, the idea of a strong interaction of the outflow with the surrounding medium in the southwest quadrant is not supported by our data.
High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Hantke, Max, F.
Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.
Nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of three dimensional current shear instability
Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Das, Amita; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)
2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with detailed nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a three dimensional current shear driven instability in slab geometry. The simulations show the development of the instability in the current shear layer in the linear regime leading to the generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the nonlinear regime. The electromagnetic turbulence is first generated in the unstable shear layer and then spreads into the stable regions. The turbulence spectrum shows a new kind of anisotropy in which power transfer towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow. Results of the present three dimensional simulations of the current shear instability are compared with those of our earlier two dimensional simulations of sausage instability. It is found that the flattening of the mean velocity profile and thus reduction in the electron current due to generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the three dimensional case is more effective as compared to that in the two dimensional case.
Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.
1996-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.
Karasick, Michael S. (Ridgefield, CT); Strip, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modelling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modelling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modelling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication.
Zaleski, T. A.; Polak, T. P. [Institute of Low Temperatures and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, POB 1410, 50-950 Wroclaw 2 (Poland); Adam Mickiewicz University of Poznan, Faculty of Physics, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)
2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
We discuss a system of dilute Bose gas confined in a layered structure of stacked square lattices (slab geometry). A derived phase diagram reveals a nonmonotonic dependence of the ratio of tunneling to on-site repulsion on the artificial magnetic field applied to the system. The effect is reduced when more layers are added, which mimics a two- to quasi-three-dimensional geometry crossover. Furthermore, we establish a correspondence between anisotropic infinite (quasi-three-dimensional) and isotropic finite (slab geometry) systems that share exactly the same critical values, which can be an important clue for choosing experimental setups that are less demanding, but still leading to the identical results. Finally, we show that the properties of the ideal Bose gas in a three-dimensional optical lattice can be closely mimicked by finite (slab) systems when the number of two-dimensional layers is larger than 10 for isotropic interactions, or even less when the layers are weakly coupled.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Spane, F.A. Jr.; Vermeul, V.R.; Webber, W.D.
1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The ground water underlying parts of the Hanford Site (Figure 1.1) contains radioactive and chemical contaminants at concentrations exceeding regulatory standards (Dresel et al. 1993). The Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, operated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), is responsible for monitoring the movement of these contaminants to ensure that public health and the environment are protected. To support the monitoring effort, a sitewide three-dimensional ground-water flow model is being developed. This report provides an update on the status of the conceptual model that will form the basis for constructing a numerical three-dimensional flow model for, the site. Thorne and Chamness (1992) provide additional information on the initial development of the three-dimensional conceptual model.
Geometry and scaling of tangled vortex lines in three-dimensional random wave fields
Alexander J. Taylor; Mark R. Dennis
2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
The short- and long-scale behaviour of tangled wave vortices (nodal lines) in random three-dimensional wave fields is studied via computer experiment. The zero lines are tracked in numerical simulations of periodic superpositions of three-dimensional complex plane waves. The probability distribution of local geometric quantities such as curvature and torsion are compared to previous analytical and new Monte Carlo results from the isotropic Gaussian random wave model. We further examine the scaling and self-similarity of tangled wave vortex lines individually and in the bulk, drawing comparisons with other physical systems of tangled filaments.
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a hierarchical data structure
Wald, Ingo; Boulos, Solomon; Shirley, Peter
2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene made up of geometric primitives that are spatially partitioned into a hierarchical data structure. In this example embodiment, the hierarchical data structure includes at least a parent node and a corresponding plurality of child nodes. The method includes a first act of determining that a first active ray in the packet hits the parent node and a second act of descending to each of the plurality of child nodes.
Landy, N I; Smith, D R
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce an approach to the design of three-dimensional transformation optical (TO) media based on a generalized quasi-conformal mapping approach. The generalized quasi-conformal TO (QCTO) approach enables the design of media that can, in principle, be broadband and low-loss, while controlling the propagation of waves with arbitrary angles of incidence and polarization. We illustrate the method in the design of a three-dimensional "carpet" ground plane cloak and of a flattened Luneburg lens. Ray-trace studies provide a confirmation of the performance of the QCTO media, while also revealing the limited performance of index-only versions of these devices.
DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501973 Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals with
John, Sajeev
ago. However, the fabrication of high- quality 3D structures for the optical regime still remains-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) and photonic bandgap materials[1,2] was introduced nearly twenty years to be suitable for the fabrication of 3D PCs with an omni-direc- tional photonic bandgap (PBG): i) the material
YATES,GEORGE J.; MCDONALD,THOMAS E. JR.; BLISS,DAVID E.; CAMERON,STEWART M.; GREIVES,KENNETH H.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.
2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z
Laboratory experiments utilizing different near-infrared (NIR) sensitive imaging techniques for LADAR range gated imaging at eye-safe wavelengths are presented. An OPO/OPA configuration incorporating a nonlinear crystal for wavelength conversion of 1.56 micron probe or broadcast laser light to 807 nm light by utilizing a second pump laser at 532 nm for gating and gain, was evaluated for sensitivity, resolution, and general image quality. These data are presented with similar test results obtained from an image intensifier based upon a transferred electron (TE) photocathode with high quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1-2 micron range, with a P-20 phosphor output screen. Data presented include range-gated imaging performance in a cloud chamber with varying optical attenuation of laser reflectance images.
Zhu Feipeng; Shi Hongjian; Bai Pengxiang; He Xiaoyuan
2011-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
In fringe projection, the CCD camera and the projector are often placed at equal height. In this paper, we will study the calibration of an unequal arrangement of the CCD camera and the projector. The principle of fringe projection with two-dimensional digital image correlation to acquire the profile of object surface is described in detail. By formula derivation and experiment, the linear relationship between the out-of-plane calibration coefficient and the y coordinate is clearly found. To acquire the three-dimensional (3D) information of an object correctly, this paper presents an effective calibration method with linear least-squares fitting, which is very simple in principle and calibration. Experiments are implemented to validate the availability and reliability of the calibration method.
Low spatial coherence electrically pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging
Cao, Hui
diodes (LEDs), provide relatively low power per independent spatial mode. Here, we present a chip- scale, electrically pumped semiconductor laser based on a novel design, demonstrating high power per mode with much-free full-field imaging is demonstrated using the chaotic cavity laser as the illumination source. The power
Partial and complete spheromak merging: three-dimensional reconnection and FRC studies at SSX
Washington at Seattle, University of
1 Partial and complete spheromak merging: three-dimensional reconnection and FRC studies at SSX restrictions to merging have been removed, and studies of FRC formation and stability by complete counter indicates the formation of a null- helicity object consistent with an untilted FRC, while other shots show
Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional
Kandlikar, Satish
Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits and integrated cooling systems. For heat fluxes of 50100 W/cm2 on each side of a chip in a 3D IC package outstanding issues in the cooling system design were outlined. Before reviewing available literature
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIB-OIM OF CERAMIC MATERIALS Shen J. Dillon
Rohrer, Gregory S.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIB-OIM OF CERAMIC MATERIALS Shen J. Dillon Carnegie Mellon University 5000 materials to be performed more routinely. However, limited work has been performed on ceramics. Examples employed to characterize metallic systems, and metallic systems with ceramic second-phases. Several studies
Fast three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography using real-time line projection of
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Fast three-dimensional terahertz computed tomography using real-time line projection of intense terahertz computed tomography by using real-time line projection of intense terahertz beam generated). 4. B. Ferguson, S. Wang, D. Gray, D. Abbot, and X.-C. Zhang, "T-ray computed tomography," Opt. Lett
Powles, Rebecca
Carbon three-dimensional architecture formed by intersectional collision of graphene patches architectures constructed from those unit structures are expected to have various applications with lightweight of fullerenes and nanotubes, architectures consisting of sp2 network are getting a lot of attention. The most
Photodeposition Method For Fabricating A Three-Dimensional, Patterned Polymer Microstructure
Walt, David R. (Lexington, MA); Healey, Brian G. (Sommerville, MA)
2001-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention is a photodeposition methodology for fabricating a three-dimensional patterned polymer microstructure. A variety of polymeric structures can be fabricated on solid substrates using unitary fiber optic arrays for light delivery. The methodology allows micrometer-scale photopatterning for the fabricated structures using masks substantially larger than the desired dimensions of the microstructure.
An H-Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures
Zheng, Weiying
An H- Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures Peijun Li-dimensional eddy currents in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel laminations since the coating film is only several to the smallest scale can be up to 106. In this paper, we study an H- formulation for the nonlinear eddy current
Jablonowski, Christiane
Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University
Kelley, Kirk Lee
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...
Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Agrobacterium VirE2 Protein with Single-stranded DNA*
Citovsky, Vitaly
for publication, February 18, 2004, and in revised form, March 29, 2004 Published, JBC Papers in Press, March 30 ("telephone coil") organization of the VirE2- DNA complex. Here we report a three-dimensional re- construction breeding (1618). Upon induction of the vir region by detection of plant-specific wound signals, the VirD1
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of straight channel PEM fuel cells *, S. SHIMPALEE1
Van Zee, John W.
distribution, fuel cell, mass transfer, PEM Abstract The need to model three-dimensional ¯ow in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is discussed by developing an integrated ¯ow and current density model anode inlet (m) XwYK mole fraction of water in stream K Greek symbols l dynamic viscosity (kg s mÀ2
PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECONNECTING CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS
Isliker, Heinz
PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF RECONNECTING CORONAL MAGNETIC FIELDS PETER J in final form 18 October 2005) Abstract. Particle acceleration in large-scale turbulent coronal magnetic to be addressed, such as feedback between particle acceleration and MHD, are discussed. Keywords: particle
Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a
Byer, Robert L.
Waveguides in three-dimensional photonic bandgap materials for particle-accelerator on a chip@physics.anu.edu.au Abstract: The quest for less costly and more compact high-energy particle accelerators," in Proceedings of Particle Accelerator Conference 2011, (2011) pp. 277279. 12. M. Deubel, G. von Freymann, M
Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Cell Distribution and Infiltration in Degradable Scaffolds
Yang, Jian
Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Cell Distribution and Infiltration in Degradable Scaffolds Paul a quick, convenient, and efficient method to quantify cell survival, distribution, and infiltration is the inability to observe the distribution and migration of seeded cells throughout the scaffold.8 This study
Direct reconstruction of three-dimensional atomic adsorption sites by holographic LEED D. K. Saldin
Saldin, Dilano
Direct reconstruction of three-dimensional atomic adsorption sites by holographic LEED D. K. Saldin on the application to measured data of an algorithm for holographic low-energy electron diffrac- tion LEED , which LEED intensities due to possible long-range order among the adsorbates. The only experimental input
Three-dimensional Modeling of Acid Transport and Etching in a Fracture
Oeth, Cassandra V
2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
’s conductivity, which is based on the etched width created by the injected acid. Etching occurs along the fracture surface but is based on acid flowing through the fracture, so an evaluation tool should describe three-dimensional physics and chemistry. Current...
MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS
M'Closkey, Robert T.
MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS M. Kanik.S. Abstract-- A novel use of bulk metallic glasses in microresonator applications is reported and a method scale glass blowmolding using quartz [2] and Pyrex [3], as well as the isotropic etching of silicon
Kelley, Kirk Lee
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate this process, a three...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL LUNG DENSITOMETER USING CdTe DETECTORS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
369 THREE-DIMENSIONAL LUNG DENSITOMETER USING CdTe DETECTORS FOR DIAGNOSIS AND EVALUATION is optimized for lung densitometry, similar configurations can be used for bone densito- metry. - The measurement of absolute lung density by a non-invasive technique is of impor- tance in assessing the status
Huang, Yanyi
is limited by the size of the devices. Stacking PLCs to make three-dimensional (3D) structures will effi- ciently increase the density of photonic circuits. Several polymer 3D integrated optical devices have been alternate fabrication methods to generate 3D multilayer structures.10,11 In this letter, we describe
Rogers, John A.
phase mask, can generate highly periodic 3D structures in photosensitive materials through optical density-graded 3D structures that result from computational modeling are demonstrated. Re- sults of x for three-dimensional (3D) patterning of photosensitive polymers and other materials has potential applica
Utah, University of
of a non-proprietary, optical three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system for the simultaneous cameras and software for calculating the 3D coordinates of contrast markers. System precision was5 assessed by examining the variation in the coordinates of static markers over time. 3D strain measurement
Cao, Guozhong
Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage nanocomposites demonstrated high rate capability and good cycling properties. KEYWORDS: TiO2, Li4Ti5O12, ordered as one of the most promising candidates for applications in electric and hybrid vehicles
Three-dimensional, fully adaptive simulations of phase-field fluid models
Bigelow, Stephen
interface [13Â17] is compatible with the observation that physically there is a rapid but smooth transition a thin transition layer and is mostly uniform in the bulk phases. The models have an appealingThree-dimensional, fully adaptive simulations of phase-field fluid models Hector D. Ceniceros
Ris-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE
Risø-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI; ROD EJECTION TEST CALCULATION A neutronics and thermal-hydraulics descrip- tion of a PWR core under transient conditions. In this report and with closed hydraulic channels. INIS descriptors. A CODES, CONTROL ELEMENTS, HYDRAULICS, PWR TYPE REACTORS
Multiplex Three-Dimensional Brain Gene Expression Mapping in a Mouse Model
Smith, Desmond J.
Multiplex Three-Dimensional Brain Gene Expression Mapping in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease model of Parkinson's disease (PD) had been induced by methamphetamine. Quality-control analyses obscure (Owen et al. 2000). These diseases frequently have important genetic contributions, but it has
A Three-Dimensional Geographic and Storm Surge Data Integration System for Evacuation Planning
Chen, Shu-Ching
@fiu.edu Abstract The rise of offshore water caused by the high winds of a low pressure weather system, or storm to construct a three-dimensional ocean po- sitioned over the terrain models. Ambient details such as wind, vegetation, ocean waves, and traffic are animated based on up-to-date wind and storm surge data. Videos
Gapless layered three-dimensional fractional quantum Hall states Michael Levin1
2D , anisotropic three-dimensional 3D electron systems--such as multilayer systems in a perpen of experiments on 3D semiconductor multilayers have explored the behavior of stacked integer quantum Hall states effect in graphene,2023 and future pros- pects for graphene multilayers, provides further impetus
Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column
Chu, Peter C.
1 1 Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Model for Prediction of Falling Cylinder Through Water Column-coordinate), cylinder's main-axis following coordinate (M-coordinate), and hydrodynamic force following coordinate (F-coordinate system. The hydrodynamic forces (such as the drag and lift forces) and their moments are easily computed
expense between a one-dimensional (1-D) advection-dispersion model and a fully three-dimensional (3-D-dimensional fractional derivative, and multirate transient storage models Eric J. Anderson1 and Mantha S. Phanikumar2] Large rivers are major conduits for sediment and nutrient transport and play an important role in global
Yang, Hui
Identification and Applications of Three-dimensional Non-local Structural Motifs in Protein Folding Francisco State University, U.S.A. 1 Background How does a protein fold into its biologically functional]. The product of such simulations is a collection of folding trajectories of the protein under study, where each
Ezer,Tal
Entrainment, diapycnal mixing and transport in three-dimensional bottom gravity current simulations Abstract The diapycnal mixing, entrainment and bottom boundary layer (BBL) dynamics in simulations of dense structure. Strong diapycnal mixing and large entrainment result in more than doubling the plume transport
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT on Cloud Physics, Portland, OR June 28-July 2, 2010 Environmental Sciences Department/Atmospheric Sciences Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s cloud tomography Intensive Observation Period (IOP
Three-dimensional study of cylindrical morphology in a styrene-butadiene-styrene
Agard, David
Three-dimensional study of cylindrical morphology in a styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer electron microscopy (TEM), we have obtained projections ofa styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)copolymer (30wt component. Figure 1, for example, depicts for a styrene (S)-butadiene (B) triblock copolymer either
An Effective Approach for Identifying Evolving Three-Dimensional Structural Motifs in Protein
Yang, Hui
have been employed to study the protein folding process, in which a protein acquires its func- tional three-dimensional structure. This has resulted in a large number of protein folding trajectories of the protein folding mechanism. In this paper, we focus on identifying im- portant 3D structural motifs
Bennett, Gisele
Simulations of absorbance efficiency and power production of three dimensional tower arrays for use in photovoltaics Jack Flicker1 and Jud Ready2,a 1 Materials Science and Eng., Georgia Institute of Technology. Major strides must be made in solar cell efficiency, including increasing absorbance efficiency
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell
Victoria, University of
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NiO ZrO2(CUBIC) INTERFACES
Pennycook, Steve
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NiO± ZrO2(CUBIC) INTERFACES E. C. DICKEY{1 , V. P. DRAVID1-dimensional atomic structure of low-energy NiO±ZrO2(cubic) interfaces is determined through a combination of electron the structural and chemical aspects of the interface and associ- ated interfacial relaxation mechaubic) interface
Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins
Janke, Wolfhard
Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins Reinhard Schiemann 17 March 2005 We have exactly enumerated all sequences and conformations of hydrophobic-polar HP sequences, i.e., sequences that have a nondegenerate ground state. Furthermore we were interested
A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles
Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5...
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves
Iooss, Gérard
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves G´erard Iooss , Pavel of Sciences, Lavryentyev pr. 15, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia gerard.iooss@inln.cnrs.fr, plotnikov@hydro of small divisors, the main difficulty is the inversion of the linearized operator at a non trivial point
Liu, Yijun
Adaptive fast multipole boundary element method for three-dimensional half-space acoustic wave: Acoustics 3D half space Fast multipole BEM Windmill models a b s t r a c t A new adaptive fast multipole. This procedure simplifies the implementation of the adaptive fast multipole BEM and reduces the CPU time
An Innovative Three-Dimensional User Interface for Exploring Music Collections Enriched with
Widmer, Gerhard
in this collection. This is accomplished by automatically extracting features from the audio signal and training, a Smoothed Data Histogram (SDH) is calculated on the SOM and interpreted as a three-dimensional height that is founded in the sounds of one's digital audio collection. Using intelligent audio analysis, the pieces
Three dimensional controlled assembly of gold nanoparticles using a micromachined platform
Dokmeci, Mehmet
Three dimensional controlled assembly of gold nanoparticles using a micromachined platform Nishant By using optical lithographic procedures, the authors present a micromachined platform for large scale to vary the height of the 3D platform for meeting different application requirements. This research
The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells
Schmidt, Volker
1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three
Experimental Study of Tsunami Generation by Three-Dimensional Rigid Underwater Landslides
Grilli, Stéphan T.
Experimental Study of Tsunami Generation by Three-Dimensional Rigid Underwater Landslides François are performed to study tsunami generation by rigid underwater land- slides. The main purpose of these experiments is to both gain insight into landslide tsunami generation processes and provide data
Three-dimensional waveform modeling of ionospheric signature induced by the 2004 Sumatra tsunami
Occhipinti, Giovanni "Ninto"
Three-dimensional waveform modeling of ionospheric signature induced by the 2004 Sumatra tsunami, 2004, tsunami produced internal gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere and large disturbances reproduce, with a 3D numerical modeling of the ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, the tsunami signature
Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate events
Furumura, Takashi
Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate simulation program based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations is developed for simulating 3-D tsunami generation and propagation. We can simulate tsunami propagation over more than 1000 km using this program
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal
John, Sajeev
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal Ping Kuang,1-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic- crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (). The consequence is a longer path length
Kley, Willy
ORBITAL MIGRATION AND MASS ACCRETION OF PROTOPLANETS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL GLOBAL COMPUTATIONS masses, approximately above 0.1 MJ, migration rates are relatively constant, as expected in a type II migration regime and in good agreement with previous two-dimensional calculations. In a range between 7
Self-Organizing Fault-Tolerant Topology Control in Large-Scale Three-Dimensional
Wang, Yu
be deployed in three-dimensional (3D) space, such as under water wireless sensor networks in ocean or mobile to investigate self-organizing fault-tolerant topology control protocols for large- scale 3D wireless networks networks. Our simulation confirms our theoretical proofs for all proposed 3D topologies. Categories
JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, NO. , PAGES 125, Three Dimensional Coronal Density
California at Berkeley, University of
the dominance of magnetic forces in most of the corona, recent studies show that plasma beta in the core Abstract. The three-dimensional density structure of the solar corona is a fundamental boundary condition dependence of the neutral lines implicit beneath the streamer cores. Nonradiality of streamers and solar B
On the eective thermal conductivity of a three-dimensionally structured uid-saturated metal foam
Daraio, Chiara
thermal conductivity to a large extent, a fact that must be dealt with in the foam manufacturing process thermal conductivity in the volume averaged homogeneous energy equation. Antohe et al. [11] also requiredOn the eective thermal conductivity of a three- dimensionally structured ¯uid-saturated metal foam
Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity
Xiaodong Chen
2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z
Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory
A novel three-dimensional model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion
George, Steven C.
A novel three-dimensional model to quantify metastatic melanoma invasion Cyrus M. Ghajar,1 Vinod. Culturing melanomas of different meta- static capacities within the system showed that each cell type (i.e., matrix components, interstitial cell presence) on planar and vertical melanoma invasion. We
Some three-dimensional problems related to dielectric breakdown and polycrystal plasticity
Some three-dimensional problems related to dielectric breakdown and polycrystal plasticity Adriana estimate which scales differently when the yield set of the basic crystal is highly eccentric. For 3D. In both settings the Sachs bound is optimal. 1 Introduction The analysis of rigid, perfectly-plastic
Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion
Ayache, Nicholas
Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion Paul M. Novotnya results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model
A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles
Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5...
A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and three-dimensional surface perception
Grossberg, Stephen
A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and three-dimensional surface perception Stephen Grossberg University 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA Running title: Laminar cortical model of depth perception;1 Abstract A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and later stages of 3D surface perception is developed
Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow
Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance laminar shear flow using a process-based stability approach. The hydrodynamics of the problem is solved under steady laminar shear flow, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04S09, doi:10.1029/2004JF000278. 1
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions
Ryan, Dominic
Monte Carlo simulations of transverse spin freezing in the three-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg of the spins freeze leading to a noncollinear spin structure dominated by ferromagnetic correlations. The phase as the transverse degrees of freedom order.' Theoretical support for a transverse spin freezing tran- sition
Jesus, Sérgio M.
Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic-000 Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil, {lcalado, ana.claudia}@ieapm.mar.mil.br Acoustic tomography is now a well for an instantaneous sound speed field constructed from dynamical predictions for Cabo Frio, Brazil. The results show
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the
Simons, Mark
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment on deformation associated with the Mw ¼ 6.5 Bam earthquake in Iran determined using the SAR data from the ERS
An Exact, Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Wave Solution in Local Keplerian Flow
Steven A. Balbus; John F. Hawley
2006-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
We present an exact three-dimensional wave solution to the shearing sheet equations of motion. The existence of this solution argues against transient amplification as a route to turbulence in unmagnetized disks. Moreover, because the solution covers an extensive dynamical range in wavenumber space, it is an excellent test of the dissipative properties of numerical codes.
Sun, Yu
and electroplating This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article of three-dimensional helical nanobelts through angular winding and electroplating D J Bell1 , T E Bauert1. In a subsequent Au electroplating step, contacts are electroformed and the batch assembly is completed, while
Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive
Mathis, Wayne N.
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
LETTER Ecology Letters, (2003) 6: 13-18 Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs risk in the evolution of web architecture. The ecological success of spiders has been attributed to key
Pump-probe imaging of laser-induced periodic surface structures after ultrafast irradiation of Si
Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Adams, David P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
Ultrafast pump-probe microscopy has been used to investigate laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS) formation on polished Si surfaces. A crater forms on the surface after irradiation by a 150 fs laser pulse, and a second, subsequent pulse forms LIPSS within the crater. Sequentially delayed images show that LIPSS with a periodicity slightly less than the fundamental laser wavelength of 780 nm appear on Si surfaces ?50 ps after arrival of the second pump laser pulse, well after the onset of melting. LIPSS are observed on the same timescale as material removal, suggesting that their formation involves material ejection.
Hollow screw like drill in plasma using an intense Laguerre Gaussian laser
Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Lingang; Shi, Yin; Xu, Zhizhan
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
With the development of ultra intense laser technology, MeV ions from the laser foil interaction have been obtained by different mechanisms, such as target normal sheath acceleration, radiation pressure acceleration, collisionless shock acceleration, breakout afterburner, and a combination of different mechanisms. These energetic ion beams can be applied in fast ignition for inertial confinement fusion, medical therapy, and proton imaging. However, these ions are mainly accelerated in the laser propagation direction, and the ion acceleration in an azimuthal orientation is scarcely mentioned. Here, a doughnut Laguerre Gaussian LG laser is used for the first time to study the laser plasma interaction in the relativistic intensity regime in three dimensional particle in cell simulations. Studies have shown that a novel rotation of the plasma is produced from the hollow screw like drill of a LG mode laser. The angular momentum of the protons in the longitudinal direction produced by the LG laser is remarkably enh...
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.
Numerical study of three-dimensional PIC for the surface plasmon excitation based on Drude model
Liu, La-Qun; Wang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Da-Gang
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper explores the time-domain equations of noble metals, in which Drude model is adopted to describe the dielectric constant, to implement three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the surface plasmon excitation with the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). A three-dimensional model for an electron bunch movement near the metal film is constructed, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out with various metal films of different thicknesses. The frequency of surface plasmon obtained from PIC simulation is agreed with that from theory. Furthermore, the surface plasmon wave properties of excitation and propagation with the metal film is summarized by PIC results.
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
Burckel, D. Bruce [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Resnick, Paul J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Finnegan, Patrick S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sinclair, Michael B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davids, Paul S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, and characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.
Bettarini, Lapo [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Plasma Astrofysica, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Velli, Marco [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Londrillo, Pasquale [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via C. Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.
Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices
An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)
2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects
Keppens, R
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...
Coupled models and parallel simulations for three-dimensional full-Stokes ice sheet modeling
Zhang, Huai [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences; Ju, Lili [University of South Carolina; Gunzburger, Max [Florida State University; Ringler, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Price, Stephen [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional full-Stokes computational model is considered for determining the dynamics, temperature, and thickness of ice sheets. The governing thermomechanical equations consist of the three-dimensional full-Stokes system with nonlinear rheology for the momentum, an advective-diffusion energy equation for temperature evolution, and a mass conservation equation for icethickness changes. Here, we discuss the variable resolution meshes, the finite element discretizations, and the parallel algorithms employed by the model components. The solvers are integrated through a well-designed coupler for the exchange of parametric data between components. The discretization utilizes high-quality, variable-resolution centroidal Voronoi Delaunay triangulation meshing and existing parallel solvers. We demonstrate the gridding technology, discretization schemes, and the efficiency and scalability of the parallel solvers through computational experiments using both simplified geometries arising from benchmark test problems and a realistic Greenland ice sheet geometry.
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts
Jimack, Peter
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts R. Tencheva , T. Goughb , O.G, LS2 9JT, UK. b School of Engineering, Design & Technology, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP.g.harlen@leeds.ac.uk (O.G. Harlen), p.k.jimack@leeds.ac.uk (P.K. Jimack), h.klein@leeds.ac.uk (D.H. Klein), m
Analysis and verification of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model
Abraham, David Daniel
1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. P. James A three-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical model (RMA10) was analyized and verified. The verification process involved the comparison of model and measured water surface elevations, velocities, and depth averaged... velocities. The verification (measured) data were obtained from a large (200 cfs) flume. The numerical grid was set up such that the spacial location of the computational points was as close as practical to that of the measured data. The model computed...
Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source
Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming
2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z
A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.
Simulation of three-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer in an array of parallel microchannels
Mlcak, Justin Dale
2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
and variables...................31 Figure 4.2. One dimensional case for discretizing the generalized transport equation [6]..................................................................................................32 Figure 4.3. Staggered grid... on the bulk temperature for one case of aspect ratio. 1.3 Thesis Outline This thesis is a documentation of the creation, implementation, and results of a numerical study that solves for velocity, pressure, and temperature in a three dimensional...
Three-dimensional Background Field Gravity: A Hamilton-Jacobi analysis
N. T. Maia; B. M. Pimentel; C. E. Valcárcel
2015-03-14T23:59:59.000Z
We analyse the constraint structure of the Background Field model for three dimensional gravity including a cosmological term via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We find the complete set of involutive Hamiltonians that assures the integrability of the system and calculate the characteristic equations of the system. We established the equivalence between these equations and the field equations and also obtain the generators of canonical and gauge transformations.
Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy
Hirshkowitz, Amy
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
presentations were controlled by an experimenter behind a curtain from a Dell Precision M6400 laptop computer with a Windows XP operating system. The Tobii T60 XL monitor was set to 32-bit color and screen size to 12 1024 x 768 pixels. A Logitech Webcam Pro... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2012 Major Subject: Psychology Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy Copyright 2012 Amy Hirshkowitz...
A finite element model of the quasi-three-dimensional viscous flow through airfoil cascades
McArthur, Dwight Roger
1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
by Orthogonal Collocation, " Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 22, 1967, pp. 1483-1501. [15] Cook, R. D. , Concepts and Apphcations of the Finite Element Analysis. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1981. [16] Hood, P. snd Taylor, C. , "Navier ? Stokes...A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF THE QUASI-THREE ? DIMENSIONAL VISCOUS FLOW THROUGH AIRFOIL CASCADES A Thesis by DWIGHT ROGER MCARTHUR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...
Strip Velocity Measurements for Gated X-Ray Imagers Using Short Pulse Lasers
Ross, P. W. [NSTec; Cardenas, M. [NSTec; Griffin, M. [NSTec; Mead, A. [NSTec; Silbernagel, C. T. [NSTec; Bell, P. [LLNL; Haque, S. H. [UNR
2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
Strip velocity measurements of gated X-ray imagers are presented using an ultra-short pulse laser. Obtaining time-resolved X-ray images of inertial confinement fusion shots presents a difficult challenge. One diagnostic developed to address this challenge is the gated X-ray imagers. The gated X-ray detectors (GXDs) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory use a microchannel plate (MCP) coated with a gold strip line, which serves as a photocathode. GXDs are used with an array of pinholes, which image onto various parts of the GXD image plane. As the pulse sweeps over the strip lines, it creates a time history of the event with consecutive images. In order to accurately interpret the timing of the images obtained using the GXDs, it is necessary to measure the propagation of the pulse over the strip line. The strip velocity was measured using a short pulse laser with a pulse duration of approximately 1-2 ps. The 200nm light from the laser is used to illuminate the GXD MCP. The laser pulse is split and a retroreflective mirror is used to delay one of the legs. By adjusting the distance to the mirror, one leg is temporally delayed compared to the reference leg. The retroreflective setup is calibrated using a streak camera with a 1 ns full sweep. Resolution of 0.5 mm is accomplished to achieve a temporal resolution of ~5 ps on the GXD strip line.
Robert, Pincus
The Accuracy of Determining Three-Dimensional Radiative Transfer Effects in Cumulus Clouds Using. Three-dimensional radiative transfer effects and why one might estimate them in two-dimensional clouds expensive independent column approximation is called the 3D radiative transfer effect. Assessing
Ewing, Richard E.
A ThreeDimensional Finite Element Simulation for Transport of Nuclear Waste Contamination for transport of nuclearwaste contamination in threedimensional porous media are presented with a description of contamination of groundwater by highlevel nuclear waste and a wide variety of other sources makes a proper
Pilon, Laurent
Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part II: Effect of Batch and thermal structure in glass melting furnaces with a throat. The effects of the following parameters This is a second part of a study concerned with the three-dimensional natural circulation in glass melting furnaces
Three-dimensional morphology evolution of SiO2 patterned films under MeV ion irradiation
Hutchinson, John W.
Three-dimensional morphology evolution of SiO2 patterned films under MeV ion irradiation Kan OtaniO2 stripes on Si substrates induced by 3 MeV O++ ion irradiation. We develop a 3D constitutive evolution in complex three-dimensional structures under MeV ion irradiation. © 2006 American Institute
Three-dimensional morphology of cementite in steel studied by X-ray phase-contrast tomography
Stallinga, Sjoerd
Three-dimensional morphology of cementite in steel studied by X-ray phase-contrast tomography-destructive, in-line X-ray phase-contrast tomography (PCT) can be used to study the three-dimensional mor- phology- and cold-forming operations of the steel. Studying the evolution of the morphology of cement- ite in 3-D
MHD Field Line Resonances and Global Modes in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Fields
C.Z. Cheng
2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z
By assuming a general isotropic pressure distribution P = P (y,a), where y and a are three-dimensional scalar functions labeling the field lines with B = -y x -a, we have derived a set of MHD eigenmode equations for both global MHD modes and field line resonances (FLR). Past MHD theories are restricted to isotropic pressures with P = P (y only). The present formulation also allows the plasma mass density to vary along the field line. The linearized ideal-MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are naturally obtained for general three-dimensional magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. Several new terms associated with the partial derivative of P with respect to alpha are obtained. In the FLR equations, a new term is found in the shear Alfvin FLR equation due to the geodesic curvature and the pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure as previously derived. The properties of the FLR eigenfunctions at the resonance field lines are investigated, and the behavior of the FLR wave solutions near the FLR surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations for three-dimensional magnetospheric fields in equilibrium with high plasma pressure will be presented in a future publication.
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onsource History View New PagessourceRavenandEconomies |InformationThonotosassa, Florida:ThousandThree Rivers,OpenOpen
Multi-Array EEG Signals Mapped with Three Dimensional Images for Clinical Epilepsy Studies
Boyer, Edmond
, spatially distributed into or over the head of the patient, are basic tools for epilepsy research-frequency representations). The anatomical reference is always required to understand the mechanisms underlying the brain to transient and repetitive interruptions in normal electrical brain activity [1]. The medical application
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 14 (2008) 235245 235 Three-Dimensional Tomographic Imaging
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark e Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS of these important roles, iron can also be toxic, with certain forms participating in the production of free radicals
Handheld Digital Three-Dimensional Color Imaging Camera Peter King Humanik
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41clothThe Bonneville Power AdministrationHawaiiEnergyFloridaOutlook MaryVehiclesConfinedHUGS Privacy andNationaland Eric
Lensfree Holographic On-Chip Imaging and Three-Dimensional Tracking
Su, Ting-Wei
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
microscope with light- emitting diode illumination. Opt.source, such as light emitting diode, can be used withoutlight source (such as a light emitting diode - LED) that is
Analysis of multiphase fluid flows via high speed and synthetic aperture three dimensional imaging
Scharfman, Barry Ethan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Spray flows are a difficult problem within the realm of fluid mechanics because of the complicated interfacial physics involved. Complete models of sprays having even the simplest geometries continue to elude researchers ...
Vertes, Akos
of the leaf tissue in ~50 ng amounts on a 1 mm diameter area. A mass spectrum recorded on this area included ionization. A separate mass spectrum was obtained on the native area of the tissue (see spectrum in red color 517 532 623 633 637 639 647 653 663 667 731 814 894 950 163 1.00 0.16 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.17 0.87 0.44 0.51
Depth-domain processing of teleseismic receiver functions and generalized three-dimensional imaging
Dueker, Ken
by itself or as a part of depth migration, is usually used for noise suppression in teleseismic receiver generalize the pre-stack depth migration methodology by introducing numerous signal-enhancement schemes could be superior to record summation used in conventional depth migration. #12;3 Introduction
Oxford, University of
Cardiac Valve Annulus Manual Segmentation Using Computer Assisted Visual Feedback in Three is an important tool for the study of valve anatomy and physiology, for the four main valves of the heart (mitral rat hearts, on all four valves. I. INTRODUCTION There are four main cardiac valves in the heart, two
An Image-Based Three-Dimensional Digitizer for Pre-Decorating Thermoformed Parts
Mellor, J.P.
products. Decorating these thermoformed parts is a critical step in their manufacture. For parts thermoforming the plas- tic flows and stretches to conform to the shape of the mold distorting the original-distort the graphic printed on the flat sheets such that as the plastic flows into the thermoforming mold
Eggeman, Alexander S.; Krakow, Robert; Midgeley, Paul A.
2015-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
number EP/H017712/1 and the Royal Society. R.K. acknowledges financial support from Rolls-Royce, EPSRC and the BMWi under EP/H022309/1, EP/H500375/1 and grant number 20T0813. We are grateful to Professor Edgar Rauch for valuable discussion on the use...
Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)
2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z
Ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses may be generated up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime due to parametric processes in plasmas. The minimization of unwanted plasma processes leads to operational limits which are discussed here with respect to filamentation. Transverse filamentation, which originally was derived for plane waves, is being investigated for seed pulse propagation in the so called ?-pulse limit. A three-dimensional (3D) three-wave-interaction model is the basis of the present investigation. To demonstrate the applicability of the three-wave-interaction model, the 1D pulse forms are compared with those obtained from 1D particle in cell and Vlasov simulations. Although wave-breaking may occur, the kinetic simulations show that the leading pumped pulse develops a form similar to that obtained from the three-wave-interaction model. In the main part, 2D and 3D filamentation processes of (localized) pulses are investigated with the three-wave-interaction model. It is shown that the leading pulse front can stay filamentation-free, whereas the rear parts show transverse modulations.
Ghatwary, Tamer M. H.; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Loftus, Ian M. [St. George's Vascular Institute, St. George's Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom)] [St. George's Vascular Institute, St. George's Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom); Morgan, Robert [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom)] [St. George's Hospital, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Thompson, Matt M.; Holt, Peter J. E., E-mail: pholt@sgul.ac.uk [St. George's Vascular Institute, St. George's Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom)] [St. George's Vascular Institute, St. George's Hospital, Department of Outcomes Research (United Kingdom)
2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The morphology of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) directly influences the perioperative outcome and long-term durability of endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of methods have been proposed for the characterization of AAA morphology using reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. At present, there is lack of consensus as to which of these methods is most applicable to clinical practice or research. The purpose of this review was to evaluate existing protocols that used 3D CT images in the assessment of various aspects of AAA morphology. An electronic search was performed, from January 1996 to the end of October 2010, using the Embase and Medline databases. The literature review conformed to PRISMA statement standards. The literature search identified 604 articles, of which 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Only 15 of 31 studies objectively assessed reproducibility. Existing published protocols were insufficient to define a single evidence-based methodology for preoperative assessment of AAA morphology. Further development and expert consensus are required to establish a standardized and validated protocol to determine precisely how morphology relates to outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair.
Aerosol Imaging with a Soft X-ray Free Electron Laser
Bogan, Michael J.; /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore; Boutet, Sebastien; /SLAC; Chapman, Henry N.; /DESY /Hamburg U.; Marchesini, Stefano; /LBL, Berkeley; Barty, Anton; Benner, W.Henry /LLNL, Livermore; Rohner, Urs; /LLNL, Livermore /TOFWERK AG; Frank, Matthias; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; /LLNL, Livermore; Bajt, Sasa; /DESY; Woods, Bruce; /LLNL, Livermore; Seibert, M.M.; Iwan, Bianca; Timneanu, Nicusor; Hajdu, Janos; /Uppsala U.; Schulz, Joachim; /DESY
2011-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
Lasers have long played a critical role in the advancement of aerosol science. A new regime of ultrafast laser technology has recently be realized, the world's first soft xray free electron laser. The Free electron LASer in Hamburg, FLASH, user facility produces a steady source of 10 femtosecond pulses of 7-32 nm x-rays with 10{sub 12} photons per pulse. The high brightness, short wavelength, and high repetition rate (>500 pulses per second) of this laser offers unique capabilities for aerosol characterization. Here we use FLASH to perform the highest resolution imaging of single PM2.5 aerosol particles in flight to date. We resolve to 35 nm the morphology of fibrous and aggregated spherical carbonaceous nanoparticles that existed for less than two milliseconds in vacuum. Our result opens the possibility for high spatialand time-resolved single particle aerosol dynamics studies, filling a critical technological need in aerosol science.
Fully-automatic laser welding and micro-sculpting with universal in situ inline coherent imaging
Webster, Paul J L; Ji, Yang; Galbraith, Christopher M; Kinross, Alison W; Van Vlack, Cole; Fraser, James M
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Though new affordable high power laser technologies make possible many processing applications in science and industry, depth control remains a serious technical challenge. Here we show that inline coherent imaging, with line rates up to 312 kHz and microsecond-duration capture times, is capable of directly measuring laser penetration depth in a process as violent as kW-class keyhole welding. We exploit ICI's high speed, high dynamic range and robustness to interference from other optical sources to achieve fully automatic, adaptive control of laser welding as well as ablation, achieving micron-scale sculpting in vastly different heterogeneous biological materials.
Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime
Jae-Hwang Lee
2006-08-09T23:59:59.000Z
This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.
Three-dimensional mapping techniques in the analysis of a mature steam drive
Barrett, R.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Denver, CO (USA))
1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The use of interactive volumetric modeling (IVM), a three-dimensional mapping software package that employs a three-dimensional gridding algorithm, greatly assisted in evaluating the efficiency of a mature steam drive in the South Belridge field, Kern County, California. The productive horizon consists of Pleistocene-aged unconsolidated oil sands interbedded with impermeable shales. The sand-shale architecture is controlled by a prograding of fluviodeltaic depositional system. For mapping convenience, the Tulare reservoir has been divided into five zones, the lowermost E zone to the uppermost A zone. In ascending order the reservoir can be characterized by the following description: lowest in the section are isolated to coalescing mouth bars, followed by fairly continuous lower delta plain interdistributary channels, isolated meandering stream channels of the upper delta plain, and uppermost, a braided stream complex of amalgamated channel sands. A drilling program consisting of 68 wells evenly distributed over 100 acres supplied ample log and core information and in effect presented a snap-shot of the reservoir in its maturity. Drilling revealed zones with excellent sweep and, conversely, zones that had been bypassed by the steam drive. By using well-log data tied to core data three-dimensional maps of individual sands incorporating structure, sand thicknesses in a multicolored format were generated to show the changing oil saturation values throughout the reservoir. The graphic presentation of these data on the CRT allows the user to rotate and cut through the sand body of interest revealing virtually an infinite number of perspectives. A hard copy option gives the user a printed map of any perspective of interest. The software is also capable of precise volumetric calculations of the oil remaining in the reservoir.
Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels
Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott
2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z
Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.
Photonic band gaps in three-dimensional network structures with short-range order
Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Yang, Jin-Kyu [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Optical Engineering, Kongju National University, Kongju 314-701 (Korea, Republic of); Schreck, Carl F. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Dufresne, Eric R. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Cell Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); O'Hern, Corey S. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Cao, Hui [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)
2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PASs) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PASs with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PASs, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PASs without long-range order.
All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range
Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)
2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (1–6.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz–18?GHz)
Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy
Hirshkowitz, Amy
2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
shape perception is the grouping of the random dots. To make the boundary percept stronger, the density (number of random dot elements) can be increased (Anderson & Cortese, 1989; Bex, Simmers, & Dakin, 2003). A second factor that affects 2D shape... object shape. Perception & Psychophysics, 44(1), 1-6. Arterberry, M. & Yonas, A. (2000). Perception of three-dimensional shape specified by optic flow by 8-week-old infants. Perception & Psychophysics, 62(3), 550-556. Bex, P., Simmers, A., & Dakin, S...
Real-time, interactive animation of deformable two- and three-dimensional objects
Desbrun, Mathieu; Schroeder, Peter; Meyer, Mark; Barr, Alan H.
2003-06-03T23:59:59.000Z
A method of updating in real-time the locations and velocities of mass points of a two- or three-dimensional object represented by a mass-spring system. A modified implicit Euler integration scheme is employed to determine the updated locations and velocities. In an optional post-integration step, the updated locations are corrected to preserve angular momentum. A processor readable medium and a network server each tangibly embodying the method are also provided. A system comprising a processor in combination with the medium, and a system comprising the server in combination with a client for accessing the server over a computer network, are also provided.
Kim, Dukmin
1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of the well inflow equation for a partially perforated well is written as J model 0. 00708 kh ln(ro/rw) + s3D (4) where h is thickness of layer perforated. Fjerstad also pre- sented a new equation for the proper shut-in time including s3D as ro e D 2(ht.../h - 1) 67. 5 dsctdx e At' - [ ] ( ] . (5) rw k This equation reduces to Eq. 3 for a fully penetrating well. The current work investigates how the actual pwf is related to the po obtained in the three-dimensional reservoir simulation model...
Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.
2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.
Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic calculations using SOLA-PTS
Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.
1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The transient, three-dimensional SOLA-PTS code has been used to study the thermal-hydraulic mixing of HPI and ambient fluids in the cold leg and downcomer with application to the pressurized thermal-shock problem. Comparisons of calculated results with 1/5th-scale experimental data are presented and shown to be in good agreement. Also shown are results obtained at full scale for a Combustion Engineering plant (Calvert Cliffs-1) following an assumed main-streamline-break accident.
Coleman-Weinberg mechanism in a three-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter model
Ferrari, A. F. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adelia, 166, 09210-170, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Gallegos, E. A.; Gomes, M.; Silva, A. J. da [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lehum, A. C. [Escola de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-970, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)
2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Using the superfield formalism, we study the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry and superconformal invariance in the N=1 three-dimensional supersymmetric Chern-Simons model, coupled to a complex scalar superfield with a quartic self-coupling. This is an analogue of the conformally invariant Coleman-Weinberg model in four spacetime dimensions. We show that a mass for the gauge and matter superfields are dynamically generated after two-loop corrections to the effective superpotential. We also discuss the N=2 extension of our work, showing that the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism in such model is not feasible, because it is incompatible with perturbation theory.
Advances in lasers, optics, and imaging for the life sciences
Heller, Eric
Molecular Imaging Congress BioOpto Japan BioOpticsWorld.com "Invisible" molecules glow with new label- free possibilities for biomedical imaging, such as label- free mapping drug distributions and blood vessels on and off at 5 MHz. The spectrally filtered stimulation beam is detected by a large area photodiode
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)
2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.
Juan C del Alamo; Ruedi Meili; Begoña Alvarez-Gonzalez; Baldomero Alonso-Latorre; Effie Bastounis; Richard Firtel; Juan C Lasheras
2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce a novel three-dimensional (3D) traction force microscopy (TFM) method motivated by the recent discovery that cells adhering on plane surfaces exert both in-plane and out-of-plane traction stresses. We measure the 3D deformation of the substratum on a thin layer near its surface, and input this information into an exact analytical solution of the elastic equilibrium equation. These operations are performed in the Fourier domain with high computational efficiency, allowing to obtain the 3D traction stresses from raw microscopy images virtually in real time. We also characterize the error of previous two-dimensional (2D) TFM methods that neglect the out-of-plane component of the traction stresses. This analysis reveals that, under certain combinations of experimental parameters (\\ie cell size, substratums' thickness and Poisson's ratio), the accuracy of 2D TFM methods is minimally affected by neglecting the out-of-plane component of the traction stresses. Finally, we consider the cell's mechanosensing of substratum thickness by 3D traction stresses, finding that, when cells adhere on thin substrata, their out-of-plane traction stresses can reach four times deeper into the substratum than their in-plane traction stresses. It is also found that the substratum stiffness sensed by applying out-of-plane traction stresses may be up to 10 times larger than the stiffness sensed by applying in-plane traction stresses.
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Burckel, D. Bruce; Resnick, Paul J.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davids, Paul S.
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, andmore »characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.« less
Element-based concrete design with three-dimensional finite element models
O'Leary, M.; Huberty, K.; Winch, S. [Nuclear Power Technologies Div., Sargent and Lundy, 55 East Monroe, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A shell element based design of a typical shear wall using analytical results from a three-dimensional finite element model subjected to a combination of vertical and lateral loads is evaluated. The axial and flexural force resultants from each element for every load combination are used to calculate the required reinforcing for each element. Strength for axial loads (P) and out-of-plane flexure (M) in structural walls is determined according to the same P-M interaction procedures used for columns. After each element has been evaluated, a required reinforcing map for each face of each element in the wall is presented along with a constructible reinforcement pattern enveloping the required reinforcing. In order to determine whether the element-based approach meets the requirements of the section cut approach to design, which is typically employed in manual calculations, the total in-plane moment (M) and total vertical axial force (P) across the entire length of the wall is calculated and the P-M points are plotted on an in-plane P-M interaction diagram. It is concluded that element-based design for a structural wall ensures that reinforcement is provided where required by the three-dimensional finite element analysis while still providing sufficient reinforcing to satisfy the section cut approach to design. (authors)
Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation
Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.
1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.
Energetics and structural properties of three-dimensional bosonic clusters near threshold
Hanna, G. J.; Blume, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)
2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
We treat three-dimensional bosonic clusters with up to N=40 atoms, interacting additively through two-body van der Waals potentials, in the near-threshold regime. Our study includes super-borromean systems with N atoms for which all subsystems are unbound. We determine the energetics and structural properties such as the expectation value of the interparticle distance as a function of the coupling strength. It has been shown that the coupling strength g{sub *}{sup (N)}, for which the N-body system becomes unbound, is bounded by the coupling constant g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}, for which the next smaller system with N-1 atoms becomes unbound, i.e., g{sub *}{sup (N)}{>=}(N-1)g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}/N. By fitting our numerically determined ground-state energies to a simple functional form with three fitting parameters, we determine the relationship between g{sub *}{sup (N)} and g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}. Our trimer and tetramer energies fall on the so-called Tjon line, which has been studied in nuclear physics. We confirm the existence of generalized Tjon lines for larger clusters. Signatures of the universal behavior of weakly bound three-dimensional clusters can possibly be observed in ultracold Bose gases.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets: three-dimensional effects
R. Keppens; G. Toth
1999-01-27T23:59:59.000Z
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important insights into the coupling and excitation events of the various linear mode numbers.
Schmitt, R.L.; Williams, R.J.; Matthews, J.D.
1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes the development and testing of a high-frequency scannerless imaging laser radar system to evaluate its viability as an industrial inspection and measurement sensor. We modified an existing 5.5-Mhz scannerless laser radar to operate at 150 Mhz, and measured its performance including its spatial resolution and range resolution. We also developed new algorithms that allow rapid data reduction with improved range resolution. The resulting 150-Mhz ladar system demonstrated a range resolution of better than 3 mm, which represents nearly a factor-of-100 improvement in range resolution over the existing scannerless laser radar system. Based on this work, we believe that a scannerless range imager with 1- to 2-mm range resolution is feasible. This work was performed as part of a small-business CRADA between Sandia National Laboratories and Perceptron, Inc.
Griggs, D. P.
1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The development of a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics code for LWR safety analysis has been initiated. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code ...
Swigler, David Townley
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the three-dimensional turbulence and kinematic properties that develop due to a breaking solitary and an irregular shallow water bathymetry. A large basin equipped with a piston-type wavemaker...
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
I: data acquisition pipeline The electronic version of thiswe describe an integrated pipeline of methods for studyingA three-dimensional analysis pipeline To be able to analyze
Furukawa, Toru
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...
Lee, Howon
The rapid manufacture of complex three-dimensional micro-scale components has eluded researchers for decades. Several additive manufacturing options have been limited by either speed or the ability to fabricate true ...
Simon, Hélène A.; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
G. Rau. Leakage ?ow at mechanical heart valve prostheses:and the valve housing and forms two strong leakage jets onleakage ?ow rate Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Flow Fields through the closed valve
A. Rezaei-Aghdam; M. Sephid
2015-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
We obtain the classical r-matrices of real two and three dimensional Jacobi-Lie bialgebras. In this way, we classify all non-isomorphic real two and three dimensional coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras and their types (triangular and quasitriangular). Also, we obtain the generalized Sklyanin bracket formula and then using it, we calculate the Jacobi structures on the related Jacobi-Lie groups. Finally, we present a new method for constructing classical integrable systems using coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras.
Karsilayan, Nur
2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z
FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS IN LAYERED MEDIA A Dissertation by NUR KURT KARSILAYAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY May 2010 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering FULL-WAVE SURFACE INTEGRAL EQUATION METHOD FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC-CIRCUIT SIMULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL INTERCONNECTS...
A Genetic Algorithm for Packing ThreeDimensional NonConvex Objects Having Cavities and Holes
Coello, Carlos A. Coello
packing, non convex objects, selective laser sintering, rapid proto typing 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 SELECTIVE, the selective laser sintering (SLS) machine produces parts directly from CAD files through an additive manufac tions of parts at each layer. Selective laser sintering uses fine, heatfusible powder to build a part
Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress
Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V
2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.
Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas
Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie (Reno, NV); Cowan, Thomas E. (Reno, NV); Sentoku, Yasuhiko (Reno, NV); Rassuchine, Jennifer (Reno, NV)
2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z
In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.
Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z
We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.
Disorder driven itinerant quantum criticality of three dimensional massless Dirac fermions
Pixley, J H; Sarma, S Das
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The experimentally observed non-Fermi liquid behavior in many strange metals over a broad range of energy and temperature can often be understood by invoking their close proximity to a zero-temperature quantum critical point (e.g. high-temperature cuprate superconductors). Progress in our understanding of such quantum critical properties of itinerant electrons has been hindered by the lack of effective models which are amenable to controlled analytical and numerically exact calculations. Here we establish that the disorder driven semimetal to metal quantum phase transition of three dimensional massless Dirac fermions could serve as a paradigmatic toy model for studying itinerant quantum criticality, which is solved by exact numerical calculations and a controlled field theoretic analysis. As a result, we establish the robust existence of a non-Gaussian universality class, and also construct the relevant low energy effective field theory that could guide the understanding of quantum critical scaling for many s...
Bouncing ball orbits and symmetry breaking effects in a three-dimensional chaotic billiard
B. Dietz; B. Moessner; T. Papenbrock; U. Reif; A. Richter
2008-04-10T23:59:59.000Z
We study the classical and quantum mechanics of a three-dimensional stadium billiard. It consists of two quarter cylinders that are rotated with respect to each other by 90 degrees, and it is classically chaotic. The billiard exhibits only a few families of nongeneric periodic orbits. We introduce an analytic method for their treatment. The length spectrum can be understood in terms of the nongeneric and unstable periodic orbits. For unequal radii of the quarter cylinders the level statistics agree well with predictions from random matrix theory. For equal radii the billiard exhibits an additional symmetry. We investigated the effects of symmetry breaking on spectral properties. Moreover, for equal radii, we observe a small deviation of the level statistics from random matrix theory. This led to the discovery of stable and marginally stable orbits, which are absent for un equal radii.
Higgs Mechanism and Anomalous Hall Effect in Three-Dimensional Topological Superconductors
Nogueira, Flavio S; Eremin, Ilya
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate that the Higgs mechanism in three-dimensional topological superconductors exhibits unique features with experimentally observable consequences. The Higgs model we discuss has two superconducting components and an axion-like magnetoelectric term with the phase difference of the superconducting order parameters playing the role of the axion field. Due to this additional term, quantum electromagnetic and phase fluctuations lead to a robust topologically non-trivial state that cannot be continuously deformed into a topologically non-trivial one. In the low frequency London regime an anomalous Hall effect is induced in the presence of an applied electric field parallel to the surface. This anomalous Hall current is induced by a Lorentz-like force arising from the axion term, and it involves the relative superfluid velocity of the superconducting components. The anomalous Hall current has a negative sign, a situation reminiscent, but quite distinct in physical origin, of the anomalous Hall effect obs...
User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics
McMaster, W H
1982-05-07T23:59:59.000Z
The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Current in a three-dimensional periodic tube with unbiased forces
Bao-quan Ai; Liang-gang Liu
2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
Transport of a Brownian particle moving along the axis of a three-dimensional asymmetric periodic tube is investigated in the presence of asymmetric unbiased forces. The reduction of the coordinates may involve not only the appearance of entropic barrier but also the effective diffusion coefficient. It is found that in the presence of entropic barrier, the asymmetry of the tube shape and the asymmetry of the unbiased forces are the two ways of inducing a net current. The current is a peaked function of temperature which indicates that the thermal noise may facilitate the transport even in the presence of entropic barrier. There exists an optimized radius at the bottleneck at which the current takes its maximum value. Competition between the two opposite driving factors may induce current reversal.
Biologically Inspired Synthesis Route to Three-Dimensionally Structured Inorganic Thin Films
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Inorganic thin films (hydroxide, oxide, and phosphate materials) that are textured on a submicron scale have been prepared from aqueous metal salt solutions at room temperature using vapor-diffusion catalysis. This generic synthesis approach mimics the essential advantages of the catalytic and structure-directing mechanisms observed for the formation of silica skeletons of marine sponges. Chemical composition, crystallinity, and the three-dimensional morphology of films prepared by this method are extremely sensitive to changes in the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations, reaction times, and the presence and nature of substrate materials. Focusing on different materials systems, the reaction mechanism for the formation ofmore »these thin films and the influence of different reaction parameters on the product are explained.« less
Atomic Scale Design and Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ionic Diffusive Nanofluidic Channels
Park, Jin Kyoung; We, Guo-Wei
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advance in nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in nanofluidics, which has been established as a reliable means for a wide variety of applications, including molecular separation, detection, crystallization and biosynthesis. Although atomic and molecular level consideration is a key ingredient in experimental design and fabrication of nanfluidic systems, atomic and molecular modeling of nanofluidics is rare and most simulations at nanoscale are restricted to one- or two-dimensions in the literature, to our best knowledge. The present work introduces atomic scale design and three-dimensional (3D) simulation of ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems. We propose a variational multiscale framework to represent the nanochannel in discrete atomic and/or molecular detail while describe the ionic solution by continuum. Apart from the major electrostatic and entropic effects, the non-electrostatic interactions between the channel and solution, and among solvent molecules are accounted in our modeling. We deriv...
Large scale three-dimensional topology optimisation of heat sinks cooled by natural convection
Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This work presents the application of density-based topology optimisation to the design of three-dimensional heat sinks cooled by natural convection. The governing equations are the steady-state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the thermal convection-diffusion equation through the Bousinessq approximation. The fully coupled non-linear multiphysics system is solved using stabilised trilinear equal-order finite elements in a parallel framework allowing for the optimisation of large scale problems with order of 40-330 million state degrees of freedom. The flow is assumed to be laminar and several optimised designs are presented for Grashof numbers between $10^3$ and $10^6$. Interestingly, it is observed that the number of branches in the optimised design increases with increasing Grashof numbers, which is opposite to two-dimensional optimised designs.
Striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes in three dimensional simulations for DIII-D
Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Reiter, D. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany)] [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)
2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
The application of resonant magnetic perturbations results in a non-axisymmetric striation pattern of magnetic field lines from the plasma interior which intersect the divertor targets. The impact on related particle and heat fluxes is investigated by three dimensional computer simulations for two different recycling conditions (controlled via neutral gas pumping). It is demonstrated that a mismatch between the particle and heat flux striation pattern (splitting vs. no splitting), as is repeatedly observed in ITER similar shape H-mode plasmas at DIII-D, can be reproduced by the simulations for high recycling conditions at the onset of partial detachment. These results indicate that a detailed knowledge of the particle and energy balance is at least as important for realistic simulations as the consideration of a change in the magnetic field structure by plasma response effects.
Specific heat and energy for the three-dimensional O(2) model
Holtmann, S; Schulze, T
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the three-dimensional O(2) model on lattices of size 8^3 to 160^3 close to the critical point at zero magnetic field. We confirm explicitly the value of the critical coupling J_c found by Ballesteros et al. and estimate there the universal values of g_r and xi/L. At the critical point we study the finite size dependencies of the energy density epsilon and the specific heat C. We find that the nonsingular part of the specific heat C_{ns} is linearly dependent on 1/alpha. From the critical behaviour of the specific heat for T not T_c on the largest lattices we determine the universal amplitude ratio A+/A-. The alpha- dependence of this ratio is close to the phenomenological relation A+/A- = 1-4alpha.
O'Neill, S M
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on a series of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet propagation in realistic models of magnetized galaxy clusters. We are primarily interested in the details of energy transfer between jets and the intracluster medium (ICM) to help clarify what role such flows could have in the reheating of cluster cores. Our simulated jets feature a range of intermittency behaviors, including intermittent jets that periodically switch on and off and one model jet that shuts down completely, naturally creating a relic plume. The ICM into which these jets propagate incorporates tangled magnetic field geometries and density substructure designed to mimic some likely features of real galaxy clusters. We find that our jets are characteristically at least 60% efficient at transferring thermal energy to the ICM. Irreversible heat energy is not uniformly distributed, however, instead residing preferentially in regions very near the jet/cocoon boundaries. While intermittency...
Three-dimensional architecture of hair-cell linkages as revealedby electron-microscopic tomography
Auer, Manfred; Koster, Bram; Ziese, Ulrike; Bajaj, Chandrajit; Volkmann, Niels; Wang, Da Neng; Hudspeth, A. James
2006-07-28T23:59:59.000Z
The senses of hearing and balance rest upon mechanoelectrical transduction by the hair bundles of hair cells in the inner ear. Located at the apical cellular surface, each hair bundle comprises several tens of stereocilia and a single kinocilium that are interconnected by extracellular proteinaceous links. Using electron-microscopic tomography of bullfrog saccular sensory epithelia, we examined the three-dimensional structures of ankle or basal links, kinociliary links, and tip links. We observed clear differences in the dimensions and appearances of the three links. We found two distinct populations of tip links suggestive of the involvement of two proteins or splice variants. We noted auxiliary links connecting the upper portions of tip links to the taller stereocilia. Tip links and auxiliary links show a tendency to adopt a globular conformation when disconnected from the membrane surface.
Yuya Sasai; Naoki Sasakura
2009-05-13T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the unitarity of three dimensional noncommutative scalar field theory in the Lie algebraic noncommutative spacetime [x^i,x^j]=2i kappa epsilon^{ijk}x_k. This noncommutative field theory possesses a SL(2,R)/Z_2 group momentum space, which leads to a Hopf algebraic translational symmetry. We check the Cutkosky rule of the one-loop self-energy diagrams in the noncommutative phi^3 theory when we include a braiding, which is necessary for the noncommutative field theory to possess the Hopf algebraic translational symmetry at quantum level. Then, we find that the Cutkosky rule is satisfied if the mass is less than 1/(2^(1/2)kappa).
Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production
Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)
2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z
This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.
The Three Dimensional Evolution to Core Collapse of a Massive Star
Couch, Sean M; Arnett, W David; Timmes, F X
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We present the first three dimensional (3D) simulation of the final minutes of iron core growth in a massive star, up to and including the point of core gravitational instability and collapse. We self-consistently capture the development of strong convection driven by violent Si burning in the shell surrounding the iron core. This convective burning builds the iron core to its critical (Chandrasekhar) mass and collapse ensues, driven by electron capture and photodisintegration. The non-spherical structure and motion (turbulent fluctuations) generated by 3D convection is substantial at the point of collapse. We examine the impact of such physically-realistic 3D initial conditions on the core-collapse supernova mechanism using 3D simulations including multispecies neutrino leakage. We conclude that non-spherical progenitor structure should not be ignored, and has a significant and favorable impact on the likelihood for neutrino-driven explosions.
Particle Acceleration in three dimensional Reconnection Regions: A New Test Particle Approach
Rudiger Schopper; Guido T. Birk; Harald Lesch
2001-06-29T23:59:59.000Z
Magnetic Reconnection is an efficient and fast acceleration mechanism by means of direct electric field acceleration parallel to the magnetic field. Thus, acceleration of particles in reconnection regions is a very important topic in plasma astrophysics. This paper shows that the conventional analytical models and numerical test particle investigations can be misleading concerning the energy distribution of the accelerated particles, since they oversimplify the electric field structure by the assumption that the field is homogeneous. These investigations of the acceleration of charged test particles are extended by considering three-dimensional field configurations characterized by localized field-aligned electric fields. Moreover, effects of radiative losses are discussed. The comparison between homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric field acceleration in reconnection regions shows dramatic differences concerning both, the maximum particle energy and the form of the energy distribution.
Conversion of the Big Hill geological site characterization report to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2003-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Big Hill salt dome, located in southeastern Texas, is home to one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Big Hill site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 14 oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the Big Hill site that can be used in support of future work.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Snider, Anna C.
2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The West Hackberry salt dome, in southwestern Louisiana, is one of four underground oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the West Hackberry site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary layers, mapped faults, and a portion of the oil storage caverns at the site. This work provides a realistic and internally consistent geologic model of the West Hackberry site that can be used in support of future work.
Malone, R.C.; Auer, L.H.; Glatzmaier, G.A.; Wood, M.C.; Toon, O.B.
1986-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
We reexamine the ''nuclear winter'' hypothesis with a three-dimensional global model modified to allow for localized injection of smoke, its transport by the simulated winds, its absorption of sunlight, and its removal by model-simulated precipitation. Smoke injected into the troposphere is driven upward by solar heating. The tropopause, initially above the smoke, reforms below the heated smoke layer and separates it from precipitation below. Although much smoke is scavenged while the thermal structure is being altered, the residence time of the remaining smoke is greatly increased. We find, particularly for July conditions, a longer-lasting ''nuclear winter'' effect than was found in earlier modeling studies in which normal tropospheric residence times were assumed. In January the smaller solar flux in the northern hemisphere allows faster removal of smoke than in July. Significant cooling of the northern hemisphere continents is predicted; its dependence on season and injected smoke mass is described.
Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece); Economou, E. N. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology—Hellas (FORTH), P.O. Box 1385, Heraklion GR-71110, Greece and Department of Physics, University of Crete, Heraklion GR-71003 (Greece)
2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.
Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.
The quintic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation on three-dimensional Zoll manifolds
Herr, Sebastian
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Let (M,g) be a three-dimensional smooth compact Riemannian manifold such that all geodesics are simple and closed with a common minimal period, such as the 3-sphere S^3 with canonical metric. In this work the global well-posedness problem for the quintic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation i\\partial_t u+\\Delta u=\\pm|u|^4u, u|_{t=0}=u_0 is solved for small initial data u_0 in the energy space H^1(M), which is the scaling-critical space. Moreover, local well-posedness is shown for large data, as well as persistence of higher initial Sobolev regularity. This extends previous results of Burq-G\\'erard-Tzvetkov to the endpoint case.
Specific heat and energy for the three-dimensional O(2) model
S. Holtmann; J. Engels; T. Schulze
2001-09-19T23:59:59.000Z
We investigate the three-dimensional O(2) model on lattices of size 8^3 to 160^3 close to the critical point at zero magnetic field. We confirm explicitly the value of the critical coupling J_c found by Ballesteros et al. and estimate there the universal values of g_r and xi/L. At the critical point we study the finite size dependencies of the energy density epsilon and the specific heat C. We find that the nonsingular part of the specific heat C_{ns} is linearly dependent on 1/alpha. From the critical behaviour of the specific heat for T not T_c on the largest lattices we determine the universal amplitude ratio A+/A-. The alpha- dependence of this ratio is close to the phenomenological relation A+/A- = 1-4alpha.
Conformal invariance predictions for the three-dimensional self-avoiding walk
Tom Kennedy
2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z
If the three dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere. The ensembles of SAW's used to define these hitting densities involve walks of arbitrary lengths, and so these ensembles cannot be directly studied by the pivot Monte Carlo algorithm for the SAW. We show that these mixed length ensembles should have the same scaling limit as certain weighted ensembles that only involve walks with a single length, thus providing a fast method for simulating these ensembles. Preliminary simulations which found good agreement between the predictions and Monte Carlo simulations for the SAW were reported in [14]. In this paper we present more accurate simulations testing the predictions and find even stronger support for the prediction that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.
Three-dimensional field map of the Fermilab D0 detector
Ostiguy, J.; Yamada, R.
1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
The D0 detector is a general purpose hadron collider detector presently under construction at Fermilab and scheduled to be put in operation in the fall of 1991. The D0 muon detection system is composed of three major toroids referred to respectively as the Central Field (CF) toroid and the End Field (EF) toroids. The complete detector weighs in excess of 4000 metric tons and rests on a steel platform. The muon detection system was designed using standard 2D codes and flux maps inside were obtained for each of the toroids taken separately. Various magnetic field measurements were performed; discrepancies with the design calculations have been observed and attributed to three dimensional effects. In this paper, we compare the predictions of the 2D computations to 3D calculations for a fully assembled detector. We also estimate the electromagnetic forces between the toroids and discuss other 3D effects, in particular, the effect of the supporting platform. 4 refs., 3 figs.
Thorne, P.D.; Chamness, M.A.; Vermeul, V.R.; Macdonald, Q.C.; Schubert, S.E.
1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report documents work conducted during the fiscal year 1994 to development an improved three-dimensional conceptual model of ground-water flow in the unconfined aquifer system across the Hanford Site Ground-Water Surveillance Project, which is managed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The main objective of the ongoing effort to develop an improved conceptual model of ground-water flow is to provide the basis for improved numerical report models that will be capable of accurately predicting the movement of radioactive and chemical contaminant plumes in the aquifer beneath Hanford. More accurate ground-water flow models will also be useful in assessing the impacts of changes in facilities and operations. For example, decreasing volumes of operational waste-water discharge are resulting in a declining water table in parts of the unconfined aquifer. In addition to supporting numerical modeling, the conceptual model also provides a qualitative understanding of the movement of ground water and contaminants in the aquifer.
Two-dimensional excitons in three-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride
Cao, X. K.; Lin, J. Y., E-mail: hx.jiang@ttu.edu; Jiang, H. X., E-mail: jingyu.lin@ttu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Clubine, B.; Edgar, J. H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)
2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z
The recombination processes of excitons in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have been probed using time-resolved photoluminescence. It was found that the theory for two-dimensional (2D) exciton recombination describes well the exciton dynamics in three-dimensional hBN. The exciton Bohr radius and binding energy deduced from the temperature dependent exciton recombination lifetime is around 8?Å and 740?meV, respectively. The effective masses of electrons and holes in 2D hBN deduced from the generalized relativistic dispersion relation of 2D systems are 0.54m{sub o}, which are remarkably consistent with the exciton reduced mass deduced from the experimental data. Our results illustrate that hBN represents an ideal platform to study the 2D optical properties as well as the relativistic properties of particles in a condensed matter system.
O'Keeffe, P.; Bolognesi, P.; Coreno, M.; Avaldi, L. [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo (Italy); Moise, A.; Richter, R.; Cautero, G.; Stebel, L.; Sergo, R. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Area Science Park, I-34149 Basovizza (Trieste) (Italy); Pravica, L. [The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, Western Australia (Australia); Ovcharenko, Y. [Institute of Electron Physics, 88017 Uzhgorod (Ukraine)
2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
A velocity map imaging/ion time-of-flight spectrometer designed specifically for pump-probe experiments combining synchrotron and laser radiations is described. The in-house built delay line detector can be used in two modes: the high spatial resolution mode and the coincidence mode. In the high spatial resolution mode a kinetic energy resolution of 6% has been achieved. The coincidence mode can be used to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the pump-probe experiments either by using a gate to count electrons only when the laser is present or by recording coincidences with the ion formed in the ionization process.
Le, T.L.
1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z
TRIMHX is a fundamental Reactor Analysis tool in use at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and is an integral part of the Generalized Reactor Analysis Subsystem (GRASS). TRIMHX solves the time dependent multigroup neutron diffusion equation in two and three dimensional hexagonal geometry by standard and coarse mesh finite difference methods. The TRIMHX implementation assumes the solution to this equation can be discretized in space, energy, and time. These are industry accepted approaches which can be found in many nuclear engineering books. This report concerns the verification and validation of TRIMHX, a transient two and three dimensional hex-z diffusion theory code. The validation was performed to determine the accuracy of the code, and the verification was performed to determine if the code was correctly using the correct theory and that all the subroutines function as required. For TRIMHX, the validation requirement was satisfied by comparing the results of the code with experiments and benchmarking the code against other standard or validated code results. The verification requirement for TRIMHX was performed indirectly since it is impossible and not necessary to reverify a large code like TRIMHX line by line. The extensive operations history of TRIMHX in conjunction with the comparisons against many numerical experiments (exact solutions) and other diffusion theory codes is sufficient to establish that the code is functioning as intended and therefore it is verified. This report summarizes four sets of experiments performed in 1974, 1977, and 1988, two DIF3D/TRIMHX comparison problems performed in 1991, a DIF3D/FX2-TH/TRIMHX comparison problem produced for this report, and the comparison of TRIMHX/GRIMHX initial static calculations. The results of these experiments show that TRIMHX was correctly implemented and is ready to submit into SCMS production mode.
Dynamics of impurities in a three-dimensional volume-preserving map
Swetamber Das; Neelima Gupte
2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
We study the dynamics of inertial particles in three dimensional incompressible maps, as representations of volume preserving flows. The impurity dynamics has been modeled, in the Lagrangian framework, by a six-dimensional dissipative bailout embedding map. The fluid-parcel dynamics of the base map is embedded in the particle dynamics governed by the map. The base map considered for the present study is the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) map. We consider the behavior of the system both in the aerosol regime, where the density of the particle is larger than that of the base flow, as well as the bubble regime, where the particle density is less than that of the base flow. The phase spaces in both the regimes show rich and complex dynamics with three type of dynamical behaviors - chaotic structures, regular orbits and hyperchaotic regions. In the one-action case, the aerosol regime is found to have periodic attractors for certain values of the dissipation and inertia parameters. For the aerosol regime of the two-action ABC map, an attractor merging and widening crises is identified using the bifurcation diagram and the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents. After the crisis an attractor with two parts is seen, and trajectories hop between these parts with period 2. The bubble regime of the embedded map shows strong hyperchaotic regions as well as crisis induced intermittency with characteristic times between bursts that scale as a power law behavior as a function of the dissipation parameter. Furthermore, we observe riddled basin of attraction and unstable dimension variability in the phase space in the bubble regime. The bubble regime in one-action shows similar behavior. This study of a simple model of impurity dynamics may shed light upon the transport properties of passive scalars in three dimensional flows. We also compare our results with those seen earlier in two dimensional flows.
Collimator design for neutron imaging of laser-fusion targets
Sommargren, G.E.; Lerche, R.A.
1981-12-15T23:59:59.000Z
Several pinhole collimator geometries for use in neutron imaging experiments have been modeled and compared. Point spread functions are shown for a cylinder, hyperbola, intersecting cones, and a five-zone approximation to the intersecting cones. Of the geometries studied, the intersecting cones appear the most promising with respect to neutron efficiency, field of view, and isoplanatism.
NIMS3D: An Autonomous Three-Dimensional Cabled Robot for Actuated Sensing Applications (MAS 3)
Per Henrik Borgstrom; Nils Peter Borgstrom; Michael J. Stealey; Maxim A. Batalin; William J. Kaiser
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Laser Rangefinder Topographic Lab Test: 12/2/05 z-pos (m)y-pos (m)x-pos (m) Piecewise linear trajectory – Trace of x
Sensors and Actuators A 127 (2006) 228234 Fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures based on
2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
laser system. Compared to existing manufacturing techniques, our direct UV laser writing method greatly Zhanga, a Department of Manufacturing Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary's Street, Boston, MA Available online 3 October 2005 Abstract This paper introduces a novel 3D manufacturing approach
Monochromatic imaging of scattered laser light from in situ generated particles in plasmas
Hareland, W.A.; Buss, R.J.; Brown, D.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Collins, S.M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in the behavior of particles in plasmas because of the negative economic impact of contamination during processing of silicon for microelectronics manufacture. Here, spatially resolved images of particle distributions are measured in steady-state plasmas in a GEC (gaseous electronics conference) plasma reactor. Images are obtained by monochromatic imaging of scattered laser light using a microchannel plate (MCP) image intensifier and a high-speed video camera. The observed distributions of particulates generated by adding small quantities of CHF{sub 3} to an argon plasma are extremely complex and diverse. The patterns observed are temporally varying, and rarely as simple as domes and rings observed in other reactors. The forces acting on the particles are sufficiently complex that reproducing specific spatial patterns by controlling processing parameters if often impossible.
Sajjadi, Shahrdad G; Drullion, Frederique
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A review of three-dimensional waves on deep-water is presented. Three forms of three dimensionality, namely oblique, forced and spontaneous type, are identified. An alternative formulation for these three-dimensional waves is given through cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The periodic solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation are found using Weierstrass elliptic $\\wp$ functions. It is shown that the classification of solutions depends on the boundary conditions, wavenumber and frequency. For certain parameters, Weierstrass $\\wp$ functions are reduced to periodic, hyperbolic or Jacobi elliptic functions. It is demonstrated that some of these solutions do not have any physical significance. An analytical solution of cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with wind forcing is also obtained which results in how groups of waves are generated on the surface of deep water in the ocean. In this case the dependency on the energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, make either the groups of wav...
Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?°C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.
Chang Hyun Baek; Hyesung Kang; Jongsoo Kim; Dongsu Ryu
2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z
We study thermal-gravitational instability in simplified models for protogalactic halos using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations followed the evolution of gas with radiative cooling down to T = 10^4 K, background heating, and self-gravity. Then cooled and condensed clouds were identified and their physical properties were examined in detail. During early stage clouds start to form around initial density peaks by thermal instability. Small clouds appear first and they are pressure-bound. Subsequently, the clouds grow through compression by the background pressure as well as gravitational infall. During late stage cloud-cloud collisions become important, and clouds grow mostly through gravitational merging. Gravitationally bound clouds with mass M_c > ~6 X 10^6 Msun are found in the late stage. They are approximately in virial equilibrium and have radius R_c = \\~150 - 200 pc. Those clouds have gained angular momentum through tidal torque as well as merging, so they have large angular momentum with the spin parameter ~ 0.3. The clouds formed in a denser background tend to have smaller spin parameters. We discuss briefly the implications of our results on the formation of protoglobular cluster clouds in protogalactic halos. (abridged)
Kouker, W. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)
1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A three-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere is introduced. The model is based on the full set of the primitive equations. It is designed to simulate a yearly cycle of the middle atmosphere. Results are presented for the solstice and equinox conditions. The model reproduces the main observed features of the middle atmospheric circulation: the stratospheric-mesospheric jet streams and the cold summer mesopause region at solstice with reversed zonal wind especially in the summer mesosphere, and the weak westerly circulation at equinox. The parameterized effects of breaking gravity waves in the mesosphere drive the atmosphere out of radiative balance. They lead to a meridional circulation with a one-cell structure at solstice with upward (downward) motion over the summer (winter) pole and a meridional flow towards the winter hemisphere and a two-cell structure at equinox with upward motion over the tropics and downward motion over the polar regions. Potential fields are presented for horizontal vector fields. They suggest that the stratospheric circulation can is dominated by horizontally nondivergent flow. This is modified by the results of a more quantitative view at the interaction of planetary waves on the zonal mean flow, which clearly identifies the essential role of horizontal divergence on the stratospheric circulation.
Puthen-Veettil, B., E-mail: b.puthen-veettil@unsw.edu.au; Patterson, R.; König, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, UNSW, Sydney 2052 (Australia)
2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z
Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower “series resistance.” While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.
Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime
Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez
2012-02-09T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.
The Joint Cascade of Energy and Helicity in Three-Dimensional Turbulence
Qiaoning Chen; Shiyi Chen; Gregory L. Eyink
2002-06-18T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) turbulence has both energy and helicity as inviscid constants of motion. In contrast to two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, where a second inviscid invariant--the enstrophy--blocks the energy cascade to small scales, in 3D there is a joint cascade of both energy and helicity simultaneously to small scales. The basic cancellation mechanism which permits a joint cascade of energy and helicity is illuminated by means of the helical decomposition of the velocity into positively and negatively polarized waves. This decomposition is employed in the present study both theoretically and also in a numerical simulation of homogeneous and isotropic 3D turbulence. It is shown that the transfer of energy to small scales produces a tremendous growth of helicity separately in the + and - helical modes at high wavenumbers, diverging in the limit of infinite Reynolds number. However, because of a tendency to restore reflection invariance at small scales, the net helicity from both modes remains finite in that limit. The net helicity flux is shown to be constant all the way up to the Kolmogorov wavenumber: there is no shorter inertial-range for helicity cascade than for energy cascade. The transfer of energy and helicity between + and - modes, which permits the joint cascade, is shown to be due to two distinct physical processes, advection and vortex stretching.
Three dimensional SPH simulations of radiation-driven warped accretion discs
Stephen B. Foulkes; Carole A. Haswell; James R. Murray
2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
We present three dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) calculations of warped accretion discs in X-ray binary systems. Geometrically thin, optically thick accretion discs are illuminated by a central radiation source. This illumination exerts a non-axisymmetric radiation pressure on the surface of the disc resulting in a torque that acts on the disc to induce a twist or warp. Initially planar discs are unstable to warping driven by the radiation torque and in general the warps also precess in a retrograde direction relative to the orbital flow. We simulate a number of X-ray binary systems which have different mass ratios using a number of different luminosities for each. Radiation-driven warping occurs for all systems simulated. For mass ratios q ~ 0.1 a moderate warp occurs in the inner disc while the outer disc remains in the orbital plane (c.f. X 1916-053). For less extreme mass ratios the entire disc tilts out of the orbital plane (c.f. Her X-1). For discs that are tilted out of the orbital plane in which the outer edge material of the disc is precessing in a prograde direction we obtain both positive and negative superhumps simultaneously in the dissipation light curve (c.f. V603 Aql).
Impacts of rotation on three-dimensional hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae
Nakamura, Ko; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2014-09-20T23:59:59.000Z
We perform a series of simplified numerical experiments to explore how rotation impacts the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. For our systematic study, we employ a light-bulb scheme to trigger explosions and a three-flavor neutrino leakage scheme to treat deleptonization effects and neutrino losses from the proto-neutron-star interior. Using a 15 M {sub ?} progenitor, we compute 30 models in 3D with a wide variety of initial angular momentum and light-bulb neutrino luminosity. We find that the rotation can help the onset of neutrino-driven explosions for the models in which the initial angular momentum is matched to that obtained in recent stellar evolutionary calculations (?0.3-3 rad s{sup –1} at the center). For the models with larger initial angular momentum, the shock surface deforms to be more oblate due to larger centrifugal force. This not only makes the gain region more concentrated around the equatorial plane, but also makes the mass larger in the gain region. As a result, buoyant bubbles tend to be coherently formed and rise in the equatorial region, which pushes the revived shock toward ever larger radii until a global explosion is triggered. We find that these are the main reasons that the preferred direction of the explosion in 3D rotating models is often perpendicular to the spin axis, which is in sharp contrast to the polar explosions around the axis that were obtained in previous two-dimensional simulations.
Atomic Scale Design and Three-Dimensional Simulation of Ionic Diffusive Nanofluidic Channels
Jin Kyoung Park; Kelin Xia; Guo-Wei We
2015-03-02T23:59:59.000Z
Recent advance in nanotechnology has led to rapid advances in nanofluidics, which has been established as a reliable means for a wide variety of applications, including molecular separation, detection, crystallization and biosynthesis. Although atomic and molecular level consideration is a key ingredient in experimental design and fabrication of nanfluidic systems, atomic and molecular modeling of nanofluidics is rare and most simulations at nanoscale are restricted to one- or two-dimensions in the literature, to our best knowledge. The present work introduces atomic scale design and three-dimensional (3D) simulation of ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems. We propose a variational multiscale framework to represent the nanochannel in discrete atomic and/or molecular detail while describe the ionic solution by continuum. Apart from the major electrostatic and entropic effects, the non-electrostatic interactions between the channel and solution, and among solvent molecules are accounted in our modeling. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations for nanofluidic systems. Mathematical algorithms, such as Dirichlet to Neumann mapping and the matched interface and boundary (MIB) methods are developed to rigorously solve the aforementioned equations to the second-order accuracy in 3D realistic settings. Three ionic diffusive nanofluidic systems, including a negatively charged nanochannel, a bipolar nanochannel and a double-well nanochannel are designed to investigate the impact of atomic charges to channel current, density distribution and electrostatic potential. Numerical findings, such as gating, ion depletion and inversion, are in good agreements with those from experimental measurements and numerical simulations in the literature.
Uniform electron gases: III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres
Agboola, Davids; Gill, Peter M W; Loos, Pierre-François
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e.~the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems, and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e. the minimum-energy arrangement of $n$ point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of $n$. We have found 11 special values of $n$ whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids ...
Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster
Euaggelos E. Zotos
2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z
The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.
Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow
Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith
2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincar\\'e section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time.
Stein, Joshua S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Carlsbad, NM); Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
The geologic model implicit in the original site characterization report for the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve Site near Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has been converted to a numerical, computer-based three-dimensional model. The original site characterization model was successfully converted with minimal modifications and use of new information. The geometries of the salt diapir, selected adjacent sedimentary horizons, and a number of faults have been modeled. Models of a partial set of the several storage caverns that have been solution-mined within the salt mass are also included. Collectively, the converted model appears to be a relatively realistic representation of the geology of the Bayou Choctaw site as known from existing data. A small number of geometric inconsistencies and other problems inherent in 2-D vs. 3-D modeling have been noted. Most of the major inconsistencies involve faults inferred from drill hole data only. Modem computer software allows visualization of the resulting site model and its component submodels with a degree of detail and flexibility that was not possible with conventional, two-dimensional and paper-based geologic maps and cross sections. The enhanced visualizations may be of particular value in conveying geologic concepts involved in the Bayou Choctaw Strategic Petroleum Reserve site to a lay audience. A Microsoft WindowsTM PC-based viewer and user-manipulable model files illustrating selected features of the converted model are included in this report.
Pirgazi, Hadi, E-mail: Hadi.pirgazi@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Ghodrat, Sepideh, E-mail: s.ghodrat@tudelft.nl [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands); Kestens, Leo A.I., E-mail: leo.kestens@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)
2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: • Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. • Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. • Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. • Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. • It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star
Matthias Herzog; Friedrich K. Roepke
2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent combustion converting a neutron star into a quark star. Hadronic matter, described by a micro-physical finite-temperature equation of state, is converted into strange quark matter. We assume this phase, represented by a bag-model equation of state, to be absolutely stable. Following the example of thermonuclear burning in white dwarfs leading to Type Ia supernovae, we treat the conversion process as a potentially turbulent deflagration. Solving the non-relativistic Euler equations using established numerical methods we conduct large eddy simulations including an elaborate subgrid scale model, while the propagation of the conversion front is modeled with a level-set method. Our results show that for large parts of the parameter space the conversion becomes turbulent and therefore significantly faster than in the laminar case. Despite assuming absolutely stable strange quark matter, in our hydrodynamic approximation an outer layer remains in the hadronic phase, because the conversion front stops when it reaches conditions under which the combustion is no longer exothermic.
Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells
Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Menter, David G. [Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Abbruzzese, James L. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu
2007-07-06T23:59:59.000Z
Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.
SOLA-DM: A numerical solution algorithm for transient three-dimensional flows
Wilson, T.L.; Nichols, B.D.; Hirt, C.W.; Stein, L.R.
1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
SOLA-DM is a three-dimensional time-explicit, finite-difference, Eulerian, fluid-dynamics computer code for solving the time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The solution algorithm (SOLA) evolved from the marker-and-cell (MAC) method, and the code is highly vectorized for efficient performance on a Cray computer. The computational domain is discretized by a mesh of parallelepiped cells in either cartesian or cylindrical geometry. The primary hydrodynamic variables for approximating the solution of the momentum equations are cell-face-centered velocity components and cell-centered pressures. Spatial accuracy is selected by the user to be first or second order; the time differencing is first-order accurate. The incompressibility condition results in an elliptic equation for pressure that is solved by a conjugate gradient method. Boundary conditions of five general types may be chosen: free-slip, no-slip, continuative, periodic, and specified pressure. In addition, internal mesh specifications to model obstacles and walls are provided. SOLA-DM also solves the equations for discrete particle dynamics, permitting the transport of marker particles or other solid particles through the fluid to be modeled. 7 refs., 7 figs.
Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R. [SP"2RC, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fedun, V., E-mail: f.gent@shef.ac.uk [Space Systems Laboratory, Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.
Three dimensional thermal-solute phase field simulation of binary alloy solidification
P. C. Bollada; C. E. Goodyer; P. K. Jimack; A. M. Mullis; F. W. Yang
2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
We employ adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time stepping, a nonlinear multigrid solver and parallel computation, to solve a multi-scale, time dependent, three dimensional, nonlinear set of coupled partial differential equations for three scalar field variables. The mathematical model represents the non-isothermal solidification of a metal alloy into a melt substantially cooled below its freezing point at the microscale. Underlying physical molecular forces are captured at this scale by a specification of the energy field. The time rate of change of the temperature, alloy concentration and an order parameter to govern the state of the material (liquid or solid) is controlled by the diffusion parameters and variational derivatives of the energy functional. The physical problem is important to material scientists for the development of solid metal alloys and, hitherto, this fully coupled thermal problem has not been simulated in three dimensions, due to its computationally demanding nature. By bringing together state of the art numerical techniques this problem is now shown here to be tractable at appropriate resolution with relatively moderate computational resources.
K{sub ?} x-ray imaging of laser-irradiated, limited-mass zirconium foils
Storm, M.; Orban, C.; Jiang, S.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Eichman, B.; Fiksel, G.; Stoeckl, C.; Theobald, W.; Delettrez, J. A. [The Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States); Dyer, G.; Ditmire, T. [The Texas Center of High Energy Density Science, The University of Texas at Austin, 2511 Speedway Street, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Stephens, R. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, California 92121-1200 (United States)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
X-ray fluorescence measurements to determine the effect of target heating on imaging efficiency, at a photon energy of 15.7 keV corresponding to the K{sub ?} line of zirconium, have been carried out using limited-mass foils irradiated by the Texas Petawatt Laser. Zirconium foils that ranged in volume from 3000?×?3000?×?21 ?m{sup 3} to 150?×?150?×?6 ?m{sup 3} were irradiated with 100 J, 8 ps-long pulses and a mean intensity of 4?×?10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. The K{sub ?} emission was measured simultaneously using a highly ordered pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometer and a curved quartz imaging crystal. The measured ratio of the integrated image signal to the integrated spectral signal was, within the experimental error, constant, indicating that the imaging efficiency's dependence on temperature is weak throughout the probed range. Based on our experience of target heating under similar conditions, we estimate a temperature of ?200 eV for the smallest targets. The successful imaging of K{sub ?} emission for temperatures this high represents an important proof of concept for Zr K{sub ?} imaging. At these temperatures, the imaging of K{sub ?} emission from lower-Z materials (such as Cu) is limited by temperature-dependent shifts in the K{sub ?} emission energy.
Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications
Chang, Hsueh-Chia
. #12;2 Abstract The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current
Low-spatial coherence electrically-pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging
Redding, B; Huang, X; Lee, M L; Stone, A D; Choma, M A; Cao, H
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The spatial coherence of laser sources has limited their application to parallel imaging and projection due to coherent artifacts, such as speckle. In contrast, traditional incoherent light sources, such as thermal sources or light emitting diodes (LEDs), provide relatively low power per independent spatial mode. Here, we present a chip-scale, electrically-pumped semiconductor laser based on a novel design, demonstrating high power per mode with much lower spatial coherence than conventional laser sources. The laser resonator was fabricated with a chaotic, D-shaped cavity optimized to achieve highly multimode lasing. Lasing occurs simultaneously and independently in ~1000 modes, and hence the total emission exhibits very low spatial coherence. Speckle-free full-field imaging is demonstrated using the chaotic cavity laser as the illumination source. The power per mode of the sample illumination is several orders of magnitude higher than that of a LED or thermal light source. Such a compact, low-cost source, wh...
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional X-ray diffraction microscopy (CXIDB ID 15)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Chapman, Henry N.
The file contains 125 images corresponding to different tilts of the sample around the y axis at 1 degree intervals. Each image is the result of 4 exposures merged together. For more details see the citation.
century as in the 19th century. In this paper I use finite element analysis to address the question, how element analysis Tom Parsons U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California, USA Received 23 August 2001 area seismic hazard assessment. This study presents a three-dimensional (3-D) finite element simulation
Mueller, Karl
for the mechanics and kinematics of compressive wedges Phaedra Upton,1,2 Karl Mueller,3 and Yue-Gau Chen4 Received develop three-dimensional mechanical models of a compressive wedge and investigate how the form and kinematics of the outboard wedge are affected by variation in initial topography, material properties
Komatitsch, Dimitri
Three-dimensional mechanical models for the June 2000 earthquake sequence in the south Iceland, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland A B S T R A C TA R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 11 Keywords: South Iceland seismic zone Lithospheric heterogeneity influences Finite-element method Co
Pilon, Laurent
Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part I. Effects in the molten glass bath of a typical glass melting furnace with a throat but without air bubblers or electric constant. The main purpose of the work is to evaluate the capability of the furnace operators to control
Three Dimensional Structure of the MqsR:MqsA Complex: A Novel TA Pair Comprised of a Toxin
Wood, Thomas K.
Kim3 , Jennifer M. Arruda2 , Andrew Davenport1 , Thomas K. Wood3,4,5 , Wolfgang Peti1 , Rebecca Page2 S, Kim Y, Arruda JM, Davenport A, et al. (2009) Three Dimensional Structure of the MqsR:MqsA Complex
Brown, Michael R.
when two bodies of highly conductive plasma bearing oppositely directed, embedded magnetic fields mergeThree-dimensional structure of magnetic reconnection in a laboratory plasma C. D. Cothran, M-dimensional structure of magnetic reconnection has been measured for the first time in a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD
Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two-and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2
Venditti, Jeremy G.
measurements of turbulent flow were obtained over a fixed flat bed, two- dimensional (2-D) dunes and four types over 2-D dunes conforms with previous observations of flow over mobile and fixed bed forms. Bed formTurbulent flow and drag over fixed two- and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2 Received
Hitchcock, Adam P.
as low-cost three- dimensional (3D) photonic crystals. Although a high degree of perfection is crucial for the properties of these materials, little is known about their exact structure and internal defects structure,5 even including defect regions that can be used as circuits to build all-optical logical elements
Swan II, J. Edward
visualization software to obtain a 3D reconstruction of the material. We describe how we applied this technique materials [11]. In recognition of these problems, early attempts at 3D visu- alization combined serial for the three-dimensional analysis of the internal microscopic structure ("microstructure") of materials
cytometry, this can be achieved by focusing the cell solution at the centre of the flow tube horizontal (parallel to the device plane) sheath flows. One may readily fabricate the device for 2DSingle-layer planar on-chip flow cytometer using microfluidic drifting based three-dimensional (3D
Abbett, Bill
THE DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF TWISTED MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL CONVECTING FLOW. I. UNIFORMLY BUOYANT HORIZONTAL TUBES Y. Fan High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric-dimensional numerical simulations of the dynamic evolution of uniformly buoyant, twisted horizontal magnetic flux tubes
Wijngaarden, Rinke J.
Extremal Dynamics and the Approach to the Critical State: Experiments on a Three Dimensional Pile in three dimensions. With time, the pile approaches a critical state with a certain slope. Assuming extremal dynamics in the evolution of the pile, the way the critical state is approached is dictated
Boyer, Edmond
is therefore needed. Therefore highly heterogeneous temperature fields and heat fluxes can be evaluating. Asymptotic developments enable to take into account variations of thermal properties depending on temperatureInverse three-dimensional method for fast evaluation of temperature and heat flux fields during
Raman, Sethu
Three-dimensional Simulations of the Mean Air Transport During the 1997 Forest Fires in Kalimantan-related forest fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia from 00 UTC 21 September to 00 UTC 25 September, 1997. The Fifth responsible for the transport of air pollutants during forest fires in Kalimantan in September, 1997
Bazant, Martin Z.
Design principle for improved three-dimensional ac electro-osmotic pumps Damian Burch and Martin Z-dimensional 3D ac electro-osmotic ACEO pumps have recently been developed that are much faster and more robust electro-osmotic slip in opposite directions along different sections of each electrode, and Ajdari's idea
1302. P6.51. Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound To Characterize Mitral Valve Motion P results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model
Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a
Kalies, William D.
of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel
Fialko, Yuri
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip (Iran) earth- quake using radar data from the Envisat satellite of the European Space Agency. Analysis. In this paper we report on deformation associated with the Mw6.5 Bam (Iran) earthquake determined using
Aickelin, Uwe
residential energy consumers in the UK by considering property energy efficiency levels, the greenness1 A Three-Dimensional Model of Residential Energy Consumer Archetypes for Local Energy Policy lines of research in residential energy consumption in the UK, i.e. economic/infrastructure, behaviour
Wave EnergyFocusing in aThree-dimensional Numerical WaveTank C. Fochesato*, F. Dias**, S. Grilli***
Grilli, Stéphan T.
Wave EnergyFocusing in aThree-dimensional Numerical WaveTank C. Fochesato*, F. Dias**, S. Grilli Department (University of Rhode Island), Narragansett, RI, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Directional wave energy focusing in space is one of the mechanisms that may contribute to the generation of a rogue wave in the ocean
LIF-imaging and gas-phase diagnostics of laser desorbed MALDI-matrix plumes
Puretzky, A.A.; Geohegan, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.
1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
The first gated LIF-imaging and absorption spectroscopy has been performed on laser desorbed plumes from organic crystals which are commonly used as MALDI (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization) matrices. These plasma diagnostic techniques, including ion probe measurements were employed to investigate the desorbed products, densities, fractional ionization, and velocity distributions of the plume of ejecta which is typically employed as the main desorption product in the mass spectrometry analysis of large biomolecules. Ultraviolet pulsed 193-nm and 248-nm irradiation of 3-hydroxypicolinic acid (3-HPA) crystals were studied to understand the effect of very different gas-phase absorption cross sections measured here for this material. In both cases, LIF imaging revealed two plume components: a fast (maximum {approximately} 0.1 cm/{micro}s) low-intensity component which appear to be 3-HPA fragments, and a slower component of 3-HPA expanding at 0.05 cm/{micro}s. In the case of ArF-laser irradiation, optical absorption spectroscopy indicated a breaking of the intramolecular hydrogen bond in the gas-phase matrix material.
Berlin,Technische Universität
1 Modeling of Laser Cutting and Related Processes A considerable proportion of laser processing. Modeling laser cutting and its features Recent modeling work has concentrated on the implementation and numerical evaluation of a transient three-dimensional computer simulation of the CO2 laser cutting process