Three-dimensional laser micromachining and imaging of biocompatible polymers
Oldenburg, Amy
for controlling the precise three-dimensional shape of these scaffolds include melt molding [2], membrane lamination [3], and 3D printing [4]. All of these methods, with the exception of melt molding, require is faster than the ~1 µs relaxation time of the material. The depth at which defects are produced
Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling
Okamato, H.
2008-01-01
Three-Dimensional Laser Cooling H. Okamoto, A.M. Sessler,effective transverse laser cooling simultaneously withlongitudinal laser cooling, two possibilities are
Three Dimensional Speckle Imaging Employing a Frequency-Locked Tunable Diode Laser
Cannon, Bret D.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Schiffern, John T.; Mendoza, Albert
2015-09-01
We describe a high accuracy frequency stepping method for a tunable diode laser to improve a three dimensional (3D) imaging approach based upon interferometric speckle imaging. The approach, modeled after Takeda, exploits tuning an illumination laser in frequency as speckle interferograms of the object (specklegrams) are acquired at each frequency in a Michelson interferometer. The resulting 3D hypercube of specklegrams encode spatial information in the x-y plane of each image with laser tuning arrayed along its z-axis. We present laboratory data of before and after results showing enhanced 3D imaging resulting from precise laser frequency control.
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2012-10-30
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos; Nemes, Peter
2013-07-16
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Vertes, Akos (Reston, VA); Nemes, Peter (Silver Spring, MD)
2011-06-21
The field of the invention is atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry (MS), and more specifically a process and apparatus which combine infrared laser ablation with electrospray ionization (ESI).
Three-dimensional scanning confocal laser microscope
Anderson, R. Rox (Lexington, MA); Webb, Robert H. (Lincoln, MA); Rajadhyaksha, Milind (Charlestown, MA)
1999-01-01
A confocal microscope for generating an image of a sample includes a first scanning element for scanning a light beam along a first axis, and a second scanning element for scanning the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis. A third scanning element scans the light beam at a predetermined amplitude along a third axis perpendicular to an imaging plane defined by the first and second axes. The second and third scanning element are synchronized to scan at the same frequency. The second and third predetermined amplitudes are percentages of their maximum amplitudes. A selector determines the second and third predetermined amplitudes such that the sum of the percentages is equal to one-hundred percent.
Parallel phase-sensitive three-dimensional imaging camera
Smithpeter, Colin L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hoover, Eddie R. (Sandia Park, NM); Pain, Bedabrata (Los Angeles, CA); Hancock, Bruce R. (Altadena, CA); Nellums, Robert O. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-09-25
An apparatus is disclosed for generating a three-dimensional (3-D) image of a scene illuminated by a pulsed light source (e.g. a laser or light-emitting diode). The apparatus, referred to as a phase-sensitive 3-D imaging camera utilizes a two-dimensional (2-D) array of photodetectors to receive light that is reflected or scattered from the scene and processes an electrical output signal from each photodetector in the 2-D array in parallel using multiple modulators, each having inputs of the photodetector output signal and a reference signal, with the reference signal provided to each modulator having a different phase delay. The output from each modulator is provided to a computational unit which can be used to generate intensity and range information for use in generating a 3-D image of the scene. The 3-D camera is capable of generating a 3-D image using a single pulse of light, or alternately can be used to generate subsequent 3-D images with each additional pulse of light.
Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials
Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.
2011-06-09
The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.
Computational adaptive optics for live three-dimensional biological imaging
Agard, David
Computational adaptive optics for live three- dimensional biological imaging Z. Kam*, B. Hanser , M. Under their design conditions, modern microscope optics produce nearly ideal aberration-free imaging to the coverslip. When focusing into thick samples, the 3D optical characteristics of the sample itself must
Three dimensional seismic imaging of the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)Open Energy Information Three dimensional seismic imaging of
Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers
Worstell, W.A.
1997-02-04
A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions. 11 figs.
Three dimensional imaging detector employing wavelength-shifting optical fibers
Worstell, William A. (Framingham, MA)
1997-01-01
A novel detector element structure and method for its use is provided. In a preferred embodiment, one or more inorganic scintillating crystals are coupled through wavelength shifting optical fibers (WLSFs) to position sensitive photomultipliers (PS-PMTs). The superior detector configuration in accordance with this invention is designed for an array of applications in high spatial resolution gamma ray sensing with particular application to SPECT, PET and PVI imaging systems. The design provides better position resolution than prior art devices at a lower total cost. By employing wavelength shifting fibers (WLSFs), the sensor configuration of this invention can operate with a significant reduction in the number of photomultipliers and electronics channels, while potentially improving the resolution of the system by allowing three dimensional reconstruction of energy deposition positions.
Optics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation
Chen, Zhongping
2008-01-01
. A pyrometer, an infrared radiation sensor, is used to monitor surface temperature variation in laser brazingOptics & Laser Technology 40 (2008) 625631 Three-dimensional non-destructive optical evaluation coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-destructive diagnostic tool for evaluating laser-processing performance
Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser
Byer, Robert L.
Three-dimensional grain boundary spectroscopy in transparent high power ceramic laser materials across grain boundaries (GBs) in Nd3+ :YAG laser ceramics. It is clearly shown that Nd3+ segregation point the way to further improvements in what is already an impressive class of ceramic laser materials
Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon
Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J., E-mail: cch@berkeley.edu [Applied Science and Technology Group and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2014-09-15
As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.
Three-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating
Zhang, Jun
thermal response. The time-dependent equation is discretized using the #12;nite di#11;erence methodThree-Dimensional Model on Thermal Response of Skin Subject to Laser Heating #3; Wensheng Shen y to investigate the transient thermal response of human skin subject to laser heating. The temperature
Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung
Lutchen, Kenneth
Relation Between Structure, Function, and Imaging in a Three-Dimensional Model of the Lung NORA T morphometric mod- els to predict function relations in the lung. These models, however, are not anatomically explicit. We have advanced a three-dimensional airway tree model to relate dynamic lung function
Rosen, Joseph
Fourier, Fresnel and Image CGHs of three-dimensional objects observed from many different of synthesizing three types of computer-generated hologram (CGH); Fourier, Fresnel and image CGHs. These holograms in the computer as a Fourier hologram. Then, it can be converted to either Fresnel or image holograms by computing
Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.
2000-03-01
Three-dimensional digital image processing is useful for reconstruction of microstructural volume from a stack of serial sections. Application of this technique is demonstrated via reconstruction of a volume segment of the liquid-phase sintered microstructure of a tungsten heavy alloy processed in the microgravity environment of NASA's space shuttle, Columbia. Ninety serial sections (approximately one micrometer apart) were used for reconstruction of the three-dimensional microstructure. The three-dimensional microstructural reconstruction clearly revealed that the tungsten grains are almost completely connected in three-dimensional space. Both the matrix and the grains are topologically co-continuous, although the alloy was liquid-phase sintered in microgravity. Therefore, absence of gravity did not produced a microstructure consisting of discrete isolated W grains uniformly dispersed in the liquid Ni-Fe alloy matrix at the sintering temperature.
Lin, Yu; Huang, Chong; Irwin, Daniel; He, Lian; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang
2014-03-24
This study extended our recently developed noncontact diffuse correlation spectroscopy flowmetry system into noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) for three-dimensional (3-D) flow imaging of deep tissue. A linear array of 15 photodetectors and two laser sources connected to a mobile lens-focusing system enabled automatic and noncontact scanning of flow in a region of interest. These boundary measurements were combined with a finite element framework for DCT image reconstruction implemented into an existing software package. This technique was tested in computer simulations and using a tissue-like phantom with anomaly flow contrast design. The cylindrical tube-shaped anomaly was clearly reconstructed in both simulation and phantom. Recovered and assigned flow contrast changes in anomaly were found to be highly correlated: regression slope?=?1.00, R{sup 2}?=?1.00, and p?imaging of deep tissue blood flow heterogeneities.
Salvaggio, Carl
. These routines require a sequence of images to evaluate tracking algorithms. The evaluation of sensor performanceTHREE-DIMENSIONAL LONGWAVE INFRARED (LWIR) SYNTHETIC IMAGE GENERATION INCORPORATING ANGULAR Memorial Drive Rochester, New York 14623-0887 ABSTRAO A technique for longwave infrared (LWIR) synthetic
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
Three dimensional reconstruction of aerogels from TEM images Florence Despetis1,2 ,Nadjette to compute their physical properties. We focus here on base catalyzed and colloidal silica aerogels, which are fractal materials and we use an original method for the reconstruction of these aerogels from TEM images
Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional
Lauder, George V.
Volumetric imaging of shark tail hydrodynamics reveals a three-dimensional dual-ring vortex wake-dimensional, volumetric imaging technique that allows instantaneous capture of wake flow patterns, to a classic problem analyses, and show that the volumetric approach reveals a different vortex wake not previously
Pizurica, Aleksandra
Three-Dimensional Quantitative Microwave Imaging of Realistic Numerical Breast Phantoms Using Huber detection with microwaves is based on the difference in dielectric properties between normal and malignant microwave scattering is a nonlinear, ill-posed inverse problem. We proposed to use the Huber regularization
Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holograms
Rosen, Joseph
010103-1 Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation our recently proposed single-channel optical system for generating digital Fresnel holograms of 3-D of spherical beams creates the Fresnel hologram of the observed 3-D object. When this hologram is reconstructed
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging Of The Rye Patch Geothermal Reservoir |
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)Open Energy Information Three dimensional seismic imaging
Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser
M. Uddin
2015-06-29
Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the world's first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.
Reconstructing Three-dimensional Helical Structure With an X-Ray Free Electron Laser
M. Uddin
2015-11-21
Recovery of three-dimensional structure from single particle X-ray scattering of completely randomly oriented diffraction patterns as predicted few decades back has been real due to the advent of the new emerging X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) technology. As the worlds first XFEL is in operation starting from June 2009 at SLAC National Lab at Stanford, the very first few experiments being conducted on larger objects such as viruses. Many of the important structures of nature such as helical viruses or deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) consist of helical repetition of biological subunits. Hence development of method for reconstructing helical structure from collected XFEL data has been a top priority research. In this work we have developed a method for solving helical structure such as TMV (tobacco mosaic virus) from a set of randomly oriented simulated diffraction patterns exploiting symmetry and Fourier space constraint of the diffraction volume.
Three-dimensional folding of pre-strained polymer sheets via absorption of laser light
Liu, Ying; Genzer, Jan, E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu; Dickey, Michael D., E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, North Carolina State University, 911 Partners Way, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Miskiewicz, Matthew; Escuti, Michael J., E-mail: mjescuti@ncsu.edu, E-mail: mddickey@ncsu.edu, E-mail: jan-genzer@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2410 Campus Shore Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)
2014-05-28
Patterned light from a laser can induce rapid self-folding of pre-strained polymer sheets. Black ink coated on the sheet absorbs the light, which converts the photon energy into thermal energy that heats the sheet locally; the temperature of the sheet is highest at the surface where the light impinges on the sheet and decreases through the sheet thickness. The gradient of temperature induces a gradient of strain relaxation through the depth of the sheet, which causes folding within seconds of irradiation. The pattern of laser light that irradiates the compositionally homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) substrate dictates the resulting three-dimensional (3D) shape. Unlike most approaches to self-folding, the methodology described here requires no patterning of pre-defined hinges. It opens up the possibility of using a patterning technique that is inherently 2D to form 3D shapes. The use of lasers also enables systematic control of key process parameters such as power, intensity, and the pattern of light (i.e., beam width and shape). The rate of folding and folding angle measured with respect to these parameters provide an indirect quantification of heat loss in the sample and thereby identify the threshold power and power intensity that must be delivered to the hinge for folding to occur.
van der Hilst, Robert D.
We apply a three-dimensional (3D) generalized Radon transform (GRT) to scattered P-waves from 575 local earthquakes recorded at 68 temporary network stations for passive-source imaging of (near-vertical) structures close ...
Chitsazi, Mahboobeh; Maraghechi, B.; Rouhani, M. H.
2010-10-15
The effect of prebunching of the electron beam and tapering of the wiggler amplitude on the harmonic upconversion in free-electron laser amplifier is studied in three dimensions. A set of coupled nonlinear first-order differential equations that describe the three-dimensional simulation of the system is solved numerically. This set of equation describes self-consistently the longitudinal spatial dependence of radiation waists, curvatures, and amplitudes together with the evaluation of the electron beam. The analysis is related to extreme ultraviolet and x-ray emission. In addition to uniform beam, prebunched electron beam has also been studied. The effect of sinusoidal distribution of entry times for the electron beam on the evolution of radiation is compared with uniform distribution. It is shown that prebunching reduces the saturation length substantially. For efficiency enhancement, the wiggler is set to decrease linearly when the radiation of the third harmonic saturates. The optimum starting point and the slope of tapering of the amplitude of the wiggler are found by a successive run of the code. It was found that tapering can increase the saturated power of the third harmonic considerably.
Protein crystallography: From X-ray diffraction spots to a three dimensional image
Terwilliger, T.C.; Berendzen, J.
1998-02-25
Proteins are remarkable molecular machines that are essential for life. They can do many things ranging from the precise control of blood clotting to synthesizing complex organic compounds. Pictures of protein molecules are in high demand in biotechnology because they are important for applications such as drug discovery and for engineering enzymes for commercial use. X-ray crystallography is the most common method for determining the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules. When a crystal of a protein is placed in an X-ray beam, scattering of X-rays off the ordered molecules produces a diffraction pattern that can be measured on a position-sensitive CCD or image-plate detector. Protein crystals typically contain thousands of atoms and the diffraction data are generally measured to relatively low resolution. Consequently the direct methods approaches generally cannot be applied. Instead, if the crystal is modified by adding metal atoms at specific sites or by tuning the wavelength of the X-rays to cross an absorption edge of a metal atom in the crystal, then the information from these additional measurements is sufficient to first identify the /locations of the metal atoms. This information is then used along with the diffraction data to make a three-dimensional picture of electron densities. This picture can be used to determine the position of most or all of the atoms in the protein.
Three Dimensional Imaging of the Nucleon and Semi-Inclusive High Energy Reactions
Kai-bao Chen; Shu-yi Wei; Zuo-tang Liang
2015-06-24
We present a short overview on the studies of transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions of the nucleon. The aim of such studies is to provide a three dimensional imagining of the nucleon and a comprehensive description of semi-inclusive high energy reactions. By comparing with the theoretical framework that we have for the inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and the one-dimensional imaging of the nucleon, we summarize what we need to do in order to construct such a comprehensive theoretical framework for semi-inclusive processes in terms of three dimensional gauge invariant parton distributions. After that, we present an overview of what we have already achieved with emphasize on the theoretical framework for semi-inclusive reactions in leading order perturbative QCD but with leading and higher twist contributions. We summarize in particular the results for the differential cross section and the azimuthal spin asymmetries in terms of the gauge invariant transverse momentum dependent parton distribution functions. We also briefly summarize the available experimental results on semi-inclusive reactions and parameterizations of transverse momentum dependent parton distributions extracted from them and make an outlook for the future studies.
Lim, Sang-Hyun
materials are described by the director field n r , and noninvasive three-dimensional 3D imaging that align homogeneously with LC molecules. Label- free 3D optical imaging of LCs has been demonstrated provide 3D structural information but the interpretation of a THG image is complicated due
van der Hilst, Robert Dirk
. The GRT image profiles through or close by the SAFOD site reveal near-vertical reflectors closeThree-dimensional passive seismic waveform imaging around the SAFOD site, California, using-source imaging of (near-vertical) structures close to the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) site
Lee, Heung-Rae (Dublin, CA)
1997-01-01
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object.
Lee, H.R.
1997-11-18
A three-dimensional image reconstruction method comprises treating the object of interest as a group of elements with a size that is determined by the resolution of the projection data, e.g., as determined by the size of each pixel. One of the projections is used as a reference projection. A fictitious object is arbitrarily defined that is constrained by such reference projection. The method modifies the known structure of the fictitious object by comparing and optimizing its four projections to those of the unknown structure of the real object and continues to iterate until the optimization is limited by the residual sum of background noise. The method is composed of several sub-processes that acquire four projections from the real data and the fictitious object: generate an arbitrary distribution to define the fictitious object, optimize the four projections, generate a new distribution for the fictitious object, and enhance the reconstructed image. The sub-process for the acquisition of the four projections from the input real data is simply the function of acquiring the four projections from the data of the transmitted intensity. The transmitted intensity represents the density distribution, that is, the distribution of absorption coefficients through the object. 5 figs.
Interferometric-spatial-phase imaging for sub-nanometer three-dimensional positioning
Moon, Euclid E. (Euclid Eberle), 1965-
2004-01-01
Current alignment technology is incapable of satisfying the needs of imminent generations of lithography. This dissertation delineates a novel method of alignment and three-dimensional position metrology that is compatible ...
Peterson, J. L., E-mail: peterson76@llnl.gov; Michel, P.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
2014-07-15
Achieving symmetric hohlraum radiation drive is an important aspect of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, when experimentally delivered laser powers deviate from ideal conditions, the resultant radiation field can become asymmetric. Two situations in which this may arise are random uncorrelated fluctuations, in as-delivered laser power and laser beams that do not participate in the implosion (either intentionally or unintentionally). Furthermore, laser plasma interactions in the hohlraum obfuscate the connection between laser powers and radiation drive. To study the effect of these situations on drive symmetry, we develop a simplified model for crossed-beam energy transfer, laser backscatter, and plasma absorption that can be used in conjunction with view factor calculations to expediently translate laser powers into three-dimensional capsule flux symmetries. We find that crossed-beam energy transfer can alter both the statistical properties of uncorrelated laser fluctuations and the impact of missing laser beams on radiation symmetry. A method is proposed to mitigate the effects of missing laser beams.
Three-dimensional theory of Smith-Purcell free-electron laser with dielectric loaded grating
Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: mona486@yeah.net; Li, Ke, E-mail: like3714@163.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, School of Electronic Science and Technology, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail: lwenxin@mail.ie.ac.cn; Wang, Yong, E-mail: wangyong3845@sina.com [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-09-14
A dielectric loaded rectangular grating for Smith-Purcell devices is proposed in this paper. Regarding the electron beam as a moving plasma dielectric, a three dimensional (3D) linear theory of beam-wave interaction is developed. The first and second order growth rates are calculated, which are obtained by expanding hot dispersion equation at synchronous point. The results show that the cutoff frequency is affected by grating width. The dispersion curve becomes flatter and shifts towards lower frequency by loading dielectric in grooves. The simulation results, which are obtained by a 3D particle-in-cell code, are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. Compared the first and second order growth rate, it shows that the discrepancy is large when beam parameters are selected with high values. In this case, it is necessary to apply the second order growth rate, which can accurately describe the process of beam-wave interaction.
Parker, Sherwood (Berkeley, CA)
1995-01-01
A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.
Parker, S.
1995-10-24
A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z{sub 1} above upper collimator plane, distance z{sub 2} above the lower collimator plane, and distance z{sub 3} above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v{sub 1}, v{sub 2}, v{sub 3} proportional to z{sub 1}, z{sub 2} and z{sub 3}, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site. 5 figs.
Ramis, R., E-mail: rafael.ramis@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronáuticos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, P. Cardenal Cisneros 3, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Temporal, M. [Centre de Mathématiques et de Leurs Applications, ENS Cachan and CNRS, 61 Av. du President Wilson, F-94235 Cachan Cedex (France); Canaud, B.; Brandon, V. [CEA, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)
2014-08-15
The symmetry of a Direct-Drive (DD) irradiation scheme has been analyzed by means of three-dimensional (3D) simulations carried out by the code MULTI (R. Ramis et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 475 (1988)) that includes hydrodynamics, heat transport, and 3D laser ray-tracing. The implosion phase of a target irradiated by the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) facility in the context of the Shock Ignition scheme has been considered. The LMJ facility has been designed for Indirect-Drive, and by this reason that the irradiation scheme must be modified when used for DD. Thus, to improve the implosion uniformity to acceptable levels, the beam centerlines should be realigned and the beam power balance should be adjusted. Several alternatives with different levels of complexity are presented and discussed.
Image system for three dimensional, 360{degree}, time sequence surface mapping of moving objects
Lu, S.Y.
1998-12-22
A three-dimensional motion camera system comprises a light projector placed between two synchronous video cameras all focused on an object-of-interest. The light projector shines a sharp pattern of vertical lines (Ronchi ruling) on the object-of-interest that appear to be bent differently to each camera by virtue of the surface shape of the object-of-interest and the relative geometry of the cameras, light projector and object-of-interest. Each video frame is captured in a computer memory and analyzed. Since the relative geometry is known and the system pre-calibrated, the unknown three-dimensional shape of the object-of-interest can be solved for by matching the intersections of the projected light lines with orthogonal epipolar lines corresponding to horizontal rows in the video camera frames. A surface reconstruction is made and displayed on a monitor screen. For 360{degree} all around coverage of the object-of-interest, two additional sets of light projectors and corresponding cameras are distributed about 120{degree} apart from one another. 20 figs.
Kim, Daekeun, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2009-01-01
The availability of lasers with femtosecond, ultrafast light pulses provides new opportunities and challenges in instrument design. This thesis addresses three aspects of utilizing ultrafast light pulses in two-photon ...
Author's personal copy Multifractal analysis of three-dimensional histogram from color images
Chapeau-Blondeau, François
can be helpful to var- ious tasks of digital image processing, as for instance modeling, classification, indexing. Ó 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Natural images, especially relevant structures or clusters for segmentation, classification, indexing, or other purposes
Chen, Yu
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology that enables high-resolution, noninvasive, cross-sectional imaging of microstructure in biological tissues in situ and in real time. When combined ...
Recovering three-dimensional shape around a corner using ultrafast time-of-flight imaging
Velten, Andreas
The recovery of objects obscured by scattering is an important goal in imaging and has been approached by exploiting, for example, coherence properties, ballistic photons or penetrating wavelengths. Common methods use ...
Three-dimensional imaging of individual hafnium atoms inside a semiconductor device
Pennycook, Steve
Benthema and Andrew R. Lupini Condensed Matter Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge of Melbourne, Victoria 3010, Australia Julia T. Luck and Stephen J. Pennycook Condensed Matter Sciences- sectional TEM purely by mechanical polishing. Both imag- ing and electron energy-loss spectroscopy EELS
Fu, Yong; Ji, Zhong; Ding, Wenzheng; Ye, Fanghao; Lou, Cunguang
2014-11-01
Purpose: Previous studies demonstrated that thermoacoustic imaging (TAI) has great potential for breast tumor detection. However, large field of view (FOV) imaging remains a long-standing challenge for three-dimensional (3D) breast tumor localization. Here, the authors propose a practical TAI system for noninvasive 3D localization of breast tumors with large FOV through the use of ultrashort microwave pulse (USMP). Methods: A USMP generator was employed for TAI. The energy density required for quality imaging and the corresponding microwave-to-acoustic conversion efficiency were compared with that of conventional TAI. The microwave energy distribution, imaging depth, resolution, and 3D imaging capabilities were then investigated. Finally, a breast phantom embedded with a laboratory-grown tumor was imaged to evaluate the FOV performance of the USMP TAI system, under a simulated clinical situation. Results: A radiation energy density equivalent to just 1.6%–2.2% of that for conventional submicrosecond microwave TAI was sufficient to obtain a thermoacoustic signal with the required signal-to-noise ratio. This result clearly demonstrated a significantly higher microwave-to-acoustic conversion efficiency of USMP TAI compared to that of conventional TAI. The USMP TAI system achieved 61 mm imaging depth and 12 × 12 cm{sup 2} microwave radiation area. The volumetric image of a copper target measured at depth of 4–6 cm matched well with the actual shape and the resolution reaches 230 ?m. The TAI of the breast phantom was precisely localized to an accuracy of 0.1 cm over an 8 × 8 cm{sup 2} FOV. Conclusions: The experimental results demonstrated that the USMP TAI system offered significant potential for noninvasive clinical detection and 3D localization of deep breast tumors, with low microwave radiation dose and high spatial resolution over a sufficiently large FOV.
Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging of Three-dimensional Magnetic Reconnection in a Solar Eruption
Sun, J Q; Ding, M D; Guo, Y; Priest, E R; Parnell, C E; Edwards, S J; Zhang, J; Chen, P F; Fang, C
2015-01-01
Magnetic reconnection, a change of magnetic field connectivity, is a fundamental physical process in which magnetic energy is released explosively. It is responsible for various eruptive phenomena in the universe. However, this process is difficult to observe directly. Here, the magnetic topology associated with a solar reconnection event is studied in three dimensions (3D) using the combined perspectives of two spacecraft. The sequence of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images clearly shows that two groups of oppositely directed and non-coplanar magnetic loops gradually approach each other, forming a separator or quasi-separator and then reconnecting. The plasma near the reconnection site is subsequently heated from $\\sim$1 to $\\ge$5 MK. Shortly afterwards, warm flare loops ($\\sim$3 MK) appear underneath the hot plasma. Other observational signatures of reconnection, including plasma inflows and downflows, are unambiguously revealed and quantitatively measured. These observations provide direct evidence of magneti...
Hill, Samuel L. (Samuel Lincoln), 1978-
2004-01-01
The number of three-dimensional displays available is escalating and yet the capturing devices for multiple view content are focused on either single camera precision rigs that are limited to stationary objects or the use ...
Bryan, W A; Newell, W R; Sanderson, J H
2006-01-01
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focussed to $\\approx $ 10$^{16}$ Wcm$^{-2}$ has been investigated by three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. For the first time in a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a Classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, can not. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multi-electronic processes.
W. A. Bryan; W. R. Newell; J. H. Sanderson; A. J. Langley
2006-10-10
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focussed to $\\approx $ 10$^{16}$ Wcm$^{-2}$ has been investigated by three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. For the first time in a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a Classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, can not. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multi-electronic processes.
Bryan, W. A.; Newell, W. R.; Sanderson, J. H.; Langley, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)
2006-11-15
The two- and three-body Coulomb explosion of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) by 790 nm, 50 fs laser pulses focused to {approx_equal}10{sup 16} W cm{sup -2} has been investigated by the three-dimensional covariance mapping technique. In a triatomic molecule, a single charge state, in this case the trication, has been observed to dissociate into two distinct energy channels. With the aid of a three-dimensional visualization technique to reveal the ionization hierarchy, evidence is presented for the existence of two sets of ionization pathways resulting from these two initial states. While one group of ions can be modeled using a classical enhanced ionization model, the second group, consisting of mainly asymmetric channels, cannot. The results provide clear evidence that an enhanced ionization approach must also be accompanied by an appreciation of the effects of excited ionic states and multielectronic processes.
Mori, Warren, B.
2012-12-01
We present results from the grant entitled, Ã?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions.Ã?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.
Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography
Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J. [327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); 1011 Richardson Building, Photon Migration Laboratories, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); 327 Votey Building, Department of Computer Science, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States)
2005-04-01
Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.
Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A.; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A.; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves
2013-01-01
In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.
Three-dimensional photovoltaics
Myers, Bryan
The concept of three-dimensional (3D) photovoltaics is explored computationally using a genetic algorithm to optimize the energy production in a day for arbitrarily shaped 3D solar cells confined to a given area footprint ...
Three-dimensional array foci of generalized Fibonacci photon sieves
Zhang, Junyong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Lin, Zunqi
2015-01-01
We present a new kind of photon sieves on the basis of the generalized Fibonacci sequences. The required numbers and locations of axial foci can be designed by generalized Fibonacci photon sieves (GFiPS). Furthermore, the three-dimensional array foci can be controllable and adjustable by the optical path difference scaling factor (OPDSF) when the amplitude modulation is replaced with the phase modulation. Multi-focal technologies can be applied to nano-imaging, THZ, laser communications, direct laser writing, optical tweezers or atom trapping, etc.
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce (Albuquerque, NM)
2012-06-12
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
Bouaynaya, Nidhal
is an opportunistic human pathogen and a causative agent of a wide range of diseases. Its hallmark feature-dimensional segmentation. 1. Introduction Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic human pathogen responsible for diseases shield microorganisms from stressful environmental conditions including the defensive mechanisms
Three-Dimensional Momentum Imaging of Electron Wave Packet Interference in Few-Cycle Laser Pulses
Kling, Matthias
) spectra have been recorded for carrier-envelope-phase (CEP) stabilized few-cycle ($5 fs), intense ($4 Â in P space at CEPs with maximum asymmetry, interpreted as attosecond interferences of rescattered suppressed barrier. The electron then undergoes an oscillatory motion in the electric field to achieve
Costes, Sylvain Vincent
1994-01-01
This study concerns with the development of a simple three-dimensional technique to determine the velocity of fluid by tracing the motion of seeded particles in a flow in three-dimensions. A correction for light refraction ...
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, Steven J. (Boston, MA)
1996-01-01
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, S.J.
1996-12-31
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.
Three-Dimensional Characterization of
Rohrer, Gregory S.
Three-Dimensional Characterization of Microstructure by Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction Anthony D scanning, statistical reconstruction, microscopy, texture, EBSD Abstract The characterization;MOTIVATION We review briefly the motivation for the characterization of materials in three dimen- sions. Most
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichart, Anke (Albany, CA)
2000-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Stytz, M.R.
1989-01-01
The dissertation outlines development of a medical imaging machine which renders 3D images from voxel data within a MIMD multiprocessor architecture at interactive rates. Interactive performance is achieved using local dynamic selection of the optimum adaptive recursive hidden-surface removal algorithm. A survey of the medical imaging, graphics, and medical imaging modality literature is provided. A description of Computerized Technology, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Positron Emission Tomography, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, and Ultrasound imaging modalities is presented Previous work in 3D volume rendering graphics techniques and data models is introduced. Eleven medical imaging machines are examined with emphasis on characterization of the major innovation(s) and performance of each machine. A five stage image processing pipeline is described.
High-resolution ab initio three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chapman, Henry N.; Barty, Anton; Marchesini, Stefano; Noy, Aleksandr; Hau-Riege, Stefan P.; Cui, Congwu; Howells, Malcolm R.; Rosen, Rachel; He, Haifeng; Spence, John C. H.; et al
2006-01-01
Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a method of imaging nonperiodic isolated objects at resolutions limited, in principle, by only the wavelength and largest scattering angles recorded. We demonstrate x-ray diffraction imaging with high resolution in all three dimensions, as determined by a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed volume images. These images are retrieved from the three-dimensional diffraction data using no a priori knowledge about the shape or composition of the object, which has never before been demonstrated on a nonperiodic object. We also construct two-dimensional images of thick objects with greatly increased depth of focus (without loss of transverse spatialmore »resolution). These methods can be used to image biological and materials science samples at high resolution with x-ray undulator radiation and establishes the techniques to be used in atomic-resolution ultrafast imaging at x-ray free-electron laser sources.« less
line, recorded in 1977 by COCORP, reveal coherent events having horizontal to reverse moveouts in geometric coverage as the COCORP survey, demonstrates the utility of the imaging process. The images and seismic reflection targets in general. In 1977, COCORP recorded 27 km of deep crustal reflec- tion data
Yu, H.-S.; Jackson, B. V.; Buffington, A.; Hick, P. P.; Shimojo, M.; Sako, N.
2014-04-01
Images recorded by the X-ray Telescope on board the Hinode spacecraft are used to provide high-cadence observations of solar jetting activity. A selection of the brightest of these polar jets shows a positive correlation with high-speed responses traced into the interplanetary medium. LASCO C2 and STEREO COR2 coronagraph images measure the coronal response to some of the largest jets, and also the nearby background solar wind velocity, thereby giving a determination of their speeds that we compare with Hinode observations. When using the full Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) data set, we track these same high-speed solar jet responses into the inner heliosphere and from these analyses determine their mass, flow energies, and the extent to which they retain their identity at large solar distances.
Clayton, Robert W.
. INTRODUCTION The validity of the conventional processof stacking seismic reflection data as an imaging of moderate earthquakes on it. Evaluations of velocities and other seismic characteristics of the region have been included in several studies of seismic activity, such as those by Eaton et al. (1970) and Liu
Carey, Stephen A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Trease, Lynn L.; Wagner, James G.; Garcia, Guilherme M.; Ballinger, Carol A.; Kimbell, Julia; Plopper, Charles G.; Corley, Rick A.; Postlewait, Ed; Harkema, Jack R.
2007-03-01
ABSTRACT Age-related changes in gross and microscopic structure of the nasal cavity can alter local tissue susceptibility as well as the dose of inhaled toxicant delivered to susceptible sites. This article describes a novel method for the use of magnetic resonance imaging, 3-dimensional airway modeling, and morphometric techniques to characterize the distribution and magnitude of ozone-induced nasal injury in infant monkeys. Using this method, we are able to generate age-specific, 3-dimensional, epithelial maps of the nasal airways of infant Rhesus macaques. The principal nasal lesions observed in this primate model of ozone-induced nasal toxicology were neutrophilic rhinitis, along with necrosis and exfoliation of the epithelium lining the anterior maxilloturbinate. These lesions, induced by acute or cyclic (episodic) exposures, were examined by light microscopy, quantified by morphometric techniques, and mapped on 3-dimensional models of the nasal airways. Here, we describe the histopathologic, imaging, and computational biology methods developed to efficiently characterize, localize, quantify, and map these nasal lesions. By combining these techniques, the location and severity of the nasal epithelial injury were correlated with epithelial type, nasal airway geometry, and local biochemical and molecular changes on an individual animal basis. These correlations are critical for accurate predictive modeling of exposure-dose-response relationships in the nasal airways, and subsequent extrapolation of nasal findings in animals to humans for developing risk assessment.
Månsson, Erik P. Sorensen, Stacey L.; Gisselbrecht, Mathieu; Arnold, Cord L.; Kroon, David; Guénot, Diego; Fordell, Thomas; Johnsson, Per; L’Huillier, Anne; Lépine, Franck
2014-12-15
We report on the versatile design and operation of a two-sided spectrometer for the imaging of charged-particle momenta in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions (3D). The benefits of 3D detection are to discern particles of different mass and to study correlations between fragments from multi-ionization processes, while 2D detectors are more efficient for single-ionization applications. Combining these detector types in one instrument allows us to detect positive and negative particles simultaneously and to reduce acquisition times by using the 2D detector at a higher ionization rate when the third dimension is not required. The combined access to electronic and nuclear dynamics available when both sides are used together is important for studying photoreactions in samples of increasing complexity. The possibilities and limitations of 3D momentum imaging of electrons or ions in the same spectrometer geometry are investigated analytically and three different modes of operation demonstrated experimentally, with infrared or extreme ultraviolet light and an atomic/molecular beam.
Three-dimensional charge coupled device
Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)
1999-01-01
A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.
Ritchie, Robert
, Thousand Oaks, CA 91360 Three-dimensional (3-D) images of two ceramic-matrix textile composites were studied represent a new class of integrally woven ceramic matrix composites for high-temperature appliCharacterizing Three-Dimensional Textile Ceramic Composites Using Synchrotron X-Ray Micro
Three-dimensional tokamak equilibria in the presence of resonant...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Three-dimensional tokamak equilibria in the presence of resonant field errors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Three-dimensional tokamak equilibria in the presence of...
Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Three dimensional stress vector sensor array and method therefor A...
Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal...
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Geeothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs Three-dimensional Modeling of Fracture Clusters in Geeothermal Reservoirs...
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah (Albany, CA); Reichert, Anke (Albany, CA)
2001-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Towards Three-Dimensional Bethe Ansatz
M. Bellon; S. Boukraa; J-M. Maillard; C-M. Viallet
1993-05-05
We introduce a ``pre-Bethe-Ansatz'' system of equations for three dimensional vertex models. We bring to the light various algebraic curves of high genus and discuss some situations where these curves simplify. As a result we describe remarkable subvarieties of the space of parameters.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, J.L.
1996-07-23
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/{micro}c-Si) solar cells are disclosed which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell. 4 figs.
Three dimensional amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon solar cells
Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)
1996-01-01
Three dimensional deep contact amorphous silicon/microcrystalline silicon (a-Si/.mu.c-Si) solar cells which use deep (high aspect ratio) p and n contacts to create high electric fields within the carrier collection volume material of the cell. The deep contacts are fabricated using repetitive pulsed laser doping so as to create the high aspect p and n contacts. By the provision of the deep contacts which penetrate the electric field deep into the material where the high strength of the field can collect many of the carriers, thereby resulting in a high efficiency solar cell.
Imaging an aligned polyatomic molecule with laser-induced electron diffraction
Pullen, Michael; Le, Anh-Thu; Baudisch, Matthias; Hemmer, Michaël; Senftleben, Arne; Schröter, Claus Dieter; Ullrich, Joachim; Moshammer, Robert; Lin, Chii-Dong; Biegert, Jens
2015-01-01
Laser-induced electron diffraction is an evolving tabletop method, which aims to image ultrafast structural changes in gas-phase polyatomic molecules with sub-{\\AA}ngstr\\"om spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution. Here, we provide the general foundation for the retrieval of multiple bond lengths from a polyatomic molecule by simultaneously measuring the C-C and C-H bond lengths in aligned acetylene. Our approach takes the method beyond the hitherto achieved imaging of simple diatomic molecules and is based upon the combination of a 160 kHz mid-IR few-cycle laser source with full three-dimensional electron-ion coincidence detection. Our technique provides an accessible and robust route towards imaging ultrafast processes in complex gas phase molecules with atto- to femto-second temporal resolution.
Three-dimensional Accelerating Electromagnetic Waves
Miguel A. Bandres; Miguel A. Alonso; Ido Kaminer; Mordechai Segev
2013-03-25
We present a general theory of three-dimensional nonparaxial spatially-accelerating waves of the Maxwell equations. These waves constitute a two-dimensional structure exhibiting shape-invariant propagation along semicircular trajectories. We provide classification and characterization of possible shapes of such beams, expressed through the angular spectra of parabolic, oblate and prolate spheroidal fields. Our results facilitate the design of accelerating beams with novel structures, broadening scope and potential applications of accelerating beams.
Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2003-06-24
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA)
2006-09-26
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA) [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wise, James A. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA
2001-10-02
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B. (Oxnard, CA); Pennock, Kelly A. (Richland, WA); Pottier, Marc C. (Richland, WA); Schur, Anne (Richland, WA); Thomas, James J. (Richland, WA); Wise, James A. (Richland, WA); York, Jeremy (Bothell, WA)
2009-06-30
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support
Bernard, Patrick (Massy, FR); Dauchier, Jean-Michel (Martignas, FR); Simonneau, Olivier (Dourdan, FR)
1999-07-27
Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m
Laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device
Vann, C.S.
1993-08-31
A laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device permits the focus of a single focal point of different frequency laser beams emanating from the same source point. In particular it allows the focusing of laser beam originating from the same laser device but having differing intensities so that a low intensity beam will not convert to a higher frequency when passing through a conversion crystal associated with the laser generating device. The laser focus compensating sensing and imaging device uses a Cassegrain system to fold the lower frequency, low intensity beam back upon itself so that it will focus at the same focal point as a high intensity beam. An angular tilt compensating lens is mounted about the secondary mirror of the Cassegrain system to assist in alignment. In addition cameras or CCD's are mounted with the primary mirror to sense the focused image. A convex lens is positioned co-axial with the Cassegrain system on the side of the primary mirror distal of the secondary for use in aligning a target with the laser beam. A first alternate embodiment includes a Cassegrain system using a series of shutters and an internally mounted dichroic mirror. A second alternate embodiment uses two laser focus compensating sensing and imaging devices for aligning a moving tool with a work piece.
Two component-three dimensional catalysis
Schwartz, Michael (Boulder, CO); White, James H. (Boulder, CO); Sammells, Anthony F. (Boulder, CO)
2002-01-01
This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
Epitaxial growth of three-dimensionally architectured optoelectronic devices
Nelson, Erik C.; Dias, Neville L.; Bassett, Kevin P.; Dunham, Simon N.; Verma, Varun; Miyake, Masao; Wiltzius, Pierre; Rogers, John A.; Coleman, James J.; Li, Xiuling; Braun, Paul V.
2011-07-24
Optoelectronic devices have long benefited from structuring in multiple dimensions on microscopic length scales. However, preserving crystal epitaxy, a general necessity for good optoelectronic properties, while imparting a complex three-dimensional structure remains a significant challenge. Three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals are one class of materials where epitaxy of 3D structures would enable new functionalities. Many 3D photonic crystal devices have been proposed, including zero-threshold lasers, low-loss waveguides, high-efficiency light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and solar cells, but have generally not been realized because of material limitations. Exciting concepts in metamaterials, including negative refraction and cloaking, could be made practical using 3D structures that incorporate electrically pumped gain elements to balance the inherent optical loss of such devices. Here we demonstrate the 3D-template-directed epitaxy of group III–V materials, which enables formation of 3D structured optoelectronic devices. We illustrate the power of this technique by fabricating an electrically driven 3D photonic crystal LED.
Three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures having photonic Dirac points
Bravo-Abad, Jorge; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljacic, Marin
2015-06-02
The dielectric, three-dimensional photonic materials disclosed herein feature Dirac-like dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional systems. Embodiments include a face-centered cubic (fcc) structure formed by alternating layers of dielectric rods and dielectric slabs patterned with holes on respective triangular lattices. This fcc structure also includes a defect layer, which may comprise either dielectric rods or a dielectric slab with patterned with holes. This defect layer introduces Dirac cone dispersion into the fcc structure's photonic band structure. Examples of these fcc structures enable enhancement of the spontaneous emission coupling efficiency (the .beta.-factor) over large areas, contrary to the conventional wisdom that the .beta.-factor degrades as the system's size increases. These results enable large-area, low-threshold lasers; single-photon sources; quantum information processing devices; and energy harvesting systems.
Three-dimensional infrared metamaterial with asymmetric transmission
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Kenanakis, George; Xomalis, Aggelos; Selimis, Alexandros; Vamvakaki, Maria; Farsari, Maria; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.; Economou, Eleftherios N.
2015-01-14
A novel three-dimensional (3D) metallic metamaterial structure with asymmetric transmission for linear polarization is demonstrated in the infrared spectral region. The structure was fabricated by direct laser writing and selective electroless silver coating, a straightforward, novel technique producing mechanically and chemically stable 3D photonic structures. The structure unit cell is composed of a pair of conductively coupled magnetic resonators, and the asymmetric transmission response results from interplay of electric and magnetic responses; this equips the structure with almost total opaqueness along one propagation direction versus satisfying transparency along the opposite one. It also offers easily adjustable impedance, 90° one-way puremore »optical activity and backward propagation possibility, resulting thus in unique capabilities in polarization control and isolation applications. We show also that scaling down the structure can make it capable of exhibiting its asymmetric transmission and its polarization capabilities in the optical region.« less
Molecular Cell The Three-Dimensional Architecture of a Bacterial
Church, George M.
Molecular Cell Article The Three-Dimensional Architecture of a Bacterial Genome and Its Alteration have determined the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the Caulobacter crescentus genome segregation. INTRODUCTION The three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the genome both reflects and regulates
Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues
Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: sekikawa@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan)] [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)] [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)
2014-03-15
This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator potential
Ligare, Martin
Numerical analysis of BoseEinstein condensation in a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator 24 March 1997; accepted 12 May 1997 BoseEinstein condensation is the anomalous accumulation the conditions of the recent experiments achieving BoseEinstein condensation in laser-cooled alkali vapors
Modelling of multistage selective photoionisation in a three-dimensional cavity
Golyatina, R I; Tkachev, Aleksei N; Yakovlenko, Sergei I
1998-08-31
An analysis is made of physical models of selective three-stage photoionisation of a vapour in a three-dimensional cavity. These models have been used in theoretical analyses of preparation of significant amounts of highly enriched {sup 168}Yb by the AVLIS (atomic-vapour laser isotope separation) method. A comparison of the model predictions with experiments shows that a three-dimensional model ignoring the absorption of laser radiation in a medium describes well the experimental results obtained for the second and third ionisation stages. The first excitation stage is described satisfactorily by a model in which absorption is included. A comparison of the calculated and experimental results is used to find the coefficient (65%) representing ion extraction from a laser plasma. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
Wong, Kenneth K.Y.
ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve Morphology with Three- dimensional Echocardiography. of Medicine & Therapeutics Keywords: mitral valve, echocardiography, imaging Category: Diagnostic imaging/Nuclear medicine Japanese Circulation Society Circulation Journal #12;ForReview Only Quantification of Mitral Valve
Reconstruction of a Three-Dimensional Tableau from a Single Realist Painting
Zhu, Zhigang
Reconstruction of a Three-Dimensional Tableau from a Single Realist Painting Wai L. Khoo, Tadeusz-dimensional tableau from a single realist paintingScott Fraser's Three way vanitas (2006) based on multiple stereo reconstruction applied to the direct image and the images in three plane mirrors depicted within the painting
Laser image recording on detonation nanodiamond films
Mikheev, G M; Mikheev, K G; Mogileva, T N; Puzyr, A P; Bondar, V S
2014-01-31
A focused He – Ne laser beam is shown to cause local blackening of semitransparent detonation nanodiamond (DND) films at incident power densities above 600 W cm{sup -2}. Data obtained with a Raman spectrometer and low-power 632.8-nm laser source indicate that the blackening is accompanied by a decrease in broadband background luminescence and emergence of sharp Raman peaks corresponding to the structures of nanodiamond and sp{sup 2} carbon. The feasibility of image recording on DND films by a focused He – Ne laser beam is demonstrated. (letters)
Superconducting properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional...
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properties in tantalum decorated three-dimensional graphene and carbon structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconducting properties in tantalum...
New classes of three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators...
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New classes of three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators: Nonsymmorphic and magnetic Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on...
Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission...
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More Documents & Publications Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx...
Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...
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Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...
Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic...
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Locally Advanced Prostate Cancer: Three-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Monitor Prostate Response to Therapy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Locally...
Three-Dimensional Nanostructures Formed by Single Step, Two-Photon
Rogers, John A.
patterning of 3D structures is possible, with simple setups in which all of the optics can be contained describe the fabrication of unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures using single step, two. Confocal imaging, computational studies, and 3D reconstructions reveal the essential aspects of the flow
Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound
Modeling Mitral Valve Leaflets from Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Robert J. Schneider1 , William C for mechani- cal models predicting valve closure. Current methods for leaflet modeling from ultrasound either. The presented method for modeling the mitral leaflets from three-dimensional ultrasound of an open mitral valve
Synthetic Spectrum Methods for Three-Dimensional Supernova Models
R. C. Thomas
2003-10-21
Current observations stimulate the production of fully three-dimensional explosion models, which in turn motivates three-dimensional spectrum synthesis for supernova atmospheres. We briefly discuss techniques adapted to address the latter problem, and consider some fundamentals of line formation in supernovae without recourse to spherical symmetry. Direct and detailed extensions of the technique are discussed, and future work is outlined.
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng of the energy distribution of solar flares, there have not been many results based on large-scale three-dimensional direct simulations due to obvious numerical difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other
Three-dimensional NDE of VHTR core components via simulation-based testing. Final report
Guzina, Bojan; Kunerth, Dennis
2014-09-30
A next generation, simulation-driven-and-enabled testing platform is developed for the 3D detection and characterization of defects and damage in nuclear graphite and composite structures in Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTRs). The proposed work addresses the critical need for the development of high-fidelity Non-Destructive Examination (NDE) technologies for as-manufactured and replaceable in-service VHTR components. Centered around the novel use of elastic (sonic and ultrasonic) waves, this project deploys a robust, non-iterative inverse solution for the 3D defect reconstruction together with a non-contact, laser-based approach to the measurement of experimental waveforms in VHTR core components. In particular, this research (1) deploys three-dimensional Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (3D SLDV) as a means to accurately and remotely measure 3D displacement waveforms over the accessible surface of a VHTR core component excited by mechanical vibratory source; (2) implements a powerful new inverse technique, based on the concept of Topological Sensitivity (TS), for non-iterative elastic waveform tomography of internal defects - that permits robust 3D detection, reconstruction and characterization of discrete damage (e.g. holes and fractures) in nuclear graphite from limited-aperture NDE measurements; (3) implements state-of-the art computational (finite element) model that caters for accurately simulating elastic wave propagation in 3D blocks of nuclear graphite; (4) integrates the SLDV testing methodology with the TS imaging algorithm into a non-contact, high-fidelity NDE platform for the 3D reconstruction and characterization of defects and damage in VHTR core components; and (5) applies the proposed methodology to VHTR core component samples (both two- and three-dimensional) with a priori induced, discrete damage in the form of holes and fractures. Overall, the newly established SLDV-TS testing platform represents a next-generation NDE tool that surpasses all existing techniques for the 3D ultrasonic imaging of material damage from non-contact, limited-aperture waveform measurements. Outlook. The next stage in the development of this technology includes items such as (a) non-contact generation of mechanical vibrations in VHTR components via thermal expansion created by high-intensity laser; (b) development and incorporation of Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique (SAFT) for elevating the accuracy of 3D imaging in highly noisy environments with minimal accessible surface; (c) further analytical and computational developments to facilitate the reconstruction of diffuse damage (e.g. microcracks) in nuclear graphite as they lead to the dispersion of elastic waves, (d) concept of model updating for accurate tracking of the evolution of material damage via periodic inspections; (d) adoption of the Bayesian framework to obtain information on the certainty of obtained images; and (e) optimization of the computational scheme toward real-time, model-based imaging of damage in VHTR core components.
Long, Gregory T.; Brundage, Aaron L.; Wixom, Ryan R.; Tappan, Alexander Smith
2009-08-01
Three-dimensional shock simulations of energetic materials have been conducted to improve our understanding of initiation at the mesoscale. Vapor-deposited films of PETN and pressed powders of HNS were characterized with a novel three-dimensional nanotomographic technique. Detailed microstructures were constructed experimentally from a stack of serial electron micrographs obtained by successive milling and imaging in a dual-beam FIB/SEM. These microstructures were digitized and imported into a multidimensional, multimaterial Eulerian shock physics code. The simulations provided insight into the mechanisms of pore collapse in PETN and HNS samples with distinctly different three-dimensional pore morphology and distribution. This modeling effort supports investigations of microscale explosive phenomenology and elucidates mechanisms governing initiation of secondary explosives.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, A.F.; Petersen, R.W.
1993-08-31
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow dummy chips'' are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned on the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
Three dimensional, multi-chip module
Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Petersen, Robert W. (Pleasanton, CA)
1993-01-01
A plurality of multi-chip modules are stacked and bonded around the perimeter by sold-bump bonds to adjacent modules on, for instance, three sides of the perimeter. The fourth side can be used for coolant distribution, for more interconnect structures, or other features, depending on particular design considerations of the chip set. The multi-chip modules comprise a circuit board, having a planarized interconnect structure formed on a first major surface, and integrated circuit chips bonded to the planarized interconnect surface. Around the periphery of each circuit board, long, narrow "dummy chips" are bonded to the finished circuit board to form a perimeter wall. The wall is higher than any of the chips on the circuit board, so that the flat back surface of the board above will only touch the perimeter wall. Module-to-module interconnect is laser-patterned o the sides of the boards and over the perimeter wall in the same way and at the same time that chip to board interconnect may be laser-patterned.
CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals
A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh
2007-10-18
We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.
Classification and reconstruction of three-dimensional microstructures using
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
Classification and reconstruction of three-dimensional microstructures using support vector of reconstructed microstructures with available experimental re- sults. Combination of classification methodology-dimensional microstructures experimentally characterized by combining digitized serial sections or through methods like X
Origami nanofabrication of three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage devices
In, Hyun Jin
2005-01-01
The Nanostructured (TM) 3D Fabrication and Assembly Process was developed as a novel method of creating three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured devices using two- dimensional micro- and nanopatterning tools and techniques. ...
Copper wafer bonding in three-dimensional integration
Chen, Kuan-Neng, 1974-
2005-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) integration, in which multiple layers of devices are stacked with high density of interconnects between the layers, offers solutions for problems when the critical dimensions in integrated circuits ...
Three-Dimensional Lithium-Ion Battery Model (Presentation)
Kim, G. H.; Smith, K.
2008-05-01
Nonuniform battery physics can cause unexpected performance and life degradations in lithium-ion batteries; a three-dimensional cell performance model was developed by integrating an electrode-scale submodel using a multiscale modeling scheme.
Reactive binders for metal parts produced by Three Dimensional Printing
Yoo, Helen Jean
1997-01-01
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid free form fabrication process which enables the construction of parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. In the current process, metal parts are produced by printing ...
Tungsten carbide-cobalt by Three Dimensional Printing
Kelley, Andrew, III
1998-01-01
Three Dimensional Printing is an additive manufacturing process for rapid prototyping ceramic and metallic parts [Sachs, et al, 1990]. Green (not sintered) tungsten carbide-cobalt parts must have a density greater than 50% ...
Porosity in millimeter-scale welds of stainless steel : three-dimensional characterization.
Aagesen, Larry K.; Madison, Jonathan D.
2012-05-01
A variety of edge joints utilizing a continuous wave Nd:YAG laser have been produced and examined in a 304-L stainless steel to advance fundamental understanding of the linkage between processing and resultant microstructure in high-rate solidification events. Acquisition of three-dimensional reconstructions via micro-computed tomography combined with traditional metallography has allowed for qualitative and quantitative characterization of weld joints in a material system of wide use and broad applicability. The presence, variability and distribution of porosity, has been examined for average values, spatial distributions and morphology and then related back to fundamental processing parameters such as weld speed, weld power and laser focal length.
Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Article: Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of multi-component fuelair mixing in a firing gasoline-direct-injection engine: Effects of residual exhaust...
Frahm, Jan-Michael; Pollefeys, Marc Andre Leon; Gallup, David Robert
2015-12-08
Methods of generating a three dimensional representation of an object in a reference plane from a depth map including distances from a reference point to pixels in an image of the object taken from a reference point. Weights are assigned to respective voxels in a three dimensional grid along rays extending from the reference point through the pixels in the image based on the distances in the depth map from the reference point to the respective pixels, and a height map including an array of height values in the reference plane is formed based on the assigned weights. An n-layer height map may be constructed by generating a probabilistic occupancy grid for the voxels and forming an n-dimensional height map comprising an array of layer height values in the reference plane based on the probabilistic occupancy grid.
Three-dimensional gravity and deformations of relativistic symmetries
Trzesniewski, T
2015-01-01
It is possible that relativistic symmetries become deformed in the semiclassical regime of quantum gravity. Mathematically, such deformations lead to the noncommutativity of spacetime geometry and non-vanishing curvature of momentum space. The best studied example is given by the $\\kappa$-Poincar\\'e Hopf algebra, associated with $\\kappa$-Minkowski space. On the other hand, the curved momentum space is a well-known feature of particles coupled to three-dimensional gravity. The purpose of this thesis was to explore some properties and mutual relations of the above two models. In particular, I study extensively the spectral dimension of $\\kappa$-Minkowski space. I also present an alternative limit of the Chern-Simons theory describing three-dimensional gravity with particles. Then I discuss the spaces of momenta corresponding to conical defects in higher dimensional spacetimes. Finally, I consider the Fock space construction for the quantum theory of particles in three-dimensional gravity.
Ray tracing a three dimensional scene using a grid
Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago; Parker, Steven G; Knoll, Aaron
2013-02-26
Ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. One example embodiment is a method for ray tracing a three-dimensional scene using a grid. In this example method, the three-dimensional scene is made up of objects that are spatially partitioned into a plurality of cells that make up the grid. The method includes a first act of computing a bounding frustum of a packet of rays, and a second act of traversing the grid slice by slice along a major traversal axis. Each slice traversal includes a first act of determining one or more cells in the slice that are overlapped by the frustum and a second act of testing the rays in the packet for intersection with any objects at least partially bounded by the one or more cells overlapped by the frustum.
Bottleneck effect in three-dimensional turbulence simulations
Wolfgang Dobler; Nils Erland L. Haugen; Tarek A. Yousef; Axel Brandenburg
2003-08-27
At numerical resolutions around $512^3$ and above, three-dimensional energy spectra from turbulence simulations begin to show noticeably shallower spectra than $k^{-5/3}$ near the dissipation wavenumber (`bottleneck effect'). This effect is shown to be significantly weaker in one-dimensional spectra such as those obtained in wind tunnel turbulence. The difference can be understood in terms of the transformation between one-dimensional and three-dimensional energy spectra under the assumption that the turbulent velocity field is isotropic. Transversal and longitudinal energy spectra are similar and can both accurately be computed from the full three-dimensional spectra. Second-order structure functions are less susceptible to the bottleneck effect and may be better suited for inferring the scaling exponent from numerical simulation data.
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01
deconvolution, time migration, and depth conversion. Thethe final migration (in time and depth) and the stackingKirchhoff Time Migration Disk Ouptut Time/Depth Conversion
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01
at Well 46-28, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,Seismic Survey, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,Seismic Survey, Rye Patch Geothermal Field, Pershing County,
High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of
Cai, Long
absorption and scattering within the sample are suppressed. Here we report the ability of SPIM to acquire deconvolution of data acquired along multiple directions. Deconvolution algorithms use a priori knowledge
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01
support in the interpretation of the seismic and tomographicinterpretation is partially supported by the re- h s flection seismic
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01
potential process- ing of the proposed 3-D seismic surveyprocess and we would recommend this for future 3-D seismic
Three-Dimensional Seismic Imaging of the Ryepatch Geothermal Reservoir
Feighner, Mark A.
2010-01-01
stage used a Vertical Seismic Profile to determine the seis-2. Results From Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) Figure 1P- and S-Wave vertical seismic profile data from the Salton
Synthetic aperture imaging for three dimensional resolution of fluid flows
Belden, Jesse (Jesse Levi)
2011-01-01
Fluid mechanics and instrumentation have a long history together, as experimental fluids studies play an important role in describing a more complete physical picture in a variety of problems. Presently. state-of-the-art ...
Self-imaging-based laser collimation testing technique
Mudassar, Asloob A.; Butt, Saira
2010-11-01
Laser collimation is required in many experiments based on lasers. Some laser experiments demand a high quality of collimation, e.g., the optical coherent processor, image transformer, and Fourier transform generator. A device is required to test the collimation of lasers in such experiments. We have suggested a modification in existing collimation testing techniques by which sensitivity can be improved. Theoretical analysis and experimental results demonstrate twice the improvement in sensitivity when used with previous techniques.
Low dimensional behavior in three-dimensional coupled map lattices
Paulsamy Muruganandam; Gerson Francisco; Marcio de Menezes; Fernando F. Ferreira
2007-06-12
The analysis of one-, two-, and three-dimensional coupled map lattices is here developed under a statistical and dynamical perspective. We show that the three-dimensional CML exhibits low dimensional behavior with long range correlation and the power spectrum follows $1/f$ noise. This approach leads to an integrated understanding of the most important properties of these universal models of spatiotemporal chaos. We perform a complete time series analysis of the model and investigate the dependence of the signal properties by change of dimension.
Photodisintegration of $^3H$ in a three dimensional Faddeev approach
S. Bayegan; M. A. Shalchi; M. R. Hadizadeh
2010-01-03
An interaction of a photon with $^3H$ is invstigated based on a three dimensional Faddeev approach. In this approach the three-nucleon Faddeev equations with two-nucleon interactions are formulated with consideration of the magnitude of the vector Jacobi momenta and the angle between them with the inclusion of the spin-isospin quantum numbers, without employing a partial wave decomposition. In this formulation the two body t-matrices and triton wave function are calculated in the three dimensional approach using AV18 potential. In the first step we use the standard single nucleon current in this article.
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detector
Nikolic, Rebecca J.; Conway, Adam M.; Graff, Robert T.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F.; Cheung, Chin Li; Heineck, Daniel
2014-09-09
Three-dimensional boron particle loaded thermal neutron detectors utilize neutron sensitive conversion materials in the form of nano-powders and micro-sized particles, as opposed to thin films, suspensions, paraffin, etc. More specifically, methods to infiltrate, intersperse and embed the neutron nano-powders to form two-dimensional and/or three-dimensional charge sensitive platforms are specified. The use of nano-powders enables conformal contact with the entire charge-collecting structure regardless of its shape or configuration.
Laser radiography forming bremsstrahlung radiation to image an object
Perry, Michael D.; Sefcik, Joseph A.
2004-01-13
A method of imaging an object by generating laser pulses with a short-pulse, high-power laser. When the laser pulse strikes a conductive target, bremsstrahlung radiation is generated such that hard ballistic high-energy electrons are formed to penetrate an object. A detector on the opposite side of the object detects these electrons. Since laser pulses are used to form the hard x-rays, multiple pulses can be used to image an object in motion, such as an exploding or compressing object, by using time gated detectors. Furthermore, the laser pulses can be directed down different tubes using mirrors and filters so that each laser pulse will image a different portion of the object.
Optically Fabricated Three Dimensional Nanofluidic Mixers for Microfluidic
Rogers, John A.
) completely fill the cross section of a microfluidic channel. These 3D structures enhance mixing even at small technique for fabricating complex, but well defined, three-dimensional (3D) networks of nanoscale flow paths studies of microfluidic devices that incorporate 3D nanostructures formed using this approach show
Modeling snow crystal growth III: three-dimensional snowfakes
Janko Gravner; David Griffeath
2007-11-26
We introduce a three-dimensional, computationally feasible, mesoscopic model for snow crystal growth, based on diffusion of vapor, anisotropic attachment, and a semi-liquid boundary layer. Several case studies are presented that faithfully emulate a wide variety of physical snowflakes.
Comments on Controllable Three-Dimensional Brownian Motors
Elias P. Gyftopoulos
2007-06-13
Upon reviewing the physical review letter which describes the processes involved in "demonstration of a controllable three-dimensional Brownian motor in symmetric potentials" we conclude that such processes are not compatible with what Einstein and many other physicists and engineers define as Brownian motors or Brownian movements.
Stability of High-Speed, Three-Dimensional Boundary Layers
Craig, Stuart A
2015-04-02
Boundary-layer experiments are performed in the low-disturbance, Mach 6 Quiet Tunnel (M6QT) at Texas A&M University. The experiments are focused specifically on investigating the physics of two three-dimensional phenomena in hypersonic boundary...
Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations?
Blackledge, Todd
LETTER Are three-dimensional spider webs defensive adaptations? Todd A. Blackledge1 *, Jonathan A-mail: tab42@cornell.edu Abstract Spider webs result from complex behaviours that have evolved under many selective pressures. Webs have been primarily considered to be foraging adaptations, neglecting
New examples of three-dimensional dilational materials
Graeme Walter Milton
2015-04-29
Two-dimensional dilational materials, for which the only easy mode of deformation is a dilation are reviewed and connections are drawn between models previously proposed in the literature. Some models which appear to be dilational materials, but which in fact are not, are also discussed. Finally, four new examples of three-dimensional dilational materials are given.
Three-Dimensional Directed Construction Justin Werfel and Radhika Nagpal
Napp, Nils
present an approach to building arbitrary solid three-dimensional structures from modular units. Our bipartite system comprises passive units, which form the structure, and active ones, which manipulate the passive units and can be removed at the end of the construction process for use in other projects
Three-dimensional Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes in a
Ng, Chung-Sang
Three-dimensional Bernstein- Greene-Kruskal modes in a multi-species plasma: Void solutions-dimensional (3D) Bernstein- Greene-Kruskal (BGK) mode [Ng and Bhattacharjee, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 245004 (2005 and the distribution function of the other species depending on energy and angular momentum. Some of these solutions
The Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks
Tseng, Yu-Chee
- bedded micro-sensing MEMS technologies has made wireless sensor networks possible. Such environments mayThe Coverage Problem in Three-Dimensional Wireless Sensor Networks Chi-Fu Huang, Yu-Chee Tseng of the fundamental issues in sensor networks is the coverage problem, which reflects how well a sensor network
Three-Dimensional Tsunami Modeling Using GPU-SPHysics
Munoz, Andrew J.
2010-07-14
on the GPU not only creates accurate, three-dimensional models but stunning visualizations of a tsunami wave breaking on beaches or other structures. Using the data from these models, coastal communities will be well prepared for any magnitude of tsunami...
Three-Dimensional and Multilayer Nanostructures Formed by Nanotransfer
Rogers, John A.
ABSTRACT This letter describes the use of nanotransfer printing (nTP) for forming three-dimensional (3D to as nanotransfer printing (nTP),8-11 can be used to build a range of complex 3D structures with feature sizes patterning. Furthermore, the purely additive nature of nTP allows these 2D and 3D printing steps
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of
Ng, Chung-Sang
Energy Distribution of Nanoflares in Three-Dimensional Simulations of Coronal Heating Chung-Sang Ng difficulties. We will present energy distributions and other statistics based on our simulations, calculated simulation results. · Parker's nanoflare heating model vs observations · Energy distributions of nanoflares
Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces
Wadley, Haydn
Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces Yichi Lua solid liquid interfaces during single crystal growth. A previously developed two-dimensional ray across solidliquid interfaces in cylindrical bodies where the receiver is located at an arbitrary
Plume Image Profiling of UV Laser Desorbed Biomolecules
Merrigan, T. L.; Hunniford, C.A.; McCullough, R. W. [Centre for Plasma Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Timson, D. J. [School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK, BT9 7BL (United Kingdom); Catney, M. [Andor Technology plc., 7 Millennium Way, Springvale Business Park, Belfast, UK, BT12 7AL (United Kingdom)
2008-12-08
An experimental system, based upon the techniques of UV and IR laser desorption with time of flight mass spectrometry, has been constructed to enable the production and characterization of neutral biomolecular targets. The feasibility of the laser desorption technique for the purpose of radiation interaction experiments is investigated here. Fluorescent dye tagging and laser induced fluorescence imaging has been used to help characterize the laser produced plumes of biomolecules revealing their spatial density profiles and temporal evolution. Peak target thicknesses of 2x10{sup 12} molecules cm{sup -2} were obtained 30 {mu}s after laser desorption.
Three-dimensional effects on energetic particle confinement and stability
Spong, D. A. [One Bethel Valley Road, Bldg. 5700, P. O. Box 2008, MS-6169, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6169 (United States)
2011-05-15
Energetic particle populations in magnetic confinement systems are sensitive to symmetry-breaking effects due to their low collisionality and long confined path lengths. Broken symmetry is present to some extent in all toroidal devices. As such effects preclude the existence of an ignorable coordinate, a fully three-dimensional analysis is necessary, beginning with the lowest order (equilibrium) magnetic fields. Three-dimensional techniques that have been extensively developed for stellarator configurations are readily adapted to other devices such as rippled tokamaks and helical states in reversed field pinches. This paper will describe the methods and present an overview of recent examples that use these techniques for the modeling of energetic particle confinement, Alfven mode structure and fast ion instabilities.
Optimal standoff imaging using structured laser illumination and graphical models
Hardy, Nicholas D. (Nicholas David)
2014-01-01
Structured illumination can be used to form images without using a lens or a detector array. A series of spatially-structured laser pulses is cast on the scene of interest, and a single-detector power measurement is made ...
Three-dimensional Dirac oscillator in a thermal bath
M. H. Pacheco; R. V. Maluf; C. A. S. Almeida; R. R. Landim
2014-10-11
The thermal properties of the three-dimensional Dirac oscillator are considered. The canonical partition function is determined, and the high-temperature limit is assessed. The degeneracy of energy levels and their physical implications on the main thermodynamic functions are analyzed, revealing that these functions assume values greater than the one-dimensional case. So that at high temperatures, the limit value of the specific heat is three times bigger.
A new three-dimensional general-relativistic hydrodynamics code
Luca Baiotti; Ian Hawke; Pedro J. Montero; Luciano Rezzolla
2010-04-22
We present a new three-dimensional general relativistic hydrodynamics code, the Whisky code. This code incorporates the expertise developed over the past years in the numerical solution of Einstein equations and of the hydrodynamics equations in a curved spacetime, and is the result of a collaboration of several European Institutes. We here discuss the ability of the code to carry out long-term accurate evolutions of the linear and nonlinear dynamics of isolated relativistic stars.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISCRETE ORDINATES REACTOR ASSEMBLY CALCULATIONS ON GPUS
Evans, Thomas M [ORNL; Joubert, Wayne [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL; Johnson, Seth R [ORNL; Turner, John A [ORNL; Davidson, Gregory G [ORNL; Pandya, Tara M [ORNL
2015-01-01
In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Deep-Water Breaking Waves
Brucker, Kyle A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Adams, Paul
2014-01-01
The formulation of a canonical deep-water breaking wave problem is introduced, and the results of a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations for deep-water breaking waves are presented. In this paper fully nonlinear progressive waves are generated by applying a normal stress to the free surface. Precise control of the forcing allows for a systematic study of four types of deep-water breaking waves, characterized herein as weak plunging, plunging, strong plunging, and very strong plunging.
Three dimensional electromagnetic wavepackets in a plasma: Spatiotemporal modulational instability
Borhanian, J.; Hosseini Faradonbe, F.
2014-04-15
The nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic beam with relativistic collisionless unmagnetized plasma is investigated by invoking the reductive perturbation technique, resting on the model of three-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation with cubic nonlinearity which incorporates the effects of self-focusing, self-phase modulation, and diffraction on wave propagation. Relying on the derived NLS equation, the occurrence of spatiotemporal modulational instability is investigated in detail.
Occhipinti, Giovanni "Ninto"
LETTER Earth Planets Space, 63, 847851, 2011 Three-dimensional numerical modeling of tsunami, 2011; Accepted June 30, 2011; Online published September 27, 2011) The tremendous tsunami following, to reproduce the tsunami signature observed in the airglow by the imager located in Hawaii and clearly showing
Imaging of semiconductors using a flying laser spot scanning system
Richardson, Thomas William
1982-01-01
in silicon p-n junctions was a direct result of this research. Verification of the experimental findings include analysis using other characterization techniques such as X-ray topo- graphy, electrical testing and preferential chemical etching... Image (I. R. Radiation) . . 22 Flying Spot Scanner Photo Image (Visible Radiation) . 23 15 Photo Image Showing Crystal Defects 24 16 Sirtl Etch Photomicrograph of Lattice Crystal Defects 25 17 Photo Image Showing Laser Induced Lifetime Changes 26...
Nelson, G.J.; Chu, Y.; Harris, W.M.; Izzo, J.R.; Grew, K.N., Chiu, W.K.S.; Yi, J.; Andrews, J.C.; Liu, Y., Pierro, P.
2011-04-28
The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.
Staggered grids discretization in three-dimensional Darcy convection
B. Karasozen; A. D. Nemtsev; V. G. Tsybulin
2008-02-17
We consider three-dimensional convection of an incompressible fluid saturated in a parallelepiped with a porous medium. A mimetic finite-difference scheme for the Darcy convection problem in the primitive variables is developed. It consists of staggered nonuniform grids with five types of nodes, differencing and averaging operators on a two-nodes stencil. The nonlinear terms are approximated using special schemes. Two problems with different boundary conditions are considered to study scenarios of instability of the state of rest. Branching off of a continuous family of steady states was detected for the problem with zero heat fluxes on two opposite lateral planes.
Three-dimensional "Mercedes-Benz" model for water
Cristiano L. Dias; Tapio Ala-Nissila; Martin Grant; Mikko Karttunen
2009-02-13
In this paper we introduce a three-dimensional version of the Mercedes-Benz model to describe water molecules. In this model van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds are given explicitly through a Lennard-Jones potential and a Gaussian orientation-dependent terms, respectively. At low temperature the model freezes forming Ice-I and it reproduces the main peaks of the experimental radial distribution function of water. In addition to these structural properties, the model also captures the thermodynamical anomalies of water: the anomalous density profile, the negative thermal expansivity, the large heat capacity and the minimum in the isothermal compressibility.
Heat pulse propagation in chaotic three-dimensional magnetic fields
Del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Blazevski, Daniel [Institute for Mechanical Systems, ETH, Zurich (Switzerland)
2014-06-01
Heat pulse propagation in three-dimensional chaotic magnetic fields is studied by numerically solving the parallel heat transport equation using a Lagrangian Green's function (LG) method. The main two problems addressed are: the dependence of the radial transport of heat pulses on the level of magnetic field stochasticity (controlled by the amplitude of the magnetic field perturbation, ?), and the role of reversed shear magnetic field configurations on heat pulse propagation. The role of separatrix reconnection of resonant modes in the shear reversal region, and the role of shearless Cantori in the observed phenomena are also discussed.
Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies
Mulligan, Anthony C.; Rigali, Mark J.; Sutaria, Manish P.; Artz, Gregory J.; Gafner, Felix H.; Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji
2004-09-28
Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.
Methods for preparation of three-dimensional bodies
Mulligan, Anthony C. (Tucson, AZ); Rigali, Mark J. (Carlsbad, NM); Sutaria, Manish P. (Malden, MA); Artz, Gregory J. (Tucson, AZ); Gafner, Felix H. (Tucson, AZ); Vaidyanathan, K. Ranji (Tucson, AZ)
2008-06-17
Processes for mechanically fabricating two and three-dimensional fibrous monolith composites include preparing a fibrous monolith filament from a core composition of a first powder material and a boundary material of a second powder material. The filament includes a first portion of the core composition surrounded by a second portion of the boundary composition. One or more filaments are extruded through a mechanically-controlled deposition nozzle onto a working surface to create a fibrous monolith composite object. The objects may be formed directly from computer models and have complex geometries.
Three-dimensional asymptotically flat Einstein-Maxwell theory
Glenn Barnich; Pierre-Henry Lambert; Pujian Mao
2015-03-03
Three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory with non trivial asymptotics at null infinity is solved. The symmetry algebra is a Virasoro-Kac-Moody type algebra that extends the bms3 algebra of the purely gravitational case. Solution space involves logarithms and provides a tractable example of a polyhomogeneous solution space. The associated surface charges are non-integrable and non-conserved due to the presence of electromagnetic news. As in the four dimensional purely gravitational case, their algebra involves a field-dependent central charge.
Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems
Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A
2010-03-09
Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.
Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles
Neal, D.R.
1999-08-17
A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.
Three-dimensional transport theory via one-dimensional transport theory
Manabu Machida
2015-10-29
In linear transport theory, three-dimensional equations reduce to one-dimensional equations by means of rotated reference frames. In this paper, we illustrate how the technique works and three-dimensional transport theories are obtained.
Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells Development and Validation of a Two-phase, Three-dimensional Model for PEM Fuel Cells Presented at the...
Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation
Pilon, Laurent
Bubble transport in three-dimensional laminar gravity-driven flow mathematical formulation, growth and shrinkage in three-dimensional flows. The flow is assumed to be laminar for the sake
Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals with rich three-dimensional structures
Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2005-01-01
Figure 1. Three-dimensional structure of the hyper-branchedhyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals with rich three-dimensionalhyper- branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional
A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Three-Dimensional Carbon Nano-Network for High...
Pandoe, Wahyu Widodo
2004-09-30
provides a basis for determining how the water circulation three-dimensionally controls the hydrodynamics of the system and ultimately transports the suspended and soluble materials due to combined currents and waves. A three-dimensional circulation model...
Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes for Catalysis of Fuel Cell Reactions Molecular-scale, Three-dimensional Non-Platinum Group Metal Electrodes...
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering
Sacks, Rafael
Evaluation of Economic Impact of Three-Dimensional Modeling in Precast Concrete Engineering Rafael (IT); Concrete, precast; Economic factors; Three-dimensional models. Introduction "The application to this; but the funda- mental reason undoubtedly was economic." (Mitchell 1977). Intuitive assessments
Ultrafast optical switching of three-dimensional Si inverse opal photonic band gap crystals
Vos, Willem L.
Ultrafast optical switching of three-dimensional Si inverse opal photonic band gap crystals Tijmen on three-dimensional photonic band gap crystals. Switching the Si inverse opal is achieved by optically
Stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded composites
Rahman, Sharif
Stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional functionally graded composites Sharif: Probabilistic fracture mechanics Polynomial dimensional decomposition Random microstructure Reliability a b for stochastic multiscale fracture analysis of three-dimensional, particle-matrix, functionally graded materials
Identification marking by means of laser peening
Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Harris, Fritz (Rocklin, CA)
2002-01-01
The invention is a method and apparatus for marking components by inducing a shock wave on the surface that results in an indented (strained) layer and a residual compressive stress in the surface layer. One embodiment of the laser peenmarking system rapidly imprints, with single laser pulses, a complete identification code or three-dimensional pattern and leaves the surface in a state of deep residual compressive stress. A state of compressive stress in parts made of metal or other materials is highly desirable to make them resistant to fatigue failure and stress corrosion cracking. This process employs a laser peening system and beam spatial modulation hardware or imaging technology that can be setup to impress full three dimensional patterns into metal surfaces at the pulse rate of the laser, a rate that is at least an order of magnitude faster than competing marking technologies.
Experimental Study of Tsunami Generation by Three-Dimensional Rigid Underwater Landslides
Grilli, Stéphan T.
Enet1 and Stéphan T. Grilli, M.ASCE2 Abstract: Large scale, three-dimensional, laboratory experiments
Su, Jianping; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Linfeng; Chen, Zhongping
2007-01-01
by use of a rotational microelectromechanical system probe”,three-dimensional microelectromechanical endoscopic swepton a rotational microelectromechanical system (MEMS) probe [
The three-dimensional morphology of growing dendrites
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; De Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.
2015-07-03
The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphologymore »is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.« less
Three dimensional instability of flexible ferromagnetic filament loop
K. ?rglis; R. Livanovi?s; A. C?bers
2010-09-07
Dynamics of flexible ferromagnetic filaments in an external magnetic field is considered. We report the existence of a buckling instability of the ferromagnetic filament at the magnetic field reversion, which leads to the formation of a metastable loop. Its relaxation through three dimensional transformation of the configurations is observed experimentally and confirmed by numerical simulations. Bending modulus of the flexible ferromagnetic filaments synthesized by linking micron size core-shell ferromagnetic particles with DNA fragments is estimated by comparison of the parameters of the loops observed in the experiment with theoretical calculations. Formation of the loop and its relaxation are characterized by the numerically calculated writhe number. The relaxation time of the loop allows us to estimate the hydrodynamic drag of the filament.
Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments
Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun
2013-08-27
An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.
Three dimensional numerical simulations of the UPS-292-SC engine
O'Rourke, P.J.; Amsden, A.A.
1987-01-01
We present and analyze three-dimensional calculations of the spray, mixing and combustion in the UPS-292 stratified charge engine for three different operating conditions, corresponding to overall air-fuel ratios between 22.4 and 61.0. The numerical calculations are performed with KIVA, a multidimensional arbitrary-mesh, finite-difference hydrodynamics program for internal combustion engine applications. The calculations use a mesh of 10,000 computational cells, which conform to the shape of the piston bowl and cylinder and move to follow piston motion. Each operating condition is calculated from intake valve closure at 118/sup 0/ BTDC to 90/sup 0/ ATDC and requires approximately three hours of CRAY-XMP computer time.
Three dimensional simulation for bayou choctaw strategic petroleum reserve (SPR).
Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon; Lee, Moo Yul
2006-12-01
Three dimensional finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of the caverns located at the Bayou Choctaw (BC) site which is considered a candidate for expansion. Fifteen active and nine abandoned caverns exist at BC, with a total cavern volume of some 164 MMB. A 3D model allowing control of each cavern individually was constructed because the location and depth of caverns and the date of excavation are irregular. The total cavern volume has practical interest, as this void space affects total creep closure in the BC salt mass. Operations including both cavern workover, where wellhead pressures are temporarily reduced to atmospheric, and cavern enlargement due to leaching during oil drawdowns that use water to displace the oil from the caverns, were modeled to account for as many as the five future oil drawdowns in the six SPR caverns. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence, infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE ? ANDROMEDAE PLANETARY SYSTEM
Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); McArthur, Barbara; Fritz Benedict, G., E-mail: deitrr@astro.washington.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2015-01-01
The ? Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the three-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full three-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the three planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer two planets, c and d, are inclined by ?30°, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable three-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ?8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict that b's mass is in the range of 2-9 M {sub Jup} and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 25°. Combined with brightness variations in the combined star/planet light curve ({sup p}hase curve{sup )}, our results imply that planet b's radius is ?1.8 R {sub Jup}, relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches >0.1, generating upward of 10{sup 19} W in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation, possibly inflating the radius to an amount consistent with phase curve observations.
SU-E-T-279: Realization of Three-Dimensional Conformal Dose Planning in Prostate Brachytherapy
Li, Z; Jiang, S; Yang, Z; Bai, H; Zhang, X
2014-06-01
Purpose: Successful clinical treatment in prostate brachytherapy is largely dependent on the effectiveness of pre-surgery dose planning. Conventional dose planning method could hardly arrive at a satisfy result. In this abstract, a three-dimensional conformal localized dose planning method is put forward to ensure the accuracy and effectiveness of pre-implantation dose planning. Methods: Using Monte Carlo method, the pre-calculated 3-D dose map for single source is obtained. As for multiple seeds dose distribution, the maps are combined linearly to acquire the 3-D distribution. The 3-D dose distribution is exhibited in the form of isodose surface together with reconstructed 3-D organs group real-timely. Then it is possible to observe the dose exposure to target volume and normal tissues intuitively, thus achieving maximum dose irradiation to treatment target and minimum healthy tissues damage. In addition, the exfoliation display of different isodose surfaces can be realized applying multi-values contour extraction algorithm based on voxels. The needles could be displayed in the system by tracking the position of the implanted seeds in real time to conduct block research in optimizing insertion trajectory. Results: This study extends dose planning from two-dimensional to three-dimensional, realizing the three-dimensional conformal irradiation, which could eliminate the limitations of 2-D images and two-dimensional dose planning. A software platform is developed using VC++ and Visualization Toolkit (VTK) to perform dose planning. The 3-D model reconstruction time is within three seconds (on a Intel Core i5 PC). Block research could be conducted to avoid inaccurate insertion into sensitive organs or internal obstructions. Experiments on eight prostate cancer cases prove that this study could make the dose planning results more reasonable. Conclusion: The three-dimensional conformal dose planning method could improve the rationality of dose planning by safely reducing the large target margin and avoiding dose dead zones for prostate cancer treatment. 1) National Natural Science Foundation of People's Republic of China (No. 51175373); 2) New Century Educational Talents Plan of Chinese Education Ministry (NCET-10-0625); 3) Scientific and Technological Major Project, Tianjin (No. 12ZCDZSY10600)
Rapid Prototyping of Solid ThreeDimensional Parts
McMains, Sara
, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, ballistic particle manufacturing, selective laser sintering : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 10 4 Fused Deposition Modeling : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 12 5 3D Printing
2008-01-01
imaging with adaptive optics in patients with inheritedAdaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Images in aof cone structure using adaptive optics scanning laser
Three-dimensional structure of the flow inside the left ventricle of the human heart
Fortini, S; Espa, S; Cenedese, A
2014-01-01
The laboratory models of the human heart left ventricle developed in the last decades gave a valuable contribution to the comprehension of the role of the fluid dynamics in the cardiac function and to support the interpretation of the data obtained in vivo. Nevertheless, some questions are still open and new ones stem from the continuous improvements in the diagnostic imaging techniques. Many of these unresolved issues are related to the three-dimensional structure of the left-ventricular flow during the cardiac cycle. In this paper we investigated in detail this aspect using a laboratory model. The ventricle was simulated by a flexible sack varying its volume in time according to a physiologically shaped law. Velocities measured during several cycles on series of parallel planes, taken from two orthogonal points of view, were combined together in order to reconstruct the phase averaged, three-dimensional velocity field. During the diastole, three main steps are recognized in the evolution of the vortical str...
Tewari, A.; Gokhale, A.M.; Gereman, R.M.
1999-10-08
Gravity affects microstructural evolution when a liquid phase is present during sintering. The effect of gravity on the three-dimensional coordination number distribution of tungsten grains in liquid phase sintered heavy alloy specimens is quantitatively characterized. A combination of montage serial sectioning, digital image processing, and unbiased stereological sampling procedures is used to estimate the coordination number distribution in three-dimensional microstructures. The microgravity environment decreases the mean coordination number. However, hardly any isolated grains are observed in the specimens, liquid phase sintered in a microgravity environment. The effect of microgravity on the coordination numbers mainly resides in its effect on the mean coordination number. In all specimens, there is a strong correlation between grain size and coordination number, which can be expressed as [D{sub c}/{bar D}]{sup 2} = C/C{sub 0} where C{sub 0} is the mean coordination number, {bar D} the global average size of the tungsten grains, and D{sub c} the average size of only those grains which have coordination number C.
Laser ultrasonic multi-component imaging
Williams, Thomas K. (Federal Way, WA); Telschow, Kenneth (Des Moines, WA)
2011-01-25
Techniques for ultrasonic determination of the interfacial relationship of multi-component systems are discussed. In implementations, a laser energy source may be used to excite a multi-component system including a first component and a second component at least in partial contact with the first component. Vibrations resulting from the excitation may be detected for correlation with a resonance pattern indicating if discontinuity exists at the interface of the first and second components.
Oscillatory cellular patterns in three-dimensional directional solidification
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, D.; Debierre, J. -M.; Song, Y.; Mota, F. L.; Bergeon, N.; Guerin, R.; Trivedi, R.; Billia, B.; Karma, A.
2015-09-11
We present a phase-field study of oscillatory breathing modes observed during the solidification of three-dimensional cellular arrays in micro-gravity. Directional solidification experiments conducted onboard the International Space Station have allowed for the first time to observe spatially extended homogeneous arrays of cells and dendrites while minimizing the amount of gravity-induced convection in the liquid. In situ observations of transparent alloys have revealed the existence, over a narrow range of control parameters, of oscillations in cellular arrays with a period ranging from about 25 to 125 minutes. Cellular patterns are spatially disordered, and the oscillations of individual cells are spatiotemporally uncorrelatedmore »at long distance. However, in regions displaying short-range spatial ordering, groups of cells can synchronize into oscillatory breathing modes. Quantitative phase-field simulations show that the oscillatory behavior of cells in this regime is linked to a stability limit of the spacing in hexagonal cellular array structures. For relatively high cellular front undercooling (\\ie low growth velocity or high thermal gradient), a gap appears in the otherwise continuous range of stable array spacings. Close to this gap, a sustained oscillatory regime appears with a period that compares quantitatively well with experiment. For control parameters where this gap exist, oscillations typically occur for spacings at the edge of the gap. However, after a change of growth conditions, oscillations can also occur for nearby values of control parameters where this gap just closes and a continuous range of spacings exists. In addition, sustained oscillations at to the opening of this stable gap exhibit a slow periodic modulation of the phase-shift among cells with a slower period of several hours. While long-range coherence of breathing modes can be achieved in simulations for a perfect spatial arrangement of cells as initial condition, global disorder is observed in both three-dimensional experiments and simulations from realistic noisy initial conditions. The, erratic tip splitting events promoted by large amplitude oscillations contribute to maintaining the long-range array disorder, unlike in thin sample experiments where long-range coherence of oscillations is experimentally observable.« less
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for magnetic reconnection
Mendoza, M.; Munoz, J. D.
2008-02-15
We develop a three-dimensional (3D) lattice Boltzmann model that recovers in the continuous limit the two-fluids theory for plasmas, and consequently includes the generalized Ohm's law. The model reproduces the magnetic reconnection process just by giving the right initial equilibrium conditions in the magnetotail, without any assumption on the resistivity in the diffusive region. In this model, the plasma is handled similar to two fluids with an interaction term, each one with distribution functions associated to a cubic lattice with 19 velocities (D3Q19). The electromagnetic fields are considered as a third fluid with an external force on a cubic lattice with 13 velocities (D3Q13). The model can simulate either viscous fluids in the incompressible limit or nonviscous compressible fluids, and successfully reproduces both the Hartmann flow and the magnetic reconnection in the magnetotail. The reconnection rate in the magnetotail obtained with this model lies between R=0.062 and R=0.073, in good agreement with the observations.
The thermodynamics of Fermi gases in three dimensional fuzzy space
Scholtz, F G; Groenewald, H W
2015-01-01
We use the recently derived density of states for a particle confined to a spherical well in three dimensional fuzzy space to compute the thermodynamics of a gas of non-interacting fermions confined to such a well. Special emphasis is placed on non-commutative effects and in particular non-commutative corrections to the thermodynamics at low densities and temperatures are computed where the non-relativistic approximation used here is valid. Non-commutative effects at high densities are also identified, the most prominent being the existence of a minimal volume at which the gas becomes incompressible. The latter is closely related to a low/high density duality exhibited by these systems, which in turn is a manifestation of an infra-red/ultra violet duality in the single particle spectrum. Both non-rotating and slowly rotating gasses are studied. Approximations are benchmarked against exact numerical computations for the non-rotating case and several other properties of the gas are demonstrated with numerical c...
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF CASSIOPEIA A
DeLaney, Tracey [Department of Physics and Engineering, West Virginia Wesleyan College, 59 College Avenue, Buckhannon, WV 26201 (United States); Rudnick, Lawrence; Isensee, Karl, E-mail: delaney_t@wvwc.ed, E-mail: larry@astro.umn.ed, E-mail: isensee@astro.umn.ed [Astronomy Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)
2010-12-20
We used the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Spectrograph to map nearly the entire extent of Cassiopeia A between 5 and 40 {mu}m. Using infrared and Chandra X-ray Doppler velocity measurements, along with the locations of optical ejecta beyond the forward shock, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the remnant. The structure of Cas A can be characterized into a spherical component, a tilted thick disk, and multiple ejecta jets/pistons and optical fast-moving knots all populating the thick disk plane. The Bright Ring in Cas A identifies the intersection between the thick plane/pistons and a roughly spherical reverse shock. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. Some ejecta pistons are bipolar with oppositely directed flows about the expansion center while some ejecta pistons show no such symmetry. Some ejecta pistons appear to maintain the integrity of the nuclear burning layers while others appear to have punched through the outer layers. The ejecta pistons indicate a radial velocity gradient in the explosion. In three dimensions, the Fe jet in the southeast occupies a 'hole' in the Si-group emission and does not represent 'overturning', as previously thought. Although interaction with the circumstellar medium affects the detailed appearance of the remnant and may affect the visibility of the southeast Fe jet, the bulk of the symmetries and asymmetries in Cas A are intrinsic to the explosion.
Lyapunov modes in three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluids
M. Romero-Bastida; E. Braun
2008-07-15
Recent studies on the phase-space dynamics of a one-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid reveal the existence of regular collective perturbations associated with the smallest positive Lyapunov exponents of the system, called hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which previously could only be identified in hard-core fluids. In this work we present a systematic study of the Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov vectors, i.e. perturbations along each direction of phase space, of a three-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid. By performing the Fourier transform of the spatial density of the coordinate part of the Lyapunov vector components and then time-averaging this result we find convincing signatures of longitudinal modes, with inconclusive evidence of transverse modes for all studied densities. Furthermore, the longitudinal modes can be more clearly identified for the higher density values. Thus, according to our results, the mixing of modes induced both by the dynamics and the dimensionality induce a hitherto unknown type of order in the tangent space of the model herein studied at high density values.
Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic High Frequency Axisymmetric Cavity Scars.
Warne, Larry K.; Jorgenson, Roy E.
2014-10-01
This report examines the localization of high frequency electromagnetic fi elds in three-dimensional axisymmetric cavities along periodic paths between opposing sides of the cavity. The cases where these orbits lead to unstable localized modes are known as scars. This report treats both the case where the opposing sides, or mirrors, are convex, where there are no interior foci, and the case where they are concave, leading to interior foci. The scalar problem is treated fi rst but the approximations required to treat the vector fi eld components are also examined. Particular att ention is focused on the normalization through the electromagnetic energy theorem. Both projections of the fi eld along the scarred orbit as well as point statistics are examined. Statistical comparisons are m ade with a numerical calculation of the scars run with an axisymmetric simulation. This axisymmetric cas eformstheoppositeextreme(wherethetwomirror radii at each end of the ray orbit are equal) from the two -dimensional solution examined previously (where one mirror radius is vastly di ff erent from the other). The enhancement of the fi eldontheorbitaxiscanbe larger here than in the two-dimensional case. Intentionally Left Blank
Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation
Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-08-09
A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.
Validation of a Three Dimensional Particle Tracking Velocimetry Software
Goumnerov, Hristo
2014-08-01
reconstruction. For the experimental assessment, the OpenPTV results are compared with a Laser Doppler Velocimetry study, as well as results from the in-house two dimensional particle tracking velocimetry software. As contributions to the consortium, the author...
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, Damien; Clarke, Amy J.; Imhoff, Seth D.; Gibbs, Paul J.; Gibbs, John W.; Karma, Alain
2015-05-27
We present a three-dimensional extension of the multiscale dendritic needle network (DNN) model. This approach enables quantitative simulations of the unsteady dynamics of complex hierarchical networks in spatially extended dendritic arrays. We apply the model to directional solidification of Al-9.8 wt.%Si alloy and directly compare the model predictions with measurements from experiments with in situ x-ray imaging. The focus is on the dynamical selection of primary spacings over a range of growth velocities, and the influence of sample geometry on the selection of spacings. Simulation results show good agreement with experiments. The computationally efficient DNN model opens new avenues formore »investigating the dynamics of large dendritic arrays at scales relevant to solidification experiments and processes.« less
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Tourret, D.; Karma, A.; Clarke, A. J.; Gibbs, P. J.; Imhoff, S. D.
2015-06-11
We present a three-dimensional (3D) extension of a previously proposed multi-scale Dendritic Needle Network (DNN) approach for the growth of complex dendritic microstructures. Using a new formulation of the DNN dynamics equations for dendritic paraboloid-branches of a given thickness, one can directly extend the DNN approach to 3D modeling. We validate this new formulation against known scaling laws and analytical solutions that describe the early transient and steady-state growth regimes, respectively. Finally, we compare the predictions of the model to in situ X-ray imaging of Al-Cu alloy solidification experiments. The comparison shows a very good quantitative agreement between 3D simulationsmore »and thin sample experiments. It also highlights the importance of full 3D modeling to accurately predict the primary dendrite arm spacing that is significantly over-estimated by 2D simulations.« less
Hadron Optics in Three-Dimensional Invariant Coordinate Space from Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering
S. J. Brodsky; D. Chakrabarti; A. Harindranath; A. Mukherjee; J. P. Vary
2006-11-28
The Fourier transform of the deeply virtual Compton scattering amplitude (DVCS) with respect to the skewness parameter \\zeta= Q^2/ 2 p.q can be used to provide an image of the target hadron in the boost-invariant variable \\sigma, the coordinate conjugate to light-front time \\tau=t+ z/ c. As an illustration, we construct a consistent covariant model of the DVCS amplitude and its associated generalized parton distributions using the quantum fluctuations of a fermion state at one loop in QED, thus providing a representation of the light-front wavefunctions of a lepton in \\sigma space. A consistent model for hadronic amplitudes can then be obtained by differentiating the light-front wavefunctions with respect to the bound-state mass. The resulting DVCS helicity amplitudes are evaluated as a function of \\sigma and the impact parameter \\vec b_\\perp, thus providing a light-front image of the target hadron in a frame-independent three-dimensional light-front coordinate space. Models for the LFWFs of hadrons in (3+1) dimensions displaying confinement at large distances and conformal symmetry at short distances have been obtained using the AdS/CFT method. We also compute the LFWFs in this model in invariant three dimensional coordinate space. We find that in the models studied, the Fourier transform of the DVCS amplitudes exhibit diffraction patterns. The results are analogous to the diffractive scattering of a wave in optics where the distribution in \\sigma measures the physical size of the scattering center in a one-dimensional system.
Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso...
Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal area, California, from microseismic travel time data Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...
TURBULENT HEAT TRANSPORT IN TWO-AND THREE-DIMENSIONAL TEMPERATURE FIELDS
Samaraweera, D.S.A.
2011-01-01
convective heat and mass transport in pipes, which arisesof three-dimensional heat transfer in pipes by QUARMBY andFully developed pipe flow: Streamwise heat flux profiles
Three-dimensional hippocampal atrophy maps distinguish two common temporal lobe
Thompson, Paul
Three-dimensional hippocampal atrophy maps distinguish two common temporal lobe seizure ictal onset patterns (Engel, 1990). Hyper- synchronous (HYP) onsets consist of long-lasting (>5-s
Three-dimensional Plasmas R. L. Dewar; P. Cuthbert; R. Ball 70...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
of Three-dimensional Plasmas R. L. Dewar; P. Cuthbert; R. Ball 70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY;...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL SHAPE AND EVOLUTION OF TWO ERUPTIVE FILAMENTS
Li Ting; Zhang Jun; Yang Shuhong; Zhao Hui E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.c E-mail: v00975@phys.nthu.edu.t
2010-09-01
On 2009 September 26, a dramatic and large filament (LF) eruption and a small filament (SF) eruption were observed in the He II 304 A line by the two EUVI telescopes aboard the STEREO A and B spacecraft. The LF heads out into space and becomes the bright core of a gradual coronal mass ejection (CME), while the eruption of the SF is characterized by motions of the filament materials. Using stereoscopic analysis of EUVI data, we reconstruct the three-dimensional shape and evolution of two eruptive filaments. For the first time, we investigate the true velocities and accelerations of 12 points along the axis of the LF, and find that the velocity and acceleration vary with the measured location. The highest points among the 12 points are the fastest in the first half hour, and then the points at the low-latitude leg of the LF become the fastest. For the SF, it is an asymmetric whip-like filament eruption, and the downward motions of the material lead to the disappearance of the former high-latitude endpoint and the formation of a new low-latitude endpoint. Based on the temporal evolution of the two filaments, we infer that the two filaments lie in the same filament channel. By combining the EUVI, COR1, and COR2 data of STEREO A together, we find that there is no impulsive or fast acceleration in this event. It displays a weak and persistent acceleration for more than 17 hr. The average velocity and acceleration of the LF are 101.8 km s{sup -1} and 2.9 m s{sup -2}, respectively. The filament eruptions are associated with a slow CME with an average velocity of 177.4 km s{sup -1}. The velocity of the CME is nearly 1.6 times as large as that of the filament material. This event is one example of a gradual filament eruption associated with a gradual CME. In addition, the moving direction of the LF changes from a non-radial to a nearly radial direction with a variation of inclination angle of nearly 38.{sup 0}2.
Three-dimensional batteries using a liquid cathode
Malati, Peter Moneir
2013-01-01
image of discharged 3D-Ni 25,Si 4mM Li 2 S 12 battery takenimage of discharged 3D-Ni 25,Si 4mM Li 2 S 12 battery takenbattery charging, thus protecting the cell from overcharge. 81,82 Based on the image
Hierarchical Three-Dimensional Microbattery Electrodes Combining Bottom-Up
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (Journal Article) |different|
An earth image simulation and tracking system for the Mars Laser Communication Demonstration
Balster, Stephanie Karen
2005-01-01
In this thesis I created an Earth-image simulation and investigated Earth-tracking algorithms for the Mars Laser Communication Demonstration (MLCD). The MLCD mission will demonstrate the feasibility of high-data-rate laser ...
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
Three-dimensional fabrication and characterisation of core-shell nano-columns using electron beam; accepted 9 June 2012; published online 28 June 2012) A focused electron beam in a scanning transmission with a focused beam of electrons to detect the scat- tered electron intensity to form an image. Besides providing
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL
Taylor, Gary
A THREE DIMENSIONAL FINITE VOLUME APPROACH TO THE THERMO-MECHANICAL MODELLING OF THE SHAPE CASTING a three dimensional, thermo-mechanical modelling approach to the cooling and solidi cation phases-linear Computational Solid Mechanics (CSM) capabilities required to model shape casting. The CSM capabilities include
The Green's function for the three-dimensional linear Boltzmann equation via Fourier transform
Manabu Machida
2015-10-03
The linear Boltzmann equation with constant coefficients in the three-dimensional infinite space is revisited. It is known that the Green's function can be calculated via the Fourier transform in the case of isotropic scattering. In this paper, we show that the three-dimensional Green's function can be computed with the Fourier transform even in the case of arbitrary anisotropic scattering.
Metal-directed, chemically tunable assembly of one-, two-and three-dimensional crystalline
Baker, Timothy S.
Metal-directed, chemically tunable assembly of one-, two- and three-dimensional crystalline protein-dimensional nanotubes and two- or three-dimensional crystalline arrays with dimensions that collectively span nearly6 . Significantly, crystalline protein arrays form the basis of diffraction-based methods for structure
Uplift of Beta Regio: Three-dimensional models A. V. Vezolainen and V. S. Solomatov
Solomatov, Slava
Uplift of Beta Regio: Three-dimensional models A. V. Vezolainen and V. S. Solomatov Department 2004; accepted 21 June 2004; published 25 August 2004. [1] Three-dimensional models of the uplift, and the uplift rate substantially better than two-dimensional models. In particular, the uplift time of Beta
DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY CONTAINER TEMPERATURES DURING FREEZING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORGANS WITH
Dennis, Brian
DETERMINATION OF UNSTEADY CONTAINER TEMPERATURES DURING FREEZING OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL ORGANS local freezing rate in an organ while maintaining the local thermal stresses below a specified level on the walls of the three-dimensional freezing container. A time-accurate finite element computer program
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels
Victoria, University of
A Three-Dimensional Computational Model of PEM Fuel Cell with Serpentine Gas Channels by Phong ABSTRACT A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics model of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell with serpentine gas flow channels is presented in this thesis. This comprehensive model
Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation
Karduna, Andrew
Three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion during active and passive arm elevation D. David Ebaugh a (active versus passive arm elevation) on three-dimensional scapulothoracic motion. Methods. Twenty during active and passive arm elevation. Muscle activity was recorded from surface electrodes over
RIS-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL
RISØ-M-2256 INPUT DESCRIPTION FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI E. Falcon Nielsen A calculations for the PWR core. It combines a nodal theory neutron kinetics calculation with transient sub, PWR TYPE REACTORS, REACTOR KINETICS, THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS, TRANSIENTS. UDC 621.039.514 : 621
Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals
Fan, Shanhui
Conditions for designing single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals that allows the design of single-mode air-core waveguides in three-dimensional photonic crystals the regions of maximal electric-field intensity, and placing the air defects to enclose these regions
Evans, Peter
Three-dimensional solutions for coating flow on a rotating horizontal cylinder: Theory 2005 We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow of a thin liquid coating in the formation of a relatively thick coating where the cylinder surface moves upward. For coatings which
Compact Laser Scanning Distance Sensor with a Two-axis Gimbaled Microscanner for Volumetric Imaging
Park, Namkyoo
Compact Laser Scanning Distance Sensor with a Two-axis Gimbaled Microscanner for Volumetric Imaging@plaza.snu.ac.kr, daesung@stanford.edu, solgaard@stanford.edu Abstract: We report on a laser scanning volumetric image sensors [2], and triangulation sensors [3]. In this work, we propose a compact TOF volumetric imaging
Highly Ordered Tailored Three-Dimensional Hierarchical Porous Gold
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(Journal Article)lasers (JournalArchitectures. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect
Device fabrication: Three-dimensional printed electronics (Journal Article)
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnectlaser-solidSwitchgrass| SciTech Connect Device fabrication:
Verification of coronal loop diagnostics using realistic three-dimensional hydrodynamic models
Winebarger, Amy R.; Lionello, Roberto; Linker, Jon A.; Miki?, Zoran; Mok, Yung E-mail: lionel@predsci.com E-mail: mikicz@predsci.com
2014-11-10
Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure distributions. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the background. We then determine the density, temperature, and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare these with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to a limitation of the analysis methods, but also to inadequate background subtraction.
Convection Heat Transfer in Three-Dimensional Turbulent Separated/Reattached Flow
Bassem F. Armaly
2007-10-31
The measurements and the simulation of convective heat transfer in separated flow have been a challenge to researchers for many years. Measurements have been limited to two-dimensional flow and simulations failed to predict accurately turbulent heat transfer in the separated and reattached flow region (prediction are higher than measurements by more than 50%). A coordinated experimental and numerical effort has been initiated under this grant for examining the momentum and thermal transport in three-dimensional separated and reattached flow in an effort to provide new measurements that can be used for benchmarking and for improving the simulation capabilities of 3-D convection in separated/reattached flow regime. High-resolution and non-invasive measurements techniques are developed and employed in this study to quantify the magnitude and the behavior of the three velocity components and the resulting convective heat transfer. In addition, simulation capabilities are developed and employed for improving the simulation of 3-D convective separated/reattached flow. Such basic measurements and simulation capabilities are needed for improving the design and performance evaluation of complex (3-D) heat exchanging equipment. Three-dimensional (3-D) convective air flow adjacent to backward-facing step in rectangular channel is selected for the experimental component of this study. This geometry is simple but it exhibits all the complexities that appear in any other separated/reattached flow, thus making the results generated in this study applicable to any other separated and reattached flow. Boundary conditions, inflow, outflow, and wall thermal treatment in this geometry can be well measured and controlled. The geometry can be constructed with optical access for non-intrusive measurements of the flow and thermal fields. A three-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) is employed to measure simultaneously the three-velocity components and their turbulent fluctuations. Infrared thermography is utilized to measure the wall temperature and that information is used to determine the local convective heat transfer coefficient. FLUENT – CFD code is used as the platform in the simulation effort and User Defined Functions are developed for incorporating advanced turbulence models into this simulation code. Predictions of 3-D turbulent convection in separated flow, using the developed simulation capabilities under this grant, compared well with measured results. Results from the above research can be found in the seventeen refereed journal articles, and thirteen refereed publications and presentations in conference proceedings that have been published by the PI during the this grant period. The research effort is still going on and several publications are being prepared for reporting recent results.
Nelson, George J.; Harris, William M.; Izzo, John R. Jr.; Grew, Kyle N.; Chiu, Wilson K. S. [HeteroFoaM Center, a DOE Energy Frontier Research Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Connecticut, 191 Auditorium Rd., Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3139 (United States); Chu, Yong S. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 703 Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Yi, Jaemock [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Bldg. 438-B007 Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Andrews, Joy C.; Liu Yijin; Pianetta, Piero [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd., MS 69 Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)
2011-04-25
The reduction-oxidation cycling of the nickel-based oxides in composite solid oxide fuel cells and battery electrodes is directly related to cell performance. A greater understanding of nickel redox mechanisms at the microstructural level can be achieved in part using transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) to explore material oxidation states. X-ray nanotomography combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy has been applied to study samples containing distinct regions of nickel and nickel oxide (NiO) compositions. Digitally processed images obtained using TXM demonstrate the three-dimensional chemical mapping and microstructural distribution capabilities of full-field XANES nanotomography.
Schiek, Richard (Albuquerque, NM)
2006-06-20
A method of generating two-dimensional masks from a three-dimensional model comprises providing a three-dimensional model representing a micro-electro-mechanical structure for manufacture and a description of process mask requirements, reducing the three-dimensional model to a topological description of unique cross sections, and selecting candidate masks from the unique cross sections and the cross section topology. The method further can comprise reconciling the candidate masks based on the process mask requirements description to produce two-dimensional process masks.
Li Ting; Zhang Jun; Zhang Yuzong; Yang Shuhong E-mail: zjun@nao.cas.cn
2011-09-20
On 2010 August 1, a global solar event was launched involving almost the entire Earth-facing side of the Sun. This event mainly consisted of a C3.2 flare, a polar crown filament eruption, and two Earth-directed coronal mass ejections. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and STEREO showed that all the activities were coupled together, suggesting a global character of the magnetic eruption. We reconstruct the three-dimensional geometry of the polar crown filament using observations from three different viewpoints (STEREO A, STEREO B, and SDO) for the first time. The filament undergoes two eruption processes. First, the main body of the filament rises up, while it also moves toward the low-latitude region with a change in inclination by {approx}48{sup 0} and expands only in the altitudinal and latitudinal direction in the field of view of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly. We investigate the true velocities and accelerations of different locations along the filament and find that the highest location always has the largest acceleration during this eruption process. During the late phase of the first eruption, part of the filament material separates from the eastern leg. This material displays a projectile motion and moves toward the west at a constant velocity of 141.8 km s{sup -1}. This may imply that the polar crown filament consists of at least two groups of magnetic systems.
Three-dimensional metrics as deformations of a constant curvature metric
B. Coll; J. Llosa; D. Soler
2001-04-23
Any three-dimensional Riemannian metric can be locally obtained by deforming a constant curvature metric along one direction. The general interest of this result, both in geometry and physics, and related open problems are stressed.
Waveguiding at the Edge of a Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystal
Joannopoulos, John D.
We find that electromagnetic waves can be guided at the edge of a three-dimensional photonic crystal in air. When the waveguide is defined by the intersection of two surface planes, the edge modes are associated with the ...
A three dimensional corner balance method for spatial discretization of the transport equation
Richardson, Rebecca Lynn
1994-01-01
The three-dimensional comer balance method is a new spatial discretization scheme for solving the transport equation on meshes consisting of "layers" of arbitrary polygonal meshes in the x-y plane. It is a conceptually and algebraically simple...
Legros, Guillaume; Joulain, Pierre; Jean-Pierre, Vantelon; Fuentes, Andres; Bertheau, Denis; Torero, Jose L
2005-05-03
A methodology for the estimation of the soot volume fraction in a three-dimensional laminar diffusion flame is presented. All experiments are conducted in microgravity and have as objective producing quantitative data ...
Three-dimensional coupled mode analysis of internal-wave acoustic ducts
Shmelev, Alexey A.
A fully three-dimensional coupled mode approach is used in this paper to describe the physics of low frequency acoustic signals propagating through a train of internal waves at an arbitrary azimuth. A three layer model of ...
Shmelev, Alexey Alexandrovich
2011-01-01
This thesis describes the physics of fully three-dimensional low frequency acoustic interaction with internal waves, bottom sediment waves and surface swell waves that are often observed in shallow waters and on continental ...
Three-dimensional modeling of the plasma arc in arc welding
Xu, G.; Tsai, H. L.; Hu, J.
2008-11-15
Most previous three-dimensional modeling on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) focuses on the weld pool dynamics and assumes the two-dimensional axisymmetric Gaussian distributions for plasma arc pressure and heat flux. In this article, a three-dimensional plasma arc model is developed, and the distributions of velocity, pressure, temperature, current density, and magnetic field of the plasma arc are calculated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, and energy, as well as part of the Maxwell's equations. This three-dimensional model can be used to study the nonaxisymmetric plasma arc caused by external perturbations such as an external magnetic field. It also provides more accurate boundary conditions when modeling the weld pool dynamics. The present work lays a foundation for true three-dimensional comprehensive modeling of GTAW and GMAW including the plasma arc, weld pool, and/or electrode.
Kelley, Kirk Lee
1994-01-01
The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the use of three-dimensional computer reconstruction of architecture from an archaelogical site can be used to gain a better understanding of the culture represented. To demonstrate ...
Thermal Modeling and Device Noise Properties of Three-Dimensional-SOI Technology
Chen, Tze Wee
Thermal test structures and ring oscillators (ROs) are fabricated in 0.18-mum three-dimensional (3-D)-SOI technology. Measurements and electrothermal simulations show that thermal and parasitic effects due to 3-D packaging ...
Ensemble Analysis of Angiogenic Growth in Three-Dimensional Microfluidic Cell Cultures
Farahat, Waleed A.
We demonstrate ensemble three-dimensional cell cultures and quantitative analysis of angiogenic growth from uniform endothelial monolayers. Our approach combines two key elements: a micro-fluidic assay that enables ...
Characterization and requirements for Cu-Cu bonds for three-dimensional integrated circuits
Tadepalli, Rajappa, 1979-
2007-01-01
Three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D IC) technology enables heterogeneous integration of devices fabricated from different technologies, and reduces global RC delay by increasing the device density per unit chip area. ...
Membrane technology for the fabrication of three-dimensional photonic crystals
Patel, Amil Ashok, 1979-
2010-01-01
Three-dimensional photonic crystals hold tremendous promise toward the realization of truly integrated photonic circuits on a single substrate. Nanofabrication techniques currently limit the ability to create the multilayer ...
Bimetallic bars with local control of composition by three-dimensional printing
Techapiesancharoenkij, Ratchatee, 1979-
2004-01-01
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a process that enables the fabrication of geometrically complex parts directly from computer-aided design (CAD) models. The success of 3DP as an alternative manufacturing technology to ...
An interactive three-dimensional computer graphic simulation of the upper extremity
Pickard, Julie Marie
1998-01-01
A three-dimensional computer graphic simulation which hics. allows for the arbitrary placement of axes of motion with respect to skeletal structures is described. The simulation, developed on a Sum UItraSPARC high performance workstation integrated...
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes
Zabaras, Nicholas J.
A gradient optimization method for efficient design of three-dimensional deformation processes Swagato Acharjee and Nicholas Zabaras Materials Process Design and Control Laboratory, Sibley School processes. The optimization is based on the continuum sensitivity method (CSM). CSM involves differentiation
E. Paal; J. Virkepu
2010-02-14
Operadic Lax representations for the harmonic oscillator are used to construct the quantum counterparts of three-dimensional real Lie algebras. The Jacobi operators of these quantum algebras are explicitly calculated.
Hi-C: A Method to Study the Three-dimensional Architecture of Genomes
van Berkum, Nynke L.
The three-dimensional folding of chromosomes compartmentalizes the genome and and can bring distant functional elements, such as promoters and enhancers, into close spatial proximity. Deciphering the relationship between ...
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS
Braun, Paul
THREE-DIMENSIONAL METALLIC ARCHITECTURES FOR PHOTONIC AND ENERGY STORAGE APPLICATIONS BY KEVIN interesting for photonic and energy storage applications. Sacrificial templates are commonly used metamaterial, and energy storage applications. 3D metallic architectures are useful for solar
Effects of the polymeric binder system in slurry-based three dimensional printing of ceramics
Holman Richard K. (Richard Kimbrough), 1973-
2001-01-01
The factors dictating the minimum feature size in Slurry-based Three Dimensional Printing (S-3DPTM) of ceramics have been examined, focusing on effects related to the polymeric binder system polyacrylic acid (PAA, MW 60000) ...
Three-dimensional predator-prey interactions: a computer simulqtion of bird flocks and aircraft
Dill, Lawrence M.
problems associated with turbine aircraft engine damage caused by the ingestion of small flocking birds-2633. Three-dimensional interactions between grouped aerial predators (frontal discs of aircraft engines
Mann, Jennifer L. (Jennifer Lynn)
2005-01-01
An effective physics-based model has been developed that is capable of reliably predicting the motion of a three-dimensional mine-shaped object impacting the water surface from air and subsequently dropping through the ...
Perception of Three-Dimensional Shape from Structure-from-Motion (SFM) Stimuli in Infancy
Hirshkowitz, Amy
2012-07-16
Three-dimensional (3D) object perception is critical for comprehending and interacting with the world. It develops during infancy and continues through adulthood. One powerful cue used for object perception is uniform coherent motion. The present...
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph Collin; Stadermann, Michael
2014-07-15
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system on aerogel or nanotube scaffold
Farmer, Joseph C; Stadermann, Michael
2013-11-12
A monolithic three-dimensional electrochemical energy storage system is provided on an aerogel or nanotube scaffold. An anode, separator, cathode, and cathodic current collector are deposited on the aerogel or nanotube scaffold.
Three-dimensional Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot Springs...
http:crossref.org Citation Young, C.Y.; Ward, R.W. . 511980. Three-dimensional Q (super -1) model of the Coso Hot Springs known geothermal resource area (in Coso geothermal...
Fucetola, Corey Patrick
2013-01-01
This thesis considers the viability of nanomembrane handling and stacking approaches to enable the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) nano-structured materials. Sequentially stacking previously-patterned membranes to ...
Fabrication of complex oral drug delivery forms by Three Dimensional Printing (tm)
Katstra, Wendy E. (Wendy Ellen), 1974-
2001-01-01
Three Dimensional Printing 3DPTM is a novel solid freeform fabrication technology that has been applied to the fabrication of complex pharmaceutical drug devices. Limitations of the technology as relating to pharmaceuticals ...
Numerical simualtion of mixed convection over a three-dimensional horizontal backward-facing step
Barbosa Saldana, Juan Gabriel
2005-08-29
-1 NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MIXED CONVECTION OVER A THREE-DIMENSIONAL HORIZONTAL BACKWARD-FACING STEP A Dissertation by JUAN GABRIEL BARBOSA SALDANA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... ? 2005 JUAN GABRIEL BARBOSA SALDANA ALL RIGHTS RESERVED NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF MIXED CONVECTION OVER A THREE-DIMENSIONAL HORIZONTAL BACKWARD-FACING STEP A Dissertation by JUAN GABRIEL BARBOSA SALDANA Submitted to Texas A...
Effect of pressure gradient on the drag reduction performance of two and three dimensional riblets
Hall, Aaron Chenault
1991-01-01
EFFECT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT ON THE DRAG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL RIBLETS A Thesis by AARON CHENAULT HALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering EFFECT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT ON THE DRAG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL RIBLETS A Thesis by AARON CHENAULT HALL Approved as to style and content by...
Guo, David, 1976-
2004-01-01
Three Dimensional Printing (3DP) is a solid freeform fabrication process used to generate solid parts directly from three-dimensional computer models. A part geometry is created by selectively depositing binder into ...
Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2012-10-10
Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.
Choset, Howie
New Joint Design for Three-dimensional Hyper Redundant Robots Elie Shammas Alon Wolf H. Ben Brown makes it ideal for constructing spatial or three-dimensional hyper redundant robots. We also identify that are suitable for constructing spatial hyper redundant (SHR) robots, i.e., SHR robots with three- dimensional
Hamedani, Amani; Baniassadi, Majid; Sheidaei, A.; Pourboghrat, F.; Remond, Y.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid
2014-02-28
In this study, microstructure of a porosity-graded lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been characterized using focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) combined with image processing. Two-point correlation functions of the two-dimensional (2D) images taken along the direction of porosity gradient are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. The effective elastic modulus of the two-phase porosity-graded cathode is predicted using strong contrast (SC) and composite inclusion (CI) homogenization techniques. The effectiveness of the two methods in predicting the effective elastic properties of the porositygraded LSM cathode is investigated in comparison with the results obtained from the finite element model (FEM).
Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Horton, R.F.; Montgomery, D.S.; Faulkner, J.A.; Looney, L.D.; Jimerson, J.R.
1997-01-01
In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and for controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova full aperture backscatter station has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution, and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the far-field spatial intensity distribution which could help in understanding filamentation, threshold and saturation processes. This article describes a broadband, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {mu}m resolution. Brillouin and Raman backscatter can be imaged through the Nova beam-7 focusing lens or the imager can be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields
Crawfis, R.A.
1995-10-01
Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.
Karasick, M.S.; Strip, D.R.
1996-01-30
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modeling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modeling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modeling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication. 8 figs.
Nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of three dimensional current shear instability
Jain, Neeraj [Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Str. 2, 37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Das, Amita; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)
2012-09-15
This paper deals with detailed nonlinear electron-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of a three dimensional current shear driven instability in slab geometry. The simulations show the development of the instability in the current shear layer in the linear regime leading to the generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the nonlinear regime. The electromagnetic turbulence is first generated in the unstable shear layer and then spreads into the stable regions. The turbulence spectrum shows a new kind of anisotropy in which power transfer towards shorter scales occurs preferentially in the direction perpendicular to the electron flow. Results of the present three dimensional simulations of the current shear instability are compared with those of our earlier two dimensional simulations of sausage instability. It is found that the flattening of the mean velocity profile and thus reduction in the electron current due to generation of electromagnetic turbulence in the three dimensional case is more effective as compared to that in the two dimensional case.
Karasick, Michael S. (Ridgefield, CT); Strip, David R. (Albuquerque, NM)
1996-01-01
A parallel computing system is described that comprises a plurality of uniquely labeled, parallel processors, each processor capable of modelling a three-dimensional object that includes a plurality of vertices, faces and edges. The system comprises a front-end processor for issuing a modelling command to the parallel processors, relating to a three-dimensional object. Each parallel processor, in response to the command and through the use of its own unique label, creates a directed-edge (d-edge) data structure that uniquely relates an edge of the three-dimensional object to one face of the object. Each d-edge data structure at least includes vertex descriptions of the edge and a description of the one face. As a result, each processor, in response to the modelling command, operates upon a small component of the model and generates results, in parallel with all other processors, without the need for processor-to-processor intercommunication.
High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Hantke, Max, F.
Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.
High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Hantke, Max, F.
2014-11-17
Preprocessed detector images that were used for the paper "High-throughput imaging of heterogeneous cell organelles with an X-ray laser". The CXI file contains the entire recorded data - including both hits and blanks. It also includes down-sampled images and LCLS machine parameters. Additionally, the Cheetah configuration file is attached that was used to create the pre-processed data.
Vasudevamurthy, Gokul
2004-09-30
and compatibility of different available software used in three dimensional reconstruction and high level programming. After a detailed analysis, MATLAB and RHINO CAD20 (Rhino 3.0) based on the NURBS methodology were selected to solve the TSP-SA and NURBS three...-dimensional Reconstruction. A free evaluation copy of the RHINO CAD was used to demonstrate the capability of the technique. Advanced features of the NURBS RHINO CAD?s? surface modeling tools like the rail revolve, match, and other advanced commands were studied and were...
DOI: 10.1002/adma.200501973 Direct Laser Writing of Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals with
John, Sajeev
ago. However, the fabrication of high- quality 3D structures for the optical regime still remains-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) and photonic bandgap materials[1,2] was introduced nearly twenty years to be suitable for the fabrication of 3D PCs with an omni-direc- tional photonic bandgap (PBG): i) the material
Three-dimensional analysis of free-electron laser performance using brightness scaled variables
Gullans, M.
2008-01-01
to the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) design, ESASEon the LCLS, and the optimal gain for a ?xed emittance.The parameters for LCLS used here are a beam energy of 13.64
YATES,GEORGE J.; MCDONALD,THOMAS E. JR.; BLISS,DAVID E.; CAMERON,STEWART M.; GREIVES,KENNETH H.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.
2000-12-20
Laboratory experiments utilizing different near-infrared (NIR) sensitive imaging techniques for LADAR range gated imaging at eye-safe wavelengths are presented. An OPO/OPA configuration incorporating a nonlinear crystal for wavelength conversion of 1.56 micron probe or broadcast laser light to 807 nm light by utilizing a second pump laser at 532 nm for gating and gain, was evaluated for sensitivity, resolution, and general image quality. These data are presented with similar test results obtained from an image intensifier based upon a transferred electron (TE) photocathode with high quantum efficiency (QE) in the 1-2 micron range, with a P-20 phosphor output screen. Data presented include range-gated imaging performance in a cloud chamber with varying optical attenuation of laser reflectance images.
A versatile high-resolution x-ray imager (HRXI) for laser-plasma...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
x-ray imager (HRXI) devoted to laser-plasma experiments combines two state-of-the-art technologies developed in France: a high-resolution x-ray microscope and a high-speed...
Low spatial coherence electrically pumped semiconductor laser for speckle-free full-field imaging
Cao, Hui
diodes (LEDs), provide relatively low power per independent spatial mode. Here, we present a chip- scale, electrically pumped semiconductor laser based on a novel design, demonstrating high power per mode with much-free full-field imaging is demonstrated using the chaotic cavity laser as the illumination source. The power
Sun, Yu
and electroplating This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article of three-dimensional helical nanobelts through angular winding and electroplating D J Bell1 , T E Bauert1. In a subsequent Au electroplating step, contacts are electroformed and the batch assembly is completed, while
Three-dimensional analyses of electric currents and pressure anisotropies in the plasma sheet
Kaufmann, Richard L.
Richard L. Kaufmann and Chen Lu Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New HampshireThree-dimensional analyses of electric currents and pressure anisotropies in the plasma sheet is compared with a new more comprehensive procedure. Good agreement between the two methods was found when
Three Dimensional Time Theory: to Unify the Principles of Basic Quantum Physics and Relativity
Xiaodong Chen
2005-10-03
Interpreting quantum mechanics(QM) by classical physics seems like an old topic; And unified theory is in physics frontier; But because the principles of quantum physics and relativity are so different, any theories of trying to unify 4 nature forces should not be considered as completed without truly unifying the basic principles between QM and relativity. This paper will interpret quantum physics by using two extra dimensional time as quantum hidden variables. I'll show that three dimensional time is a bridge to connect basics quantum physics, relativity and string theory. ``Quantum potential'' in Bohm's quantum hidden variable theory is derived from Einstein Lagrangian in 6-dimensional time-space geometry. Statistical effect in the measurement of single particle, non-local properties, de Broglie wave can be naturally derived from the natural properties of three dimensional time. Berry phase, double-slit interference of single particle, uncertainty relation, wave-packet collapse are discussed. The spin and g factor are derived from geometry of extra two time dimensions. Electron can be expressed as time monopole. In the last part of this paper, I'll discuss the relation between three dimensional time and unified theory. Key words: Quantum hidden variable, Interpreting of quantum physics, Berry phase, three dimensional time, unified theory
Some three-dimensional problems related to dielectric breakdown and polycrystal plasticity
Some three-dimensional problems related to dielectric breakdown and polycrystal plasticity Adriana estimate which scales differently when the yield set of the basic crystal is highly eccentric. For 3D. In both settings the Sachs bound is optimal. 1 Introduction The analysis of rigid, perfectly-plastic
Partial and complete spheromak merging: three-dimensional reconnection and FRC studies at SSX
Washington at Seattle, University of
1 Partial and complete spheromak merging: three-dimensional reconnection and FRC studies at SSX restrictions to merging have been removed, and studies of FRC formation and stability by complete counter indicates the formation of a null- helicity object consistent with an untilted FRC, while other shots show
Acoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment using a three-dimensional numerical simulation
North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of
- cally complex problem that has many practical applications. In urban planning and city design, acoustic and scattering play a significant role in acoustic energy transport in urban areas, especially in cases whenAcoustic pulse propagation in an urban environment using a three-dimensional numerical simulation
Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion
Ayache, Nicholas
Using Real-Time Three-Dimensional Ultrasound to Characterize Mitral Valve Motion Paul M. Novotnya results aim to fully characterize the four-dimensional (3D + time) movement of the mitral valve for better understanding of its behavior prior to surgical interventions, such as mitral valve repair. A behavior model
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves
Iooss, Gérard
Small divisor problem in the theory of three-dimensional water gravity waves G´erard Iooss , Pavel of Sciences, Lavryentyev pr. 15, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia gerard.iooss@inln.cnrs.fr, plotnikov@hydro of small divisors, the main difficulty is the inversion of the linearized operator at a non trivial point
A numerical model of convective heat transfer in a three dimensional channel with baffles
Lopez Buso, Jorge Ricardo
1995-01-01
the experimental results of Goldstein and Kreid (1967) and Beavers et. al. (1970) for a three-dimensional laminar flow in a channel without baffles. Parametric runs were made for Reynolds Numbers (Re) of 150, 250, 3 50, and 450, for blockage ratios (H/Dy) of 0. 5...
A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and three-dimensional surface perception
Grossberg, Stephen
A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and three-dimensional surface perception Stephen Grossberg University 677 Beacon Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA Running title: Laminar cortical model of depth perception;1 Abstract A laminar cortical model of stereopsis and later stages of 3D surface perception is developed
Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow
Three-dimensionality of sand ripples under steady laminar shear flow V. Langlois and A. Valance laminar shear flow using a process-based stability approach. The hydrodynamics of the problem is solved under steady laminar shear flow, J. Geophys. Res., 110, F04S09, doi:10.1029/2004JF000278. 1
An Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium
Toussaint, Renaud
. With the buoyancy as a primary driven force, a vertical cylindrical shape of oil migration pathway was observedAn Experimental Study of Oil Secondary Migration in a Three Dimensional Tilted Porous Medium secondary migration under an impermeable inclined cap. Light colored oil was released continuously at a slow
Klinger, Yann
to expose their subsurface stratigraphy. We can correlate the channels across the fault on the basis of their elevations, shapes, stratigraphy, and ages. The three-dimensional excavations allow us to locate accurately models. [3] Our limited understanding of earthquake recurrence also influences the practice of seismic
An H-Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures
Zheng, Weiying
An H- Formulation for the Three-Dimensional Eddy Current Problem in Laminated Structures Peijun Li-dimensional eddy currents in grain-oriented (GO) silicon steel laminations since the coating film is only several to the smallest scale can be up to 106. In this paper, we study an H- formulation for the nonlinear eddy current
Jablonowski, Christiane
Three Dimensional Adaptive Mesh Refinement on a Spherical Shell for Atmospheric Models for Atmospheric Research 1. Introduction One of the most important advances needed in global climate models of this project is a parallel adaptive grid library, which is currently under development at the University
Extraordinary Transmission of Three-Dimensional Crescent-like Holes Arrays
an extraordinary optical transmission in this non-planar perforated periodic array of 3DCLH when the electric fieldExtraordinary Transmission of Three-Dimensional Crescent-like Holes Arrays Yang Shen & Mingkai Liu peak is insensitive with the incident angles and sensitive with the angle between the electric field
Three-Dimensional Tidal Flow in an Elongated, Rotating Basin CLINTON D. WINANT
Winant, Clinton D.
Three-Dimensional Tidal Flow in an Elongated, Rotating Basin CLINTON D. WINANT Integrative-dimensional tidal circulation in an elongated basin of arbitrary depth is described with a linear, constant parcels tend to corkscrew into and out of the basin in a tidal period. The axial flow is only weakly
Three-dimensional, fully adaptive simulations of phase-field fluid models
Bigelow, Stephen
interface [13Â17] is compatible with the observation that physically there is a rapid but smooth transition a thin transition layer and is mostly uniform in the bulk phases. The models have an appealingThree-dimensional, fully adaptive simulations of phase-field fluid models Hector D. Ceniceros
Planar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells
Wang, Zhong L.
Xu, Sheng Xu, Cheng Li, Wenzhuo Wu, and Zhong Lin Wang* School of Materials Science and Engineering sustainable energy resources for the future.1,2 Excitonic solar cells (SCs),3-6 including organic and dyePlanar Waveguide-Nanowire Integrated Three-Dimensional Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Yaguang Wei, Chen
Incorporating spectral characteristics of Pc5 waves into three-dimensional radiation belt
Elkington, Scot R.
Incorporating spectral characteristics of Pc5 waves into three-dimensional radiation belt modeling frequency range on radiation belt electrons in a compressed dipole magnetic field is examined-dimensional radiation belt modeling and the diffusion of relativistic electrons, J. Geophys. Res., 110, A03215, doi:10
Three-Dimensional Rigid Body Guidance using Gear Connections in a Robotic Manipulator with Parallel
Florida, University of
1 Three-Dimensional Rigid Body Guidance using Gear Connections in a Robotic Manipulator-circular gears into a six degree-offreedom closed-loop spatial chain. The gear pairs are designed based. It is shown in the paper that planar gear pairs can be used if the spatial closed-loop chain is comprised
Rogers, John A.
phase mask, can generate highly periodic 3D structures in photosensitive materials through optical density-graded 3D structures that result from computational modeling are demonstrated. Re- sults of x for three-dimensional (3D) patterning of photosensitive polymers and other materials has potential applica
Utah, University of
of a non-proprietary, optical three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system for the simultaneous cameras and software for calculating the 3D coordinates of contrast markers. System precision was5 assessed by examining the variation in the coordinates of static markers over time. 3D strain measurement
Huang, Yanyi
is limited by the size of the devices. Stacking PLCs to make three-dimensional (3D) structures will effi- ciently increase the density of photonic circuits. Several polymer 3D integrated optical devices have been alternate fabrication methods to generate 3D multilayer structures.10,11 In this letter, we describe
MT3DMS, A Modular Three-Dimensional Multispecies Transport Model User Guide to the
Zheng, Chunmiao
.M. Cozzarelli, M.H. Lahvis, and B.A. Bekins. 1998. Ground water contamination by crude oil near Bemidji (LNAPL) contaminant through the unsaturated zone and the formation of an oil lens on the water tableMT3DMS, A Modular Three-Dimensional Multispecies Transport Model User Guide to the Hydrocarbon
A Three-Dimensional Geographic and Storm Surge Data Integration System for Evacuation Planning
Chen, Shu-Ching
@fiu.edu Abstract The rise of offshore water caused by the high winds of a low pressure weather system, or storm to construct a three-dimensional ocean po- sitioned over the terrain models. Ambient details such as wind, vegetation, ocean waves, and traffic are animated based on up-to-date wind and storm surge data. Videos
On the eective thermal conductivity of a three-dimensionally structured uid-saturated metal foam
Daraio, Chiara
thermal conductivity to a large extent, a fact that must be dealt with in the foam manufacturing process thermal conductivity in the volume averaged homogeneous energy equation. Antohe et al. [11] also requiredOn the eective thermal conductivity of a three- dimensionally structured ¯uid-saturated metal foam
An Exact, Three-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Wave Solution in Local Keplerian Flow
Steven A. Balbus; John F. Hawley
2006-08-21
We present an exact three-dimensional wave solution to the shearing sheet equations of motion. The existence of this solution argues against transient amplification as a route to turbulence in unmagnetized disks. Moreover, because the solution covers an extensive dynamical range in wavenumber space, it is an excellent test of the dissipative properties of numerical codes.
Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins
Janke, Wolfhard
Exact sequence analysis for three-dimensional hydrophobic-polar lattice proteins Reinhard Schiemann proteins with chains of up to 19 monomers on the simple cubic lattice. For two variants of the HP model in characteristic thermodynamic properties of HP proteins with designing sequences. In order to be able to perform
Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional
Kandlikar, Satish
Review and Projections of Integrated Cooling Systems for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits and integrated cooling systems. For heat fluxes of 50100 W/cm2 on each side of a chip in a 3D IC package outstanding issues in the cooling system design were outlined. Before reviewing available literature
Ryan, Dominic
Monte Carlo simulations of transverse spin freezing in the three-dimensional frustrated Heisenberg of the spins freeze leading to a noncollinear spin structure dominated by ferromagnetic correlations. The phase as the transverse degrees of freedom order.' Theoretical support for a transverse spin freezing tran- sition
DOI: 10.1002/adma.200601787 Microsolidics: Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Metallic
Prentiss, Mara
in flexible sensors and displays has fueled the development of polymermetal composites. Re- searchDOI: 10.1002/adma.200601787 Microsolidics: Fabrication of Three-Dimensional Metallic. Whitesides* This Communication describes a method of fabricating complex metallic microstructures in 3D
Three-dimensional microstructuring of carbon by thermoplastic spacer evaporation during pyrolysis
Chung, Deborah D.L.
Three-dimensional microstructuring of carbon by thermoplastic spacer evaporation during pyrolysis pyrolysis of an epoxy-based film that coated the spacer and parts of the sub- strate. Fillers were chosen to reduce the shrinkage during pyrolysis and to increase the electrical conductivity. Multiwalled carbon
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell
Victoria, University of
Three-Dimensional Computational Analysis of Transport Phenomena in a PEM Fuel Cell by Torsten or other means, without permission of the author. #12;Supervisor: Dr. N. Djilali Abstract Fuel cells-isothermal computational model of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The model was developed to improve
One-, two-, and three-dimensional root water uptake functions for transient modeling
Vrugt, Jasper A.
One-, two-, and three-dimensional root water uptake functions for transient modeling J. A. Vrugt, Netherlands J. W. Hopmans Hydrology Program, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources (LAWR), University of California, Riverside, California, USA Abstract. Although solutions of multidimensional transient water flow
Jesus, Sérgio M.
Classification of Cabo Frio (Brazil) three-dimensional ocean features using single-slice acoustic-000 Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil, {lcalado, ana.claudia}@ieapm.mar.mil.br Acoustic tomography is now a well for an instantaneous sound speed field constructed from dynamical predictions for Cabo Frio, Brazil. The results show
An Innovative Three-Dimensional User Interface for Exploring Music Collections Enriched with
Widmer, Gerhard
in this collection. This is accomplished by automatically extracting features from the audio signal and training, a Smoothed Data Histogram (SDH) is calculated on the SOM and interpreted as a three-dimensional height that is founded in the sounds of one's digital audio collection. Using intelligent audio analysis, the pieces
Clamond, Didier
An efficient model for three-dimensional surface wave simulations. Part II: Generation wave generation procedures and efficient numerical beaches are crucial components of a fully non for efficient fully non-linear wave generation in three dimensions. Analytical integration of the (linear
Towards quantitative three-dimensional characterisation of InAs quantum S. Kadkhodazadeh1
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
Dots, Electron Tomography, Atom Probe Tomography InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on InP or InTowards quantitative three-dimensional characterisation of InAs quantum dots S. Kadkhodazadeh1 , E for Microstructure Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany shka@cen.dtu.dk Keywords: InAs Quantum
2012-01-01
of the colloids, the crystals display remarkable structural stability when subjected to external stress. DOI: 10 the liquid-crystalamorphous phase transitions in these colloidal suspensions [712]. Recently, soft colloids colloids. In this paper, we examine the three-dimensional crystalliza- tion behavior in suspensions of p
Cao, Jianshu
Stability Analysis of Three-Dimensional Colloidal Domains: Quadratic Fluctuations Jianlan Wu-assemble in a charged colloidal suspension with competing short- range attraction and long-range Yukawa repulsion thermodynamic properties of domains in charged colloidal suspensions, analytical calculations are complicated
Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind
Propagation of three--dimensional Alfv'en waves in a stratified, thermally conducting solar wind S to the well--known thermal expansion of the solar corona [Parker, 1958, 1963, 1991]. In particular Alfv'en waves in the solar atmosphere and wind, taking into account relevant physical effects
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Wenpeng Liu*,a
Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Wenpeng Liu*,a and Chao that performance and design of a liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell DMFC is controlled not only by electrochemical kinetics and methanol crossover but also by water transport and by their complex interactions
The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells
Schmidt, Volker
1 The role of three-dimensional morphology on the efficiency of hybrid polymer solar cells Stefan D.a.j.janssen@tue.nl #12;2 Abstract: The efficiency of polymer solar cells critically depends on the intimacy of mixing and quantitative correlation between solar cell performance, photophysical data and the three
Multiplex Three-Dimensional Brain Gene Expression Mapping in a Mouse Model
Smith, Desmond J.
Multiplex Three-Dimensional Brain Gene Expression Mapping in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease model of Parkinson's disease (PD) had been induced by methamphetamine. Quality-control analyses obscure (Owen et al. 2000). These diseases frequently have important genetic contributions, but it has
Ris-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE
Risø-M-2209 THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL PWR TRANSIENT CODE ANTI; ROD EJECTION TEST CALCULATION A neutronics and thermal-hydraulics descrip- tion of a PWR core under transient conditions. In this report and with closed hydraulic channels. INIS descriptors. A CODES, CONTROL ELEMENTS, HYDRAULICS, PWR TYPE REACTORS
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal
John, Sajeev
Light trapping and near-unity solar absorption in a three-dimensional photonic-crystal Ping Kuang,1-cubic photonic-crystal. PIR is an acutely negative refraction of light inside a photonic- crystal, leading to light-bending by nearly 90 deg over broad wavelengths (). The consequence is a longer path length
Gapless layered three-dimensional fractional quantum Hall states Michael Levin1
2D , anisotropic three-dimensional 3D electron systems--such as multilayer systems in a perpen of experiments on 3D semiconductor multilayers have explored the behavior of stacked integer quantum Hall states effect in graphene,2023 and future pros- pects for graphene multilayers, provides further impetus
Cao, Guozhong
Three-Dimensional Coherent Titania-Mesoporous Carbon Nanocomposite and Its Lithium-Ion Storage mesoporous structure, lithium ion batteries INTRODUCTION Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) have been regarded to be a electrochemically active with a capacity of about 0.6 lithium ion in LixTiO2 at 1.78 V vs Li/Li+ . TiO2-B
Apical polarity in three-dimensional culture systems: where to now?
Inman, J.L.; Bissell, Mina
2010-01-21
Delineation of the mechanisms that establish and maintain the polarity of epithelial tissues is essential to understanding morphogenesis, tissue specificity and cancer. Three-dimensional culture assays provide a useful platform for dissecting these processes but, as discussed in a recent study in BMC Biology on the culture of mammary gland epithelial cells, multiple parameters that influence the model must be taken into account.
Three-dimensional gyrokinetic simulation of the relaxation of a magnetized temperature filament
California at Los Angles, University of
Three-dimensional gyrokinetic simulation of the relaxation of a magnetized temperature filament R the relaxation of a magnetized electron temperature filament embedded in a large, uniform plasma of lower of modes without variation along the magnetic field, i.e., kz ¼ 0. In their absence, the initial filament
Mascia, Corrado
Vortex dynamics in three-dimensional continuous myocardium with fiber rotation: Filament, or filament. This twist can then significantly alter the dynamics of the filament. This paper explores transmural filament and cause a transition to a wave turbulent state characterized by a high density
High-order solutions of three-dimensional rough-surface scattering problems at high frequencies.
Turc, Catalin
High-order solutions of three-dimensional rough-surface scattering problems at high frequencies. I-order numerical method for the solution of high- frequency scattering problems from rough surfaces in three dimensions. The method is based on the asymptotic solution of appropriate integral equations in the high-frequency
Yang, Hui
Identification and Applications of Three-dimensional Non-local Structural Motifs in Protein Folding Francisco State University, U.S.A. 1 Background How does a protein fold into its biologically functional]. The product of such simulations is a collection of folding trajectories of the protein under study, where each
MICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS
M'Closkey, Robert T.
of metallic glasses combined with the ability to blow mold at relatively low temperatures (150- 400 °CMICROSCALE THREE-DIMENSIONAL HEMISPHERICAL SHELL RESONATORS FABRICATED FROM METALLIC GLASS M. Kanik.S. Abstract-- A novel use of bulk metallic glasses in microresonator applications is reported and a method
Photodeposition Method For Fabricating A Three-Dimensional, Patterned Polymer Microstructure
Walt, David R. (Lexington, MA); Healey, Brian G. (Sommerville, MA)
2001-03-13
The present invention is a photodeposition methodology for fabricating a three-dimensional patterned polymer microstructure. A variety of polymeric structures can be fabricated on solid substrates using unitary fiber optic arrays for light delivery. The methodology allows micrometer-scale photopatterning for the fabricated structures using masks substantially larger than the desired dimensions of the microstructure.
Wang, Yuqing
The three-dimensional (3D) Rossby wave energy dispersion of a tropical cyclone (TC) is studied using of the beta effect. A synoptic-scale wave train forms in its wake a few days later. The energy energy. Because of the vertical differential inertial stability, the upper-level wave train develops
Powles, Rebecca
Carbon three-dimensional architecture formed by intersectional collision of graphene patches architectures constructed from those unit structures are expected to have various applications with lightweight of fullerenes and nanotubes, architectures consisting of sp2 network are getting a lot of attention. The most
Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Cell Distribution and Infiltration in Degradable Scaffolds
Yang, Jian
Method to Analyze Three-Dimensional Cell Distribution and Infiltration in Degradable Scaffolds Paul a quick, convenient, and efficient method to quantify cell survival, distribution, and infiltration is the inability to observe the distribution and migration of seeded cells throughout the scaffold.8 This study
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of straight channel PEM fuel cells *, S. SHIMPALEE1
Van Zee, John W.
distribution, fuel cell, mass transfer, PEM Abstract The need to model three-dimensional ¯ow in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is discussed by developing an integrated ¯ow and current density model anode inlet (m) XwYK mole fraction of water in stream K Greek symbols l dynamic viscosity (kg s mÀ2
RADIO-DERIVED THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION
ABSTRACT RADIO-DERIVED THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION by Samuel D. Tun Solar. This thesis presents the structure of the solar atmosphere above active region AR 10923, observed on 2006 Nov 10, as deduced from multi-wavelength studies including com- bined microwave observations from
Three-dimensional Structure of a Solar Active Region from Spatially and Spectrally Resolved Microwave Observations Samuel D. Tun,1 sdt4@njit.edu Dale E. Gary1, Manolis K. Georgoulis2 Physics on the structure of the solar atmosphere above active region AR 10923, observed on 2006 Nov 10, as deduced from
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIB-OIM OF CERAMIC MATERIALS Shen J. Dillon
Rohrer, Gregory S.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL FIB-OIM OF CERAMIC MATERIALS Shen J. Dillon Carnegie Mellon University 5000 materials to be performed more routinely. However, limited work has been performed on ceramics. Examples employed to characterize metallic systems, and metallic systems with ceramic second-phases. Several studies
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the
Simons, Mark
Three-dimensional deformation caused by the Bam, Iran, earthquake and the origin of shallow slip on seismogenic faults. We derive the full vector displacement field due to the Bam, Iran, earthquake of moment on deformation associated with the Mw ¼ 6.5 Bam earthquake in Iran determined using the SAR data from the ERS
Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks q
Pompili, Dario
Three-dimensional and two-dimensional deployment analysis for underwater acoustic sensor networks q t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 8 October 2007 Received in revised form 11 February 2008 Accepted 23 July 2008 Available online 7 August 2008 Keywords: Underwater acoustic sensor networks
Direct reconstruction of three-dimensional atomic adsorption sites by holographic LEED D. K. Saldin
Saldin, Dilano
Direct reconstruction of three-dimensional atomic adsorption sites by holographic LEED D. K. Saldin on the application to measured data of an algorithm for holographic low-energy electron diffrac- tion LEED , which LEED intensities due to possible long-range order among the adsorbates. The only experimental input
An Effective Approach for Identifying Evolving Three-Dimensional Structural Motifs in Protein
Yang, Hui
have been employed to study the protein folding process, in which a protein acquires its func- tional three-dimensional structure. This has resulted in a large number of protein folding trajectories of the protein folding mechanism. In this paper, we focus on identifying im- portant 3D structural motifs
Ezer,Tal
Entrainment, diapycnal mixing and transport in three-dimensional bottom gravity current simulations Abstract The diapycnal mixing, entrainment and bottom boundary layer (BBL) dynamics in simulations of dense structure. Strong diapycnal mixing and large entrainment result in more than doubling the plume transport
Three-dimensional waveform modeling of ionospheric signature induced by the 2004 Sumatra tsunami
Occhipinti, Giovanni "Ninto"
Three-dimensional waveform modeling of ionospheric signature induced by the 2004 Sumatra tsunami, 2004, tsunami produced internal gravity waves in the neutral atmosphere and large disturbances reproduce, with a 3D numerical modeling of the ocean-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, the tsunami signature
Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate events
Furumura, Takashi
Three-dimensional simulation of tsunami generation and propagation: Application to intraplate simulation program based on the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations is developed for simulating 3-D tsunami generation and propagation. We can simulate tsunami propagation over more than 1000 km using this program
Three-dimensional study of cylindrical morphology in a styrene-butadiene-styrene
Agard, David
Three-dimensional study of cylindrical morphology in a styrene-butadiene-styrene block copolymer electron microscopy (TEM), we have obtained projections ofa styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS)copolymer (30wt component. Figure 1, for example, depicts for a styrene (S)-butadiene (B) triblock copolymer either
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT
THREE-DIMENSIONAL CLOUD STRUCTURE OBSERVED DURING DOE ARM'S 2009 CLOUD TOMOGRAPHY FIELD EXPERIMENT on Cloud Physics, Portland, OR June 28-July 2, 2010 Environmental Sciences Department/Atmospheric Sciences Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)'s cloud tomography Intensive Observation Period (IOP
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NiO ZrO2(CUBIC) INTERFACES
Pennycook, Steve
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATOMIC STRUCTURE OF NiO± ZrO2(CUBIC) INTERFACES E. C. DICKEY{1 , V. P. DRAVID1-dimensional atomic structure of low-energy NiO±ZrO2(cubic) interfaces is determined through a combination of electron the structural and chemical aspects of the interface and associ- ated interfacial relaxation mechaubic) interface
Ultrafast-based projection-reconstruction three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Frydman, Lucio
Ultrafast-based projection-reconstruction three-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy Eriks Kupce Varian Ltd., 28 Manor Road, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey KT12 2QF, United Kingdom Lucio Frydmana the accelerated acquisition of multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance nD NMR spectra. Among the methods
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 2)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas
2011-02-02
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 2 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2b in the paper.
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
2011-02-02
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.
Single mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser (CXIDB ID 1)
DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]
Seibert, M. Marvin; Ekeberg, Tomas; Maia, Filipe R.N.C.
These are the files used to reconstruct the images in the paper "Single Mimivirus particles intercepted and imaged with an X-ray laser". Besides the diffracted intensities, the Hawk configuration files used for the reconstructions are also provided. The files from CXIDB ID 1 are the pattern and configuration files for the pattern showed in Figure 2a in the paper.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects
Keppens, R
1999-01-01
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...
Experimental Realization of a Three-Dimensional Topological Insulator, Bi 2Te3
Siemons, W.
2010-02-24
Three-dimensional topological insulators are a new state of quantum matter with a bulk gap and odd number of relativistic Dirac fermions on the surface. By investigating the surface state of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate that the surface state consists of a single nondegenerate Dirac cone. Furthermore, with appropriate hole doping, the Fermi level can be tuned to intersect only the surface states, indicating a full energy gap for the bulk states. Our results establish that Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is a simple model system for the three-dimensional topological insulator with a single Dirac cone on the surface. The large bulk gap of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} also points to promising potential for high-temperature spintronics applications.
Reversible gelling culture media for in-vitro cell culture in three-dimensional matrices
An, Yuehuei H. (Charleston, SC); Mironov, Vladimir A. (Mt. Pleasant, SC); Gutowska, Anna (Richland, WA)
2000-01-01
A gelling cell culture medium useful for forming a three dimensional matrix for cell culture in vitro is prepared by copolymerizing an acrylamide derivative with a hydrophilic comonomer to form a reversible (preferably thermally reversible) gelling linear random copolymer in the form of a plurality of linear chains having a plurality of molecular weights greater than or equal to a minimum gelling molecular weight cutoff, mixing the copolymer with an aqueous solvent to form a reversible gelling solution and adding a cell culture medium to the gelling solution to form the gelling cell culture medium. Cells such as chondrocytes or hepatocytes are added to the culture medium to form a seeded culture medium, and temperature of the medium is raised to gel the seeded culture medium and form a three dimensional matrix containing the cells. After propagating the cells in the matrix, the cells may be recovered by lowering the temperature to dissolve the matrix and centrifuging.
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
Burckel, D. Bruce; Resnick, Paul J.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davids, Paul S.
2015-01-01
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, and characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.
Numerical study of three-dimensional PIC for the surface plasmon excitation based on Drude model
Liu, La-Qun; Wang, Hui-Hui; Liu, Da-Gang
2015-01-01
This paper explores the time-domain equations of noble metals, in which Drude model is adopted to describe the dielectric constant, to implement three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for the surface plasmon excitation with the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD). A three-dimensional model for an electron bunch movement near the metal film is constructed, and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out with various metal films of different thicknesses. The frequency of surface plasmon obtained from PIC simulation is agreed with that from theory. Furthermore, the surface plasmon wave properties of excitation and propagation with the metal film is summarized by PIC results.
Bettarini, Lapo [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centrum voor Plasma Astrofysica, Celestijnenlaan 200B, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Landi, Simone [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Velli, Marco [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi, 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91109 (United States); Londrillo, Pasquale [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via C. Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
2009-06-15
The problem of three-dimensional combined magnetic and velocity shear driven instabilities of a compressible magnetized jet modeled as a plane neutral/current double vortex sheet in the framework of the resistive magnetohydrodynamics is addressed. The resulting dynamics given by the stream+current sheet interaction is analyzed and the effects of a variable geometry of the basic fields are considered. Depending on the basic asymptotic magnetic field configuration, a selection rule of the linear instability modes can be obtained. Hence, the system follows a two-stage path developing either through a fully three-dimensional dynamics with a rapid evolution of kink modes leading to a final turbulent state, or rather through a driving two-dimensional instability pattern that develops on parallel planes on which a reconnection+coalescence process takes place.
Three-dimensional modeling of heat transfer from slab floors. Final report
Bahnfleth, W.P.
1989-07-01
Earth-coupled heat-transfer processes have been recognized in recent years as a potential source of significant energy savings in both conventional and earth-sheltered designs, Because of the complexity of the building/soil/atmosphere interaction, however, important aspects of earth-coupled heat transfer are not well understood. There is a particular lack of three-dimensional foundation heat-loss data. In this study, a detailed three-dimensional finite-difference model of a slab floor was used to generate 93 annual simulations in parametric groups focusing on effects of size and shape, soil properties, boundary conditions, climate, insulation, and building shadow. These results indicate that soil thermal conductivity, ground surface conditions, foundation design, and floor shape/size are essential elements of a general change in heat-transfer rate.
Three-dimensional P and S waves velocity structures of the Coso geothermal
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013)Open Energy Information Three dimensional seismic
Volume-scalable high-brightness three-dimensional visible light source
Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur J; Wang, George T; Li, Qiming
2014-02-18
A volume-scalable, high-brightness, electrically driven visible light source comprises a three-dimensional photonic crystal (3DPC) comprising one or more direct bandgap semiconductors. The improved light emission performance of the invention is achieved based on the enhancement of radiative emission of light emitters placed inside a 3DPC due to the strong modification of the photonic density-of-states engendered by the 3DPC.
Three-dimensional Background Field Gravity: A Hamilton-Jacobi analysis
N. T. Maia; B. M. Pimentel; C. E. Valcárcel
2015-03-14
We analyse the constraint structure of the Background Field model for three dimensional gravity including a cosmological term via the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism. We find the complete set of involutive Hamiltonians that assures the integrability of the system and calculate the characteristic equations of the system. We established the equivalence between these equations and the field equations and also obtain the generators of canonical and gauge transformations.
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts
Jimack, Peter
Three dimensional finite element analysis of the flow of polymer melts R. Tencheva , T. Goughb , O.G, LS2 9JT, UK. b School of Engineering, Design & Technology, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP.g.harlen@leeds.ac.uk (O.G. Harlen), p.k.jimack@leeds.ac.uk (P.K. Jimack), h.klein@leeds.ac.uk (D.H. Klein), m
Strip Velocity Measurements for Gated X-Ray Imagers Using Short Pulse Lasers
Ross, P. W. [NSTec; Cardenas, M. [NSTec; Griffin, M. [NSTec; Mead, A. [NSTec; Silbernagel, C. T. [NSTec; Bell, P. [LLNL; Haque, S. H. [UNR
2013-09-01
Strip velocity measurements of gated X-ray imagers are presented using an ultra-short pulse laser. Obtaining time-resolved X-ray images of inertial confinement fusion shots presents a difficult challenge. One diagnostic developed to address this challenge is the gated X-ray imagers. The gated X-ray detectors (GXDs) developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory use a microchannel plate (MCP) coated with a gold strip line, which serves as a photocathode. GXDs are used with an array of pinholes, which image onto various parts of the GXD image plane. As the pulse sweeps over the strip lines, it creates a time history of the event with consecutive images. In order to accurately interpret the timing of the images obtained using the GXDs, it is necessary to measure the propagation of the pulse over the strip line. The strip velocity was measured using a short pulse laser with a pulse duration of approximately 1-2 ps. The 200nm light from the laser is used to illuminate the GXD MCP. The laser pulse is split and a retroreflective mirror is used to delay one of the legs. By adjusting the distance to the mirror, one leg is temporally delayed compared to the reference leg. The retroreflective setup is calibrated using a streak camera with a 1 ns full sweep. Resolution of 0.5 mm is accomplished to achieve a temporal resolution of ~5 ps on the GXD strip line.
MHD Field Line Resonances and Global Modes in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Fields
C.Z. Cheng
2002-05-30
By assuming a general isotropic pressure distribution P = P (y,a), where y and a are three-dimensional scalar functions labeling the field lines with B = -y x -a, we have derived a set of MHD eigenmode equations for both global MHD modes and field line resonances (FLR). Past MHD theories are restricted to isotropic pressures with P = P (y only). The present formulation also allows the plasma mass density to vary along the field line. The linearized ideal-MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are naturally obtained for general three-dimensional magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. Several new terms associated with the partial derivative of P with respect to alpha are obtained. In the FLR equations, a new term is found in the shear Alfvin FLR equation due to the geodesic curvature and the pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure as previously derived. The properties of the FLR eigenfunctions at the resonance field lines are investigated, and the behavior of the FLR wave solutions near the FLR surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations for three-dimensional magnetospheric fields in equilibrium with high plasma pressure will be presented in a future publication.
Eisenberg, Michael A.
problem in mathematics and science education. This paper describes a software system, Spectre, that can and science education involves creating understandable representations of three-dimensional structures and exploring three- dimensional structure is a crucial part of the educational process. There are a variety
Gülder, Ömer L.
Three-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectra of Thermally Stressed Commercial Jet A-1 Aviation Fuel: In this study, the thermal oxidative stability of a kerosene-type Jet A-1 commercial aviation fuel has been investigated using a three-dimensional (3D) excitation/emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) method. The fuel
Pilon, Laurent
Three-Dimensional Flow and Thermal Structures in Glass Melting Furnaces. Part II: Effect of Batch and thermal structure in glass melting furnaces with a throat. The effects of the following parameters This is a second part of a study concerned with the three-dimensional natural circulation in glass melting furnaces
Kurapov, Alexander
Using Vertical Rock Uplift Patterns to Constrain the Three-Dimensional Fault Configuration of geologic uplift patterns with results of three-dimensional mechanical models provides constraints in the northern Los Angeles basin, California. The modeled uplift matches well the geologic pattern of uplift as
Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two-and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2
Venditti, Jeremy G.
Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two- and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2 Received measurements of turbulent flow were obtained over a fixed flat bed, two- dimensional (2-D) dunes and four types of three-dimensional (3-D) dune morphologies including (1) full width saddles, (2) full width lobes, (3
Ng, Chung-Sang
Weakly collisional Landau damping and three-dimensional Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal modes: New results February 2006; published online 8 May 2006 Landau damping and Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal BGK modes are among-center approximation . We show, in fact, that two- and three-dimensional solutions that depend only on energy do
Kawakatsu, Hitoshi
Three-dimensional crustal S wave velocity structure in Japan using microseismic data recorded by Hi seismic noise. We applied this method to the recording of Hi-net tiltmeters in Japan at 679 stations from), Three-dimensional crustal S wave velocity structure in Japan using microseismic data recorded by Hi
Three-dimensional morphology evolution of SiO2 patterned films under MeV ion irradiation
Hutchinson, John W.
Three-dimensional morphology evolution of SiO2 patterned films under MeV ion irradiation Kan OtaniO2 stripes on Si substrates induced by 3 MeV O++ ion irradiation. We develop a 3D constitutive evolution in complex three-dimensional structures under MeV ion irradiation. © 2006 American Institute
Depth-domain processing of teleseismic receiver functions and generalized three-dimensional imaging
Dueker, Ken
by itself or as a part of depth migration, is usually used for noise suppression in teleseismic receiver generalize the pre-stack depth migration methodology by introducing numerous signal-enhancement schemes could be superior to record summation used in conventional depth migration. #12;3 Introduction
For the first time, three-dimensional neutron images have been taken of rare
-destructive, non-inva- sive analysis." CG-1D data can reveal the raw materials used, manufacturing techniques significant, otherwise wholly inaccessible, insight into the manufacturing and lives of cultures that once-invasive analysis." Neutron radiograph of an ancient Greek lamp. relatively little information about the manufacture
Three-Dimensional Tarp Coding for the Compression of Hyperspectral Images
Fowler, James E.
utilize sophisticated processes such as context conditioning (JPEG-2000), rate-distortion optimization- perspectral imagery is described. The proposed coder, 3D tarp, employs an explicit estimate of the probability is compared to other prominent coders for the compression of hyperspectral imagery, and state-of-the-art rate
Oxford, University of
Cardiac Valve Annulus Manual Segmentation Using Computer Assisted Visual Feedback in Three is an important tool for the study of valve anatomy and physiology, for the four main valves of the heart (mitral rat hearts, on all four valves. I. INTRODUCTION There are four main cardiac valves in the heart, two
Lensfree Holographic On-Chip Imaging and Three-Dimensional Tracking
Su, Ting-Wei
2012-01-01
microscope with light- emitting diode illumination. Opt.source, such as light emitting diode, can be used withoutlight source (such as a light emitting diode - LED) that is
Robotic three-dimensional imaging system for under-vehicle inspection
Koschan, Andreas
pipeline. On these 3-D mesh models, we propose a curvature-based surface feature toward the interpretation at an endangering risk of possible detonation. Subsequent progress toward remote inspection have implemented
Three-dimensional endoscopic optical coherence tomography imaging of cervical inlet patch
Zhou, Chao
A 30-year-old white man with established Barrett’s esophagus (BE) and continued symptoms of chronic severe heartburn, persistent cough, throat irritation, and asthma was referred for surveillance EGD at the VA Boston ...
Vertes, Akos
of the leaf tissue in ~50 ng amounts on a 1 mm diameter area. A mass spectrum recorded on this area included ionization. A separate mass spectrum was obtained on the native area of the tissue (see spectrum in red color 517 532 623 633 637 639 647 653 663 667 731 814 894 950 163 1.00 0.16 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.17 0.87 0.44 0.51
An Image-Based Three-Dimensional Digitizer for Pre-Decorating Thermoformed Parts
Mellor, J.P.
products. Decorating these thermoformed parts is a critical step in their manufacture. For parts thermoforming the plas- tic flows and stretches to conform to the shape of the mold distorting the original-distort the graphic printed on the flat sheets such that as the plastic flows into the thermoforming mold
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease 14 (2008) 235245 235 Three-Dimensional Tomographic Imaging
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
2008-01-01
of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark e Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University microscopy (HR-TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS of these important roles, iron can also be toxic, with certain forms participating in the production of free radicals
Analysis of multiphase fluid flows via high speed and synthetic aperture three dimensional imaging
Scharfman, Barry Ethan
2012-01-01
Spray flows are a difficult problem within the realm of fluid mechanics because of the complicated interfacial physics involved. Complete models of sprays having even the simplest geometries continue to elude researchers ...
Towards three-dimensional and attosecond x-ray imaging at the nanoscale |
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Handheld Digital Three-Dimensional Color Imaging Camera Peter King Humanik
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AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (Journalvivo Low-Dose Lowï‚—34 Revision 0August 9, 74Â° 73Â°GO-102013-3861and
Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.
2014-05-15
Ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses may be generated up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime due to parametric processes in plasmas. The minimization of unwanted plasma processes leads to operational limits which are discussed here with respect to filamentation. Transverse filamentation, which originally was derived for plane waves, is being investigated for seed pulse propagation in the so called ?-pulse limit. A three-dimensional (3D) three-wave-interaction model is the basis of the present investigation. To demonstrate the applicability of the three-wave-interaction model, the 1D pulse forms are compared with those obtained from 1D particle in cell and Vlasov simulations. Although wave-breaking may occur, the kinetic simulations show that the leading pumped pulse develops a form similar to that obtained from the three-wave-interaction model. In the main part, 2D and 3D filamentation processes of (localized) pulses are investigated with the three-wave-interaction model. It is shown that the leading pulse front can stay filamentation-free, whereas the rear parts show transverse modulations.
Ghatwary, Tamer M. H.; Patterson, Benjamin O.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Loftus, Ian M.; Morgan, Robert; Thompson, Matt M.; Holt, Peter J. E.
2013-02-15
The morphology of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) directly influences the perioperative outcome and long-term durability of endovascular aneurysm repair. A variety of methods have been proposed for the characterization of AAA morphology using reconstructed three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) images. At present, there is lack of consensus as to which of these methods is most applicable to clinical practice or research. The purpose of this review was to evaluate existing protocols that used 3D CT images in the assessment of various aspects of AAA morphology. An electronic search was performed, from January 1996 to the end of October 2010, using the Embase and Medline databases. The literature review conformed to PRISMA statement standards. The literature search identified 604 articles, of which 31 studies met inclusion criteria. Only 15 of 31 studies objectively assessed reproducibility. Existing published protocols were insufficient to define a single evidence-based methodology for preoperative assessment of AAA morphology. Further development and expert consensus are required to establish a standardized and validated protocol to determine precisely how morphology relates to outcomes after endovascular aneurysm repair.
Wilke, M.D.; Fernandez, J.C.; Berggren, R.R.; Montgomery, D.; Faulkner, J.; Looney, L.; Jimerson, J.; Horton, R.F.
1996-06-01
In ICF, the understanding of laser plasma scattering processes is essential for laser target coupling and in controlling the symmetry of indirect drive implosions. The existing Nova Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) has been useful in understanding laser plasma instabilities occurring in hohlraums by measuring the quantity, spectral distribution and near-field spatial distributions of Brillouin and more recently Raman backscatter. Equally important is an understanding of the farfield spatial intensity distribution which provides information on density, temperature and velocity gradient distributions, and which affect capsule implosion symmetry in hohlraums. Such information could potentially help in understanding processes such as filamentation and saturation mechanism. This paper describes a broad-band, color-corrected far-field imager and associated diagnostics capable of imaging the source of scattered light to better than 25 {micro}m resolution. The imager can either image Brillouin or Raman backscatter through the Nova beam 7 focusing lens or be used like a microscope to image side scatter from other beams.
Fully-automatic laser welding and micro-sculpting with universal in situ inline coherent imaging
Webster, Paul J L; Ji, Yang; Galbraith, Christopher M; Kinross, Alison W; Van Vlack, Cole; Fraser, James M
2014-01-01
Though new affordable high power laser technologies make possible many processing applications in science and industry, depth control remains a serious technical challenge. Here we show that inline coherent imaging, with line rates up to 312 kHz and microsecond-duration capture times, is capable of directly measuring laser penetration depth in a process as violent as kW-class keyhole welding. We exploit ICI's high speed, high dynamic range and robustness to interference from other optical sources to achieve fully automatic, adaptive control of laser welding as well as ablation, achieving micron-scale sculpting in vastly different heterogeneous biological materials.
Phase-contrast imaging using ultrafast x-rays in laser-shocked materials
Workman, Jonathan B; Cobble, James A; Flippo, Kirk; Gautier, Donald C; Montgomery, David S; Offermann, Dustin T
2010-01-01
High-energy x-rays, > 10-keV, can be efficiently produced from ultrafast laser target interactions with many applications to dense target materials in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High-Energy Density Physics (HEDP). These same x-rays can also be applied to measurements of low-density materials inside high-density hohlraum environments. In the experiments presented, high-energy x-ray images of laser-shocked polystyrene are produced through phase contrast imaging. The plastic targets are nominally transparent to traditional x-ray absorption but show detailed features in regions of high density gradients due to refractive effects often called phase contrast imaging. The 200-TW Trident laser is used both to produce the x-ray source and to shock the polystyrene target. X-rays at 17-keV produced from 2-ps, 100-J laser interactions with a 12-micron molybdenum wire are used to produce a small source size, required for optimizing refractive effects. Shocks are driven in the 1-mm thick polystyrene target using 2-ns, 250-J, 532-nm laser drive with phase plates. X-ray images of shocks compare well to 1-D hydro calculations, HELIOS-CR.
Soft-Lithographical Fabrication of Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals in the Optical Regime
Jae-Hwang Lee
2006-08-09
This dissertation describes several projects to realize low-cost and high-quality three-dimensional (3D) microfabrication using non-photolithographic techniques for layer-by-layer photonic crystals. Low-cost, efficient 3D microfabrication is a demanding technique not only for 3D photonic crystals but also for all other scientific areas, since it may create new functionalities beyond the limit of planar structures. However, a novel 3D microfabrication technique for photonic crystals implies the development of a complete set of sub-techniques for basic layer-by-layer stacking, inter-layer alignment, and material conversion. One of the conventional soft lithographic techniques, called microtransfer molding ({mu}TM), was developed by the Whitesides group in 1996. Although {mu}TM technique potentially has a number of advantages to overcome the limit of conventional photolithographic techniques in building up 3D microstructures, it has not been studied intensively after its demonstration. This is mainly because of technical challenges in the nature of layer-by-layer fabrication, such as the demand of very high yield in fabrication. After two years of study on conventional {mu}TM, We have developed an advanced microtransfer molding technique, called two-polymer microtransfer molding (2P-{mu}TM) that shows an extremely high yield in layer-by-layer microfabrication sufficient to produce highly layered microstructures. The use of two different photo-curable prepolymers, a filler and an adhesive, allows for fabrication of layered microstructures without thin films between layers. The capabilities of 2P-{mu}TM are demonstrated by the fabrication of a wide-area 12-layer microstructure with high structural fidelity. Second, we also had to develop an alignment technique. We studied the 1st-order diffracted moire fringes of transparent multilayered structures comprised of irregularly deformed periodic patterns. By a comparison study of the diffracted moire fringe pattern and detailed microscopy of the structure, we show that the diffracted moire fringe can be used as a nondestructive tool to analyze the alignment of multilayered structures. We demonstrate the alignment method for the case of layer-by-layer microstructures using soft lithography. The alignment method yields high contrast of fringes even when the materials being aligned have very weak contrasts. The imaging method of diffracted moire fringes is a versatile visual tool for the microfabrication of transparent deformable microstructures in layer-by-layer fashion. Third, we developed several methods to convert a polymer template to dielectric or metallic structures, for instance, metallic infiltration using electrodeposition, metallic coating using sputter deposition, dielectric infiltration using titania nano-slurry, and dielectric coating using atomic layer deposition of Titania. By several different developed techniques, high quality photonic crystals have been successfully fabricated; however, I will focus on a line of techniques to reach metallic photonic crystals in this dissertation since they are completely characterized at this moment. In addition to the attempts for photonic crystal fabrication, our non-photolithographic technique is applied for other photonic applications such as small optical waveguides whose diameter is comparable to the wavelength of guided light. Although, as guiding medium, polymers have tremendous potential because of their enormous variation in optical, chemical and mechanical properties, their application for optical waveguides is limited in conventional photolithography. By 2P-{mu}TM, we achieve low cost, high yield, high fidelity, and tailorable fabrication of small waveguides. Embedded semiconductor quantum-dots and grating couplers are used for efficient internal and external light source, respectively.
Three-dimensional mapping techniques in the analysis of a mature steam drive
Barrett, R.A. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Denver, CO (USA))
1990-06-01
The use of interactive volumetric modeling (IVM), a three-dimensional mapping software package that employs a three-dimensional gridding algorithm, greatly assisted in evaluating the efficiency of a mature steam drive in the South Belridge field, Kern County, California. The productive horizon consists of Pleistocene-aged unconsolidated oil sands interbedded with impermeable shales. The sand-shale architecture is controlled by a prograding of fluviodeltaic depositional system. For mapping convenience, the Tulare reservoir has been divided into five zones, the lowermost E zone to the uppermost A zone. In ascending order the reservoir can be characterized by the following description: lowest in the section are isolated to coalescing mouth bars, followed by fairly continuous lower delta plain interdistributary channels, isolated meandering stream channels of the upper delta plain, and uppermost, a braided stream complex of amalgamated channel sands. A drilling program consisting of 68 wells evenly distributed over 100 acres supplied ample log and core information and in effect presented a snap-shot of the reservoir in its maturity. Drilling revealed zones with excellent sweep and, conversely, zones that had been bypassed by the steam drive. By using well-log data tied to core data three-dimensional maps of individual sands incorporating structure, sand thicknesses in a multicolored format were generated to show the changing oil saturation values throughout the reservoir. The graphic presentation of these data on the CRT allows the user to rotate and cut through the sand body of interest revealing virtually an infinite number of perspectives. A hard copy option gives the user a printed map of any perspective of interest. The software is also capable of precise volumetric calculations of the oil remaining in the reservoir.
Simulations of Failure via Three-Dimensional Cracking in Fuel Cladding for Advanced Nuclear Fuels
Lu, Hongbing; Bukkapatnam, Satish; Harimkar, Sandip; Singh, Raman; Bardenhagen, Scott
2014-01-09
Enhancing performance of fuel cladding and duct alloys is a key means of increasing fuel burnup. This project will address the failure of fuel cladding via three-dimensional cracking models. Researchers will develop a simulation code for the failure of the fuel cladding and validate the code through experiments. The objective is to develop an algorithm to determine the failure of fuel cladding in the form of three-dimensional cracking due to prolonged exposure under varying conditions of pressure, temperature, chemical environment, and irradiation. This project encompasses the following tasks: 1. Simulate 3D crack initiation and growth under instantaneous and/or fatigue loads using a new variant of the material point method (MPM); 2. Simulate debonding of the materials in the crack path using cohesive elements, considering normal and shear traction separation laws; 3. Determine the crack propagation path, considering damage of the materials incorporated in the cohesive elements to allow the energy release rate to be minimized; 4. Simulate the three-dimensional fatigue crack growth as a function of loading histories; 5. Verify the simulation code by comparing results to theoretical and numerical studies available in the literature; 6. Conduct experiments to observe the crack path and surface profile in unused fuel cladding and validate against simulation results; and 7. Expand the adaptive mesh refinement infrastructure parallel processing environment to allow adaptive mesh refinement at the 3D crack fronts and adaptive mesh merging in the wake of cracks. Fuel cladding is made of materials such as stainless steels and ferritic steels with added alloying elements, which increase stability and durability under irradiation. As fuel cladding is subjected to water, chemicals, fission gas, pressure, high temperatures, and irradiation while in service, understanding performance is essential. In the fast fuel used in advanced burner reactors, simulations of the nuclear fuels are critical to understand the burnup, and thus the fuel efficiency.
Real-time, interactive animation of deformable two- and three-dimensional objects
Desbrun, Mathieu; Schroeder, Peter; Meyer, Mark; Barr, Alan H.
2003-06-03
A method of updating in real-time the locations and velocities of mass points of a two- or three-dimensional object represented by a mass-spring system. A modified implicit Euler integration scheme is employed to determine the updated locations and velocities. In an optional post-integration step, the updated locations are corrected to preserve angular momentum. A processor readable medium and a network server each tangibly embodying the method are also provided. A system comprising a processor in combination with the medium, and a system comprising the server in combination with a client for accessing the server over a computer network, are also provided.
Black holes and gravitational waves in three-dimensional f(R) gravity
Hongsheng Zhang; Dao-Jun Liu; Xin-Zhou Li
2014-12-19
In the three-dimensional pure Einstein gravity, the geometries of the vacuum space-times are always trivial, and gravitational waves (gravitons) are strictly forbidden. For the first time, we find a vacuum circularly symmetric black hole with nontrivial geometries in $f(R)$ gravity theory, in which a true singularity appears. In this frame with nontrivial geometry, a perturbative gravitational wave does exist. Beyond the perturbative level, we make a constructive proof of the existence of a gravitational wave in $f(R)$ gravity, where the Birkhoff-like theorem becomes invalid. We find two classes of exact solutions of circularly symmetric pure gravitational wave radiation and absorption.
Three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic calculations using SOLA-PTS
Daly, B.J.; Torrey, M.D.
1983-01-01
The transient, three-dimensional SOLA-PTS code has been used to study the thermal-hydraulic mixing of HPI and ambient fluids in the cold leg and downcomer with application to the pressurized thermal-shock problem. Comparisons of calculated results with 1/5th-scale experimental data are presented and shown to be in good agreement. Also shown are results obtained at full scale for a Combustion Engineering plant (Calvert Cliffs-1) following an assumed main-streamline-break accident.
Low-momentum effective interaction in the three-dimensional approach
S. Bayegan; M. Harzchi; M. R. Hadizadeh
2008-09-01
The formulation of the low-momentum effective interaction in the model space Lee-Suzuki and the renormalization group methods is implemented in the three-dimensional approach. In this approach the low-momentum effective interaction V_{low k} has been formulated as a function of the magnitude of momentum vectors and the angle between them. As an application the spin-isospin independent Malfliet-Tjon potential has been used into the model space Lee-Suzuki method and it has been shown that the low-momentum effective interaction V_{low k} reproduces the same two-body observables obtained by the bare potential V_{NN}.
Binotti, M.; Zhu, G.; Gray, A.; Manzollini, G.
2012-04-01
An analytical approach, as an extension of one newly developed method -- First-principle OPTical Intercept Calculation (FirstOPTIC) -- is proposed to treat the geometrical impact of three-dimensional (3-D) effects on parabolic trough optical performance. The mathematical steps of this analytical approach are presented and implemented numerically as part of the suite of FirstOPTIC code. In addition, the new code has been carefully validated against ray-tracing simulation results and available numerical solutions. This new analytical approach to treating 3-D effects will facilitate further understanding and analysis of the optical performance of trough collectors as a function of incidence angle.
Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.
2011-11-01
This study describes a detailed three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated wall assemblies accounting for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. The model allows for material properties variations with temperature. Parameters that were varied in the study include ambient outdoor temperature and cavity surface emissivity. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated wall cavities is essential for accurate prediction of energy use in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of homes with uninsulated walls.
All-dielectric three-dimensional broadband Eaton lens with large refractive index range
Yin, Ming; Yong Tian, Xiao, E-mail: leoxyt@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ling Wu, Ling; Chen Li, Di [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)
2014-03-03
We proposed a method to realize three-dimensional (3D) gradient index (GRIN) devices requiring large refractive index (RI) range with broadband performance. By combining non-resonant GRIN woodpile photonic crystals structure in the metamaterial regime with a compound liquid medium, a wide RI range (1–6.32) was fulfilled flexibly. As a proof-of-principle for the low-loss and non-dispersive method, a 3D Eaton lens was designed and fabricated based on 3D printing process. Full-wave simulation and experiment validated its omnidirectional wave bending effects in a broad bandwidth covering Ku band (12?GHz–18?GHz)
Photonic band gaps in three-dimensional network structures with short-range order
Liew, Seng Fatt; Noh, Heeso; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Schreck, Carl F.; Dufresne, Eric R.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui
2011-12-15
We present a systematic study of photonic band gaps (PBGs) in three-dimensional (3D) photonic amorphous structures (PASs) with short-range order. From calculations of the density of optical states (DOS) for PASs with different topologies, we find that tetrahedrally connected dielectric networks produce the largest isotropic PBGs. Local uniformity and tetrahedral order are essential to the formation of PBGs in PASs, in addition to short-range geometric order. This work demonstrates that it is possible to create broad, isotropic PBGs for vector light fields in 3D PASs without long-range order.
Kim, Dukmin
1988-01-01
of the well inflow equation for a partially perforated well is written as J model 0. 00708 kh ln(ro/rw) + s3D (4) where h is thickness of layer perforated. Fjerstad also pre- sented a new equation for the proper shut-in time including s3D as ro e D 2(ht.../h - 1) 67. 5 dsctdx e At' - [ ] ( ] . (5) rw k This equation reduces to Eq. 3 for a fully penetrating well. The current work investigates how the actual pwf is related to the po obtained in the three-dimensional reservoir simulation model...
Moon, Gun-Hee; Shin, Yongsoon; Choi, Daiwon; Arey, Bruce W.; Exarhos, Gregory J.; Wang, Chong M.; Choi, Wonyong; Liu, Jun
2013-01-01
We report a catalytic templating method to synthesize well-controlled, three-dimensional (3D) nano-architectures with graphene oxide sheets. The 3D composites are prepared via self-assembly of carbon, GO, and spherical alumina-coated silica (ACS) templates during a catalytic reaction porcess. By changing the GO content, we can systematically tune the architecture from layered composites to 3D hollow structures to microporous materials. The composites show a synergistic effect with significantly superior properties than either pure carbon or r-GO prepared with a significant enhancement to its capacitance at high current density.
Advances in lasers, optics, and imaging for the life sciences
Heller, Eric
Molecular Imaging Congress BioOpto Japan BioOpticsWorld.com "Invisible" molecules glow with new label- free possibilities for biomedical imaging, such as label- free mapping drug distributions and blood vessels on and off at 5 MHz. The spectrally filtered stimulation beam is detected by a large area photodiode
Juan C del Alamo; Ruedi Meili; Begoña Alvarez-Gonzalez; Baldomero Alonso-Latorre; Effie Bastounis; Richard Firtel; Juan C Lasheras
2013-06-18
We introduce a novel three-dimensional (3D) traction force microscopy (TFM) method motivated by the recent discovery that cells adhering on plane surfaces exert both in-plane and out-of-plane traction stresses. We measure the 3D deformation of the substratum on a thin layer near its surface, and input this information into an exact analytical solution of the elastic equilibrium equation. These operations are performed in the Fourier domain with high computational efficiency, allowing to obtain the 3D traction stresses from raw microscopy images virtually in real time. We also characterize the error of previous two-dimensional (2D) TFM methods that neglect the out-of-plane component of the traction stresses. This analysis reveals that, under certain combinations of experimental parameters (\\ie cell size, substratums' thickness and Poisson's ratio), the accuracy of 2D TFM methods is minimally affected by neglecting the out-of-plane component of the traction stresses. Finally, we consider the cell's mechanosensing of substratum thickness by 3D traction stresses, finding that, when cells adhere on thin substrata, their out-of-plane traction stresses can reach four times deeper into the substratum than their in-plane traction stresses. It is also found that the substratum stiffness sensed by applying out-of-plane traction stresses may be up to 10 times larger than the stiffness sensed by applying in-plane traction stresses.
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Oyabu, Noriaki; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)] [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kei [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)] [The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan)
2014-02-07
Surface charges on nanoscale structures in liquids, such as biomolecules and nano-micelles, play an essentially important role in their structural stability as well as their chemical activities. These structures interact with each other through electric double layers (EDLs) formed by the counter ions in electrolyte solution. Although static-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) including colloidal-probe AFM is a powerful technique for surface charge density measurements and EDL analysis on a submicron scale in liquids, precise surface charge density analysis with single-nanometer resolution has not been made because of its limitation of the resolution and the detection sensitivity. Here we demonstrate molecular-scale surface charge measurements of self-assembled micellar structures, molecular hemicylinders of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), by three-dimensional (3D) force mapping based on frequency modulation AFM. The SDS hemicylindrical structures with a diameter of 4.8 nm on a graphite surface were clearly imaged. We have succeeded in visualizing 3D EDL forces on the SDS hemicylinder surfaces and obtaining the molecular-scale charge density for the first time. The results showed that the surface charge on the trench regions between the hemicylinders was much smaller than that on the hemicylinder tops. The method can be applied to a wide variety of local charge distribution studies, such as spatial charge variation on a single protein molecule.
Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets: three-dimensional effects
R. Keppens; G. Toth
1999-01-27
A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important insights into the coupling and excitation events of the various linear mode numbers.
Tracker: A three-dimensional raytracing program for ionospheric radio propagation
Argo, P.E.; DeLapp, D.; Sutherland, C.D.; Farrer, R.G.
1994-12-01
TRACKER is an extension of a three-dimensional Hamiltonian raytrace code developed some thirty years ago by R. Michael Jones. Subsequent modifications to this code, which is commonly called the {open_quotes}Jones Code,{close_quotes} were documented by Jones and Stephensen (1975). TRACKER incorporates an interactive user`s interface, modern differential equation integrators, graphical outputs, homing algorithms, and the Ionospheric Conductivity and Electron Density (ICED) ionosphere. TRACKER predicts the three-dimensional paths of radio waves through model ionospheres by numerically integrating Hamilton`s equations, which are a differential expression of Fermat`s principle of least time. By using continuous models, the Hamiltonian method avoids false caustics and discontinuous raypath properties often encountered in other raytracing methods. In addition to computing the raypath, TRACKER also calculates the group path (or pulse travel time), the phase path, the geometrical (or {open_quotes}real{close_quotes}) pathlength, and the Doppler shift (if the time variation of the ionosphere is explicitly included). Computational speed can be traded for accuracy by specifying the maximum allowable integration error per step in the integration. Only geometrical optics are included in the main raytrace code; no partial reflections or diffraction effects are taken into account. In addition, TRACKER does not lend itself to statistical descriptions of propagation -- it requires a deterministic model of the ionosphere.
Monodisperse alginate microgel formation in a three-dimensional microfluidic droplet generator
Lian, Meng; Collier, Pat; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T
2012-01-01
Droplet based microfluidic systems provide an ideal platform for partitioning and manipulating aqueous samples for analysis. Identifying stable operating conditions under which droplets are generated is challenging yet crucial for real-world applications. A novel three-dimensional microfluidic platform that facilitates the consistent generation and gelation of alginate-calcium hydrogel microbeads for microbial encapsulation, over a broad range of backing pressures, in the absence of surfactants, is described. The unique three-dimensional design of the fluidic network utilizes a height difference at the junction between the aqueous sample injection and organic carrier channels to induce droplet formation via a surface tension enhanced self-shearing mechanism. Combined within a flow-focusing geometry, under constant pressure control, this arrangement facilitates predictable generation of droplets over a much broader range of operating conditions than conventional two-dimensional systems. The impact of operating pressures and geometry on droplet gelation, aqueous and organic material flow rates, microbead size and bead generation frequency are described. The system presented provides a robust platform for encapsulating single microbes in complex mixtures into individual hydrogel beads, and provides the foundation for the development of a complete system for sorting and analyzing microbes at the single cell level.
Three-dimensional analysis of eolian systems in Jurassic Wingate sandstone
Nation, M.J.; Blakey, R.C.
1989-03-01
Regional bounding surfaces in ancient eolian sequences aid in establishing lateral profiles not previously obtainable using standard stratigraphic methods. Correlation of detailed measured sections permits three-dimensional analysis of erg dynamics in the Jurassic Wingate Sandstone on the Colorado Plateau. Four periods of erg development marked by contrasting styles of eolian architecture are documented in the Salt Anticline region (in ascending stratigraphic order): (1) discontinuous sand sheets, isolated dunes, and aqueous environments; (2) large compound dunes with decreasing amounts of dune margin material; (3) compound dunes and draas alternating with locally thick sandsheet deposits; and (4) widespread dunes and draas prior to erosion by Kayenta fluvial systems. Regional bounding surface characteristics reflect different mechanisms for erg stabilization, including deflation to the water table, climate change, and negative net sand budget. Lateral reconstruction and correlation of erg sequences indicate significant intrabasinal paleogeographic and tectonic controls on eolian systems. Localities removed from the Salt Anticline region contain much larger compound draa deposits and lack extensive accumulations of sand-sheet material. Regional comparison of these characteristics suggests that the salt uplifts modified eolian processes within the Wingate depositional basin. Existence of additional geographic variations not associated with salt tectonism is indicated by local accumulations of noneolian deposits in northeastern Arizona. The use of regional bounding surfaces to construct lateral profiles is a powerful method to establish three-dimensional models of eolian systems. Analysis of erg dynamics in other ancient eolian formations is possible utilizing the criteria documented in the Wingate Sandstone.
Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures
Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul
2005-07-27
Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.
Three-dimensional CTOA and constraint effects during stable tearing in a thin-sheet material
Dawicke, D.S.; Newman, J.C. Jr.; Bigelow, C.A.
1995-12-31
A small strain theory, three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis was used to simulate fracture in thin sheet 2024-T3 aluminum alloy in the T-L orientation. Both straight and tunneled cracks were modeled. The tunneled crack front shapes as a function of applied stress were obtained from the fracture surface of tested specimens. The stable crack growth behavior was measured at the specimen surface as a function of applied stress. The fracture simulation modeled the crack tunneling and extension as a function of applied stress. The results indicated that the global constrain factor, {alpha}{sub g}, initially dropped during stable crack growth. After peak applied stress was achieved, {alpha}{sub g}, initially dropped during stable crack growth. After peak applied stress was achieved, {alpha}{sub g}, began to increase slightly. The effect of crack front shape on {alpha}{sub g} was small, but the crack front shape did greatly influence the local constraint and through-thickness crack-tip opening angle (CTOA) behavior. The surface values of CTOA for the tunneled crack front model agreed well with experimental measurements, showing the same initial decrease from high values during the initial 3 mm of crack growth at the specimen`s surface. At the same time, the interior CTOA values increased from low angles. After the initial stable tearing region, the CTOA was constant through the thickness. The three-dimensional analysis appears to confirm the potential of CTOA as a two-dimensional fracture criterion.
Three-dimensional model and simulation of vacuum arcs under axial magnetic fields
Wang Lijun; Jia Shenli; Zhou Xin; Wang Haijing; Shi Zongqian
2012-01-15
In this paper, a three-dimensional (3d) magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) model of axial magnetic field vacuum arcs (AMFVAs) is established. Based on this model, AMFVAs are simulated and analyzed. Three-dimensional spatial distributions of many important plasma parameters and electric characteristics in AMFVAs can be obtained, such as ion number density, ion temperature, electron temperature, plasma pressure, current densities along different directions (x, y, and z), ion velocities along different directions, electric fields strength along different directions, and so on. Simulation results show that there exist significant spiral-shaped rotational phenomena in the AMFVAs, this kind of rotational phenomenon also can be verified by the many related experiments (AMFVAs photographs, especially for stronger AMF strength). For current simulation results of AMFVAs, the maximal rotational velocity at anode side is about 1100 m/s. Radial electric field is increased from arc center to arc edge; axial electric field is decreased from cathode side to anode side. Radial electric field at arc edge can be larger than axial electric field. Azimuthal electric field in most regions is much smaller than radial and axial electric field, but it can reach about 1.19 kV/m. Radial magnetic field is the smallest one compared with other components, it reaches to maximum value at the position near to anode, it can influence arc characteristics.
Element-based concrete design with three-dimensional finite element models
O'Leary, M.; Huberty, K.; Winch, S. [Nuclear Power Technologies Div., Sargent and Lundy, 55 East Monroe, Chicago, IL 60603 (United States)
2012-07-01
A shell element based design of a typical shear wall using analytical results from a three-dimensional finite element model subjected to a combination of vertical and lateral loads is evaluated. The axial and flexural force resultants from each element for every load combination are used to calculate the required reinforcing for each element. Strength for axial loads (P) and out-of-plane flexure (M) in structural walls is determined according to the same P-M interaction procedures used for columns. After each element has been evaluated, a required reinforcing map for each face of each element in the wall is presented along with a constructible reinforcement pattern enveloping the required reinforcing. In order to determine whether the element-based approach meets the requirements of the section cut approach to design, which is typically employed in manual calculations, the total in-plane moment (M) and total vertical axial force (P) across the entire length of the wall is calculated and the P-M points are plotted on an in-plane P-M interaction diagram. It is concluded that element-based design for a structural wall ensures that reinforcement is provided where required by the three-dimensional finite element analysis while still providing sufficient reinforcing to satisfy the section cut approach to design. (authors)
Micrometer-scale fabrication of complex three dimensional lattice + basis structures in silicon
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Burckel, D. Bruce; Resnick, Paul J.; Finnegan, Patrick S.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Davids, Paul S.
2015-01-01
A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible version of membrane projection lithography (MPL) for fabrication of micrometer-scale three-dimensional structures is presented. The approach uses all inorganic materials and standard CMOS processing equipment. In a single layer, MPL is capable of creating all 5 2D-Bravais lattices. Furthermore, standard semiconductor processing steps can be used in a layer-by-layer approach to create fully three dimensional structures with any of the 14 3D-Bravais lattices. The unit cell basis is determined by the projection of the membrane pattern, with many degrees of freedom for defining functional inclusions. Here we demonstrate several unique structural motifs, andmore »characterize 2D arrays of unit cells with split ring resonators in a silicon matrix. The structures exhibit strong polarization dependent resonances and, for properly oriented split ring resonators (SRRs), coupling to the magnetic field of a normally incident transverse electromagnetic wave, a response unique to 3D inclusions.« less
Energetics and structural properties of three-dimensional bosonic clusters near threshold
Hanna, G. J.; Blume, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164-2814 (United States)
2006-12-15
We treat three-dimensional bosonic clusters with up to N=40 atoms, interacting additively through two-body van der Waals potentials, in the near-threshold regime. Our study includes super-borromean systems with N atoms for which all subsystems are unbound. We determine the energetics and structural properties such as the expectation value of the interparticle distance as a function of the coupling strength. It has been shown that the coupling strength g{sub *}{sup (N)}, for which the N-body system becomes unbound, is bounded by the coupling constant g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}, for which the next smaller system with N-1 atoms becomes unbound, i.e., g{sub *}{sup (N)}{>=}(N-1)g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}/N. By fitting our numerically determined ground-state energies to a simple functional form with three fitting parameters, we determine the relationship between g{sub *}{sup (N)} and g{sub *}{sup (N-1)}. Our trimer and tetramer energies fall on the so-called Tjon line, which has been studied in nuclear physics. We confirm the existence of generalized Tjon lines for larger clusters. Signatures of the universal behavior of weakly bound three-dimensional clusters can possibly be observed in ultracold Bose gases.
Simon, Hélène A.; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit P.
2010-01-01
G. Rau. Leakage ?ow at mechanical heart valve prostheses:and the valve housing and forms two strong leakage jets onleakage ?ow rate Simulation of the Three-Dimensional Hinge Flow Fields through the closed valve
2006-01-01
I: data acquisition pipeline The electronic version of thiswe describe an integrated pipeline of methods for studyingA three-dimensional analysis pipeline To be able to analyze
Griggs, D. P.
1981-01-01
The development of a three-dimensional coupled neutronics/thermalhydraulics code for LWR safety analysis has been initiated. The transient neutronics code QUANDRY has been joined to the two-fluid thermal-hydraulics code ...
Duda, Timothy F.
Time-evolving three-dimensional (four-dimensional) numerical modeling of sound is performed for ocean environmental conditions calculated using regional ocean flow models. The flow models solve the appropriate nonlinear ...
Furukawa, Toru
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional bubble reconstruction method is proposed in this thesis to analyze two-phase bubbly flows. Gas/liquid two-phase flows have important roles in the nuclear and chemical industries and other engineering fields...
Swigler, David Townley
2010-10-12
was used to generate the wave, while the free surface elevations and fluid velocities were measured using wave gauges and three-dimensional acoustic-Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), respectively. From the free surface elevations, the evolution and runup...
Donald, Bruce R.
We describe a simple geometric modelling system called Eight which supports interactive creation, editing, and display of three-dimensional polyhedral solids. Perspective views of a polyhedral environment may be generated, ...
Lee, Howon
The rapid manufacture of complex three-dimensional micro-scale components has eluded researchers for decades. Several additive manufacturing options have been limited by either speed or the ability to fabricate true ...
Mukherjee, Souvik
2010-10-12
in both subsurface conductivity ? and relative permeability ?r. In this dissertation, I present a new three dimensional edge–based finite element (FE) algorithm capable of modeling the CSEM response of buried conductive and permeable targets. A coupled...
Thermoelectric probe for Fermi surface topology in the three-dimensional Rashba semiconductor BiTeI
Ideue, T.
We have investigated thermoelectric properties of a three-dimensional Rashba system BiTeI. Magnetic-field dependences of the Seebeck effect and Nernst effect show qualitative changes with the Fermi level passing through ...
A. Rezaei-Aghdam; M. Sephid
2015-03-15
We obtain the classical r-matrices of real two and three dimensional Jacobi-Lie bialgebras. In this way, we classify all non-isomorphic real two and three dimensional coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras and their types (triangular and quasitriangular). Also, we obtain the generalized Sklyanin bracket formula and then using it, we calculate the Jacobi structures on the related Jacobi-Lie groups. Finally, we present a new method for constructing classical integrable systems using coboundary Jacobi-Lie bialgebras.
Darmadi, Yan
2007-04-25
-1 THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUVIAL-DELTAIC SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY PLIOCENE-RECENT MUDA FORMATION, BELIDA FIELD, WEST NATUNA BASIN, INDONESIA A Thesis by YAN DARMADI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2005 Major Subject: Geophysics THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLUVIAL-DELTAIC SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY PLIOCENE-RECENT MUDA FORMATION, BELIDA FIELD...
Laser speckle-imaging of blood microcirculation in the brain cortex of laboratory rats in stress
Vilensky, M A; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, Oxana V; Timoshina, P A; Kuznetsova, Jana V; Semyachkin-Glushkovskii, I A; Agafonov, Dmitry N; Tuchin, Valerii V
2012-06-30
The results of experimental approbation of the method of laser full-field speckle-imaging for monitoring the changes in blood microcirculation state of the brain cortex of laboratory rats under the conditions of developing stroke and administration of vasodilating and vasoconstrictive agents are presented. The studies aimed at the choice of the optimal conditions of speckle-image formation and recording were performed and the software implementing an adaptive algorithm for processing the data of measurements was created. The transfer of laser radiation to the probed region of the biotissue was implemented by means of a silica-polymer optical fibre. The problems and prospects of speckle-imaging of cerebral microcirculation of blood in laboratory and clinical conditions are discussed.
Systems and methods for imaging using radiation from laser produced plasmas
Renard-Le Galloudec, Nathalie (Reno, NV); Cowan, Thomas E. (Reno, NV); Sentoku, Yasuhiko (Reno, NV); Rassuchine, Jennifer (Reno, NV)
2009-06-30
In particular embodiments, the present disclosure provides systems and methods for imaging a subject using radiation emitted from a laser produced plasma generating by irradiating a target with a laser. In particular examples, the target includes at least one radiation enhancing component, such as a fluor, cap, or wire. In further examples, the target has a metal layer and an internal surface defining an internal apex, the internal apex of less than about 15 .mu.m, such as less than about 1 .mu.m. The targets may take a variety of shapes, including cones, pyramids, and hemispheres. Certain aspects of the present disclosure provide improved imaging of a subject, such as improved medical images of a radiation dose than typical conventional methods and systems.
Jens, Sjoerd; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Marquering, Henk A. Reekers, Jim A.
2013-06-15
Purpose. To evaluate the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) of the foot compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Technique. For 3DRA, the C-arm was placed in the propeller position with the foot in an isocentric position. The patient's unaffected foot was positioned in a footrest outside the field of view. For correct timing of 3DRA, the delay from contrast injection in the popliteal artery at the level of knee joint to complete pedal arterial enhancement was assessed using DSA. With this delay, 3DRA was started after injection of 15 ml contrast. Imaging of the 3DRA could directly be reconstructed and visualized.Materials and MethodsPatients undergoing 3DRA of the foot were prospectively registered. DSA and 3DRA images were scored separately for arterial patency and presence of collaterals. Treatment strategies were proposed based on DSA with and without the availability of 3DRA. Results. Eleven patients underwent 3DRA of the foot. One 3DRA was not included because the acquisition was focused on the heel instead of the entire foot. Diagnostic quality of 3DRA was good in all ten patients. 3DRA compared with DSA showed additional patent arteries in six patients, patent plantar arch in three patients, and collaterals between the pedal arteries in five patients. Additional information from 3DRA resulted in a change of treatment strategy in six patients. Conclusion, 3DRA of the foot contains valuable additional real-time information to better guide peripheral vascular interventions in patients with CLI and nonhealing tissue lesions.
Method for the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by deep X-ray lithography
Sweatt, William C.; Christenson, Todd R.
2005-04-05
A method for the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) comprises a masking process that uses a patterned mask with inclined mask holes and off-normal exposures with a DXRL beam aligned with the inclined mask holes. Microstructural features that are oriented in different directions can be obtained by using multiple off-normal exposures through additional mask holes having different orientations. Various methods can be used to block the non-aligned mask holes from the beam when using multiple exposures. A method for fabricating a precision 3D X-ray mask comprises forming an intermediate mask and a master mask on a common support membrane.
Specific heat and energy for the three-dimensional O(2) model
S. Holtmann; J. Engels; T. Schulze
2001-09-19
We investigate the three-dimensional O(2) model on lattices of size 8^3 to 160^3 close to the critical point at zero magnetic field. We confirm explicitly the value of the critical coupling J_c found by Ballesteros et al. and estimate there the universal values of g_r and xi/L. At the critical point we study the finite size dependencies of the energy density epsilon and the specific heat C. We find that the nonsingular part of the specific heat C_{ns} is linearly dependent on 1/alpha. From the critical behaviour of the specific heat for T not T_c on the largest lattices we determine the universal amplitude ratio A+/A-. The alpha- dependence of this ratio is close to the phenomenological relation A+/A- = 1-4alpha.
Conformal invariance predictions for the three-dimensional self-avoiding walk
Tom Kennedy
2014-12-23
If the three dimensional self-avoiding walk (SAW) is conformally invariant, then one can compute the hitting densities for the SAW in a half-space and in a sphere. The ensembles of SAW's used to define these hitting densities involve walks of arbitrary lengths, and so these ensembles cannot be directly studied by the pivot Monte Carlo algorithm for the SAW. We show that these mixed length ensembles should have the same scaling limit as certain weighted ensembles that only involve walks with a single length, thus providing a fast method for simulating these ensembles. Preliminary simulations which found good agreement between the predictions and Monte Carlo simulations for the SAW were reported in [14]. In this paper we present more accurate simulations testing the predictions and find even stronger support for the prediction that the SAW is conformally invariant in three dimensions.
Zhan, Beibei; Liu, Changbing; Shi, Huaxia; Li, Chen; Wang, Lianhui [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Wei, E-mail: iamxcdong@njtech.edu.cn, E-mail: iamwhuang@njtech.edu.cn; Dong, Xiaochen, E-mail: iamxcdong@njtech.edu.cn, E-mail: iamwhuang@njtech.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Organic Electronics and Information Displays (KLOEID), Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu-Singapore Joint Research Center for Organic/Bio-Electronics and Information Displays and Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University, 30 South Puzhu Road, Nanjing 211816 (China)
2014-06-16
A facile strategy has been developed to synthesize sliver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) decorated three-dimensional graphene (3DG) through hydrothermal process. The AgNPs-3DG composites are directly fabricated into a free standing sensing electrode for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in phosphate buffered solutions. Various techniques equipments including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy are used to characterize the morphology and structure of the as-prepared composite. The electrochemical experiments reveal the AgNPs-3DG based biosensor exhibits fast amperometric sensing, low detection limitation, wide linear responding range, and perfect selectivity for non-enzyme H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection, indicating the well synergistic effect of Ag NPs high electrocatalytic activity and 3DG high conductivity and large surface area.
Three-dimensional carbon fibers and method and apparatus for their production
Muradov, Nazim Z. (Melbourne, FL)
2012-02-21
This invention relates to novel three-dimensional (3D) carbon fibers which are original (or primary) carbon fibers (OCF) with secondary carbon filaments (SCF) grown thereon, and, if desired, tertiary carbon filaments (TCF) are grown from the surface of SCF forming a filamentous carbon network with high surface area. The methods and apparatus are provided for growing SCF on the OCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases (CG) over the hot surface of the OCF without use of metal-based catalysts. The thickness and length of SCF can be controlled by varying operational conditions of the process, e.g., the nature of CG, temperature, residence time, etc. The optional activation step enables one to produce 3D activated carbon fibers with high surface area. The method and apparatus are provided for growing TCF on the SCF by thermal decomposition of carbonaceous gases over the hot surface of the SCF using metal catalyst particles.
Quantum Storage of Three-Dimensional Orbital-Angular-Momentum Entanglement in a Crystal
Zong-Quan Zhou; Yi-Lin Hua; Xiao Liu; Geng Chen; Jin-Shi Xu; Yong-Jian Han; Chuan-Feng Li; Guang-Can Guo
2015-08-15
Here we present the quantum storage of three-dimensional orbital-angular-momentum photonic entanglement in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The properties of the entanglement and the storage process are confirmed by the violation of the Bell-type inequality generalized to three dimensions after storage ($S=2.152\\pm0.033$). The fidelity of the memory process is $0.993\\pm0.002$, as determined through complete quantum process tomography in three dimensions. An assessment of the visibility of the stored weak coherent pulses in higher-dimensional spaces, demonstrates that the memory is highly reliable for 51 spatial modes. These results pave the way towards the construction of high-dimensional and multiplexed quantum repeaters based on solid-state devices. The multimode capacity of rare-earth-based optical processor goes beyond the temporal and the spectral degree of freedom, which might provide a useful tool for photonic information processing.
Method to planarize three-dimensional structures to enable conformal electrodes
Nikolic, Rebecca J; Conway, Adam M; Graff, Robert T; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F; Shao, Qinghui
2012-11-20
Methods for fabricating three-dimensional PIN structures having conformal electrodes are provided, as well as the structures themselves. The structures include a first layer and an array of pillars with cavity regions between the pillars. A first end of each pillar is in contact with the first layer. A segment is formed on the second end of each pillar. The cavity regions are filled with a fill material, which may be a functional material such as a neutron sensitive material. The fill material covers each segment. A portion of the fill material is etched back to produce an exposed portion of the segment. A first electrode is deposited onto the fill material and each exposed segment, thereby forming a conductive layer that provides a common contact to each the exposed segment. A second electrode is deposited onto the first layer.
Bouncing ball orbits and symmetry breaking effects in a three-dimensional chaotic billiard
B. Dietz; B. Moessner; T. Papenbrock; U. Reif; A. Richter
2008-04-10
We study the classical and quantum mechanics of a three-dimensional stadium billiard. It consists of two quarter cylinders that are rotated with respect to each other by 90 degrees, and it is classically chaotic. The billiard exhibits only a few families of nongeneric periodic orbits. We introduce an analytic method for their treatment. The length spectrum can be understood in terms of the nongeneric and unstable periodic orbits. For unequal radii of the quarter cylinders the level statistics agree well with predictions from random matrix theory. For equal radii the billiard exhibits an additional symmetry. We investigated the effects of symmetry breaking on spectral properties. Moreover, for equal radii, we observe a small deviation of the level statistics from random matrix theory. This led to the discovery of stable and marginally stable orbits, which are absent for un equal radii.
Large scale three-dimensional topology optimisation of heat sinks cooled by natural convection
Alexandersen, Joe; Aage, Niels
2015-01-01
This work presents the application of density-based topology optimisation to the design of three-dimensional heat sinks cooled by natural convection. The governing equations are the steady-state incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled to the thermal convection-diffusion equation through the Bousinessq approximation. The fully coupled non-linear multiphysics system is solved using stabilised trilinear equal-order finite elements in a parallel framework allowing for the optimisation of large scale problems with order of 40-330 million state degrees of freedom. The flow is assumed to be laminar and several optimised designs are presented for Grashof numbers between $10^3$ and $10^6$. Interestingly, it is observed that the number of branches in the optimised design increases with increasing Grashof numbers, which is opposite to two-dimensional optimised designs.
Particle Acceleration in three dimensional Reconnection Regions: A New Test Particle Approach
Rudiger Schopper; Guido T. Birk; Harald Lesch
2001-06-29
Magnetic Reconnection is an efficient and fast acceleration mechanism by means of direct electric field acceleration parallel to the magnetic field. Thus, acceleration of particles in reconnection regions is a very important topic in plasma astrophysics. This paper shows that the conventional analytical models and numerical test particle investigations can be misleading concerning the energy distribution of the accelerated particles, since they oversimplify the electric field structure by the assumption that the field is homogeneous. These investigations of the acceleration of charged test particles are extended by considering three-dimensional field configurations characterized by localized field-aligned electric fields. Moreover, effects of radiative losses are discussed. The comparison between homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric field acceleration in reconnection regions shows dramatic differences concerning both, the maximum particle energy and the form of the energy distribution.
Conversion of the Bryan Mound geological site characterization reports to a three-dimensional model.
Stein, Joshua S.; Rautman, Christopher Arthur
2005-04-01
The Bryan Mound salt dome, located near Freeport, Texas, is home to one of four underground crude oil-storage facilities managed by the U. S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Program. Sandia National Laboratories, as the geotechnical advisor to the SPR, conducts site-characterization investigations and other longer-term geotechnical and engineering studies in support of the program. This report describes the conversion of two-dimensional geologic interpretations of the Bryan Mound site into three-dimensional geologic models. The new models include the geometry of the salt dome, the surrounding sedimentary units, mapped faults, and the 20 oil-storage caverns at the site. This work provides an internally consistent geologic model of the Bryan Mound site that can be used in support of future work.
Optical spectroscopy study of the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal ZrTe5
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Chen, R. Y.; Gu, G. D.; Zhang, S. J.; Schneeloch, J. A.; Zhang, C.; Li, Q.; Wang, N. L.
2015-08-05
Three-dimensional (3D) topological Dirac materials have been under intensive study recently. The layered compound ZrTe5 has been suggested to be one such material as a result of transport and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments. Here, we perform infrared reflectivity measurements to investigate the underlying physics of this material. The derived optical conductivity increases linearly with frequency below normal interband transitions, which provides optical spectroscopic proof of a 3D Dirac semimetal. In addition, the plasma edge shifts dramatically to lower energy upon temperature cooling, which might be due to the shrinking of the lattice parameters. Additionally, an extremely sharp peak shows upmore »in the frequency-dependent optical conductivity, indicating the presence of a Van Hove singularity in the joint density of state.« less
Measurement of the three-dimensional tip region flow field in an axial compressor
Stauter, R.C. )
1993-07-01
A two-color, five-beam LDV system has been configured to make simultaneous three-component velocity measurements of the flow field in a two-stage axial compressor model. The system has been used to make time-resolved measurements both between compressor blade rows and within the rotating blade passages in an axial compressor. The data show the nature and behavior of the complex, three-dimensional flow phenomena present in the tip region of a compressor as the convect downstream. In particular, the nature of the tip leakage vortex is apparent, being manifested by high blockage as well as the expected vortical motion. The data indicate that the radial flows associated with the tip leakage vortex begin to decrease while within the rotor passage, and that they temporarily increase aft of the passage.
Explicit expressions for three-dimensional boundary integrals in linear elasticity
Nintcheu Fata, Sylvain
2011-01-01
On employing isoparametric, piecewise linear shape functions over a flat triangle, exact formulae are derived for all surface potentials involved in the numerical treatment of three-dimensional singular and hyper-singular boundary integral equations in linear elasticity. These formulae are valid for an arbitrary source point in space and are represented as analytical expressions along the edges of the integration triangle. They can be employed to solve integral equations defined on triangulated surfaces via a collocation method or may be utilized as analytical expressions for the inner integrals in a Galerkin technique. A numerical example involving a unit triangle and a source point located at various distances above it, as well as sample problems solved by a collocation boundary element method for the Lame equation are included to validate the proposed formulae.
User's manual for PELE3D: a computer code for three-dimensional incompressible fluid dynamics
McMaster, W H
1982-05-07
The PELE3D code is a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian hydrodynamics computer program for the solution of incompressible fluid flow coupled to a structure. The fluid and coupling algorithms have been adapted from the previously developed two-dimensional code PELE-IC. The PELE3D code is written in both plane and cylindrical coordinates. The coupling algorithm is general enough to handle a variety of structural shapes. The free surface algorithm is able to accommodate a top surface and several independent bubbles. The code is in a developmental status since all the intended options have not been fully implemented and tested. Development of this code ended in 1980 upon termination of the contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Waltz, J., E-mail: jwaltz@lanl.gov [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Canfield, T.R. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morgan, N.R. [Computational Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Risinger, L.D.; Wohlbier, J.G. [Computational and Computer Sciences Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-06-15
We present a set of manufactured solutions for the three-dimensional (3D) Euler equations. The purpose of these solutions is to allow for code verification against true 3D flows with physical relevance, as opposed to 3D simulations of lower-dimensional problems or manufactured solutions that lack physical relevance. Of particular interest are solutions with relevance to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) capsules. While ICF capsules are designed for spherical symmetry, they are hypothesized to become highly 3D at late time due to phenomena such as Rayleigh–Taylor instability, drive asymmetry, and vortex decay. ICF capsules also involve highly nonlinear coupling between the fluid dynamics and other physics, such as radiation transport and thermonuclear fusion. The manufactured solutions we present are specifically designed to test the terms and couplings in the Euler equations that are relevant to these phenomena. Example numerical results generated with a 3D Finite Element hydrodynamics code are presented, including mesh convergence studies.
Staff, Jan E.; Niebergal, Brian P.; Ouyed, Rachid; Pudritz, Ralph E.; Cai, Kai
2010-10-20
We perform state-of-the-art, three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations of magnetized disk winds, carried out to simulation scales of 60 AU, in order to confront optical Hubble Space Telescope observations of protostellar jets. We 'observe' the optical forbidden line emission produced by shocks within our simulated jets and compare these with actual observations. Our simulations reproduce the rich structure of time-varying jets, including jet rotation far from the source, an inner (up to 400 km s{sup -1}) and outer (less than 100 km s{sup -1}) component of the jet, and jet widths of up to 20 AU in agreement with observed jets. These simulations when compared with the data are able to constrain disk wind models. In particular, models featuring a disk magnetic field with a modest radial spatial variation across the disk are favored.
Toward the Application of Three-Dimensional Approach to Few-body Atomic Bound States
M. R. Hadizadeh; L. Tomio
2010-01-11
The first step toward the application of an effective non partial wave (PW) numerical approach to few-body atomic bound states has been taken. The two-body transition amplitude which appears in the kernel of three-dimensional Faddeev-Yakubovsky integral equations is calculated as function of two-body Jacobi momentum vectors, i.e. as a function of the magnitude of initial and final momentum vectors and the angle between them. For numerical calculation the realistic interatomic interactions HFDHE2, HFD-B, LM2M2 and TTY are used. The angular and momentum dependence of the fully off-shell transition amplitude is studied at negative energies. It has been numerically shown that, similar to the nuclear case, the transition amplitude exhibits a characteristic angular behavior in the vicinity of 4He dimer pole.
Elastodynamic behavior of the three dimensional layer-by-layer metamaterial structure
Aravantinos-Zafiris, N.; Sigalas, M. M.; Economou, E. N.
2014-10-07
In this work, we numerically investigate for the first time the elastodynamic behavior of a three dimensional layer-by-layer rod structure, which is easy to fabricate and has already proved to be very efficient as a photonic crystal. The Finite Difference Time Domain method was used for the numerical calculations. For the rods, several materials were examined and the effects of all the geometric parameters of the structure were also numerically investigated. Additionally, two modifications of the structure were included in our calculations. The results obtained here (for certain geometric parameters), exhibiting a high ratio of longitudinal over transverse sound velocity and therefore a close approach to ideal pentamode behavior over a frequency range, clearly show that the layer-by-layer rod structure, besides being an efficient photonic crystal, is a very serious contender as an elastodynamic metamaterial.
Specific heat and energy for the three-dimensional O(2) model
Holtmann, S; Schulze, T
2002-01-01
We investigate the three-dimensional O(2) model on lattices of size 8^3 to 160^3 close to the critical point at zero magnetic field. We confirm explicitly the value of the critical coupling J_c found by Ballesteros et al. and estimate there the universal values of g_r and xi/L. At the critical point we study the finite size dependencies of the energy density epsilon and the specific heat C. We find that the nonsingular part of the specific heat C_{ns} is linearly dependent on 1/alpha. From the critical behaviour of the specific heat for T not T_c on the largest lattices we determine the universal amplitude ratio A+/A-. The alpha- dependence of this ratio is close to the phenomenological relation A+/A- = 1-4alpha.
O'Neill, S M
2010-01-01
We report on a series of three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet propagation in realistic models of magnetized galaxy clusters. We are primarily interested in the details of energy transfer between jets and the intracluster medium (ICM) to help clarify what role such flows could have in the reheating of cluster cores. Our simulated jets feature a range of intermittency behaviors, including intermittent jets that periodically switch on and off and one model jet that shuts down completely, naturally creating a relic plume. The ICM into which these jets propagate incorporates tangled magnetic field geometries and density substructure designed to mimic some likely features of real galaxy clusters. We find that our jets are characteristically at least 60% efficient at transferring thermal energy to the ICM. Irreversible heat energy is not uniformly distributed, however, instead residing preferentially in regions very near the jet/cocoon boundaries. While intermittency...
Biologically Inspired Synthesis Route to Three-Dimensionally Structured Inorganic Thin Films
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E.
2008-01-01
Inorganic thin films (hydroxide, oxide, and phosphate materials) that are textured on a submicron scale have been prepared from aqueous metal salt solutions at room temperature using vapor-diffusion catalysis. This generic synthesis approach mimics the essential advantages of the catalytic and structure-directing mechanisms observed for the formation of silica skeletons of marine sponges. Chemical composition, crystallinity, and the three-dimensional morphology of films prepared by this method are extremely sensitive to changes in the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations, reaction times, and the presence and nature of substrate materials. Focusing on different materials systems, the reaction mechanism for the formation ofmore »these thin films and the influence of different reaction parameters on the product are explained.« less
Three-dimensional simulations of cellular non-premixed jet flames
Valaer, A.L.; Frouzakis, C.E.; Boulouchos, K.; Papas, P.; Tomboulides, A.G.
2010-04-15
The formation, dynamics and structure of cellular flames in circular non-premixed jets are examined with three-dimensional numerical simulations incorporating detailed descriptions of chemistry and transport. Similar to past experiments reported in the literature, CO{sub 2}-diluted hydrogen in diluted or pure oxygen co-flowing streams in the proximity of the extinction limit are considered. As in the experiments, several preferred cellular states are found to co-exist with the particular state realized depending on initial conditions as well as on the jet characteristics. The simulations provide additionally the temporal transitions to different stationary or rotating cellular flames, their detailed structure, and the dependence of the scaling of the realized number of cells with the vorticity thickness. (author)
Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays
Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano
2014-01-06
Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law.
Three dimensional numerical simulations of the UPS-292 stratified charge engine
O'Rourke, P.J.; Amsden, A.A.
1987-01-01
The authors present and analyze three-dimensional calculations of the spray, mixing and combustion in the UPS-292 stratified charge engine for three different operating conditions, corresponding to overall air-fuel ratios between 22.4 and 61.0. The numerical calculations are performed with KIVA, a multidimensional arbitrary-mesh, finite-difference hydrodynamics program for internal combustion engine applications. The calculations use a mesh of 10,000 computational cells. Each operating condition is calculated from intake valve closure at 118/sup 0/ BTDC to 90/sup 0/ ATDC and requires approximately three hours of CRAY-XMP computer time. Combustion occurs primarily in the wake of the spark plug, and to include the effects of the spark plug on the flow field, we use a novel internal obstacle treatment. The methodology, in which internal obstacles are represented by computational particles, promises to be applicable to the calculation of the flows around intake and exhaust valves.
Striation pattern of target particle and heat fluxes in three dimensional simulations for DIII-D
Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Reiter, D. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany)] [Institute of Energy and Climate Research—Plasma Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Association EURATOM-FZJ, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Jülich (Germany); Evans, T. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)] [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Feng, Y. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Greifswald (Germany)
2014-02-15
The application of resonant magnetic perturbations results in a non-axisymmetric striation pattern of magnetic field lines from the plasma interior which intersect the divertor targets. The impact on related particle and heat fluxes is investigated by three dimensional computer simulations for two different recycling conditions (controlled via neutral gas pumping). It is demonstrated that a mismatch between the particle and heat flux striation pattern (splitting vs. no splitting), as is repeatedly observed in ITER similar shape H-mode plasmas at DIII-D, can be reproduced by the simulations for high recycling conditions at the onset of partial detachment. These results indicate that a detailed knowledge of the particle and energy balance is at least as important for realistic simulations as the consideration of a change in the magnetic field structure by plasma response effects.
Yosuke Mizuno; Yuri Lyubarsky; Ken-Ichi Nishikawa; Philip E. Hardee
2012-07-20
We have investigated the influence of jet rotation and differential motion on the linear and nonlinear development of the current-driven (CD) kink instability of force-free helical magnetic equilibria via three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In this study, we follow the temporal development within a periodic computational box. Displacement of the initial helical magnetic field leads to the growth of the CD kink instability. We find that, in accord with linear stability theory, the development of the instability depends on the lateral distribution of the poloidal magnetic field. If the poloidal field significantly decreases outwards from the axis, the initial small perturbations grow strongly, and if multiple wavelengths are excited non-linear interaction eventually disrupts the initial cylindrical configuration. When the profile of the poloidal field is shallow, the instability develops slowly and eventually saturates. We briefly discuss implications of our findings for Poynting dominated jets.
Usmanov, Arcadi V.; Matthaeus, William H.; Goldstein, Melvyn L.
2014-06-10
We have developed a three-fluid, three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic solar wind model that incorporates turbulence transport, eddy viscosity, turbulent resistivity, and turbulent heating. The solar wind plasma is described as a system of co-moving solar wind protons, electrons, and interstellar pickup protons, with separate energy equations for each species. Numerical steady-state solutions of Reynolds-averaged solar wind equations coupled with turbulence transport equations for turbulence energy, cross helicity, and correlation length are obtained by the time relaxation method in the corotating with the Sun frame of reference in the region from 0.3 to 100 AU (but still inside the termination shock). The model equations include the effects of electron heat conduction, Coulomb collisions, photoionization of interstellar hydrogen atoms and their charge exchange with the solar wind protons, turbulence energy generation by pickup protons, and turbulent heating of solar wind protons and electrons. The turbulence transport model is based on the Reynolds decomposition and turbulence phenomenologies that describe the conversion of fluctuation energy into heat due to a turbulent cascade. In addition to using separate energy equations for the solar wind protons and electrons, a significant improvement over our previous work is that the turbulence model now uses an eddy viscosity approximation for the Reynolds stress tensor and the mean turbulent electric field. The approximation allows the turbulence model to account for driving of turbulence by large-scale velocity gradients. Using either a dipole approximation for the solar magnetic field or synoptic solar magnetograms from the Wilcox Solar Observatory for assigning boundary conditions at the coronal base, we apply the model to study the global structure of the solar wind and its three-dimensional properties, including embedded turbulence, heating, and acceleration throughout the heliosphere. The model results are compared with plasma and magnetic field observations on WIND, Ulysses, and Voyager 2 spacecraft.
Simulating three-dimensional nonthermal high-energy photon emission in colliding-wind binaries
Reitberger, K.; Kissmann, R.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.
2014-07-01
Massive stars in binary systems have long been regarded as potential sources of high-energy ? rays. The emission is principally thought to arise in the region where the stellar winds collide and accelerate relativistic particles which subsequently emit ? rays. On the basis of a three-dimensional distribution function of high-energy particles in the wind collision region—as obtained by a numerical hydrodynamics and particle transport model—we present the computation of the three-dimensional nonthermal photon emission for a given line of sight. Anisotropic inverse Compton emission is modeled using the target radiation field of both stars. Photons from relativistic bremsstrahlung and neutral pion decay are computed on the basis of local wind plasma densities. We also consider photon-photon opacity effects due to the dense radiation fields of the stars. Results are shown for different stellar separations of a given binary system comprising of a B star and a Wolf-Rayet star. The influence of orbital orientation with respect to the line of sight is also studied by using different orbital viewing angles. For the chosen electron-proton injection ratio of 10{sup –2}, we present the ensuing photon emission in terms of two-dimensional projections maps, spectral energy distributions, and integrated photon flux values in various energy bands. Here, we find a transition from hadron-dominated to lepton-dominated high-energy emission with increasing stellar separations. In addition, we confirm findings from previous analytic modeling that the spectral energy distribution varies significantly with orbital orientation.
Imaging of free carriers in semiconductors via optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers
Mezzapesa, F. P. Brambilla, M.; Dabbicco, M.; Scamarcio, G.; Columbo, L. L.; Vitiello, M. S.
2014-01-27
To monitor the density of photo-generated charge carriers on a semiconductor surface, we demonstrate a detectorless imaging system based on the analysis of the optical feedback in terahertz quantum cascade lasers. Photo-excited free electron carriers are created in high resistivity n-type silicon wafers via low power (?40 mW/cm{sup 2}) continuous wave pump laser in the near infrared spectral range. A spatial light modulator allows to directly reconfigure and control the photo-patterned intensity and the associated free-carrier density distribution. The experimental results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.
NIMS3D: An Autonomous Three-Dimensional Cabled Robot for Actuated Sensing Applications (MAS 3)
Per Henrik Borgstrom; Nils Peter Borgstrom; Michael J. Stealey; Maxim A. Batalin; William J. Kaiser
2006-01-01
Laser Rangefinder Topographic Lab Test: 12/2/05 z-pos (m)y-pos (m)x-pos (m) Piecewise linear trajectory – Trace of x
Sajjadi, Shahrdad G; Drullion, Frederique
2014-01-01
A review of three-dimensional waves on deep-water is presented. Three forms of three dimensionality, namely oblique, forced and spontaneous type, are identified. An alternative formulation for these three-dimensional waves is given through cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation. The periodic solutions of the cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation are found using Weierstrass elliptic $\\wp$ functions. It is shown that the classification of solutions depends on the boundary conditions, wavenumber and frequency. For certain parameters, Weierstrass $\\wp$ functions are reduced to periodic, hyperbolic or Jacobi elliptic functions. It is demonstrated that some of these solutions do not have any physical significance. An analytical solution of cubic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with wind forcing is also obtained which results in how groups of waves are generated on the surface of deep water in the ocean. In this case the dependency on the energy-transfer parameter, from wind to waves, make either the groups of wav...
Pirgazi, Hadi, E-mail: Hadi.pirgazi@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Ghodrat, Sepideh, E-mail: s.ghodrat@tudelft.nl [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands); Kestens, Leo A.I., E-mail: leo.kestens@ugent.be [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Gent (Belgium); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands)
2014-04-01
In cylinder heads made of compacted graphitic iron (CGI), heating and cooling cycles can lead to localized cracking due to thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). To meticulously characterize the complex crack path morphology of CGI under TMF condition, in relation to microstructural features and to find out how and by which mechanisms the cracks predominantly develop, three-dimensional electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD) was employed. Based on the precise quantitative microstructural analysis, it is found that graphite particles not only play a crucial role in the crack initiation, but also are of primary significance for crack propagation, i.e. crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles. Furthermore, the density of graphite particles on the fracture plane is more than double as high as in any other arbitrary plane of the structure. The obtained results did not indicate a particular crystallographic preference of fracture plane, i.e. the crystal plane parallel to the fracture plane was nearly of random orientation. - Highlights: • Crystallographic features of a thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) crack were studied. • Wide-field 3D EBSD is used to characterize the TMF crack morphology. • Data processing was applied on a large length scale of the order of millimeters. • Graphite density in the fracture plane is much higher than any other random plane. • It is revealed that crack growth is enhanced by the presence of graphite particles.
Three-dimensional hybrid simulation study of anisotropic turbulence in the proton kinetic regime
Vasquez, Bernard J.; Markovskii, Sergei A.; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: sergei.markovskii@unh.edu
2014-06-20
Three-dimensional numerical hybrid simulations with particle protons and quasi-neutralizing fluid electrons are conducted for a freely decaying turbulence that is anisotropic with respect to the background magnetic field. The turbulence evolution is determined by both the combined root-mean-square (rms) amplitude for fluctuating proton bulk velocity and magnetic field and by the ratio of perpendicular to parallel wavenumbers. This kind of relationship had been considered in the past with regard to interplanetary turbulence. The fluctuations nonlinearly evolve to a turbulent phase whose net wave vector anisotropy is usually more perpendicular than the initial one, irrespective of the initial ratio of perpendicular to parallel wavenumbers. Self-similar anisotropy evolution is found as a function of the rms amplitude and parallel wavenumber. Proton heating rates in the turbulent phase vary strongly with the rms amplitude but only weakly with the initial wave vector anisotropy. Even in the limit where wave vectors are confined to the plane perpendicular to the background magnetic field, the heating rate remains close to the corresponding case with finite parallel wave vector components. Simulation results obtained as a function of proton plasma to background magnetic pressure ratio ? {sub p} in the range 0.1-0.5 show that the wave vector anisotropy also weakly depends on ? {sub p}.
Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Qiu, Jianxian
2010-01-01
This paper reports high resolution simulations using a fifth-order weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme with a third order TVD Runge-Kutta time stepping method to examine the features of detonation front and physics in square ducts. The simulations suggest that two and three-dimensional detonation wave front formations are greatly enhanced by the presence of transverse waves. The motion of transverse waves generates triple points (zones of high pressure and large velocity coupled together), which cause the detonation front to become locally overdriven and thus form "hot spots". The transversal motion of these hot spots maintains the detonation to continuously occur along the whole front in two and three-dimensions. The present simulations indicate that the influence of the transverse waves on detonation is more profound in three dimensions and the pattern of quasi-steady detonation fronts also depends on the duct size. For a narrow duct (4LX4L where L is the half reaction length), the detonation...
Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R. [SP"2RC, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Fedun, V., E-mail: f.gent@shef.ac.uk [Space Systems Laboratory, Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2014-07-01
A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.
Chang Hyun Baek; Hyesung Kang; Jongsoo Kim; Dongsu Ryu
2005-06-08
We study thermal-gravitational instability in simplified models for protogalactic halos using three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. The simulations followed the evolution of gas with radiative cooling down to T = 10^4 K, background heating, and self-gravity. Then cooled and condensed clouds were identified and their physical properties were examined in detail. During early stage clouds start to form around initial density peaks by thermal instability. Small clouds appear first and they are pressure-bound. Subsequently, the clouds grow through compression by the background pressure as well as gravitational infall. During late stage cloud-cloud collisions become important, and clouds grow mostly through gravitational merging. Gravitationally bound clouds with mass M_c > ~6 X 10^6 Msun are found in the late stage. They are approximately in virial equilibrium and have radius R_c = \\~150 - 200 pc. Those clouds have gained angular momentum through tidal torque as well as merging, so they have large angular momentum with the spin parameter ~ 0.3. The clouds formed in a denser background tend to have smaller spin parameters. We discuss briefly the implications of our results on the formation of protoglobular cluster clouds in protogalactic halos. (abridged)
Stefano Martiniani; K. Julian Schrenk; Jacob D. Stevenson; David J. Wales; Daan Frenkel
2015-09-14
We report a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations $\\Omega$ of $N$ repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume $V$. To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)) and Asenjo et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)) and we extend the method to allow computation of the granular entropy as a function of pressure. The approach that we use computes the granular entropy by sampling the absolute volume of basins of attraction of the stable packings in the potential energy landscape. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the pressure of a configuration and the volume of its basin of attraction in the potential energy landscape. This relation is well described by a power law. Our methodology to compute the number of stable packings should be applicable to a wide range of other enumeration problems that aims to find the extrema of a scalar cost function that depends on many degrees of freedom.
Martiniani, Stefano; Stevenson, Jacob D; Wales, David J; Frenkel, Daan
2015-01-01
We report a numerical calculation of the total number of disordered jammed configurations $\\Omega$ of $N$ repulsive, three-dimensional spheres in a fixed volume $V$. To make these calculations tractable, we increase the computational efficiency of the approach of Xu et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 245502 (2011)) and Asenjo et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 098002 (2014)) and we extend the method to allow computation of the granular entropy as a function of pressure. The approach that we use computes the granular entropy by sampling the absolute volume of basins of attraction of the stable packings in the potential energy landscape. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the pressure of a configuration and the volume of its basin of attraction in the potential energy landscape. This relation is well described by a power law. Our methodology to compute the number of stable packings should be applicable to a wide range of other enumeration problems that aims to find the extrema of a scalar cost function tha...
Uniform electron gases: III. Low-density gases on three-dimensional spheres
Agboola, Davids; Gill, Peter M W; Loos, Pierre-François
2015-01-01
By combining variational Monte Carlo (VMC) and complete-basis-set limit Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations, we have obtained near-exact correlation energies for low-density same-spin electrons on a three-dimensional sphere (3-sphere), i.e.~the surface of a four-dimensional ball. In the VMC calculations, we compare the efficacies of two types of one-electron basis functions for these strongly correlated systems, and analyze the energy convergence with respect to the quality of the Jastrow factor. The HF calculations employ spherical Gaussian functions (SGFs) which are the curved-space analogs of cartesian Gaussian functions. At low densities, the electrons become relatively localized into Wigner crystals, and the natural SGF centers are found by solving the Thomson problem (i.e. the minimum-energy arrangement of $n$ point charges) on the 3-sphere for various values of $n$. We have found 11 special values of $n$ whose Thomson sites are equivalent. Three of these are the vertices of four-dimensional Platonic solids ...
Revealing the escape mechanism of three-dimensional orbits in a tidally limited star cluster
Euaggelos E. Zotos
2014-11-18
The aim of this work is to explore the escape process of three-dimensional orbits in a star cluster rotating around its parent galaxy in a circular orbit. The gravitational field of the cluster is represented by a smooth, spherically symmetric Plummer potential, while the tidal approximation was used to model the steady tidal field of the galaxy. We conduct a thorough numerical analysis distinguishing between regular and chaotic orbits as well as between trapped and escaping orbits, considering only unbounded motion for several energy levels. It is of particular interest to locate the escape basins towards the two exit channels and relate them with the corresponding escape times of the orbits. For this purpose, we split our investigation into three cases depending on the initial value of the $z$ coordinate which was used for launching the stars. The most noticeable finding is that the majority of stars initiated very close to the primary $(x,y)$ plane move in chaotic orbits and they remain trapped for vast time intervals, while orbits with relatively high values of $z_0$ on the other hand, form well-defined basins of escape. It was also observed, that for energy levels close to the critical escape energy the escape rates of orbits are large, while for much higher values of energy most of the orbits have low escape periods or they escape immediately to infinity. We hope our outcomes to be useful for a further understanding of the dissolution process and the escape mechanism in open star clusters.
Covalently bonded three-dimensional carbon nanotube solids via boron induced nanojunctions
Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Terrones Maldonado, Humberto; Terrones Maldonado, Mauricio; Ajayan, Pullikel M; Hashim, Daniel; Romo Herrera, Jose M; Cullen, David; Munoz-Sandoval, Emilio; Smith, David J; Vajtai, Robert; Roy, Ajit K; Ganguli, Sabyasachi; Kelkhoff, Doug; Suttle, Joesph; Lezzi, Peter; Hahm, Gwan; Narayanan, Narayanan
2012-01-01
The establishment of covalent junctions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the modification of their straight tubular morphology are two strategies needed to successfully synthesize nanotube-based three-dimensional (3D) frameworks exhibiting superior material properties. Engineering such 3D structures in scalable synthetic processes still remains a challenge. This work pioneers the bulk synthesis of 3D macroscale nanotube elastic solids directly via a boron-doping strategy during chemical vapor deposition, which influences the formation of atomic-scale elbow junctions and nanotube covalent interconnections. Detailed elemental analysis revealed that the elbow junctions are preferred sites for excess boron atoms, indicating the role of boron and curvature in the junction formation mechanism, in agreement with our first principle theoretical calculations. Exploiting this material s ultra-light weight, super-hydrophobicity, high porosity, thermal stability, and mechanical flexibility, the strongly oleophilic sponge-like solids are demonstrated as unique reusable sorbent scaffolds able to efficiently remove oil from contaminated seawater even after repeated use.
Dissipation via Landau Damping in Two- and Three-Dimensional Plasma Turbulence
Li, Tak Chu; Klein, Kristopher G; TenBarge, Jason M
2015-01-01
Plasma turbulence is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas, playing an important role in plasma energization, but the physical mechanisms that lead to dissipation of the turbulent energy remain to be definitively identified. This work addresses the fundamental physics of turbulent dissipation by examining the velocity-space structure that develops as a result of the collisionless interaction between the turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations and the particles in a low beta plasma. Both two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations show an electron velocity-space signature qualitatively similar to that of the linear Landau damping of Alfv\\'en waves in a 3D linear simulation. This evidence strongly suggests that the turbulent energy is transferred by Landau damping to electrons in low beta plasmas in both 2D and 3D, making possible the ultimate irreversible heating of the plasma. Although, in the 2D case with no variation along the equilibrium magnetic field, it may be expecte...
Puthen-Veettil, B. Patterson, R.; König, D.; Conibeer, G.; Green, M. A.
2014-10-28
Efficient iso-entropic energy filtering of electronic waves can be realized through nanostructures with three dimensional confinement, such as quantum dot resonant tunneling structures. Large-area deployment of such structures is useful for energy selective contacts but such configuration is susceptible to structural disorders. In this work, the transport properties of quantum-dot-based wide-area resonant tunneling structures, subject to realistic disorder mechanisms, are studied. Positional variations of the quantum dots are shown to reduce the resonant transmission peaks while size variations in the device are shown to reduce as well as broaden the peaks. Increased quantum dot size distribution also results in a peak shift to lower energy which is attributed to large dots dominating transmission. A decrease in barrier thickness reduces the relative peak height while the overall transmission increases dramatically due to lower “series resistance.” While any shift away from ideality can be intuitively expected to reduce the resonance peak, quantification allows better understanding of the tolerances required for fabricating structures based on resonant tunneling phenomena/.
Kouker, W. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Klimaforschung, Karlsruhe (Germany)
1993-12-01
A three-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere is introduced. The model is based on the full set of the primitive equations. It is designed to simulate a yearly cycle of the middle atmosphere. Results are presented for the solstice and equinox conditions. The model reproduces the main observed features of the middle atmospheric circulation: the stratospheric-mesospheric jet streams and the cold summer mesopause region at solstice with reversed zonal wind especially in the summer mesosphere, and the weak westerly circulation at equinox. The parameterized effects of breaking gravity waves in the mesosphere drive the atmosphere out of radiative balance. They lead to a meridional circulation with a one-cell structure at solstice with upward (downward) motion over the summer (winter) pole and a meridional flow towards the winter hemisphere and a two-cell structure at equinox with upward motion over the tropics and downward motion over the polar regions. Potential fields are presented for horizontal vector fields. They suggest that the stratospheric circulation can is dominated by horizontally nondivergent flow. This is modified by the results of a more quantitative view at the interaction of planetary waves on the zonal mean flow, which clearly identifies the essential role of horizontal divergence on the stratospheric circulation.
Three dimensional thermal-solute phase field simulation of binary alloy solidification
P. C. Bollada; C. E. Goodyer; P. K. Jimack; A. M. Mullis; F. W. Yang
2014-09-22
We employ adaptive mesh refinement, implicit time stepping, a nonlinear multigrid solver and parallel computation, to solve a multi-scale, time dependent, three dimensional, nonlinear set of coupled partial differential equations for three scalar field variables. The mathematical model represents the non-isothermal solidification of a metal alloy into a melt substantially cooled below its freezing point at the microscale. Underlying physical molecular forces are captured at this scale by a specification of the energy field. The time rate of change of the temperature, alloy concentration and an order parameter to govern the state of the material (liquid or solid) is controlled by the diffusion parameters and variational derivatives of the energy functional. The physical problem is important to material scientists for the development of solid metal alloys and, hitherto, this fully coupled thermal problem has not been simulated in three dimensions, due to its computationally demanding nature. By bringing together state of the art numerical techniques this problem is now shown here to be tractable at appropriate resolution with relatively moderate computational resources.
Pugh, J.M.; Glennie, K.W.; Williams, B.P.J. (Univ. of Aberdeen, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))
1993-09-01
The Al Liwa region of the northeast Rub Al Khali, United Arab Emirates, comprises compound crescentic draa and subcircular inland sabkhas that are flanked to their north by a sand sea of smaller dunes extending almost to the coast of the Arabian Gulf. This controlled the supply of sand from the north and influenced water-table positions within interdune areas. The draa, up to 170 m high, comprise both fine and coarse sands with a strong carbonate component, and are migrating very slowly to the south-southeast. The evaporite-encrusted interdune sabkhas often are underlain by foreset dune sands that also indicate transport to the south-southeast. The northern fringe of smaller dunes migrates southward more rapidly than the draa, but their northern supply of sand now has been cut off by flooding of the Gulf, initiating the deflation of coastal areas down to the water table. A deep-penetrating radar survey, coupled with large-scale trenching, provides a three-dimensional model of dune/interdune systems. This fieldwork aids a clearer understanding of dune/interdune heterogeneities and interconnectedness, which in turn is providing more realistic reservoir models for interwell simulation studies within the Permian Rotliegende gas fields of northwest Europe.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star
Matthias Herzog; Friedrich K. Roepke
2011-09-02
We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent combustion converting a neutron star into a quark star. Hadronic matter, described by a micro-physical finite-temperature equation of state, is converted into strange quark matter. We assume this phase, represented by a bag-model equation of state, to be absolutely stable. Following the example of thermonuclear burning in white dwarfs leading to Type Ia supernovae, we treat the conversion process as a potentially turbulent deflagration. Solving the non-relativistic Euler equations using established numerical methods we conduct large eddy simulations including an elaborate subgrid scale model, while the propagation of the conversion front is modeled with a level-set method. Our results show that for large parts of the parameter space the conversion becomes turbulent and therefore significantly faster than in the laminar case. Despite assuming absolutely stable strange quark matter, in our hydrodynamic approximation an outer layer remains in the hadronic phase, because the conversion front stops when it reaches conditions under which the combustion is no longer exothermic.
Electric charge in the field of a magnetic event in three-dimensional spacetime
Claudio Bunster; Cristian Martinez
2012-02-09
We analyze the motion of an electric charge in the field of a magnetically charged event in three-dimensional spacetime. We start by exhibiting a first integral of the equations of motion in terms of the three conserved components of the spacetime angular momentum, and then proceed numerically. After crossing the light cone of the event, an electric charge initially at rest starts rotating and slowing down. There are two lengths appearing in the problem: (i) the characteristic length $\\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, where $q$ and $m$ are the electric charge and mass of the particle, and $g$ is the magnetic charge of the event; and (ii) the spacetime impact parameter $r_0$. For $r_0 \\gg \\frac{q g}{2 \\pi m}$, after a time of order $r_0$, the particle makes sharply a quarter of a turn and comes to rest at the same spatial position at which the event happened in the past. This jump is the main signature of the presence of the magnetic event as felt by an electric charge. A derivation of the expression for the angular momentum that uses Noether's theorem in the magnetic representation is given in the Appendix.
Impacts of rotation on three-dimensional hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae
Nakamura, Ko; Kuroda, Takami; Kotake, Kei [Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Takiwaki, Tomoya [Center for Computational Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
2014-09-20
We perform a series of simplified numerical experiments to explore how rotation impacts the three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. For our systematic study, we employ a light-bulb scheme to trigger explosions and a three-flavor neutrino leakage scheme to treat deleptonization effects and neutrino losses from the proto-neutron-star interior. Using a 15 M {sub ?} progenitor, we compute 30 models in 3D with a wide variety of initial angular momentum and light-bulb neutrino luminosity. We find that the rotation can help the onset of neutrino-driven explosions for the models in which the initial angular momentum is matched to that obtained in recent stellar evolutionary calculations (?0.3-3 rad s{sup –1} at the center). For the models with larger initial angular momentum, the shock surface deforms to be more oblate due to larger centrifugal force. This not only makes the gain region more concentrated around the equatorial plane, but also makes the mass larger in the gain region. As a result, buoyant bubbles tend to be coherently formed and rise in the equatorial region, which pushes the revived shock toward ever larger radii until a global explosion is triggered. We find that these are the main reasons that the preferred direction of the explosion in 3D rotating models is often perpendicular to the spin axis, which is in sharp contrast to the polar explosions around the axis that were obtained in previous two-dimensional simulations.
Establishment of three-dimensional cultures of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells
Gutierrez-Barrera, Angelica M. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Menter, David G. [Department of Thoracic Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Abbruzzese, James L. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Reddy, Shrikanth A.G. [Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 426, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)]. E-mail: sa08366@wotan.mdacc.tmc.edu
2007-07-06
Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of epithelial cells offer singular advantages for studies of morphogenesis or the role of cancer genes in oncogenesis. In this study, as part of establishing a 3D culture system of pancreatic duct epithelial cells, we compared human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDE-E6E7) with pancreatic cancer cell lines. Our results show, that in contrast to cancer cells, HPDE-E6E7 organized into spheroids with what appeared to be apical and basal membranes and a luminal space. Immunostaining experiments indicated that protein kinase Akt was phosphorylated (Ser473) and CTMP, a negative Akt regulator, was expressed in both HPDE-E6E7 and cancer cells. However, a nuclear pool of CTMP was detectable in HPDE-E6E7 cells that showed a dynamic concentrated expression pattern, a feature that further distinguished HPDE-E637 cells from cancer cells. Collectively, these data suggest that 3D cultures of HPDE-E6E7 cells are useful for investigating signaling and morphological abnormalities in pancreatic cancer cells.
Wendel, M.W.; Siman-Tov, M.
1998-11-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power accelerator-based pulsed spallation source being designed by a multilaboratory team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve high fluxes of neutrons for scientific experiments. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used to analyze the SNS design. The liquid-mercury target is subjected to the neutronic (internal) heat generation that results from the proton collisions with the mercury nuclei. The liquid mercury simultaneously serves as the neutronic target medium, transports away the heat generated within itself, and cools the metallic target structure. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots. These zones exist because the most feasible target designs include a complete U-turn flow redirection. Although the primary concern is that the target is adequately cooled, the pressure drop from inlet to outlet must also be considered because pressure drop directly affects structural loading and required pumping power. Based on the current design, a three-dimensional CFD model has been developed that includes the stainless steel target structure, the liquid-mercury target flow, and the liquid-mercury cooling jacket that wraps around the nose of the target.
Short- and Long- Time Transport Structures in a Three Dimensional Time Dependent Flow
Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith
2014-05-08
Lagrangian transport structures for three-dimensional and time-dependent fluid flows are of great interest in numerous applications, particularly for geophysical or oceanic flows. In such flows, chaotic transport and mixing can play important environmental and ecological roles, for examples in pollution spills or plankton migration. In such flows, where simulations or observations are typically available only over a short time, understanding the difference between short-time and long-time transport structures is critical. In this paper, we use a set of classical (i.e. Poincar\\'e section, Lyapunov exponent) and alternative (i.e. finite time Lyapunov exponent, Lagrangian coherent structures) tools from dynamical systems theory that analyze chaotic transport both qualitatively and quantitatively. With this set of tools we are able to reveal, identify and highlight differences between short- and long-time transport structures inside a flow composed of a primary horizontal contra-rotating vortex chain, small lateral oscillations and a weak Ekman pumping. The difference is mainly the existence of regular or extremely slowly developing chaotic regions that are only present at short time.
Burke, Micheal, E-mail: micheal.burke@tyndall.ie; Blake, Alan; Djara, Vladimir; O'Connell, Dan; Povey, Ian M.; Cherkaoui, Karim; Monaghan, Scott; Scully, Jim; Murphy, Richard; Hurley, Paul K.; Pemble, Martyn E.; Quinn, Aidan J., E-mail: aidan.quinn@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)
2015-01-01
The authors report on the structural and electrical properties of TiN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/TiN metal–insulator–metal (MIM) capacitor structures in submicron three-dimensional (3D) trench geometries with an aspect ratio of ?30. A simplified process route was employed where the three layers for the MIM stack were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD) in a single run at a process temperature of 250?°C. The TiN top and bottom electrodes were deposited via plasma-enhanced ALD using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor. 3D trench devices yielded capacitance densities of 36 fF/?m{sup 2} and quality factors >65 at low frequency (200?Hz), with low leakage current densities (<3 nA/cm{sup 2} at 1 V). These devices also show strong optical iridescence which, when combined with the covert embedded capacitance, show potential for system in package (SiP) anticounterfeiting applications.
A reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cell with three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode
Liang, B.; Suzuki, T.; Hamamoto, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Sumi, H.; Fujishiro, Y.; Ingram, B. J.; Carter, J. D.
2012-01-01
Three-dimensionally ordered macroporous cathode was fabricated for a zirconia based micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Three different cathodes (cathode A, no pore former; cathode B, with pore former (1.5 {micro}m in diameter); cathode C, with pore former (0.8 {micro}m in diameter)) were compared to investigate how the microstructure of it affected the cell performance at various operating temperatures. Micro-sized pores were well distributed within cathode B and C. The total porosity of cathode A is 35%, while it respectively reached 42 and 50% for cathodes B and C. At the same time, the specific surface area of them was 28.8 and 52.0% larger than that of the cathode A. As a result, the peak power density of the zirconia based cell, with cathode C, was 0.25 and 0.56 W cm{sup -2} at 550 and 600 C, while the respective value was just 0.11 and 0.30 W cm{sup -2} for the cell with cathode A. Thus, optimizing microstructure of cathode should be one of the best approaches for lowering the operating temperature for SOFCs.
Three-dimensional MHD simulation of the Caltech plasma jet experiment: first results
Zhai, Xiang; Bellan, Paul M.; Li, Hui; Li, Shengtai E-mail: pbellan@caltech.edu E-mail: sli@lanl.gov
2014-08-10
Magnetic fields are believed to play an essential role in astrophysical jets with observations suggesting the presence of helical magnetic fields. Here, we present three-dimensional (3D) ideal MHD simulations of the Caltech plasma jet experiment using a magnetic tower scenario as the baseline model. Magnetic fields consist of an initially localized dipole-like poloidal component and a toroidal component that is continuously being injected into the domain. This flux injection mimics the poloidal currents driven by the anode-cathode voltage drop in the experiment. The injected toroidal field stretches the poloidal fields to large distances, while forming a collimated jet along with several other key features. Detailed comparisons between 3D MHD simulations and experimental measurements provide a comprehensive description of the interplay among magnetic force, pressure, and flow effects. In particular, we delineate both the jet structure and the transition process that converts the injected magnetic energy to other forms. With suitably chosen parameters that are derived from experiments, the jet in the simulation agrees quantitatively with the experimental jet in terms of magnetic/kinetic/inertial energy, total poloidal current, voltage, jet radius, and jet propagation velocity. Specifically, the jet velocity in the simulation is proportional to the poloidal current divided by the square root of the jet density, in agreement with both the experiment and analytical theory. This work provides a new and quantitative method for relating experiments, numerical simulations, and astrophysical observation, and demonstrates the possibility of using terrestrial laboratory experiments to study astrophysical jets.
Three dimensional analysis of turbulent steam jets in enclosed structures : a CFD approach.
Ishii, M.; NguyenLe, Q.
1999-04-20
This paper compares the three-dimensional numerical simulation with the experimental data of a steam blowdown event in a light water reactor containment building. The temperature and pressure data of a steam blowdown event was measured at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integrated Test Assembly (PUMA), a scaled model of the General Electric simplified Boiling Water Reactor. A three step approach was used to analyze the steam jet behavior. First, a 1-Dimensional, system level RELAP5/Mod3.2 model of the steam blowdown event was created and the results used to set the initial conditions for the PUMA blowdown experiments. Second, 2-Dimensional CFD models of the discharged steam jets were computed using PHOENICS, a commercially available CFD package. Finally, 3-Dimensional model of the PUMA drywell was created with the boundary conditions based on experimental measurements. The results of the 1-D and 2-D models were reported in the previous meeting. This paper discusses in detail the formulation and the results of the 3-Dimensional PHOENICS model of the PUMA drywell. It is found that the 3-D CFD solutions compared extremely well with the measured data.
Advances in three-dimensional rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices for biological applications
Chang, Hsueh-Chia
. #12;2 Abstract The capability of 3D printing technologies for direct production of complex 3D 3D printing technologies and direct internal 3D laser writing fabrication methods. Current