Sample records for thirteenth atmospheric radiation

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    improving our understanding of how clouds and atmospheric moisture interact with solar radiation and the effects of these interactions on climate. Photo courtesy Argonne National...

  2. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  3. DESCRIPTION OF A SPECTRAL ATMOSPHERIC RADIATION MONITORING NETWORK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spectral atmospheric radiation data. The large cylindricalexisting integrated net radiation data is of impor- tance,infrared radiation intensities. The data is permanently

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  5. Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shell, Karen M.

    Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton K. M. Shell and R. Frouin Scripps the absorption of solar radiation, affecting upper ocean temperature and circulation. These changes, in turn: phytoplankton, atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), absorption of solar radiation, seasonal cycle, sea

  6. Land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy (Timothy Wallace)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present work on several topics related to land-atmosphere interaction and radiative-convective equilibrium: the first two research chapters invoke ideas related to land-atmosphere interaction to better understand ...

  7. atmospheric longwave radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: 72010 1 The atmosphere absorbs part of the outgoing longwave energy Incoming solar radiation; Aerosol effects from IPCC 2001; CO2+ The Greenhouse Effect The White House...

  8. The Bioelectromagnetic Society Thirteenth Annual Meeting 1991: Program and abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume contains author abstracts representing oral and poster presentations made at the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of The Bioelectromagnetic Society held in Salt Lake City, Utah June 23--27, 1991.

  9. Understanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Guang Jun

    in response to El Nin~o warming. The vast cloud cover in the region leads to much stronger cloud greenhouse effect in longwave radiation (longwave cloud radiative forcing) and cloud shielding effect in shortwaveUnderstanding biases in shortwave cloud radiative forcing in the National Center for Atmospheric

  10. Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere: Further interpretations of collocated aircraft measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Vitko Jr. , Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudyet al. , Absorption of solar radiation by clouds: Observa-1999 Absorption of solar radiation by the cloudy atmosphere:

  11. Thirteenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    PREFACE The Thirteenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 19-21, 1988. Although 1987 continued to be difficult for the domestic geothermal industry, world-wide activities continued to expand. Two invited presentations on mature geothermal systems were a keynote of the meeting. Malcolm Grant presented a detailed review of Wairakei, New Zealand and highlighted plans for new development. G. Neri summarized experience on flow rate decline and well test analysis in Larderello, Italy. Attendance continued to be high with 128 registered participants. Eight foreign countries were represented: England, France, Iceland, Italy, New Zealand, Japan, Mexico and The Philippines. A discussion of future workshops produced a strong recommendation that the Stanford Workshop program continue for the future. There were forty-one technical presentations at the Workshop. All of these are published as papers in this Proceedings volume. Four technical papers not presented at the Workshop are also published. In addition to these forty five technical presentations or papers, the introductory address was given by Henry J. Ramey, Jr. from the Stanford Geothermal Program. The Workshop Banquet speaker was Gustavo Calderon from the Inter-American Development Bank. We thank him for sharing with the Workshop participants a description of the Bank???s operations in Costa Rica developing alternative energy resources, specifically Geothermal, to improve the country???s economic basis. His talk appears as a paper in the back of this volume. The chairmen of the technical sessions made an important contribution to the workshop. Other than Stanford faculty members they included: J. Combs, G. T. Cole, J. Counsil, A. Drenick, H. Dykstra, K. Goyal, P. Muffler, K. Pruess, and S. K. Sanyal. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff and students. We would like to thank Marilyn King, Pat Oto, Terri Ramey, Bronwyn Jones, Yasmin Gulamani, and Rosalee Benelli for their valued help with the meeting arrangements and preparing the Proceedings. We also owe great thanks to our students who arranged and operated the audio-visual equipment, especially Jeralyn Luetkehans. The Thirteenth Workshop was supported by the Geothermal Technology Division of the U.S. Department of Energy through Contract No. DE-AS07-84ID12529. We deeply appreciate this continued support. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Paul Kruger Roland N. Horne William E. Brigham Frank G. Miller Jean W. Cook

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  13. Thirteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirteenth National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering June 11 ­ June 25, 2011 at Argonne of the National School on Neutron and X-ray Scattering is to educate graduate students on the utilization of major National Laboratory's Neutron Scattering Science Division. Scientific Directors: Jonathan C. Lang, Suzanne

  14. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

  15. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cover, radiation, meteorological and water isotope data tohere, radiation, cloud property, and aerosol data wereData were obtained from the Atmospheric Radiation

  16. Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karl, Jr., Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. The ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) operates at non-permanent sites selected by the ARM Program. Sometimes these sites can become permanent ARM sites, as was the case with Graciosa Island in the Azores. It is now known as the Eastern North Atlantic permanent site. In January 2006 the AMF deployed to Niamey, Niger, West Africa, at the Niger Meteorological Office at Niamey International Airport. This deployment was timed to coincide with the field phases and Special Observing Periods of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). The ARM Program participated in this international effort as a field campaign called "Radiative Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST).The primary purpose of the Niger deployment was to combine an extended series of measurements from the AMF with those from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) Instrument on the Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Niamey are available via a link from ARM's Niamey, Niger site information page. Other data can be found at the related websites mentioned above and in the ARM Archive. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Environmental assessment for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Policastro, A.J.; Pfingston, J.M.; Maloney, D.M.; Wasmer, F.; Pentecost, E.D.

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is aimed at supplying improved predictive capability of climate change, particularly the prediction of cloud-climate feedback. The objective will be achieved by measuring the atmospheric radiation and physical and meteorological quantities that control solar radiation in the earth`s atmosphere and using this information to test global climate and related models. The proposed action is to construct and operate a Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) research site in the southern Great Plains as part of the Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program whose objective is to develop an improved predictive capability of global climate change. The purpose of this CART research site in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma would be to collect meteorological and other scientific information to better characterize the processes controlling radiation transfer on a global scale. Impacts which could result from this facility are described.

  19. Retrieval of optical and microphysical properties of ice clouds using Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kinney, Jacqueline Anne

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The research presented here retrieves the cloud optical thickness and particle effective size of cirrus clouds using surface radiation measurements obtained during the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) field campaign. The algorithm used...

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, December 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiometer Characterization System--The new Radiometer Characterization System (RCS) installed on the Guest Instrument Facility mezzanine at the SGP central facility will permit side-by-side evaluations of several new and modified broadband radiometers and comparisons with radiometers currently in use. If the new designs or modifications give substantially more accurate measurements, ARM scientists might elect to replace or modify the existing broadband radiometers. The RCS will also permit ARM scientists to determine whether the radiometers need cleaning more frequently than the current biweekly schedule, and an automatic radiometer washer will be evaluated for reliability and effectiveness in daily cleaning. A radiometer is an instrument used to measure radiant energy. ARM uses a pyranometer to measure the solar radiation reaching Earth's surface. Clouds, water vapor, dust, and other aerosol particles can interfere with the transmission of solar radiation. The amount of radiant energy reaching the ground depends on the type and quantity of absorbers and reflectors between the sun and Earth's surface. A pyranometer can also measure solar radiation reflected from the surface. A pyranometer has a thermoelectric device (a wire-wound, plated thermopile) that produces an electric current proportional to the broadband shortwave solar radiation reaching a detector. The detector, which is painted black, is mounted in a precision-ground glass sphere for protection from the elements. The glass must be kept very clean, because dirt and dust scatter and absorb solar radiation and make the measurement incorrect. Accurate measurements of solar radiation are needed so that scientists can accurately replicate the interactions of solar radiation and clouds in global climate models--a major goal of the ARM program. TX-2002 AIRS Validation Campaign Winding Down--The TX-2002 Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Validation Campaign ended on December 13, 2002. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted this intensive operations period, in which a high-altitude ER-2 aircraft made measurements over the CART site. These measurements are being compared to data from ground-based ARM instruments to validate measurements by the AIRS instrument aboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua satellite. (See June 2002 ARM Facility Newsletter for details on Aqua.)

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. A Coupled AtmosphereOcean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    of the ocean. Shortwave radiation from the sun contributes most of the heat fluxes that penetrate the airA Coupled Atmosphere­Ocean Radiative Transfer System Using the Analytic Four-Stream Approximation WEI-LIANG LEE AND K. N. LIOU Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California

  3. Influences of atmospheric conditions and air mass on the ratio of ultraviolet to total solar radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riordan, C.J.; Hulstrom, R.L.; Myers, D.R.

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technology to detoxify hazardous wastes using ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation is being investigated by the DOE/SERI Solar Thermal Technology Program. One of the elements of the technology evaluation is the assessment and characterization of UV solar radiation resources available for detoxification processes. This report describes the major atmospheric variables that determine the amount of UV solar radiation at the earth's surface, and how the ratio of UV-to-total solar radiation varies with atmospheric conditions. These ratios are calculated from broadband and spectral solar radiation measurements acquired at SERI, and obtained from the literature on modeled and measured UV solar radiation. The following sections discuss the atmospheric effects on UV solar radiation and provide UV-to-total solar radiation ratios from published studies, as well as measured values from SERI's data. A summary and conclusions are also given.

  4. Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Jochen E

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the practical approach to evaluate the incoming solar radiation on buildings based on atmospheric composition and cloud cover is presented. The effects of absorption and scattering due to atmospheric composition is taken into account to calculate, using radiative transfer models, the net incoming solar radiation at surface level. A specific validation of the Alpine Region in Europe is presented with a special focus on the region of South Tyrol.

  5. Project MACC "monitoring atmosphere composition & climate" Sub-project RAD "radiation"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Agreement no. 218793 USER'S GUIDE TO THE SODA AND SOLEMI SERVICES Towards the "solar energy radiation Composition, Climate, and UV and Solar Energy. Within the radiation subproject (MACC-RAD) existing historicalProject MACC "monitoring atmosphere composition & climate" Sub-project RAD "radiation" Grant

  6. Using observations of deep convective systems to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    column absorption of solar radiation (Acol) is a fundamental part of the Earth's energy cycle.e., the Acol values at both regions converge to the same value ($0.27 of the total incoming solar radiation to constrain atmospheric column absorption of solar radiation in the optically thick limit, J. Geophys. Res

  7. OUMBE, Armel, WALD, Lucien, BLANC, Philippe, and SCHROEDTER-HOMSCHEIDT, Marion. Exploitation of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of radiative transfer model for assessing solar radiation: the relative importance of atmospheric constituents, Germany * Corresponding Author, armel.oumbe@ensmp.fr Abstract Solar radiation is modified in its way: solar radiation, atmospheric optics, satellite images, Heliosat method 1. Introduction A wealth

  8. Computational study of atmospheric transfer radiation on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado-Correal, Camilo; Castaño, Gabriel

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative transfer models explain and predict interaction between solar radiation and the different elements present in the atmosphere, which are responsible for energy attenuation. In Colombia there have been neither measurements nor studies of atmospheric components such as gases and aerosols that can cause turbidity and pollution. Therefore satellite images cannot be corrected radiometrically in a proper way. When a suitable atmospheric correction is carried out, loss of information is avoided, which may be useful for discriminating image land cover. In this work a computational model was used to find radiative atmospheric attenuation (300 1000nm wavelength region) on an equatorial tropical desert (La Tatacoa, Colombia) in order to conduct an adequate atmospheric correction.

  9. Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    Interpretation of AIRS Data in Thin Cirrus Atmospheres Based on a Fast Radiative Transfer Model of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California B. H. KAHN Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute radiative transfer model has been developed for application to cloudy satellite data assimilation

  10. The relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Kon i nk l i j k Neder l ands Meteoro l og i sch Inst i tuut The relationship between Stokes parameters Q and U of atmospheric radiation Gijsbert Tilstra â?? , Nick Schutgens # , Piet Stammes â?? , François that describe the (linear) polarisation of the Earth's re#29;ected radiation, and #28;nd it to be very close

  11. Radiative Transfer in the Midwave Infrared Applicable to Full Spectrum Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    of the radiative effects in the MWIR is needed. The MWIR is characterized by a unique combination of reduced solar conditions are stressing (e.g., high moisture, heavy aerosol/particulate loading, partial cloud cover, lowRadiative Transfer in the Midwave Infrared Applicable to Full Spectrum Atmospheric Characterization

  12. Characterization of ambient aerosol from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei during the 2003 Atmospheric Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of ambient aerosol from measurements of cloud condensation nuclei during the 2003 Atmospheric Radiation in aerosol radiative forcing is associated with the indirect effect, which results from the relationship would have two indirect effects on climate. Cloud albedo is greater for clouds with more numerous

  13. Proceedings of the thirteenth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, J.W.; Barone, S.P. (eds.)

    1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thirteenth Annual Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was cosponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center's Laramie Projects Office and Gas Research Institute of Chicago, Illinois, and hosted by the Western Research Institute of Laramie, Wyoming. The symposium was held in Laramie, Wyoming, during the period, August 24 to 26, 1987. Papers printed in these Proceedings were reproduced from camera-ready manuscripts furnished by the authors. They have not been refereed nor have they been edited after receipt for publishing. The purpose for this annual meeting is to provide an opportunity for scientists working in the technology to present their research results, exchange ideas, and discuss their future plans. Nearly 100 attendees from industry, academia, Government, and eight countries, including Belgium, Brazil, France, the Netherlands, Japan, West Germany, India, and Yugoslavia participated. Forty-seven papers were presented in five formal sessions covering Technology, International, Environmental, and General Topics and one informal poster session dominantly covering laboratory and modeling studies. Industrial papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  14. atmospheric cherenkov radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H. J. Voelk 2002-07-04 34 Optical and radiographical characterization of silica aerogel for Cherenkov radiator Nuclear Experiment (arXiv) Summary: We present optical and...

  15. Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft, and surface data during the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    Absorption of solar radiation by the atmosphere as determined using satellite, aircraft of 0.33 0.04 for the total atmosphere (surface to top). The absorptance of solar radiation estimated more solar radiation than is predicted by theory [e.g., Stephens and Tsay 1990]. Recently, and nearly

  16. atmosphere radiation budget: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2D observations of radiative fluxes seems promising for the observational study of extra-solar metrics for the validation of climate models, as asked for by the Intergovernmental...

  17. Cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aplin, K L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cosmic rays produce charged molecular clusters by ionisation as they pass through the lower atmosphere. Neutral molecular clusters such as dimers and complexes are expected to make a small contribution to the radiative balance, but atmospheric absorption by charged clusters has not hitherto been observed. In an atmospheric experiment, a filter radiometer tuned to the 9.15 um absorption band associated with infra-red absorption of charged molecular clusters was used to monitor changes immediately following events identified by a cosmic ray telescope sensitive to high energy (>400MeV) particles, principally muons. The change in longwave radiation in this absorption band due to charged molecular clusters is 7 mW^m-2. The integrated atmospheric energy change for each event is 2J, representing an amplification factor of 10^10 compared to the 2GeV energy of a typical tropospheric cosmic ray. This absorption is expected to occur continuously and globally.

  18. Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, 6th, Williamsburg, VA, May 13-16, 1986, Extended Abstracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous topics of interest for measurements and modeling of radiation in the atmosphere are discussed, with emphasis on satellite remote sensing capabilities, data analysis techniques and climatological impact. Attention is devoted to aerosols at all levels of the atmosphere, the current understanding of potential nuclear winter scenarios, and to instruments which are used for sensing radiance in the atmosphere. Consideration is also given to spectroscopy and band models, radiative transfer calculations, earth radiation budget (ERB) models and their interaction with GCMs, and to climate models. In-depth analyses are performed of data from the ERB instruments on the Nimbus-7 spacecraft and to validation procedures being developed for data collected by the ERB satellite.

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust2 Atmospheric

  20. Minutes of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Participants of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rigor, Ignatius G.

    of the buoys (see section 5.0). Done. October 2002. 3.6.ETH and IR will make a standardized IABP PowerMinutes of the Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the Participants of the International Arctic Buoy IABP data is posted on the GTS. 3.4.1. Resolve discrepancy between the list of buoys

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF). The ARM Program collaborated with the U.S. Office of Naval Research and DOE's Aerosol Science Program in the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) project. Their objectives were to collect data from cloud/aerosol interactions and to improve understanding of cloud organization that is often associated with patches of drizzle. Between March and September 2005, the AMF and at least two research aircraft were used to collect data.

  2. Proceedings of the third Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) science team meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1993 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held in Morman, Oklahoma. To put these papers in context, it is useful to consider the history and status of the ARM Program at the time of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  3. Four Numerical Approaches for Solving the Radiative Transfer Equation in Magnetized White-Dwarf Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Jordan; Holger Schmidt

    2003-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare four different methods to calculate radiative transfer through a magnetized stellar atmosphere, and apply them to the case of magnetic white dwarfs. All methods are numerically stable enough to allow determination of the magnetic field structure, but distinctions between faster, simplifying, methods, and elaborate, but more CPU-time consuming, methods, can be made.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  5. Radiative interactions: I. Light scattering and emission from irregular particles. II. Time dependent radiative coupling of an atmosphere-ocean system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Changhui

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    and fluorescence. In the second part of the dissertation, we study radiative interactions in an atmosphere-ocean system. By using the so called Matrix operator method, not only the radiance of the radiation field, but also the polarization of the radiation field...

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, July 2000.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, D. L.; Holdridge, D. J., ed.

    2000-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    For improved safety in and around the ARM SGP CART site, the ARM Program recently purchased and installed an aircraft detection radar system at the central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma. The new system will enhance safety measures already in place at the central facility. The SGP CART site, especially the central facility, houses several instruments employing laser technology. These instruments are designed to be eye-safe and are not a hazard to personnel at the site or pilots of low-flying aircraft over the site. However, some of the specialized equipment brought to the central facility by visiting scientists during scheduled intensive observation periods (IOPs) might use higher-power laser beams that point skyward to make measurements of clouds or aerosols in the atmosphere. If these beams were to strike the eye of a person in an aircraft flying above the instrument, damage to the person's eyesight could result. During IOPs, CART site personnel have obtained Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to temporarily close the airspace directly over the central facility and keep aircraft from flying into the path of the instrument's laser beam. Information about the blocked airspace is easily transmitted to commercial aircraft, but that does not guarantee that the airspace remains completely plane-free. For this reason, during IOPs in which non-eye-safe lasers were in use in the past, ARM technicians watched for low-flying aircraft in and around the airspace over the central facility. If the technicians spotted such an aircraft, they would manually trigger a safety shutter to block the laser beam's path skyward until the plane had cleared the area.

  7. Evaluation of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model CAM2 Against Satellite Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bretherton, Chris

    Evaluation of Clouds and Their Radiative Effects Simulated by the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model-4738 (Accepted) #12;1 ABSTRACT Cloud climatology and the cloud radiative forcing at the top cloud radiative forcing at the TOA at different latitudes. The differences of cloud vertical structures

  8. Continuous Profiles of Cloud Microphysical Properties for the Fixed Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M; Jensen, K

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program defined a specific metric for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2006 to produce and refine a one-year continuous time series of cloud microphysical properties based on cloud radar measurements for each of the fixed ARM sites. To accomplish this metric, we used a combination of recently developed algorithms that interpret radar reflectivity profiles, lidar backscatter profiles, and microwave brightness temperatures into the context of the underlying cloud microphysical structure.

  9. Single-Column Modeling, GCM Parameterizations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Iacobellis, S.F.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Our overall goal is identical to that of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program: the development of new and improved parameterizations of cloud-radiation effects and related processes, using ARM data at all three ARM sites, and the implementation and testing of these parameterizations in global and regional models. To test recently developed prognostic parameterizations based on detailed cloud microphysics, we have first compared single-column model (SCM) output with ARM observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP), North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Topical Western Pacific (TWP) sites. We focus on the predicted cloud amounts and on a suite of radiative quantities strongly dependent on clouds, such as downwelling surface shortwave radiation. Our results demonstrate the superiority of parameterizations based on comprehensive treatments of cloud microphysics and cloud-radiative interactions. At the SGP and NSA sites, the SCM results simulate the ARM measurements well and are demonstrably more realistic than typical parameterizations found in conventional operational forecasting models. At the TWP site, the model performance depends strongly on details of the scheme, and the results of our diagnostic tests suggest ways to develop improved parameterizations better suited to simulating cloud-radiation interactions in the tropics generally. These advances have made it possible to take the next step and build on this progress, by incorporating our parameterization schemes in state-of-the-art 3D atmospheric models, and diagnosing and evaluating the results using independent data. Because the improved cloud-radiation results have been obtained largely via implementing detailed and physically comprehensive cloud microphysics, we anticipate that improved predictions of hydrologic cycle components, and hence of precipitation, may also be achievable. We are currently testing the performance of our ARM-based parameterizations in state-of-the--art global and regional models. One fruitful strategy for evaluating advances in parameterizations has turned out to be using short-range numerical weather prediction as a test-bed within which to implement and improve parameterizations for modeling and predicting climate variability. The global models we have used to date are the CAM atmospheric component of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) CCSM climate model as well as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) numerical weather prediction model, thus allowing testing in both climate simulation and numerical weather prediction modes. We present detailed results of these tests, demonstrating the sensitivity of model performance to changes in parameterizations.

  10. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANALYSIS OF THE EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN VISUAL SOLAR RADIATION, THE SOLAR ALTITUDE AND THE TRANSPARENCY OF THE ATMOSPHERE A Thesis A. Garcia Occhipinti Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ARM Untverstty in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January 1965 Major Subject: Oceanography ANALYSIS OF THE EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN VISIBLE SOLAR RADIATION, THE SOLAR ALTITUDE AND THE TRANSPARENCY OF THE ATMOSPHERE A Thesis A. Garcia Occhipinti...

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Specific Measurement Categories

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The ARM Program gathers a wide variety of measurements from many different sources. Each day, the Data Archive stores and distributes large quantities of data collected from these sources. Scientists then use these data to research atmospheric radiation balance and cloud feedback processes, which are critical elements of global climate change. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by measurement categories into six "collections:" Aerosols, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties, Radiometric, and Surface Properties. Clicking on one of the measurement categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Aerosols" is broken down into Microphysical and Chemical Properties (with 9 subsets) and Optical and Radiative Properties (with 7 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. The North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site is a permanent site providing data about cloud and radiative processes at high latitudes. These data are being used to refine models and parameterizations as they relate to the Arctic. Centered at Barrow and extending to the south (to the vicinity of Atqasuk), west (to the vicinity of Wainwright), and east (towards Oliktok), the NSA site has become a focal point for atmospheric and ecological research activity on the North Slope. Approximately 300,000 NSA data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TP Ackerman; AD Del Genio; RG Ellingson; RA Ferrare; SA Klein; GM McFarquhar; PJ Lamb; CN Long; J Verlinde

    2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: • Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. • Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. • Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. • Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. • Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. • Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. • Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM’s Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  14. A new correlation between solar energy radiation and some atmospheric parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Antonio; Bonnici, Maurizio; Madonia, Mauro; Trancossi, Michele

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy balance for an atmospheric layer near the soil is evaluated. By integrating it over the whole day period a linear relationship between the global daily solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface and the product of the sunshine hours at clear sky with the maximum temperature variation in the day is achieved. The results show a comparable accuracy with some well recognized solar energy models such as the \\ang-Prescott one, at least for Mediterranean climatic area. Validation of the result has been performed using old dataset which are almost contemporary and relative to the same sites with the ones used for comparison.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2013-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year dating back to 1998.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile research sites are collected and routed to the Data Management Facility (DMF) for processing in near-real-time. Instrument and processed data are then delivered approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made freely available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  19. Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 450–1000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280–450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

  20. Millimeter radiation from a 3D model of the solar atmosphere I. Diagnosing chromospheric thermal structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loukitcheva, Maria; Carlsson, Mats; White, Stephen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims. We use advanced 3D NLTE radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere to carry out detailed tests of chromospheric diagnostics at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. Methods. We focused on the diagnostics of the thermal structure of the chromosphere in the wavelength bands from 0.4 mm up to 9.6 mm that can be accessed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) and investigated how these diagnostics are affected by the instrumental resolution. Results. We find that the formation height range of the millimeter radiation depends on the location in the simulation domain and is related to the underlying magnetic structure. Nonetheless, the brightness temperature is a reasonable measure of the gas temperature at the effective formation height at a given location on the solar surface. There is considerable scatter in this relationship, but this is significantly reduced when very weak magnetic fields are avoided. Our results indicate that although instrumental smearin...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve this goal, ARM scientists and researchers around the world use continuous data obtained through the ARM Climate Research Facility. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility to other sites as determined. Scientists are using the information obtained from the permanent SGP site to improve cloud and radiative models and parameterizations and, thereby, the performance of atmospheric general circulation models used for climate research. More than 30 instrument clusters have been placed around the SGP site. The locations for the instruments were chosen so that the measurements reflect conditions over the typical distribution of land uses within the site. The continuous observations at the SGP site are supplemented by intensive observation periods, when the frequency of measurements is increased and special measurements are added to address specific research questions. During such periods, 2 gigabytes or more of data (two billion bytes) are generated daily. SGP data sets from 1993 to the present reside in the ARM Archive at http://www.archive.arm.gov/ http. Users will need to register for a password, but all files are then free for viewing or downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1–June 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1 – September 30, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data then are sent approximately daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by 1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and 2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report - October 1 - December 31, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Description. Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2012-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to the research community. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1–March 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Data Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1 - March 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw data streams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Climate Research Facility (ACRF) fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent daily to the ACRF Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual data stream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1–September 30, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voyles, JW

    2011-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report: October 1 - December 31, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisterson, DL

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of processed data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1–December 31, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DL Sisterson

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Individual raw datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for processing in near real-time. Raw and processed data are then sent approximately daily to the ARM Data Archive, where they are made available to users. For each instrument, we calculate the ratio of the actual number of data records received daily at the Archive to the expected number of data records. The results are tabulated by (1) individual datastream, site, and month for the current year and (2) site and fiscal year (FY) dating back to 1998.

  12. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Jiwen; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Ding, Yanni; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Li, Zhanqing

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest uncertainty in climate forcing and projection. Previous IPCC reported aerosol indirect forcing is negative, which does not account for aerosol-convective cloud interactions because the complex processes involved are poorly understood and represented in climate models. Here we report that aerosol indirect effect on deep convective cloud systems can lead to enhanced regional convergence and a strong top-of atmosphere (TOA) warming. Aerosol invigoration effect on convection can result in a strong radiative warming in the atmosphere (+5.6 W m-2) due to strong night-time warming, a lofted latent heating, and a reduced diurnal temperature difference, all of which could remarkably impact regional circulation and modify weather systems. We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear and cloud base temperature play key roles in determining the significance of aerosol invigoration effect for convective systems.

  13. Proceedings of the sixth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented at the 1996 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team meeting held at San Antonio, Texas. The history and status of the ARM program at the time of the meeting helps to put these papers in context. The basic themes have not changed. First, from its beginning, the Program has attempted to respond to the most critical scientific issues facing the US Global Change Research Program. Second, the Program has been strongly coupled to other agency and international programs. More specifically, the Program reflects an unprecedented collaboration among agencies of the federal research community, among the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) national laboratories, and between DOE`s research program and related international programs, such as Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program. Next, ARM has always attempted to make the most judicious use of its resources by collaborating and leveraging existing assets and has managed to maintain an aggressive schedule despite budgets that have been much smaller than planned. Finally, the Program has attracted some of the very best scientific talent in the climate research community and has, as a result, been productive scientifically.

  14. Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.L. (ed.)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23, 1985. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions plus two luncheons and a banquet were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. All the papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  15. Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.L. (ed.)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. Twenty-four papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  16. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 21, NO. 1, 2004, 112 1 A Possible Role of Solar Radiation and Ocean in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 21, NO. 1, 2004, 1­12 1 A Possible Role of Solar Radiation to simulate the climate of the mid-Holocene period. The role of the solar radiation and ocean in the mid solar radiation induced by the changed orbital parameters and the changed SST simulated by the OGCM

  17. Hourly global and diffuse radiation of Lagos, Nigeria-correlation with some atmospheric parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chendo, M.A.C.; Maduekwe, A.A.L. (Univ. of Lagos, Akoka (Nigeria))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of four climatic parameters on the hourly diffuse fraction in Lagos, Nigeria, has been studied. Using data for two years, new correlations were established. The standard error of the Liu and Jordan-type equation was reduced by 12.83% when solar elevation, ambient temperature, and relative humidity were used together as predictor variables for the entire data set. Ambient temperature and relative humidity proved to be very important variables for predicting the diffuse fraction of the solar radiation passing through the humid atmosphere of the coastal and tropic city of Lagos. Seasonal analysis carried out with the data showed improvements on the standard errors for the new seasonal correlations. In the case of the dry season, the improvement was 18.37%, whole for the wet season, this was 12.37%. Comparison with existing correlations showed that the performance of the one parameter model (namely K[sub t]), of Orgill and Hollands and Reindl, Beckman, and Duffie were very different from the Liu and Jordan-type model obtained for Lagos.

  18. A plasma window for transmission of particle beams and radiation from vacuum to atmosphere for various applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hershcovitch, A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York11973 (United States)] [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York11973 (United States)

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many industrial and scientific processes like ion material modification, electron beam melting, and welding, as well as generation of synchrotron radiation are performed exclusively in vacuum nowadays, since electron guns, ion guns, their extractors, and accelerators must be kept at a reasonably high vacuum. Consequently, there are numerous limitations, among which are low production rates due to required pumping time, limits on the size of target objects, and degradation of particle beams and radiation through foils or differentially pumped sections. A novel apparatus, which utilized a short plasma arc, was successfully used to provide a vacuum-atmosphere interface as an alternative to differential pumping. Successful transmission of charged particle beams from a vacuum through the plasma to atmosphere was accomplished. Included in the article are a theoretical framework, experimental results, and possible applications for this novel interface. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia; Long, Michael S. [University of Virginia] [University of Virginia

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  20. Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05Wm?2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17Wm?2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, ?0.05 and ?0.17Wm?2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

  1. Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Best Estimate (CSSEFARMBE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura D.; Gaustad, Krista L.; McFarlane, Sally A.

    2012-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Climate Science for a Sustainable Energy Future (CSSEF) project is working to improve the representation of the hydrological cycle in global climate models, critical information necessary for decision-makers to respond appropriately to predictions of future climate. In order to accomplish this objective, CSSEF is building testbeds to implement uncertainty quantification (UQ) techniques to objectively calibrate and diagnose climate model parameterizations and predictions with respect to local, process-scale observations. In order to quantify the agreement between models and observations accurately, uncertainty estimates on these observations are needed. The DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program takes atmospheric and climate related measurements at three permanent locations worldwide. The ARM VAP called the ARM Best Estimate (ARMBE) [Xie et al., 2010] collects a subset of ARM observations, performs quality control checks, averages them to one hour temporal resolution, and puts them in a standard format for ease of use by climate modelers. ARMBE has been widely used by the climate modeling community as a summary product of many of the ARM observations. However, the ARMBE product does not include uncertainty estimates on the data values. Thus, to meet the objectives of the CSSEF project and enable better use of this data with UQ techniques, we created the CSSEFARMBE data set. Only a subset of the variables contained in ARMBE is included in CSSEFARMBE. Currently only surface meteorological observations are included, though this may be expanded to include other variables in the future. The CSSEFARMBE VAP is produced for all extended facilities at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site that contain surface meteorological equipment. This extension of the ARMBE data set to multiple facilities at SGP allows for better comparison between model grid boxes and the ARM point observations. In the future, CSSEFARMBE may also be created for other ARM sites. As each site has slightly different instrumentation, this will require additional development to understand the uncertainty characterization associated with instrumentation at those sites. The uncertainty assignment process is implemented into the ARM program’s new Integrated Software Development Environment (ISDE) so that many of the key steps can be used in the future to screen data based on ARM Data Quality Reports (DQRs), propagate uncertainties when transforming data from one time scale into another, and convert names and units into NetCDF Climate and Forecast (CF) standards. These processes are described in more detail in the following sections.

  2. Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    ;Energy Pathways #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Atmosphere or performing any work. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission or water. #12;Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere Solar radiation Reflection Transmission Atmosphere

  3. 3D Atmospheric Radiative Transfer for Cloud System-Resolving Models: Forward Modelling and Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard Barker; Jason Cole

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of cloud-resolving models and multi-dimensional radiative transfer models to investigate the importance of 3D radiation effects on the numerical simulation of cloud fields and their properties.

  4. Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

    2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

  5. ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 1, 39-43 Effects of Clouds and Aerosols on Surface Radiation Budget Inferred from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Xiquan

    , the effects of clouds and aerosols on the surface radiation budget during the period Octo- ber­December 2008 clouds have the smallest cooling effect and LW warming on the surface radiation budget. Comparing the twoATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC SCIENCE LETTERS, 2013, VOL. 6, NO. 1, 39-43 Effects of Clouds and Aerosols

  6. Improvements in Near-Terminator and Nocturnal Cloud Masks using Satellite Imager Data over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trepte, Q.Z.; Minnis, P.; Heck, P.W.; Palikonda, R.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud detection using satellite measurements presents a big challenge near the terminator where the visible (VIS; 0.65 {micro}m) channel becomes less reliable and the reflected solar component of the solar infrared 3.9-{micro}m channel reaches very low signal-to-noise ratio levels. As a result, clouds are underestimated near the terminator and at night over land and ocean in previous Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program cloud retrievals using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager data. Cloud detection near the terminator has always been a challenge. For example, comparisons between the CLAVR-x (Clouds from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer [AVHRR]) cloud coverage and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) measurements north of 60{sup o}N indicate significant amounts of missing clouds from AVHRR because this part of the world was near the day/night terminator viewed by AVHRR. Comparisons between MODIS cloud products and GLAS at the same regions also shows the same difficulty in the MODIS cloud retrieval (Pavolonis and Heidinger 2005). Consistent detection of clouds at all times of day is needed to provide reliable cloud and radiation products for ARM and other research efforts involving the modeling of clouds and their interaction with the radiation budget. To minimize inconsistencies between daytime and nighttime retrievals, this paper develops an improved twilight and nighttime cloud mask using GOES-9, 10, and 12 imager data over the ARM sites and the continental United States (CONUS).

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Specific Instruments Used in the ARM Program

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM is known for its comprehensive set of world-class, and in some cases, unique, instruments available for use by the global scientific community. In addition to the ARM instruments, the ARM Climate Research Facility identifies and acquires a wide variety of data including model, satellite, and surface data, from "external instruments," to augment the data being generated within the program. External instruments belong to organizations that are outside of the ARM Program. Field campaign instruments are another source of data used to augment routine observations. The huge archive of ARM data can be organized by instrument categories into twelve "collections:" Aerosols, Airborne Observations, Atmospheric Carbon, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Ocean Observations, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, Surface Meteorology, Surface/Subsurface Properties, and Other. Clicking on one of the instrument categories leads to a page that breaks that category down into sub-categories. For example, "Atmospheric Profiling" is broken down into ARM instruments (with 11 subsets), External Instruments (with 6 subsets), and Field Campaign Instruments (with 42 subsets). Each of the subset links, in turn, leads to detailed information pages and links to specific data streams. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading.

  8. BTRAM: An Interactive Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model I.M. Chapman1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naylor, David A.

    radiance incident on the spectrometer/radiometer. Computer simulations, known as radiative transfer models source of opacity at submillimetre wavelengths where many objects emit most of their energy. Although high altitude observatories (such as the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in Hawaii and the Atacama

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurment (ARM) Data from the Ganges Valley, India for the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In 2011 and 2012, the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX) began in the Ganges Valley region of India. The objective was to obtain measurements of clouds, precipitation, and complex aerosols to study their impact on cloud formation and monsoon activity in the region. During the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX) field studies, aerosols from the Ganges Valley region were shown to affect cloud formation and monsoon activity over the Indian Ocean. The complex field study used the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to measure radiative, cloud, convection, and aerosol characteristics over the mainland. The resulting data set captured pre-monsoon to post-monsoon conditions to establish a comprehensive baseline for advancements in the study of the effects of atmospheric conditions of the Ganges Valley.

  10. A Sensitivity Study of Radiative Fluxes at the Top of Atmosphere to Cloud-Microphysics and Aerosol Parameters in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Qian, Yun; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Hou, Zhangshuan; Lin, Guang; McFarlane, Sally A.; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Ma, Po-Lun; Yan, Huiping; Bao, Jie

    2013-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of net radiative fluxes (FNET) at the top of atmosphere (TOA) to 16 selected uncertain parameters mainly related to the cloud microphysics and aerosol schemes in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). We adopted a quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) sampling approach to effectively explore the high dimensional parameter space. The output response variables (e.g., FNET) were simulated using CAM5 for each parameter set, and then evaluated using generalized linear model analysis. In response to the perturbations of these 16 parameters, the CAM5-simulated global annual mean FNET ranges from -9.8 to 3.5 W m-2 compared to the CAM5-simulated FNET of 1.9 W m-2 with the default parameter values. Variance-based sensitivity analysis was conducted to show the relative contributions of individual parameter perturbation to the global FNET variance. The results indicate that the changes in the global mean FNET are dominated by those of cloud forcing (CF) within the parameter ranges being investigated. The size threshold parameter related to auto-conversion of cloud ice to snow is confirmed as one of the most influential parameters for FNET in the CAM5 simulation. The strong heterogeneous geographic distribution of FNET variation shows parameters have a clear localized effect over regions where they are acting. However, some parameters also have non-local impacts on FNET variance. Although external factors, such as perturbations of anthropogenic and natural emissions, largely affect FNET variations at the regional scale, their impact is weaker than that of model internal parameters in terms of simulating global mean FNET in this study. The interactions among the 16 selected parameters contribute a relatively small portion of the total FNET variations over most regions of the globe. This study helps us better understand the CAM5 model behavior associated with parameter uncertainties, which will aid the next step of reducing model uncertainty via calibration of uncertain model parameters with the largest sensitivity.

  11. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyun Ji; Aiona, Paige K.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Sources, optical properties, and chemical composition of atmospheric brown carbon (BrC) aerosol are uncertain, making it challenging to estimate its contribution to radiative forcing. Furthermore, optical properties of BrC may change significantly during its atmospheric aging. We examined the effect of solar photolysis on the molecular composition, mass absorption coefficient, and fluorescence of secondary organic aerosol prepared by high-NOx photooxidation of naphthalene (NAP SOA). The aqueous solutions of NAP SOA was observed to photobleach with an effective half-time of ?15 hours (with sun in its zenith) for the loss of the near-UV (300 -400 nm) absorbance. The molecular composition of NAP SOA was significantly modified by photolysis, with the average SOA formula changing from C14.1H14.5O5.1N0.08 to C11.8H14.9O4.5N0.02 after 4 hours of irradiation. The average O/C ratio did not change significantly, however, suggesting that it is not a good metric for assessing the extent of photolysis-driven aging in NAP SOA (and in BrC in general). In contrast to NAP SOA, the photolysis of BrC material produced by aqueous reaction of limonene+O3 SOA (LIM/O3 SOA) with ammonium sulfate was much faster, but it did not result in a significant change in the molecular level composition. The characteristic absorbance of the aged LIM/O3 SOA in the 450-600 nm range decayed with an effective half-time of <0.5 hour. This result emphasizes the highly variable and dynamic nature of different types of atmospheric BrC.

  12. Contributions of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program and the ARM Climate Research Facility to the U.S. Climate Change Science Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SA Edgerton; LR Roeder

    2008-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. The 2007 assessment (AR4) by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports a substantial range among GCMs in climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. The largest contributor to this range lies in how different models handle changes in the way clouds absorb or reflect radiative energy in a changing climate (Solomon et al. 2007). In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program within the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To address this problem, BER has adopted a unique two-pronged approach: * The ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF), a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes. * The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report describes accomplishments of the BER ARM Program toward addressing the primary uncertainties related to climate change prediction as identified by the IPCC.

  13. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western Pacific, and North Slope of Alaska Sky Radiation, Ground Radiation, and MET Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, M.T.; Holdridge, D.J.; Pearson, R.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Aging systems and technological advances mandated changes to the data collection systems at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) sites. Key reasons for the upgrade include the following: achieve consistency across all ACRF sites for easy data use and operational maintenance; minimize the need for a single mentor requiring specialized knowledge and training; provide local access to real-time data for operational support, intensive operational period (IOP) support, and public relations; eliminate problems with physical packaging (condensation, connectors, etc.); and increase flexibility in programming and control of the data logger.

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Oliktok Point, Alaska (an AMF3 Deployment)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Located at the North Slope of Alaska on the coast of the Arctic Ocean, Oliktok Point is extremely isolated, accessible only by plane. From this remote spot researchers now have access to important data about Arctic climate processes at the intersection of land and sea ice. As of October 2013, Oliktok Point is the temporary home of ARM’s third and newest ARM Mobile Facility, or AMF3. The AMF3 is gathering data using about two dozen instruments that obtain continuous measurements of clouds, aerosols, precipitation, energy, and other meteorological variables. Site operators will also fly manned and unmanned aircraft over sea ice, drop instrument probes and send up tethered balloons. The combination of atmospheric observations with measurements from both the ground and over the Arctic Ocean will give researchers a better sense of why the Arctic sea ice has been fluctuating in fairly dramatic fashion over recent years. AMF3 will be stationed at Oliktok Point.

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  16. Clouds in the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. IV. On the scattering greenhouse effect of CO2 ice particles: Numerical radiative transfer studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kitzmann, D; Rauer, H

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owing to their wavelengths dependent absorption and scattering properties, clouds have a strong impact on the climate of planetary atmospheres. Especially, the potential greenhouse effect of CO2 ice clouds in the atmospheres of terrestrial extrasolar planets is of particular interest because it might influence the position and thus the extension of the outer boundary of the classic habitable zone around main sequence stars. We study the radiative effects of CO2 ice particles obtained by different numerical treatments to solve the radiative transfer equation. The comparison between the results of a high-order discrete ordinate method and simpler two-stream approaches reveals large deviations in terms of a potential scattering efficiency of the greenhouse effect. The two-stream methods overestimate the transmitted and reflected radiation, thereby yielding a higher scattering greenhouse effect. For the particular case of a cool M-type dwarf the CO2 ice particles show no strong effective scattering greenhouse eff...

  17. SOAR Data: Data from Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR)1999 through 2001

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Click on the DATA menu button and then click on a specific ship to find instructions on accessing data from that particular cruise. Instructions will lead you to an FTP site from which data can be downloaded. SOAR data for 1999 through 2001 is reported. SOAR is a global network of research and volunteer ships that carry global change instrumentation. The primary emphasis for SOAR is solar and IR radiation but some ships cary ceilometers, meteorological instruments, and related equipment. All data are collected in a central data collection computer and the flexible data collection software can be adapted to any other user instrumentation. Currently SOAR is installed pas permanent instrumentation on four ships operating in the western Pacific, eastern tropical Pacific, West Indies, and an oceanographic ship that operates around the world. In addition, six other system are used on cruises of opportunity. [Taken from SOAR homepage at http://www.gim.bnl.gov/soar/index.html

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Black Forest Germany for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM maintains four major, permanent sites for data collection and deploys the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to other sites as determined. In 2007 the AMF operated in the Black Forest region of Germany as part of the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Scientists studied rainfall resulting from atmospheric uplift (convection) in mountainous terrain, otherwise known as orographic precipitation. This was part of a six -year duration of the German Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting (QPF) Program. COPS was endorsed as a Research and Development Project by the World Weather Research Program. This program was established by the World Meteorological Organization to develop improved and cost-effective forecasting techniques, with an emphasis on high-impact weather. A large collection of data plots based on data streams from specific instruments used at Black Forest are available via a link from ARM's Black Forest site information page. Users will be requested to create a password, but the plots and the data files in the ARM Archive are free for viewing and downloading.

  19. The influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 and CO18O exhanges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Still, C.J.; Riley, W.J.; Biraud, S.C.; Noone, D.C.; Buenning, N.H.; Randerson, J.T.; Torn, M.S.; Welker, J.; White, J.W.C.; Vachon, R.; Farquhar, G.D.; Berry, J.A.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates the potential impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} isotope fluxes ('isofluxes') in two contrasting ecosystems (a broadleaf deciduous forest and a C{sub 4} grassland), in a region for which cloud cover, meteorological, and isotope data are available for driving the isotope-enabled land surface model, ISOLSM. Our model results indicate a large impact of clouds on ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes and isofluxes. Despite lower irradiance on partly cloudy and cloudy days, predicted forest canopy photosynthesis was substantially higher than on clear, sunny days, and the highest carbon uptake was achieved on the cloudiest day. This effect was driven by a large increase in light-limited shade leaf photosynthesis following an increase in the diffuse fraction of irradiance. Photosynthetic isofluxes, by contrast, were largest on partly cloudy days, as leaf water isotopic composition was only slightly depleted and photosynthesis was enhanced, as compared to adjacent clear sky days. On the cloudiest day, the forest exhibited intermediate isofluxes: although photosynthesis was highest on this day, leaf-to-atmosphere isofluxes were reduced from a feedback of transpiration on canopy relative humidity and leaf water. Photosynthesis and isofluxes were both reduced in the C{sub 4} grass canopy with increasing cloud cover and diffuse fraction as a result of near-constant light limitation of photosynthesis. These results suggest that some of the unexplained variation in global mean {delta}{sup 18}O of CO{sub 2} may be driven by large-scale changes in clouds and aerosols and their impacts on diffuse radiation, photosynthesis, and relative humidity.

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999 ARM

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July 1999

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July3 ARM

  5. New formulae to evaluate the atmospheric layers of precipitable water and gases, applicable in solar radiation computing models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in solar radiation computing models V. B0103descu Energetica, Centrale Electrice, Polytechn. Inst irradiance. In this context, the relatively low density of solar radiation recording stations favoured measurements. Reviews and classifications of the main calculations procedures of solar radiation have been

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Los Angeles, California, to Honolulu, Hawaii for the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) Field Campaign (an AMF2 Deployment)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    From October 2012 through September 2013, the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) was deployed on the container ship Spirit, operated by Horizon Lines, for the Marine ARM GPCI* Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) field campaign. During approximately 20 round trips between Los Angeles, California, and Honolulu, Hawaii, AMF2 obtained continuous on-board measurements of cloud and precipitation, aerosols, and atmospheric radiation; surface meteorological and oceanographic variables; and atmospheric profiles from weather balloons launched every six hours. During two two-week intensive observational periods in January and July 2013, additional instruments were deployed and balloon soundings were be increased to every three hours. These additional data provided a more detailed characterization of the state of the atmosphere and its daily cycle during two distinctly different seasons. The primary objective of MAGIC was to improve the representation of the stratocumulus-to-cumulus transition in climate models. AMF2 data documented the small-scale physical processes associated with turbulence, convection, and radiation in a variety of marine cloud types.

  7. Generated using V3.2 of the official AMS LATEX templatejournal page layout FOR AUTHOR USE ONLY, NOT FOR SUBMISSION! Can Top of Atmosphere Radiation Measurements Constrain Climate Predictions? Part

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The model configurations were produced from several independent optimisation experiments in which four of perturbed-physics simulations of the HadAM3 atmospheric model were compared with the CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System) estimates of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and Reflected Shortwave Radiation

  8. Analysis of the empirical relations between visible solar radiation, the solar altitude and the transparency of the atmosphere 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Occhipinti, Antonio

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ls determined by a four parameter system including the two parameters which characterize the transmission of the direct solar radiation. The four parameter model ls )ustified in terms of actual measurements for clear sky conditions. The system... Sketch Illustrating Coordinate System, . 39 4, 2 The Coordinate System Used to Describe the Multiple Scattering Radiation Field 41 4, 3 Optical Thickness Coordinate Schematic of the Zv + 2 Radiant Fluxes of the Diffuse Radiation Field Model 47 4. 5...

  9. Influence of clouds and diffuse radiation on ecosystem-atmosphere CO 2 and CO 18 O exchanges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    surface model with BOREAS aspen and jack pine tower fluxes,to diffuse radiation by an aspen-dominated northern hardwood

  10. Radiative interactions: I. Light scattering and emission from irregular particles. II. Time dependent radiative coupling of an atmosphere-ocean system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Changhui

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the first part of this dissertation, radiative interactions with single irregular particles are simulated. We first introduce the basic method and techniques of Finite- Difference Time-Domain method(FDTD), which is a ...

  11. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Shouxian, China for the Study of Aerosol Indirect Effects in China

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    In a complex ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) deployment, monitoring data was collected at four locations in China during 2008. The various sites are located in regions with different climate regimes and with high aerosol loadings of different optical, physical, and chemical properties. Measurements obtained at all the AMF sites during the 8-month deployment in China will help scientists to validate satellite-based findings, understand the mechanisms of the aerosol indirect effects in the region, and examine the roles of aerosols in affecting regional climate and atmospheric circulation, with a special focus on the impact of the East Asian monsoon system. As with other collections from the ARM Mobile Facility, the datasets are available from the ARM Archive. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  12. Retrieval of Cloud Ice Water Content Profiles from Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B Brightness Temperatures Near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, E-K.; Liu, G.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program important goals is to develop and test radiation and cloud parameterizations of climate models using single column modeling (SCMs) (Randall et al. 1996). As forcing terms, SCMs need advection tendency of cloud condensates besides the tendencies of temperature, moisture and momentum. To compute the tendency terms of cloud condensates, 3D distribution of cloud condensates over a scale much larger than the climate model's grid scale is needed. Since they can cover a large area within a short time period, satellite measurements are useful utilities to provide advection tendency of cloud condensates for SCMs. However, so far, most satellite retrieval algorithms only retrieve vertically integrated quantities, for example, in the case of cloud ice, ice water path (IWP). To fulfill the requirement of 3D ice water content field for computing ice water advection, in this study, we develop an ice water content profile retrieval algorithm by combining the vertical distribution characteristics obtained from long-term surface radar observations and satellite high-frequency microwave observations that cover a large area. The algorithm is based on the Bayesian theorem using a priori database derived from analyzing cloud radar observations at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The end product of the algorithm is a 3D ice water content covering 10{sup o} x 10{sup o} surrounding the SGP site during the passage of the satellite. This 3D ice water content, together with wind field analysis, can be used to compute the advection tendency of ice water for SCMs.

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust2

  14. ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProducts (VAP) VAP Update Information on new, existing, and futureAn Integrated

  15. Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a Solar + Earth Spectrum IR Absorbers Grey Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect #12;Radiation: Solar and Earth Surface B"(T) Planck Ideal Emission Integrate at the carbon cycle #12;However, #12;Greenhouse Effect is Complex #12;PLANETARY ENERGY BALANCE G+W fig 3-5

  16. Quantifying aerosol direct radiative effect with Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations: Top-of-atmosphere albedo change by aerosols based on land surface types

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yang; Li, Qinbin; Kahn, Ralph A; Randerson, James T; Diner, David J

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coincident MISR and MODIS aerosol optical depths over land2003), Estimates of the spectral aerosol single scatteringalbedo and aerosol radiative effects during SAFARI 2000, J.

  17. Proof of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Arthur P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recently advanced argument against the atmospheric greenhouse effect is refuted. A planet without an infrared absorbing atmosphere is mathematically constrained to have an average temperature less than or equal to the effective radiating temperature. Observed parameters for Earth prove that without infrared absorption by the atmosphere, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be at least 33 K lower than what is observed.

  18. Cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockwood, Mike

    identified by a cosmic ray telescope sensitive to high-energy (>400 MeV) particles, principally muons experiment, a narrowband thermopile filter radiometer centred on 9.15 µm, an absorption band previously. The integrated atmospheric energy density for each event is 2 Jm-2, representing an amplification factor of 1012

  19. Atmospheric Neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a brief overview of the theory and experimental data of atmospheric neutrino production at the fiftieth anniversary of the experimental discovery of neutrinos.

  20. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    surface versus rough surface · Light color surface versus dark color surface · Albedo of water surface energy through the atmosphere or water. Solar radiation transfer in the atmosphere #12;© 2015 Pearson of radiation by molecules of matter and its conversion from one form of energy to another. Solar radiation

  1. Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heald, Colette L.

    The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

  2. Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and Molecular Composition of Laboratory Proxies of Atmospheric Brown Carbon Effect of Solar Radiation on the Optical Properties and...

  3. GFDL ARM Project Technical Report: Using ARM Observations to Evaluate Cloud and Convection Parameterizations & Cloud-Convection-Radiation Interactions in the GFDL Atmospheric General Circulation Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. Ramaswamy; L. J. Donner; J-C. Golaz; S. A. Klein

    2010-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report briefly summarizes the progress made by ARM postdoctoral fellow, Yanluan Lin, at GFDL during the period from October 2008 to present. Several ARM datasets have been used for GFDL model evaluation, understanding, and improvement. This includes a new ice fall speed parameterization with riming impact and its test in GFDL AM3, evaluation of model cloud and radiation diurnal and seasonal variation using ARM CMBE data, model ice water content evaluation using ARM cirrus data, and coordination of the TWPICE global model intercomparison. The work illustrates the potential and importance of ARM data for GCM evaluation, understanding, and ultimately, improvement of GCM cloud and radiation parameterizations. Future work includes evaluation and improvement of the new dynamicsPDF cloud scheme and aerosol activation in the GFDL model.

  4. atmospheric transparency studies: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    pressures lower than 0.1 bar, transparency to thermal radiation allows shortwave heating to dominate, creating a stratosphere. At higher pressures, atmospheres become...

  5. atmospheric composition change: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of this century (IPCC 2007). 12;Figure 1: The "greenhouse" effect When radiative energy becomes absorbedGlobal Atmospheric Change and Animal Populations By: Edward B. Mondor...

  6. atmospheric greenhouse gases: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of clouds and greenhouse gases. The...

  7. Space Science: Atmosphere Thermal Structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    Space Science: Atmosphere Part -2 Thermal Structure Review tropospheres Absorption of Radiation Adiabatic Lapse Rate ~ 9 K/km Slightly smaller than our estimate Pressure ~3000ft under ocean surface thickness (positive up) is the solar zenith angle Fs is the solar energy flux at frequency (when

  8. Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stoffel, T

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

  9. Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop Atmospheric Aerosols Workshop EMSL Science Theme Advisory Panel Workshop - Atmospheric Aerosol Chemistry, Climate Change, and Air Quality. Baer DR, BJ...

  10. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Solar Radiation Atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL

    1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This atlas provides a record of monthly mean solar radiation generated by a Climatological Solar Radiation model, using quasi-climatological inputs of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, ozone, surface albedo, and atmospheric pressure.

  11. ANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    composition, radiative effects and transport of atmospheric aerosols and related atmospheric pollutanANNOUNCEMENT Project Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) 2006 TRAINING SCHOOL Project ABC Science consequences of the haze involve regional and global climate change, impacts on ecosystem, the water cycle

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederalAshley BoyleAn overhead view ofAt-HomeR

  13. Atmospheric Aerosol Systems | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Themes Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Overview Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Biosystem Dynamics & Design Energy Materials & Processes Terrestrial & Subsurface Ecosystems...

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically Induced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAt

  15. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Video

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafetyTed DonatARMDirectory:The Ames ProcessThe

  16. Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program-

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 September 2009Energy,ServicesServicesSession Papers

  17. INTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ? #12;WHAT ISTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? #12;#12;1-D MODEL ATMOSPHERE · Averaged over space and time · GoodINTRODUCTIONTOTHE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE D. Shaun Bloomfield Trinity College Dublin #12;OUTLINE · What is the solar atmosphere? · How is the solar atmosphere observed? · What structures exist and how do they evolve

  18. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  19. Measuring Nighttime Atmospheric Opacity Using Images From the Mars Exploration Rovers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bean, Keri M

    2012-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric opacity, otherwise known as optical depth, is the measurement of the amount of radiation reaching the surface through the atmosphere. The spatial and temporal patterns in optical depth tell us about the aerosol and cloud cycles...

  20. Harmonic propagation of variability in surface energy balance within a coupled soil-vegetation-atmosphere system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, P.

    [1] The response of a soil-vegetation-atmosphere continuum model to incoming radiation forcing is investigated in order to gain insights into the coupling of soil and atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) states and fluxes. The ...

  1. 12th North America Bangla Literature and Culture Convention 2010 (NABLCC10) EFFECT OF SOLAR RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    scatters and burns part of the incoming particles. However, the visible and near-infrared solar radiation penetrate through the earth's atmosphere. Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere and Grrenhouse Effect The solar radiation entering its atmosphere through an energy cycle called the Greenhouse effect. Of the total solar

  2. General Relativistic Radiative Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Knop; P. H. Hauschildt; E. Baron

    2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a general method to calculate radiative transfer including scattering in the continuum as well as in lines in spherically symmetric systems that are influenced by the effects of general relativity (GR). We utilize a comoving wavelength ansatz that allows to resolve spectral lines throughout the atmosphere. The used numerical solution is an operator splitting (OS) technique that uses a characteristic formal solution. The bending of photon paths and the wavelength shifts due to the effects of GR are fully taken into account, as is the treatment of image generation in a curved spacetime. We describe the algorithm we use and demonstrate the effects of GR on the radiative transport of a two level atom line in a neutron star like atmosphere for various combinations of continuous and line scattering coefficients. In addition, we present grey continuum models and discuss the effects of different scattering albedos on the emergent spectra and the determination of effective temperatures and radii of neutron star atmospheres.

  3. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

    1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  4. Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

  5. Exploring the Deep... Ocean-Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Climate oscillations 97 #12;Storing energy To understand how solar radiation affects large-scale processes), and biosphere (living organisms) that are driven by solar energy. The ocean and the atmosphere have the greatest on the others. To fully understand the dynamics of our climate, we must examine the global energy balance

  6. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of perfluorocarbons: Comparison. (1995) and combined with atmospheric lifetimes from the literature to determine global warming

  7. Optical Properties of Saharan Dust and Asian Dust: Application to Radiative Transfer Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Guangyang

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    properties for radiative transfer simulations. Using a Rapid Radiative Transfer Model (RRTM), the radiative forcing of mineral dust was computed at both the top of the atmosphere and the surface. By analyzing samples from various in-situ measurements, we...

  8. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honsberg, Christiana

    ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2008 C. Honsberg Solar Radiation Solar Radiation: Effects of atmosphere, angular dependence of radiation, variation of solar radiation ­ Calculation of Solar Radiation: · Estimate of intensity of solar radiation · Angular Dependence ­ Solar Noon

  9. The porous atmosphere of eta Carinae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nir J. Shaviv

    2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the wind generated by the great 20 year long super-Eddington outburst of eta-Carinae. We show that using classical stellar atmospheres and winds theory, it is impossible to construct a consistent wind model in which a sufficiently small amount of mass, like the one observed, is shed. One expects the super-Eddington luminosity to drive a thick wind with a mass loss rate substantially higher than the observed one. The easiest way to resolve the inconsistency is if we alleviate the implicit notion that atmospheres are homogeneous. An inhomogeneous atmosphere, or "porous", allows more radiation to escape while exerting a smaller average force. Consequently, such an atmosphere yields a considerably lower mass loss rate for the same total luminosity. Moreover, all the applications of the Eddington Luminosity as a strict luminosity limit should be revised, or at least reanalyzed carefully.

  10. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  11. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM); Looney, Larry D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  12. In uence of atmospheric polarisation on SCIAMACHY's re ectance measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tilstra, Gijsbert

    Kon i nk l i j k Neder l ands Meteoro l og i sch Inst i tuut In#29;uence of atmospheric-2400 nm. We compare its re#29;ectance measurements with those of a polarised radiative transfer code to the intensity of the radiation, Q and U characterize the degree of linear po- larisation, and V , #28;nally

  13. Nonequilibrium atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation and growth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dabdub, Donald

    to a reduction in visibility (2). On a global scale, airborne particles scatter solar radiation and can act as cloud condensation (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN), influencing the radiative balance of the atmosphere (3, 4 roles in air quality, health effects, vis- ibility, and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed

  14. The Upper Atmosphere of HD17156b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Koskinen; A. D. Aylward; S. Miller

    2008-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    HD17156b is a newly-found transiting extrasolar giant planet (EGP) that orbits its G-type host star in a highly eccentric orbit (e~0.67) with an orbital semi-major axis of 0.16 AU. Its period, 21.2 Earth days, is the longest among the known transiting planets. The atmosphere of the planet undergoes a 27-fold variation in stellar irradiation during each orbit, making it an interesting subject for atmospheric modelling. We have used a three-dimensional model of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere for extrasolar gas giants in order to simulate the progress of HD17156b along its eccentric orbit. Here we present the results of these simulations and discuss the stability, circulation, and composition in its upper atmosphere. Contrary to the well-known transiting planet HD209458b, we find that the atmosphere of HD17156b is unlikely to escape hydrodynamically at any point along the orbit, even if the upper atmosphere is almost entirely composed of atomic hydrogen and H+, and infrared cooling by H3+ ions is negligible. The nature of the upper atmosphere is sensitive to to the composition of the thermosphere, and in particular to the mixing ratio of H2, as the availability of H2 regulates radiative cooling. In light of different simulations we make specific predictions about the thermosphere-ionosphere system of HD17156b that can potentially be verified by observations.

  15. Bounds on the thermodynamical properties of the fluid envelope of a planet based upon its radiative budget at the top of the atmosphere: theory and results for Earth, Mars, Titan, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucarini, Valerio

    1 Bounds on the thermodynamical properties of the fluid envelope of a planet based upon its in the atmospheric masses. The possibility of providing constraints to the 3D dynamics of the fluid envelope based into mechanical energy like a thermal engine and generates entropy by irreversible processes. When the external

  16. Atmospheric Transport of Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, T.V.

    2003-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of atmospheric transport and diffusion calculations is to provide estimates of concentration and surface deposition from routine and accidental releases of pollutants to the atmosphere. This paper discusses this topic.

  17. How atmospheric ice forms | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    atmospheric ice forms How atmospheric ice forms Released: September 08, 2014 New insights into atmospheric ice formation could improve climate models This study advances our...

  18. Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System Atmospheric Pressure Reactor System The atmospheric pressure reactor system is designed for testing the efficiency of various catalysts for the...

  19. Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

  20. Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http://aerosol.ucsd.edu/courses.html Text: Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http

  1. Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd [Environmental Effects Branch, EM50, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. {approx}5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

  2. Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..........................................................................................................................................Fitness 45 Alastair Droop and Simon Hickinbotham

  3. Thirteenth Annual Report Interactive Graphics for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    for the VAX- PS300 and Masscomp-PS300 configurations, and exported the VAX version to the US Naval Academy.

  4. Terrestrial Planet Atmospheres. The Moon's Sodium Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, Frederick M.

    ;Origins of Atmospheres · Outgassing ­ Volcanoes expel water, CO2, N2, H2S, SO2 removed by the Fme convecFon reaches deserts #12;Water and Ice Clouds #12;H2SO4

  5. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wielgus, M; S?dowski, A; Narayan, R; Abramowicz, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  6. Levitating atmospheres of Eddington-luminosity neutron stars I. Optically thin Thomson-scattering atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Wielgus; W. Klu?niak; A. S?dowski; R. Narayan; M. Abramowicz

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In general relativity static gaseous atmospheres may be in hydrostatic balance in the absence of a supporting stellar surface, provided that the luminosity is close to the Eddington value. We construct analytic models of optically thin, spherically symmetric shells supported by the radiation pressure of a luminous central body in the Schwarzschild metric.

  7. Radiation and Health Thormod Henriksen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansen, Tom Henning

    of radioactivity from reactor accidents and fallout from nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. These subjects wereRadiation and Health by Thormod Henriksen and Biophysics group at UiO #12;Preface The present book is an update and extension of three previous books from groups of scientists at the University of Oslo

  8. EMSL - Atmospheric Aerosol Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scienceatmospheric The Atmospheric Aerosol Systems Science Theme focuses on understanding the chemistry, physics and molecular-scale dynamics of aerosols for model...

  9. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  10. Atmospheric Dynamics II Instructor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AT602 Atmospheric Dynamics II 2 credits Instructor: David W. J. Thompson davet: An Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, 5th Edition, Academic Press (recommended) · Marshall, J., and Plumb, R. A., 2008: Atmosphere, Ocean, and Climate Dynamics: An Introductory Text, Academic Press. · Vallis, G. K

  11. Atmospheric Thermodynamics Composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    1 Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 EnergyBalance Ch4 Water Ch Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Instructor: Lynn Russell, NH343 http #12;2 Review from Ch. 1 · Thermodynamic quantities · Composition · Pressure · Density · Temperature

  12. Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Infrared absorption spectra, radiative efficiencies, and global warming potentials of newly.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere Article Infrared Absorption Spectra, Radiative Efficiencies, and Global Warming Potentials of Newly of 600­1730 cm-1 . These spectra are then used to calculate the radiative efficiencies and global warming

  13. Parameterization of contrail radiative properties for climate studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    the current and potential effect on global climate change. The line-shaped artificial clouds often visible radiation and absorb infrared radiation emitted from the Earth and atmosphere, and the effect on the global climate change requires a cloud model that statistically represents contrail radiative properties

  14. Effect of O3 on the atmospheric temperature structure of early Mars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Paris, P; Godolt, M; Grenfell, J L; Stracke, B; Rauer, H

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ozone is an important radiative trace gas in the Earth's atmosphere. The presence of ozone can significantly influence the thermal structure of an atmosphere, and by this e.g. cloud formation. Photochemical studies suggest that ozone can form in carbon dioxide-rich atmospheres. We investigate the effect of ozone on the temperature structure of simulated early Martian atmospheres. With a 1D radiative-convective model, we calculate temperature-pressure profiles for a 1 bar carbon dioxide atmosphere. Ozone profiles are fixed, parameterized profiles. We vary the location of the ozone layer maximum and the concentration at this maximum. The maximum is placed at different pressure levels in the upper and middle atmosphere (1-10 mbar). Results suggest that the impact of ozone on surface temperatures is relatively small. However, the planetary albedo significantly decreases at large ozone concentrations. Throughout the middle and upper atmospheres, temperatures increase upon introducing ozone due to strong UV absorpt...

  15. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  16. Danger radiations

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

  17. ON THE STABILITY OF SUPER-EARTH ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kopparla, Pushkar [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Universitaetstrasse 16, CH-8092, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the stability of super-Earth atmospheres around M stars using a seven-parameter, analytical framework. We construct stability diagrams in the parameter space of exoplanetary radius versus semimajor axis and elucidate the regions in which the atmospheres are stable against the condensation of their major constituents, out of the gas phase, on their permanent nightside hemispheres. We find that super-Earth atmospheres that are nitrogen-dominated (Earth-like) occupy a smaller region of allowed parameter space, compared to hydrogen-dominated atmospheres, because of the dual effects of diminished advection and enhanced radiative cooling. Furthermore, some super-Earths which reside within the habitable zones of M stars may not possess stable atmospheres, depending on the mean molecular weight and infrared photospheric pressure of their atmospheres. We apply our stability diagrams to GJ 436b and GJ 1214b, and demonstrate that atmospheric compositions with high mean molecular weights are disfavored if these exoplanets possess solid surfaces and shallow atmospheres. Finally, we construct stability diagrams tailored to the Kepler data set, for G and K stars, and predict that about half of the exoplanet candidates are expected to harbor stable atmospheres if Earth-like conditions are assumed. We include 55 Cancri e and CoRoT-7b in our stability diagram for G stars.

  18. APS 2001 Conferences

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Los Angeles, CA X-Ray Physics Gordon Conference. (Jul. 22-27) Connecticut College New London, CT The Thirteenth International Conference on Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation Physics...

  19. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  20. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  1. A Grid of 3D Stellar Atmosphere Models of Solar Metallicity: I. General Properties, Granulation and Atmospheric Expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trampedach, Regner; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Åke; Stein, Robert F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations, and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late type stars, based on deep, 3D, convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations, and improve stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, asymptotic adiabat, as function of atmospheric parameters. These and other re...

  2. Atmospheric Science: An introductory survey 1. Introduction to the atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Folkins, Ian

    Sound Convergence Zone #12;Terrain effects #12;Von Karman vortex streets #12;Atmosphere in Earth system

  3. A PHYSICALLY-BASED SCHEME FOR THE URBAN ENERGY BUDGET IN ATMOSPHERIC MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurélien

    of local canyon geometry is defined instead of the usual bare soil formulation currently used to represent cities in atmospheric models. This allows refinement of the radiative budgets as well as momentum

  4. FORWARD MODELING AND ATMOSPHERIC COMPENSATION IN HYPERSPECTRAL DATA: EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS FROM A TARGET DETECTION PERSPECTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerekes, John

    a Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy b Center for Imaging Science-based approaches to atmospheric radiative transfer modeling are considered here: Atmosphe- ric Compensation (AC

  5. AT 722: Spring 2005 Course Objectives: This class focuses on the role of radiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .atmos.colostate.edu, review papers on web site #12;1. The Earth's Radiation Budget ·ERBE, CERES & GERB ·Cloud-Radiation-Forcing ·The Greenhouse Effect ·Aerosol Direct Effects ·Atmospheric radiative cooling ·ERB trends and otherAT 722: Spring 2005 Course Objectives: This class focuses on the role of radiative processes

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Rodriguez, Sebastien [Laboratoire AIM, Universite Paris 7/CNRS/CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp (France); Le Mouelic, Stephane [Laboratoire de Planetologie et Geodynamique, CNRS, UMR-6112, Universite de Nantes, 44000 Nantes (France); Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clark, Roger [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Nicholson, Phil [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Jaumann, Ralf [Institute of Planetary Exploration, Deutsche Zentrum, fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  7. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences EARLY ONLINE RELEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corbosiero, Kristen L.

    to cite this EOR in a separate work, please use the following full citation: Bu, Y., R. Fovell, and K. Corbosiero, 2013: Influence of cloud-radiative forcing on tropical cyclone structure. J. Atmos. Sci. doi:10 on tropical cyclone structure1 Yizhe Peggy Bu and Robert G. Fovell Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic

  8. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 3 Earth's Modern Atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pan, Feifei

    contact with high energy solar radiation · Thermopause is at 480km · High temperature, but not "hot--composition, temperature, and function. · List and describe the components of the modern atmosphere, giving their relative%), and others (1%). · Variable Gases: Water Vapor (H2O) (0 to 4%), CO2 (0.038%). · 4Less: Odorless, Colorless

  9. Article Atmospheric Science Entrainment-mixing parameterization in shallow cumuli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    an important role in global radiation budget [1­4]. Turbulent entrainment-mixing processes in cumulus clouds are critical to cloud­climate feedbacks, evaluation of aerosol indirect effects, and precipitationArticle Atmospheric Science Entrainment-mixing parameterization in shallow cumuli and effects

  10. Optimal Eigenanalysis for the Treatment of Aerosols in the Retrieval of Atmospheric Composition from Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimal Eigenanalysis for the Treatment of Aerosols in the Retrieval of Atmospheric Composition contributions of aerosols and gases to the total attenuation of radiation through the atmosphere has been a new scheme to account for the spectral variation of the aerosol extinction in the inversion of 1 #12

  11. 68 Current projects Atmospheric Research The research of the Division focuses on land-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    and of the link between radiation and climate. AtmosphericAtmospheric Research Detailed, high quality and long energy budget at Cabauw. Contributions have been made to the analysis of the energy budget experiment EBEX-2000 in California (USA). A comparison between net-radiometer measurements revealed significant

  12. Moisture budget of the Arctic atmosphere from TOVS satellite data David G. Groves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francis, Jennifer

    and radiative heating of the atmosphere. These, in turn, affect surface temperature, ice growth and melt and hemispheric atmospheric processes affect the Arctic Ocean. The lack of humidity data over the Arctic Ocean. Our method yields an average annual net precipitation of 15.1 cm yrÀ1 over the polar cap (poleward

  13. Atmospheric heat redistribution and collapse on tidally locked rocky planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric collapse is likely to be of fundamental importance to tidally locked rocky exoplanets but remains understudied. Here, general results on the heat transport and stability of tidally locked terrestrial-type atmospheres are reported. First, the problem is modeled with an idealized 3D general circulation model (GCM) with gray gas radiative transfer. It is shown that over a wide range of parameters the atmospheric boundary layer, rather than the large-scale circulation, is the key to understanding the planetary energy balance. Through a scaling analysis of the interhemispheric energy transfer, theoretical expressions for the day-night temperature difference and surface wind speed are created that reproduce the GCM results without tuning. Next, the GCM is used with correlated-k radiative transfer to study heat transport for two real gases (CO2 and CO). For CO2, empirical formulae for the collapse pressure as a function of planetary mass and stellar flux are produced, and critical pressures for atmospher...

  14. Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres II: H2S and SO2 Photochemistry in Anoxic Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Renyu; Bains, William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H2S and SO2) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H2S and SO2 are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H2, N2, and CO2 atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of element...

  15. Dynamics of Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Read, Peter L.

    transfer ­ Solar heating of surface, and atmosphere via dust absorption ­ Infrared CO2 band cooling (especially around 667 cm-1) ­ nonLTE near-infrared heating of CO2 and nonLTE cooling effects above ~60-80 km. Baroclinic waves, scales, heat and momentum transport, seasonal occurrence. Qualitative treatment

  16. Laboratory for Atmospheric and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    . Along with this growth came a new building on campus and a new name: the Laboratory for Atmospheric of the Sun to the outermost fringes of the solar system. With LASP's continuing operations role in the planet traditional and stable approach based on federal agency funding of research grant

  17. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  18. Radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  19. SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    SIO 217a Atmospheric and Climate Sciences I: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Course Syllabus and Lecture Schedule Instructor: Lynn Russell, 343 NH, 534-4852, lmrussell@ucsd.edu Text: Thermodynamics of Atmospheres of Thermodynamics (Work, Heat, First Law, Second Law, Heat Capacity, Adiabatic Processes) 5-Oct F Hurricane Example

  20. Reflected light from 3D exoplanetary atmospheres and simulation of HD 209458b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Hood; Kenneth Wood; Sara Seager; Andrew Collier Cameron

    2008-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present radiation transfer models that demonstrate that reflected light levels from three dimensional (3D) exoplanetary atmospheres can be more than 50% lower than those predicted by models of homogeneous or smooth atmospheres. Compared to smooth models, 3D atmospheres enable starlight to penetrate to larger depths resulting in a decreased probability for the photons to scatter back out of the atmosphere before being absorbed. The increased depth of penetration of starlight in a 3D medium is a well known result from theoretical studies of molecular clouds and planetary atmospheres. For the first time we study the reflectivity of 3D atmospheres as a possible explanation for the apparent low geometric albedos inferred for extrasolar planetary atmospheres. Our models indicate that 3D atmospheric structure may be an important contributing factor to the non-detections of scattered light from exoplanetary atmospheres. We investigate the self-shadowing radiation transfer effects of patchy cloud cover in 3D scattered light simulations of the atmosphere of HD209458b. We find that, for a generic planet, geometric albedos can be as high as 0.45 in some limited situations, but that in general the geometric albedo is much lower. We conclude with some explanations on why extrasolar planets are likely dark at optical wavelengths.

  1. How does the atmospheric variability drive the aerosol residence time in the Arctic region?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for enhanced cloud evaporation and hence a decrease in the fraction of solar radiation reflected by the cloud cover. This strong climatic retroaction is referred to as the `semi-direct effect' of BC aerosols. BC of the atmospheric aerosol concentration is paramount to assess its radiative effects in the Arctic, a region

  2. Pluto's Atmosphere Does Not Collapse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olkin, C B; Borncamp, D; Pickles, A; Sicardy, B; Assafin, M; Bianco, F B; Buie, M W; de Oliveira, A Dias; Gillon, M; French, R G; Gomes, A Ramos; Jehin, E; Morales, N; Opitom, C; Ortiz, J L; Maury, A; Norbury, M; Ribas, F B; Smith, R; Wasserman, L H; Young, E F; Zacharias, M; Zacharias, N

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013 and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we conclude that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse at any point in its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N2 ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole.

  3. RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sibille, Etienne

    protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. OVERVIEW OF REGULATIONS, PROTECTION STANDARDS, AND RADIATION SAFETY ORGANIZATION.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 V. BASIC RADIATION PROTECTION PRINCIPLES

  4. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  5. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A. (Langhorne, PA); Stencel, Joseph R. (Skillman, NJ)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  6. Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib Electro-Magnetic Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 1 Chapter 2 Electro-Magnetic Radiation #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 2 Elements of Remote Sensing #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 3 Chapter 2 Radiation: nature & source #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 4 Chapter 2 Interaction with the atmosphere #12;Remote Sensing

  7. Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib Electro-Magnetic Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Habib, Ayman

    Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 1 Chapter 2 Electro-Magnetic Radiation Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 2 Elements of Remote Sensing #12;Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 3 Chapter 2 Radiation: nature & source Remote Sensing Ayman F. Habib 4 Chapter 2 Interaction with the atmosphere #12;Remote Sensing Ayman

  8. Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Global warming potentials and radiative efficiencies of halocarbons and related compounds 7A=E472C43AD.A0794E 0794E:CA27C725 AD383CADE64E7 #12;1 Global Warming Potentials and Radiative of REs and global39 warming potentials (GWPs) for these compounds, mostly employing atmospheric lifetimes

  9. Radiation Safety

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation

  10. Effects of XUV radiation on circumbinary planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanz-Forcada, J; Micela, G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several circumbinary planets have recently been discovered. The orbit of a planet around a binary stellar system poses several dynamic constraints. The effects that radiation from the host stars may have on the planet atmospheres must be considered. Because of the configuration of a close binary system, these stars have a high rotation rate, which causes a permanent state of high stellar activity and copious XUV radiation. The accumulated effects are stronger than for exoplanets around single stars, and cause a faster evaporation of their atmospheres. We evaluate the effects that stellar radiation has on the evaporation of exoplanets around binary systems and on the survival of these planets. We considered the XUV spectral range to account for the photons that are easily absorbed by a planet atmosphere that is mainly composed of hydrogen. A more complex atmospheric composition is expected to absorb this radiation more efficiently. We used direct X-ray observations to evaluate the energy in the X-rays range an...

  11. Ris National Laboratory DTU Radiation Research Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the atmosphere to the human thyroid via the food chain and inhalation, and found that the radiation dose of 131 I can not only cause external irradiation of the skin, but also an internal irradiation of the thyroid and whole body. In addition, radioiodine deposited on clothes and hair can also cause skin irradiation

  12. NEW SOLAR RADIATION PARAMETERIZATION IN CPTEC/COLA GCM Henrique M. J. Barbosa and Tatiana A. Tarasova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barbosa, Henrique

    NEW SOLAR RADIATION PARAMETERIZATION IN CPTEC/COLA GCM Henrique M. J. Barbosa and Tatiana A The fundamental energy source causing atmospheric motions is the solar radiation absorbed at the Earth's surface solar radiation absorption and consequently overestimates the incident solar radiation at the surface

  13. Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Measurements at PEARL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eloranta, Edwin W.

    Arctic-Winter Climatology and Radiative Effects of Clouds and Aerosols Based on Lidar and Radar Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART) code. Results on the climatology and radiative effects of clouds, arctic regions are the site of interactions between aerosols, clouds, radiation and precipitations

  14. atmospheric radiation measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of pressure and density and a dynamic model of moving region of the density anomaly (cyclone). Both models lead to similar conclusions up to numerical factors. Besides the...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    ARM Program data is available in daily diagnostic plots that can be easily grouped into daily, weekly, monthly, and even yearly increments. By visualizing ARM data in thumbnail-sized data plots, users experience highly-browsable subsets of data available at the Data Archive including complimentary data products derived from data processed by ARM. These thumbnails allow users to quickly scan for a particular type of condition, like a clear day or a day with persistent cirrus. From a diagnostics perspective, the data plots assist in looking for missing data, for data exceeding a particular range, or for loading multiple variables (e.g., shortwave fluxes and precipitation), and to determine whether a certain science or data quality condition is associated with some other parameter (e.g., high wind or rain).[taken from http://www.arm.gov/data/data_plots.stm] Several interfaces and tools have been developed to make data plots easy to generate and manipulate. For example, the NCVWeb is an interactive NetCDF data plotting tool that ARM users can use to plot data as they order it or to plot regular standing data orders. It allows production of detailed tables, extraction of data, statistics output, comparison plotting, etc. without the need for separate visualization software. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data plots are free for viewing and downloading.

  16. atmospheric radiative transfer: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transfer through the Intergalactic Medium Astrophysics (arXiv) Summary: We use a probabilistic method to compute the propagation of an ionization front corresponding to the...

  17. atmospheric ionizing radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and photoabsorption. Incident spectra from parent star flares, supernovae, and gamma-ray bursts are modeled and compared to energetic particles in importance. We find that...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Products from Principal Investigators

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Office of Biological and Environmental Research in DOE's Office of Science is responsible for the ARM Program. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  19. atmospheric radiation black: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Quantized Black Hole General Relativity & Quantum Cosmology (arXiv) Summary: The maximum entropy of a quantized surface is demonstrated to be proportional to the surface...

  20. ARM - PI Product - Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics & Radiative Flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat fluxChinaNews :ProductsAerosol Retrievals from

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAt NREL,TheDustDOE

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July3

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July37

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July379

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July3792

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust 1999July37928

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Tropical Warm Pool International Cloud Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternativeOperational ManagementDemand Module ThisAtAugust2Tropical Warm

  9. DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration wouldDECOMPOSITION OF CALCIUMCOSTDOENuclear1382 THE HUMAN GENOME INITIATIVE1

  10. A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032) -Less isNFebruaryOctober 2, AlgeriaQ1AResearchStudy ofAA Tribute

  11. An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta FeAuthorization| Department

  12. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility - annual report 2004

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWP TWPAlumni AlumniFederalAshley BoyleAn overhead view

  13. Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solid ... StrengtheningLab (NewportStudying the SolarPleaseStyle

  14. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  15. ARM - Atmospheric Pressure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric

  16. Atmospheric PSF Interpolation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR SEPARATION BYAbrasion andArticle)Atmospheric

  17. Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Shao-Yi

    The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the ...

  18. Observations of Secondary Organic Aerosol Production and Soot Aging under Atmospheric Conditions Using a Novel Environmental Aerosol Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glen, Crystal

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    of the processes leading to SOA production under ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations as well as the impact these aerosol types have on climate is poorly understood. Although the majority of atmospheric aerosols scatter radiation either directly...

  19. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  20. Radiation receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  1. Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Impact of surface inhomogeneity on solar radiative transfer under overcast conditions Zhanqing Li1. Introduction [2] Solar radiative heating is the primary driving force of atmospheric and oceanic movements underlines the impact of surface inhomogeneity on the closure of SW radiative transfer. It also leads

  2. Investigating the Radiative Impact Clouds Using Retrieved Properties to Classify Cloud Type

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hogan, Robin

    of Reading, RG6 6AL, UK Abstract. Active remote sensing allows cloud properties such as ice and liquid water remote sensing, Cloud categorization, Cloud properties, Radiative impact. PACS: 92.60. Vb. INTRODUCTION in a radiation scheme which can simulate the radiation budget and heating rates throughout the atmospheric

  3. Interactive dust-radiation modeling: A step to improve weather Carlos Perez,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    radiative effects could lead to a significant improvement in the radiation balance of numerical weather 2002 is selected to assess the radiative dust effects on the atmosphere at a regional level. A strong unresolved and depend on the optical properties of dust, its vertical distribution, cloud cover, and albedo

  4. SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that have been used to quantify the effect of clouds on radiation budget in both modeling and observationalSURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-radiation

  5. atmospheres thin atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  6. Gravitational Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard F Schutz

    2000-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity is one of the fundamental forces of Nature, and it is the dominant force in most astronomical systems. In common with all other phenomena, gravity must obey the principles of special relativity. In particular, gravitational forces must not be transmitted or communicated faster than light. This means that when the gravitational field of an object changes, the changes ripple outwards through space and take a finite time to reach other objects. These ripples are called gravitational radiation or gravitational waves. This article gives a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational radiation, including technical material suitable for non-specialist scientists.

  7. CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric gases in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    113 CHAPTER 7. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT We examine in this chapter the role played by atmospheric of the surface known as the greenhouse effect. As we will see, trapping of terrestrial radiation by naturally accumulated in the atmosphere over the past decades and added to the greenhouse effect (Figure 7-1). Figure 7

  8. NEGLECTED CLOUDS IN T AND Y DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morley, Caroline V.; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Visscher, Channon [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Leggett, S. K., E-mail: cmorley@ucolick.org [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    As brown dwarfs cool, a variety of species condense in their atmospheres, forming clouds. Iron and silicate clouds shape the emergent spectra of L dwarfs, but these clouds dissipate at the L/T transition. A variety of other condensates are expected to form in cooler T dwarf atmospheres. These include Cr, MnS, Na{sub 2}S, ZnS, and KCl, but the opacity of these optically thinner clouds has not been included in previous atmosphere models. Here, we examine their effect on model T and Y dwarf atmospheres. The cloud structures and opacities are calculated using the Ackerman and Marley cloud model, which is coupled to an atmosphere model to produce atmospheric pressure-temperature profiles in radiative-convective equilibrium. We generate a suite of models between T{sub eff} = 400 and 1300 K, log g = 4.0 and 5.5, and condensate sedimentation efficiencies from f{sub sed} = 2 to 5. Model spectra are compared to two red T dwarfs, Ross 458C and UGPS 0722-05; models that include clouds are found to match observed spectra significantly better than cloudless models. The emergence of sulfide clouds in cool atmospheres, particularly Na{sub 2}S, may be a more natural explanation for the 'cloudy' spectra of these objects, rather than the reemergence of silicate clouds that wane at the L-to-T transition. We find that sulfide clouds provide a mechanism to match the near- and mid-infrared colors of observed T dwarfs. Our results indicate that including the opacity of condensates in T dwarf atmospheres is necessary to accurately determine the physical characteristics of many of the observed objects.

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: atmospheric chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and atmospheric chemistry that is expected to benefit auto and engine manufacturers, oil and gas utilities, and other industries that employ combustion models. A paper...

  10. Effects on the atmosphere of a major nuclear exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pittock, A.B.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several groups have published studies on the possible environmental and atmospheric consequence of a nuclear war. The major theory is that a nuclear war would produce a hemispherewide climatic disaster. This disaster, called nuclear winter, would arise as a result of changes in the earth's radiation balance due to a tremendous increase in smoke and dusts in the earth's atmosphere generated by numerous explosions and ensuing fires. This paper reviews a study ''The Effects on the Atmosphere of a Major Nuclear Exchange'' issued by the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences. The report is basically a very conservative document, but it gives credibility to the theory that a major nuclear war would result in a Nuclear Winter.

  11. Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

  12. The feasibility of ethyl iodide as an atmospheric tracer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everett, Joe Vincent

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Advisory Committee: Dr. R. D. Neff Interest in atmospheric diffusion has been heightened within the last decade by the increasing concern of air pollution and the possibility of radiation hazards intro- duced into the air from nuclear facilities.... Gaseous tracers provide an excellent means of measuring concentration levels at various points downwind of a facility. However, for long range stud cs, ve y low detectable levels are needed. Many problems encountered with tracers for use in long range...

  13. ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moelders, Nicole

    ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 38 (1995) 207-235 ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH On the parameterization of ice and water substance mixing ratio fields were only strongly altered by turning off the ice phase of these schemes includes ice processes. But in mid- latitudes and also in tropics the ice phase is an important

  14. ATMOSPHERIC ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reading, University of

    ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH ELSEVIER AtmosphericResearch 44 (1997) 231-241 Error analysis of backscatter;accepted 14 February 1997 Abstract Ice sphere backscatter has been calculated using both Mie theory as a reasonable approximation for rv 1997 Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction Cirrus clouds play

  15. Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerlich, Gerhard

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that authors trace back to the traditional works of Fourier 1824, Tyndall 1861 and Arrhenius 1896 and is still supported in global climatology essentially describes a fictitious mechanism in which a planetary atmosphere acts as a heat pump driven by an environment that is radiatively interacting with but radiatively equilibrated to the atmospheric system. According to the second law of thermodynamics such a planetary machine can never exist. Nevertheless, in almost all texts of global climatology and in a widespread secondary literature it is taken for granted that such mechanism is real and stands on a firm scientific foundation. In this paper the popular conjecture is analyzed and the underlying physical principles are clarified. By showing that (a) there are no common physical laws between the warming phenomenon in glass houses and the fictitious atmospheric greenhouse effects, (b) there are no calculations to determine an average surface temperature of a planet, ...

  16. Community radiation monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada, and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UUNEL). The thirteenth year of this program began in the fall of 1992, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE--sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the then-existing EPA monitoring network around the NTS, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah, and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with the people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as Station Managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These mangers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded through their training, experience, community standing, and effort in becoming a very visible, able, and valuable asset in this link.

  17. The electrodeless discharge at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laroussi, M.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently the generation and applications of atmospheric pressure plasmas received increased interest in the plasma research community. Applications such as the surface modification of materials, and the decontamination of matter have been under investigation. In this context, the authors introduce a new means of generating an atmospheric pressure discharge, which is suitable for use in the above-mentioned applications, and in the treatment of undesirable or polluting gases, such as VOC's. This device is a capacitively coupled discharge. It is basically made of a non-conducting tube with two independent loops of wire wrapped around it, and separated by a distance d. A stable discharge is generated inside the tube when an AC voltage of few hundred volts to few kilovolts, at a frequency of few kilohertz, is applied between the loops. One end of the tube is completely open to the outside air, and a seed gas (generally a noble gas such as Helium) is introduced in the tube. The plasma generated with this method is weakly ionized, cold, and is maintained by a relatively low input power (few tens of watts, depending on the size of the tube). In this paper, the discharge electrical characteristics, its radiation emission characteristics, and the measurement of relevant plasma parameters will be presented.

  18. Black holes, cuspy atmospheres, and galaxy formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2004-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In cuspy atmospheres, jets driven by supermassive black holes (BHs) offset radiative cooling. The jets fire episodically, but often enough that the cuspy atmosphere does not move very far towards a cooling catastrophe in the intervals of jet inactivity. The ability of energy released on the sub-parsec scale of the BH to balance cooling on scales of several tens of kiloparsecs arises through a combination of the temperature sensitivity of the accretion rate and the way in which the radius of jet disruption varies with ambient density. Accretion of hot gas does not significantly increase BH masses, which are determined by periods of rapid BH growth and star formation when cold gas is briefly abundant at the galactic centre. Hot gas does not accumulate in shallow potential wells. As the Universe ages, deeper wells form, and eventually hot gas accumulates. This gas soon prevents the formation of further stars, since jets powered by the BH prevent it from cooling, and it mops up most cold infalling gas before many stars can form. Thus BHs set the upper limit to the masses of galaxies. The formation of low-mass galaxies is inhibited by a combination of photo-heating and supernova-driven galactic winds. Working in tandem these mechanisms can probably explain the profound difference between the galaxy luminosity function and the mass function of dark halos expected in the cold dark matter cosmology.

  19. A regional climate model study of how biomass burning aerosol impacts land-atmosphere interactions over the Amazon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Mian

    wind divergence in the southern Amazon and anomalous wind convergence over the equatorial western radiation, consequently changing the surface energy and water fluxes, the atmospheric thermo- dynamic, Rainfall, and Climate (LBA-SMOCC), Smoke/Sulfates, Clouds and Radiation-Brazil (SCAR-B), ground based

  20. Cloud climatology at the Southern Great Plains and the layer structure, drizzle, and atmospheric modes of continental stratus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of cloud layers, an issue that is important in calculating both the radiative and the hydro- logic effects.5 years) cloud observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program Southern Great in Global Climate Models (GCMs) remains a source of uncertainty in climate simulations. Cloud climatologies

  1. Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling Atmospheric Aerosols V. Rao Kotamarthi and Yan Feng Climate Research Section Environmental Science Division Argonne National Laboratory #12;Outline Atmospheric Aerosols and gas phase heterogeneous reactions Regional Scales and Atmospheric Aerosols Regional Scale Aerosols: Ganges Valley Aerosol

  2. SPHERICALLY SYMMETRIC NLTE MODEL ATMOSPHERES OF HOT HYDROGEN-HELIUM FIRST STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubat, Jiri [Astronomicky ustav, Akademie ved Ceske Republiky, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of our calculations of NLTE model stellar atmospheres for hot Population III stars composed of hydrogen and helium. We use our own computer code for the calculation of spherically symmetric NLTE model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model atmospheres are then used for the calculation of emergent fluxes. These fluxes serve to evaluate the flow of high-energy photons for energies higher than ionization energies of hydrogen and helium, the so-called ionizing photon fluxes. We also present the time evolution of the ionizing photon fluxes.

  3. Coherent Transition Radiation in Askaryan radio detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Vries, Krijn D; van Eijndhoven, Nick; Meures, Thomas; O'Murchadha, Aongus; Scholten, Olaf

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the coherent transition radiation emitted by a macroscopic bunch of particles with a net charge traversing the boundary of two different media. The obtained expression is compared to the emission from a relativistically moving steady charge, as well the emission from a time-varying charge or current. As a first application, we discuss the transition radiation from high-energy cosmic-ray induced air showers hitting Earth's surface before the cascade has died out in the atmosphere. The induced emission gives rise to a radio signal which should be detectable in the currently operating Askaryan radio detectors built to search for the GZK neutrino flux.

  4. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Fragmentation Energetics of Clusters Relevant to Atmospheric New Particle Formation. Abstract: The exact mechanisms by...

  5. Probing axions with radiation from magnetic stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai Dong; Heyl, Jeremy [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments suggest that polarized photons may couple significantly to pseudoscalar particles such as axions. We study the possible observational signatures of axion-photon coupling for radiation from magnetic stars, with particular focus on neutron stars. We present general methods for calculating the axion-photon conversion probability during propagation through a varying magnetized vacuum as well as across an inhomogeneous atmosphere. Partial axion-photon conversion may take place in the vacuum region outside the neutron star. Strong axion-photon mixing occurs due to a resonance in the atmosphere and, depending on the axion coupling strength and other parameters, significant axion-photon conversion can take place at the resonance. Such conversions may produce observable effects on the radiation spectra and polarization signals from the star. We also apply our results to axion-photon propagation in the Sun and in magnetic white dwarfs. We find that there is no appreciable conversion of solar axions to photons during the propagation.

  6. Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dibble, Theodore

    SYLLABUS FOR Environmental Chemistry II (Atmospheric Chemistry) FCH 511 Fall 2013 Theodore S/explaining the trends in J as a function of altitude and solar zenith angle. The second involves analyzing real

  7. THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiga, Aymeric

    THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A [Haberle et al., 1993a; Larsen et al., 2002; Hinson et al., 2008]. At night, convection is inhibited

  8. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D. (ed.)

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  9. Laser Atmospheric Studies with VERITAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. M. Hui; for the VERITAS collaboration

    2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    As a calibrated laser pulse propagates through the atmosphere, the amount of Rayleigh-scattered light arriving at the VERITAS telescopes can be calculated precisely. This technique was originally developed for the absolute calibration of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray fluorescence telescopes but is also applicable to imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In this paper, we present two nights of laser data taken with the laser at various distances away from the VERITAS telescopes and compare it to Rayleigh scattering simulations.

  10. RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, Thomas G., E-mail: moran@grace.nascom.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, 200 Hannan Hall, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

  11. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  12. Thermal Decomposition of Radiation-Damaged Polystyrene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrefah, John; Klinger, George S.

    2000-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation-damaged polystyrene (given the identification name of 'polycube') was fabricated by mixing high-density polystyrene material ("Dylene Fines # 100") with plutonium and uranium oxides. The polycubes were used in the 1960s for criticality studies during processing of spent nuclear fuel. The polycubes have since been stored for almost 40 years at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) after failure of two processes to reclaim the plutonium and uranium oxides from the polystyrene matrix. Thermal decomposition products from this highly cross-linked polystyrene matrix were characterized using Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS) system coupled to a horizontal furnace. The decomposition studies were performed in air and helium atmospheres at about 773 K. The volatile and semi-volatile organic products for the radiation-damaged polystyrene were different compared to virgin polystyrene. The differences were in the number of organic species generated and their concentrations. In the inert (i.e., helium) atmosphere, the major volatile organic products identified (in order of decreasing concentrations) were styrene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, nathphalene, propane, .alpha.-methylbenzene, indene and 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene. But in air, the major volatile organic species identified changed slightly. Concentrations of the organic species in the inert atmosphere were significantly higher than those for the air atmosphere processing. Overall, 38 volatile organic species were identified in the inert atmosphere compared to 49 species in air. Twenty of the 38 species in the inert conditions were also products in the air atmosphere. Twenty-two oxidized organic products were identified during thermal processing in air.

  13. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  14. Comparison of Cirrus Cloud Radiative Properties and Dynamical Processes at Two Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Si...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingth Lomonosov1CompactComparison of ionCirrus

  15. Star-planet magnetic interaction and evaporation of planetary atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanza, A F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stars interact with their close-in planets through radiation, gravitation, and magnetic fields. We investigate the energy input to a planetary atmosphere by reconnection between stellar and planetary magnetic fields and compare it to the energy input of the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation field of the star. We quantify the power released by magnetic reconnection at the boundary of the planetary magnetosphere that is conveyed to the atmosphere by accelerated electrons. We introduce simple models to evaluate the energy spectrum of the accelerated electrons and the energy dissipated in the atmospheric layers in the polar regions of the planet upon which they impinge. A simple transonic isothermal wind flow along field lines is considered to estimate the increase in mass loss rate in comparison with a planet irradiated only by the EUV flux of its host star. We find that energetic electrons can reach levels down to column densities of 10^{23}-10^{25} m^{-2}, comparable with or deeper than EUV photons, and incr...

  16. environmental management radiation protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Entekhabi, Dara

    EHS environmental management biosafety radiation protection industrial hygiene safety Working: Biosafety, Environmental Management, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection and Safety. Each specialized Management Program, Industrial Hygiene, Radiation Protection Program, and the Safety Program. (http

  17. DETECTORS FOR RADIATION DOSIMETRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    J. Price, "Nuclear Radiation Detection" (2nd ed. , New York:4) G. F. Knoll, "Radiation Detection and Measurement" (NewSons, Inc. from "Radiation Detection and Measurement," G. F.

  18. Program Abstracts: Formation and Growth of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter H. McMurry; Markku Kulmala

    2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE provided $11,000 to sponsor the Workshop on New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere, which was held at The Riverwood Inn and Conference Center near Minneapolis, MN from September 7 to 9, 2006. Recent work has shown that new particle formation is an important atmospheric process that must be better understood due to its impact on cloud cover and the Earth's radiation balance. The conference was an informal gathering of atmospheric and basic scientists with expertise pertinent to this topic. The workshop included discussions of: • atmospheric modeling; • computational chemistry pertinent to clustering; • ions and ion induced nucleation; • basic laboratory and theoretical studies of nucleation; • studies on neutral molecular clusters; • interactions of organic compounds and sulfuric acid; • composition of freshly nucleated particles. Fifty six scientists attended the conference. They included 27 senior scientists, 9 younger independent scientists (assistant professor or young associate professor level), 7 postdocs, 13 graduate students, 10 women, 35 North Americans (34 from the U.S.), 1 Asian, and 20 Europeans. This was an excellent informal workshop on an important topic. An effort was made to include individuals from communities that do not regularly interact. A number of participants have provided informal feedback indicating that the workshop led to research ideas and possible future collaborations.

  19. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  20. Atmospheric Circulation and Tides of "51Peg b-like" Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam P. Showman; Tristan Guillot

    2002-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the properties of the atmospheres of extrasolar giant planets at orbital distances smaller than 0.1 AU from their stars. We show that these ``51Peg b-like'' planets are rapidly synchronized by tidal interactions, but that small departures from synchronous rotation can occur because of fluid-dynamical torques within these planets. Previous radiative-transfer and evolution models of such planets assume a homogeneous atmosphere. Nevertheless, we show using simple arguments that, at the photosphere, the day-night temperature difference and characteristic wind speeds may reach ~500 K and ~2 km/s, respectively. Substantial departures from chemical equilibrium are expected. The cloud coverage depends sensitively on the dynamics; clouds could exist predominantly either on the dayside or nightside, depending on the circulation regime. Radiative-transfer models that assume homogeneous conditions are therefore inadequate in describing the atmospheric properties of 51Peg b-like planets. We present preliminary three-dimensional, nonlinear simulations of the atmospheric circulation of HD209458b that indicate plausible patterns for the circulation and generally agree with our simpler estimates. Furthermore, we show that kinetic energy production in the atmosphere can lead to the deposition of substantial energy in the interior, with crucial consequences for the evolution of these planets. Future measurements of reflected and thermally-emitted radiation from these planets will help test our ideas.

  1. Courses on Synchrotron Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation The following is an incomplete list of courses on Synchrotron Radiation. For additional courses, check lightsources.org. XAFS School The APS XAFS School...

  2. Solar radiation resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bulletin discusses the following: introduction; Why is solar radiation resource assessment important Understanding the basics; the solar radiation resource assessment project; and future activities.

  3. Radiation Control (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

  4. Impact of Dynamics and Atmospheric State on Cloud Vertical Overlap CATHERINE M. NAUD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;(United Kingdom) during three winter months, Hogan and Illingworth (2000) found that cloudy sublayers be influenced by large-scale vertical motion, wind shear, or convection. Observations from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program ground- based radars and lidars in midlatitude

  5. Oscillations of solar atmosphere neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. L. Fogli; E. Lisi; A. Mirizzi; D. Montanino; P. D. Serpico

    2006-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sun is a source of high energy neutrinos (E > 10 GeV) produced by cosmic ray interactions in the solar atmosphere. We study the impact of three-flavor oscillations (in vacuum and in matter) on solar atmosphere neutrinos, and calculate their observable fluxes at Earth, as well as their event rates in a kilometer-scale detector in water or ice. We find that peculiar three-flavor oscillation effects in matter, which can occur in the energy range probed by solar atmosphere neutrinos, are significantly suppressed by averaging over the production region and over the neutrino and antineutrino components. In particular, we find that the relation between the neutrino fluxes at the Sun and at the Earth can be approximately expressed in terms of phase-averaged ``vacuum'' oscillations, dominated by a single mixing parameter (the angle theta_23).

  6. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  7. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the accuracy and precision of the models, while reducing epistemic uncertainties.

  8. Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Rokjin

    Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during March 2002 Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb Model (CRM) of Community Climate Model 3 and the output of the fifth generation of meso-scale model (MM5 in the global climate system by changing atmospheric radiation balance (Tegen and Fung, 1994; Andreae, 1996; Li

  9. Significant aerosol direct radiative effects during a pollution episode in northern China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Zhanqing

    Significant aerosol direct radiative effects during a pollution episode in northern China J. Liu,1 during a heavy pollution episode that occurred in October 2004 over northern China are explored , resulting in solar heating of the atmosphere on the order of 300 WmÀ2 . Solar radiation reflected

  10. Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport from road, shipping and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport from road, shipping and aviation 1234567.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport: from ­ Published: 17 May 2010 Abstract. Aerosols and their precursors are emitted abun- dantly by transport

  11. On the approximation of local and linear radiative damping in the middle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    atmosphere. In general, this damping is a nonlocal process in which heat is transferred to and from remote form 13 November 2009) ABSTRACT The validity of approximating radiative heating rates in the middle'') is investigated. Using radiative heating rate and temperature output from a chemistry­climate model with realistic

  12. Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cloud properties and associated radiative heating rates in the tropical western Pacific James H set of atmospheric remote sensing instruments at sites around the world, including three radiative fluxes and heating rates. Maxima in cloud occurrence are found in the boundary layer and the upper

  13. A FAST FORWARD SOLVER OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER HAO GAO AND HONGKAI ZHAO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    finite difference schemes (FD), the finite element method (FEM) [17, 20], the finite volume method (FVM transport equation [4, 13] in the field of neutron transport [4], atmospheric radiative transfer [1], heat. Key words and phrases. radiative transfer equation (RTE), optical imaging, discrete ordinate method

  14. Sandia Energy - Atmosphere Component in Community Earth System Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection245C Unlimited ReleaseWelcome ton6Andy Armstrong HomeAtmosphere

  15. Introduction Radiation is the primary energy source and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    18 Introduction Radiation is the primary energy source and the ultimate energy sink for the Earth in the Earth's atmosphere and can be used for the evaluation and improvement of models designed for weather research was the primary reason for the joint scientific committee of the World Climate Research Programme

  16. Methodology A simple linear model for radiative forcing of absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Karsten

    Absorbing aerosol in cloudy scenes: effects on atmospheric radia7on Aerosol Cloud Cloud prevents aerosol-radiation interaction; small negative forcing, i.e. COOLING Indirect rather than direct effect through modification of cloud properties Cloud enhances "surface albedo"; potentially large

  17. Shining On: A primer on solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunlap, M.A.; Cook, G. [eds.; Marion, B.; Riordan, C.; Renne, D.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a primer on solar radiation data. General uses of solar energy are presented. The manner in which solar radiation data is used to aid engineers in optimizing the use of solar thermal conversion and photovoltaic conversion is discussed. Methods for acquiring and assimilating the solar radiation data are illustrated. This would include the design and use of pyranometers and pyrheliometers. Seasonal and geographical variations in solar flux reaching the earth are evaluated. Other uses of compiled data include the determination of meteorological impacts of atmospheric disturbances such as volcano eruptions.

  18. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation space telescopes.

  19. HEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rucklidge, Alastair

    become fragmented and twisted, and where they generate the necessary energy to heat the solar coronaHEATING THE ATMOSPHERE ABOVE SUNSPOTS David Alexander and Neal E. Hurlburt Lockheed Martin Solar, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 9EW, UK Abstract We present our results of a hybrid model of sunspots

  20. Standard 1D solar atmosphere as initial condition for MHD simulations and switch-on effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bourdin, Philippe-A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many applications in Solar physics need a 1D atmospheric model as initial condition or as reference for inversions of observational data. The VAL atmospheric models are based on observations and are widely used since decades. Complementary to that, the FAL models implement radiative hydrodynamics and showed the shortcomings of the VAL models since almost equally long time. In this work, we present a new 1D layered atmosphere that spans not only from the photosphere to the transition region, but from the solar interior up to far in the corona. We also discuss typical mistakes that are done when switching on simulations based on such an initial condition and show how the initial condition can be equilibrated so that a simulation can start smoothly. The 1D atmosphere we present here served well as initial condition for HD and MHD simulations and should also be considered as reference data for solving inverse problems.

  1. Development of radiation hard scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markley, F.; Woods, D.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Foster, G. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)); Blackburn, R. (Michigan Univ., Nuclear Reactor Lab., Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantial improvements have been made in the radiation hardness of plastic scintillators. Cylinders of scintillating materials 2.2 cm in diameter and 1 cm thick have been exposed to 10 Mrads of gamma rays at a dose rate of 1 Mrad/h in a nitrogen atmosphere. One of the formulations tested showed an immediate decrease in pulse height of only 4% and has remained stable for 12 days while annealing in air. By comparison a commercial PVT scintillator showed an immediate decrease of 58% and after 43 days of annealing in air it improved to a 14% loss. The formulated sample consisted of 70 parts by weight of Dow polystyrene, 30 pbw of pentaphenyltrimethyltrisiloxane (Dow Corning DC 705 oil), 2 pbw of p-terphenyl, 0.2 pbw of tetraphenylbutadiene, and 0.5 pbw of UVASIL299LM from Ferro.

  2. FINAL REPORT: An Investigation of the Microphysical, Radiative, and Dynamical Properties of Mixed-Phase Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shupe, Matthew D

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report summarizes the major accomplishments and products resulting from a three-year grant funded by the DOE, Office of Science, Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program titled: An Investigation of the Microphysical, Radiative, and Dynamical Properties of Mixed-Phase Clouds. Accomplishments are listed under the following subcategories: Mixed-phase cloud retrieval method development; Mixed-phase cloud characterization; ARM mixed-phase cloud retrieval review; and New ARM MICROBASE product. In addition, lists are provided of service to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program, data products provided to the broader research community, and publications resulting from this grant.

  3. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  4. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  5. COMPARING THE EFFECT OF RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEMES ON CONVECTION SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, Joel D.; Basu, Sarbani; Demarque, Pierre [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the effect of different radiative transfer schemes on the properties of three-dimensional (3D) simulations of near-surface stellar convection in the superadiabatic layer, where energy transport transitions from fully convective to fully radiative. We employ two radiative transfer schemes that fundamentally differ in the way they cover the 3D domain. The first solver approximates domain coverage with moments, while the second solver samples the 3D domain with ray integrations. By comparing simulations that differ only in their respective radiative transfer methods, we are able to isolate the effect that radiative efficiency has on the structure of the superadiabatic layer. We find the simulations to be in good general agreement, but they show distinct differences in the thermal structure in the superadiabatic layer and atmosphere.

  6. Sulfuryl fluoride in the global atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muhle, J.

    The first calibrated high-frequency, high-precision, in situ atmospheric and archived air measurements of the fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO[subscript 2]F[subscript 2]) have been made as part of the Advanced Global Atmospheric ...

  7. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerber, Edwin

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2012) Published online in Wiley Online Library using National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP) concentrations and sea- surface temperatures (SSTs). These integrations enable the relative role of ozone

  8. 1997 Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul H. Wine

    1998-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE's Atmospheric Chemistry Program is providing partial funding for the Atmospheric Chemistry Colloquium for Emerging Senior Scientists (ACCESS) and FY 1997 Gordon Research Conference in Atmospheric Chemistry

  9. atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps heatCh4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances...

  10. atmospheric energy redistribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    16 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  11. atmospheric pressure surface: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    K. 27 Ch4. Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances Geosciences Websites Summary: Greenhouse Effect and Atmospheric Warming Atmosphere absorbs heat energy A real greenhouse traps...

  12. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of propagation of microwave signals. This imparts a range error to radar range measurements that assume the typical simplistic model for propagation velocity. This range error is a function of atmospheric constituents, such as water vapor, as well as the geometry of the radar data collection, notably altitude and range. Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models.

  13. Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide David Archer,1 Michael Eby,2 Victor Brovkin,3 released from combustion of fossil fuels equilibrates among the various carbon reservoirs of the atmosphere literature on the atmospheric lifetime of fossil fuel CO2 and its impact on climate, and we present initial

  14. The Local Interstellar Ultraviolet Radiation Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard Conn Henry

    2002-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    I have used the Hipparcos Input Catalog, together with Kurucz model stellar atmospheres, and information on the strength of the interstellar extinction, to create a model of the expected intensity and spectral distribution of the local interstellar ultraviolet radiation field, under various assumptions concerning the albedo a of the interstellar grains. (This ultraviolet radiation field is of particular interest because of the fact that ultraviolet radiation is capable of profoundly affecting the chemistry of the interstellar medium.) By comparing my models with the observations, I am able to conclude that the albedo a of the interstellar grains in the far ultraviolet is very low, perhaps a = 0.1. I also advance arguments that my present determination of this albedo is much more reliable than any of the many previous (and conflicting) ultraviolet interstellar grain albedo determinations. Beyond this, I show that the ultraviolet background radiation that is observed at high galactic latitudes must be extragalactic in origin, as it cannot be backscatter of the interstellar radiation field.

  15. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  16. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  17. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  18. Location and prediction of storms from measurement of atmospherics at different frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canterbury, Samuel Luther

    1945-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 have observed the direc? tion of a storm from a single observation station by observing the atmospherics radiated by the associated lightning. Some investi- 16 ' 17 18gations 9 9 have been carried out whereby... kilocycles was less than that at 36 and 52 kilocycles* 7Mr* L* W. Austin made some studies, on the Isthmus of Panama, of atmospherics at 15 and 21*4 kilocycles in an effort to determine their P iP 'S per M /nu fc. 19 21 origin# He found...

  19. Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

  20. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  1. Radiation protection at CERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forkel-Wirth, Doris; Silari, Marco; Streit-Bianchi, Marilena; Theis, Christian; Vincke, Heinz; Vincke, Helmut

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper gives a brief overview of the general principles of radiation protection legislation; explains radiological quantities and units, including some basic facts about radioactivity and the biological effects of radiation; and gives an overview of the classification of radiological areas at CERN, radiation fields at high-energy accelerators, and the radiation monitoring system used at CERN. A short section addresses the ALARA approach used at CERN.

  2. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. An Infrared Spectral Library for Atmospheric Environmental Monitoring. Abstract: Infrared (IR) spectroscopy...

  3. atmospheric research community: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Geosciences Websites Summary: University Corporation for Atmospheric Research CIGNA DENTAL PREFERRED PROVIDER INSURANCE EFFECTIVE...

  4. RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Healy, Kevin Edward

    RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2002 D. Delacroix* J. P. Guerre** P. Leblanc'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

  5. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  6. Radiative Levitation in Hot Horizontal Branch Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Landsman

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    There is now considerable evidence that horizontal branch (HB) stars hotter than about 11,500 K experience an enormous enhancement of their photospheric iron abundance due to radiative levitation. In globular clusters, the photospheric iron abundance can reach values of [Fe/H] ~ +0.3, or up to two orders of magnitude higher than the cluster iron abundance. Model atmospheres which take into account the iron overabundance are needed for understanding the appearance of the HB in globular cluster color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), for the derivation of accurate luminosities, gravities and masses, and for the ultraviolet spectral synthesis of old, metal-poor stellar populations.

  7. Pulse atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the program is the development of a pulsed atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (PAFBC) technology to burn coal and to provide heat and steam to commercial, institutional, and small industrial applications at a reasonable price in an environmentally acceptable manner. During this reporting period, a total of eight shakedown and debugging coal combustion tests were performed in the AFBC. A start-up procedure was established, system improvements implemented, and preliminary material and heat balances made based on these tests. The pulse combustor for the AFBC system was fabricated and installed and a series of tests was conducted on the system. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Saleshttp://www.fnal.gov/directorate/nalcal/nalcal02_07_05_files/nalcal.gif Directorate -AdvancedMIRTBD525AdaptingWaterTerryAtmospheric

  9. Mitigation of radiation induced surface contamination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard E. (Dublin, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for mitigating or eliminating contamination and/or degradation of surfaces having common, adventitious atmospheric contaminants adsorbed thereon and exposed to radiation. A gas or a mixture of gases is introduced into the environment of a surface(s) to be protected. The choice of the gaseous species to be introduced (typically a hydrocarbon gas, water vapor, or oxygen or mixtures thereof) is dependent upon the contaminant as well as the ability of the gaseous species to bind to the surface to be protected. When the surface and associated bound species are exposed to radiation reactive species are formed that react with surface contaminants such as carbon or oxide films to form volatile products (e.g., CO, CO.sub.2) which desorb from the surface.

  10. Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J Iacono

    2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

  11. Atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation doses that may have resulted from operations at the Hanford Site are being estimated in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. One of the project subtasks, atmospheric transport, is responsible for estimating the transport, diffusion and deposition of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. This report discusses modeling transport and diffusion in the atmospheric pathway. It is divided into three major sections. The first section of the report presents the atmospheric modeling approach selected following discussion with the Technical Steering Panel that directs the HEDR Project. In addition, the section discusses the selection of the MESOI/MESORAD suite of atmospheric dispersion models that form the basis for initial calculations and future model development. The second section of the report describes alternative modeling approaches that were considered. Emphasis is placed on the family of plume and puff models that are based on Gaussian solution to the diffusion equations. The final portion of the section describes the performance of various models. The third section of the report discusses factors that bear on the selection of an atmospheric transport modeling approach for HEDR. These factors, which include the physical setting of the Hanford Site and the available meteorological data, serve as constraints on model selection. Five appendices are included in the report. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science Synchrotron Radiation in Polymer Science March 30-April 2, 2012; San Francisco...

  13. TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Emily B.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

  14. Mixed-phase clouds, thin cirrus clouds, and OLR over the tropics: observations, retrievals, and radiative impacts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Joonsuk

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The tropics is a very important region in terms of earth’s radiation budget because the net radiative heating is largest in the tropics and that surplus energy is redistributed by the circulations of oceans and atmospheres. Moreover, a large number...

  15. The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 18812000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured in atmospheric circulation, are discussed. Citation: Stanhill, G. (2011), The role of water vapor and solar radiation in determining temperature changes and trends measured at Armagh, 1881­2000, J. Geophys. Res., 116

  16. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 22 FEBRUARY 2009 DOI: 10.1038/NGEO437 Satellite-derived direct radiative effect of aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Robert

    effect of aerosols dependent on cloud cover D. Chand1 *, R. Wood1 , T. L. Anderson1 , S. K. Satheesh2 by reflecting and absorbing solar radiation1 . Whether aerosols exert a net cooling or a net warming effect-based approach to quantify the direct, top-of-atmosphere radiative effect of aerosol layers advected over

  17. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  18. Network-level fallout radiation effects assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    National Security calls for the ability to maintain communication capabilities in times of national disaster, which could include a nuclear attack. Nuclear detonation has two basic by-products for which telecommunication equipments are susceptible to damage. These are electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and fallout radiation. The purposes of the EMP Mitigation Program are to analyze and to lessen the effects of EMP and fallout radiation on national telecommunications resources. Fallout radiation occurs after the initial intense high-frequency EMP, and is the subject of this analysis. Fallout radiation is the residual radiation that remains in the atmosphere after a nuclear blast, and which can be carried by weather conditions to locations far from the detonation point. This analysis focuses on the effects of fallout radiation on the telecommunications network of the American Telephone and Telegraph Co. (AT and T). This assessment of AT and T-network's communications-capabilities uses a network-level approach to assess fallout-radiation effects on the network's performance. The approach used was developed for assessing network-level EMP effects on Public Switched Network communication capabilities. Details are given on how EMP assessments utilize this method. Equipment-level fallout-radiation survivability data is also required.

  19. Planets and X-rays: a radiation diet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanz-Forcada, J; Micela, G; Pollock, A; Garcia-Alvarez, D; Solano, E; Eiroa, C

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to theory, high energy emission from the coronae of cool stars can severely erode the atmosphere of orbiting planets. To test the long term effects of the erosion we study a large sample of planet-hosting stars observed in X-rays. The results reveal that massive planets (Mp sin i > 1.5 Mj) may survive only if exposed to low accumulated coronal radiation. The planet HD 209458 b might have lost more than 1 Mj already, and other cases, like tau Boo b, could be losing mass at a rate of 3.4 Earth masses per Gyr. The strongest erosive effects would take place during the first stages of the stellar life, when the faster rotation generates more energetic coronal radiation. The planets with higher density seem to resist better the radiation effects, as foreseen by models. Current models need to be improved to explain the observed distribution of planetary masses with the coronal radiation received.

  20. Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

  1. Toxicity of atmospheric aerosols on marine phytoplankton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    metals added from these aerosols to the bioassay incubationsreleased to seawater from the aerosol filters after Author4605 CHEMISTRY Atmospheric aerosol deposition CHEMISTRY

  2. Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    Urban Atmospheres captures a unique, synergistic moment ­ expanding urban populations, rapid EDITORS Eric Paulos Intel Research eric@paulos.net Tom Jenkins Royal College of Art thomas

  3. Characterizing orbit uncertainty due to atmospheric uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilkins, Matthew Paul

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is implemented to model errors in the atmospheric density model. This study shows that the Kalman filter computes a believable and more realistic covariance....

  4. Physics Potential of Future Atmospheric Neutrino Searches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schwetz

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of future high statistics atmospheric neutrino experiments is considered, having in mind currently discussed huge detectors of various technologies (water Cerekov, magnetized iron, liquid Argon). I focus on the possibility to use atmospheric data to determine the octant of $\\theta_{23}$ and the neutrino mass hierarchy. The sensitivity to the $\\theta_{23}$-octant of atmospheric neutrinos is competitive (or even superior) to long-baseline experiments. I discuss the ideal properties of a fictitious atmospheric neutrino detector to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  5. Super-Kamiokande atmospheric neutrino results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toshiyuki Toshito; the Super-Kamiokande collaboration

    2001-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present atmospheric neutrino results from a 79 kiloton year (1289 days) exposure of the Super-Kamiokande detector. Our data are well explained by $\

  6. atmospheres: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  7. atmosphere: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  8. atmospherics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to optical depth perturbations. In Earth-type atmospheres sustained planetary greenhouse effect with a stable ground surface temperature can only exist at a particular...

  9. Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy: Applications in Atmospheric Aerosol Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Gilles, Mary K.

    2011-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) combines x-ray microscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). This combination provides spatially resolved bonding and oxidation state information. While there are reviews relevant to STXM/NEXAFS applications in other environmental fields (and magnetic materials) this chapter focuses on atmospheric aerosols. It provides an introduction to this technique in a manner approachable to non-experts. It begins with relevant background information on synchrotron radiation sources and a description of NEXAFS spectroscopy. The bulk of the chapter provides a survey of STXM/NEXAFS aerosol studies and is organized according to the type of aerosol investigated. The purpose is to illustrate the current range and recent growth of scientific investigations employing STXM-NEXAFS to probe atmospheric aerosol morphology, surface coatings, mixing states, and atmospheric processing.

  10. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, and Institute for the Physics and Mathematical of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, Aomori, 030-0943 Japan (Japan)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  11. Line formation in AGB atmospheres including velocity effects. Molecular line profile variations of long period variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nowotny, W; Aringer, B

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheres of evolved red giants are considerably influenced by pulsations of the stellar interiors and developing stellar winds. The resulting complex velocity fields severely affect molecular line profiles observable in NIR spectra. With the help of model calculations the complex line formation process in AGB atmospheres was explored with the focus on velocity effects. Furthermore, we aimed for atmospheric models which are able to quantitatively reproduce line profile variations found in observed spectra of pulsating late-type giants. Models describing pulsation-enhanced dust-driven winds were used to compute synthetic spectra under the assumptions of chemical equilibrium and LTE and by solving the radiative transfer in spherical geometry including velocity effects. Radial velocities derived from Doppler-shifted synthetic line profiles provide information on the gas velocities in the line-forming region of the spectral features. On the basis of dynamic models we investigated in detail the finding that ...

  12. Towards Space Solar Power - Examining Atmospheric Interactions of Power Beams with the HAARP Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitgab, M

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the most common space solar power (SSP) system architectures, solar energy harvested by large satellites in geostationary orbit is transmitted to Earth via microwave radiation. Currently, only limited information about the interactions of microwave beams with energy densities of several tens to hundreds of W/m$^2$ with the different layers of the atmosphere is available. Governmental bodies will likely require detailed investigations of safety and atmospheric effects of microwave power beams before issuing launch licenses for SSP satellite systems. This paper proposes to collect representative and comprehensive data of the interaction of power beams with the atmosphere by extending the infrastructure of the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. Estimates of the transmission infrastructure performance as well as measurement devices and scientific capabilities of possible upgrade scenarios will be discussed. The proposed upgrade of the HAARP facility is expected to d...

  13. Atmospheric effects of nuclar war aerosols in general circulation model simulations: Influence of smoke optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, S.L.; Ramaswamy, V.; Covey, C.

    1987-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A global atmospheric general circulation model (GCM) is modified to include radiative transfer parameterizations for the absorption and scattering of solar radiation and the absorption of thermal infrared (IR) radiation by smoke aerosols. The solar scattering modifications include a parameterization for diagnosing smoke optical properties as a function of the time- and space-dependent smoke particle radii. The aerosol IR modifications allow for both the ''grey'' absorber approximation and a broadband approximation that resolves the aerosol absorption in four spectral intervals. We examine the sensitivity of some GCM-simulated atmospheric and climatic effects to the optical properties and radiative transfer parameterizations used in studies of massive injections of smoke. Specifically, we test the model response to solar scattering versus nonscattering smoke, variations in prescribed smoke single scattering albedo and IR specific absorption, and interactive versus fixed smoke optical properties. Hypothetical nuclear war created smoke scenarios assume the July injection of 60 or 180 Tg of smoke over portions of the mid-latitude land areas of the northern hemisphere. Atmospheric transport and scavenging of the smoke are included. Nonscattering smoke cases produce roughly 40 Wm/sup -2/ more Earth-atmosphere solar irradiance absorption over the northern hemisphere, when compared to scattering smoke cases having equivalent specific absorption efficiencies. Varying the elemental carbon content of smoke over a plausible range produces a 4/sup 0/--6 /sup 0/C change in average mid-latitude land surface temperature, and a variation of about 0.1 in zonally averaged planetary albedo in the northern hemisphere.

  14. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  15. Response of global soil consumption of atmospheric methane to changes in atmospheric climate and nitrogen deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    Soil consumption of atmospheric methane plays an important secondary role in regulating the atmospheric CH4 budget, next to the dominant loss mechanism involving reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Here we used a ...

  16. Parallization of Stellar Atmosphere Codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Hoeflich

    2002-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Parallel computing has turned out to be the enabling technology to solve complex physical systems. However, the transition from shared memory, vector computers to massively parallel, distributed memory systems and, recently, to hybrid systems poses new challenges to the scientist. We want to present a cook-book (with a very strong, personal bias) based on our experience with parallization of our existing codes. Some of the general tools and communication libraries are discussed. Our approach includes a mixture of algorithm, domain and physical module based parallization. The advantages, scalability and limitations of each are discussed at some examples. We want show that it becomes easier to write parallel code with increasing complexity of the physical problem making stellar atmosphere codes beyond the classical assumptions very suitable.

  17. Atmospheric Modelling for Neptune's Methane D/H Ratio - Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cotton, Daniel V; Bott, Kimberly; Bailey, Jeremy

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen (D/H ratio) of Solar System bodies is an important clue to their formation histories. Here we fit a Neptunian atmospheric model to Gemini Near Infrared Spectrograph (GNIRS) high spectral resolution observations and determine the D/H ratio in methane absorption in the infrared H-band ($\\sim$ 1.6 {\\mu}m). The model was derived using our radiative transfer software VSTAR (Versatile Software for the Transfer of Atmospheric Radiation) and atmospheric fitting software ATMOF (ATMOspheric Fitting). The methane line list used for this work has only become available in the last few years, enabling a refinement of earlier estimates. We identify a bright region on the planetary disc and find it to correspond to an optically thick lower cloud. Our preliminary determination of CH$_{\\rm 3}$D/CH$_{\\rm 4}$ is 3.0$\\times10^{-4}$, which is in line with the recent determination of Irwin et al. (2014) of 3.0$^{+1.0}_{-0.9}\\sim\\times10^{-4}$, made using the same model parameters and line list but...

  18. Stabilization of CO2 Atmospheres on Exoplanets around M Dwarf Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Peter; Robinson, Tyler D; Li, Cheng; Yung, Yuk L

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the chemical stability of CO2-dominated atmospheres of M dwarf terrestrial exoplanets using a 1-dimensional photochemical model. On planets orbiting Sun-like stars, the photolysis of CO2 by Far-UV (FUV) radiation is balanced by the reaction between CO and OH, the rate of which depends on H2O abundance. By comparison, planets orbiting M dwarf stars experience higher FUV radiation compared to planets orbiting Sun-like stars, and they are also likely to have low H2O abundance due to M dwarfs having a prolonged, high-luminosity pre-main sequence (Luger & Barnes 2015). We show that, for H2O-depleted planets around M dwarfs, a CO2-dominated atmosphere is stable to conversion to CO and O2 by relying on a catalytic cycle involving H2O2 photolysis. However, this cycle breaks down for planets with atmospheric hydrogen mixing ratios below ~1 ppm, resulting in ~40% of the atmospheric CO2 being converted to CO and O2 on a time scale of 1 Myr. The increased abundance of O2 also results in high O3 concent...

  19. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  20. Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwarz, J. P.

    Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

  1. Energy transport, overshoot, and mixing in the atmospheres of very cool stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -G. Ludwig

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We constructed hydrodynamical model atmospheres for mid M-type main-, as well as pre-main-sequence objects. Despite the complex chemistry encountered in such cool atmospheres a reasonably accurate representation of the radiative transfer is possible. The detailed treatment of the interplay between radiation and convection in the hydrodynamical models allows to study processes usually not accessible within the framework conventional model atmospheres. In particular, we determined the efficiency of the convective energy transport, and the efficiency of mixing by convective overshoot. The convective transport efficiency expressed in terms of an equivalent mixing-length parameter amounts to values around ~2 in the optically thick, and ~2.8 in the optically thin regime. The thermal structure of the formally convectively stable layers is little affected by convective overshoot and wave heating, i.e. stays close to radiative equilibrium. Mixing by convective overshoot shows an exponential decline with geometrical distance from the Schwarzschild stability boundary. The scale height of the decline varies with gravitational acceleration roughly as g^(-1/2), with 0.5 pressure scale heights at log(g)=5.0.

  2. Solar radiation intensity calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Randolph Steven

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

  3. Coherent Synchrotron Radiation Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Upton, NY 11973, USA Abstract Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) effects in bunch compressors are analyzed. Schemes for reducing the CSR effects are presented. 1 INTRODUCTION...

  4. Atomic Radiation (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

  5. Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

  6. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

    1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  7. A passive measurement of dissociated atom densities in atmospheric pressure air discharge plasmas using vacuum ultraviolet self-absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laity, George [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Applied Science and Technology Maturation Department, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States); Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas [Center for Pulsed Power and Power Electronics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States); Frank, Klaus [Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Friedrich–Alexander University at Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate a method for determining the dissociation degree of atmospheric pressure air discharges by measuring the self-absorption characteristics of vacuum ultraviolet radiation from O and N atoms in the plasma. The atom densities are determined by modeling the amount of radiation trapping present in the discharge, without the use of typical optical absorption diagnostic techniques which require external sources of probing radiation into the experiment. For an 8.0?mm spark discharge between needle electrodes at atmospheric pressure, typical peak O atom densities of 8.5?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} and peak N atom densities of 9.9?×?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} are observed within the first ?1.0?mm of plasma near the anode tip by analyzing the OI and NI transitions in the 130.0–132.0?nm band of the vacuum ultraviolet spectrum.

  8. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  9. Doctoral Programs Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Sciences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    University of Michigan Space Research Building 2455 Hayward Street Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 aoss Katherine E. White, Ann Arbor ©The Regents of the University of Michigan Research areas Atmospheric Science Atmospheric Dynamics Climate, Climate Modeling & Climate Change Clouds & Precipitation Paleoclimate, Ice

  10. Human effects on the global atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, H.S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review considers whether human activities can significantly change important functions of the global atmosphere by altering the amount or distribution of certain trace species. It deals with three specific topics: stratopheric ozone, the role of species other than carbon dioxide on the greenhouse effect, and certain recently recognized atmospheric consequences of a large scale nuclear war. 64 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  11. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Sukyoung

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE LETTERS Atmos. Sci. Let. (2013) Published online in Wiley Online Library Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea *Correspondence to: C. Yoo, Center for Atmosphere). A number of studies have shown that the MJO plays an important role in modulating the extratropical cir

  12. ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ATOMIC IONIZATION AND OPACITIES IN PULSAR ATMOSPHERES Hydrogen Atmospheres J. VENTURA Physics.g. Pavlov et al., 1995; Zavlin et al., 1995, 1996; #12; 2 J. VENTURA ET AL. Rajagopal and Romani, 1996 the past three years. As is well known (Canuto and Ventura, 1977; Ruder et al., 1994), the external strong

  13. Atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the NRLMSISE00 atmospheric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Honda, M; Kajita, T; Kasahara, K; Midorikawa, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we extend the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux~\\cite{hkkm2004,hkkms2006,hkkm2011} to the sites in polar and tropical regions. In our earliest full 3D-calculation~\\cite{hkkm2004}, we used DPMJET-III~\\cite{dpm} for the hadronic interaction model above 5~GeV, and NUCRIN~\\cite{nucrin} below 5~GeV. We modified DPMJET-III as in Ref.~\\cite{hkkms2006} to reproduce the experimental muon spectra better, mainly using the data observed by BESS group~\\cite{BESSTeVpHemu}. In a recent work~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we introduced JAM interaction model for the low energy hadronic interactions. JAM is a nuclear interaction model developed with PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System)~\\cite{phits}. In Ref.~\\cite{hkkm2011}, we could reproduce the observed muon flux at the low energies at balloon altitude with DPMJET-III above 32 GeV and JAM below that better than the combination of DPMJET-III above 5~GeV and NUCRIN below that. Besides the interaction model, we have also improved the calculation sche...

  14. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  15. Convection induced by radiative cooling of a layer of participating medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prasanna, Swaminathan, E-mail: prasannaswam@gmail.com [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France)] [Laboratoire EM2C, CNRS UPR 288 92295, Chatenay-Malabry, France and Ecole Centrale Paris, Grande Voie des Vignes 92295, Chatenay-Malabry (France); Venkateshan, S. P., E-mail: spv@iitm.ac.in [HTTP Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering IIT Madras, Chennai (India)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations and experiments have been conducted to study the effect of radiative cooling on natural convection in a horizontal layer of a participating medium enclosed between isothermal opaque wall and radiatively transparent wall and exposed to a cold background. The study is of relevance to a nocturnal boundary layer under clear and calm conditions. The focus of the study is to capture the onset of convection caused by radiative cooling. The experiments have been designed to mimic the atmospheric radiative boundary conditions, and hence decoupling convection and radiation boundary conditions. Planck number Pl and optical thickness of the layer ?{sub H} are the two important parameters that govern the interaction between radiation and convection. The radiation-convection coupling is a strong function of length scale. Convection sets up within first few seconds for all the experiments. Strong plume like convection is observed for the experimental conditions used in the present study. Both simulations and experiments confirm that radiative cooling increases substantially with decrease in emissivity of the bottom wall. Radiative cooling is strongly influenced by the nongray nature of the participating medium, especially when strong emission from the medium escapes to space, in the window region of the atmosphere. Accurate representation of radiative properties is critical. Linear stability analysis of onset of convection indicates that radiation stabilizes convection as Pl decreases. The observations are similar to the case of Rayleigh Bénard convection in a radiating gas. However, for both experimental and numerical conditions, the observed Rayleigh numbers are much greater than the critical Rayleigh number. To conclude, the role of radiation is to drive and sustain convection in the unstable layer.

  16. Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Cleaning of Contaminated Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert F. Hicks; Hans W. Herrmann

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate a practical, environmentally benigh technology for the surface decontamination and decommissioning of radioactive waste. A low temperature, atmospheric pressure plasma has been developed with initial support from the DOE, Environmental Management Sciences Program. This devise selectively etches radioactive metals from surfaces, rendering objects radiation free and suitable for decommissioning. The volatile reaction products are captured on filters, which yields a tremendous reduction in the volume of the waste. The technology shows a great potential for accelerating the clean-up effort for the equipment and structures contaminated with radioactive materials within the DOE complex. The viability of this technology has been demonstrated by selectively and rapidly stripping uranium from stainless steel surfaces at low temperature. Studies on uranium oxide have shown that etch rates of 4.0 microns per minute can be achieved at temperature below 473 K. Over the past three years, we have made numerous improvements in the design of the atmospheric pressure plasma source. We are now able to scale up the plasma source to treat large surface areas.

  17. Fingering convection and cloudless models for cool brown dwarf atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremblin, P; Mourier, P; Baraffe, I; Chabrier, G; Drummond, B; Homeier, D; Venot, O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work aims to improve the current understanding of the atmospheres of brown dwarfs, especially cold ones with spectral type T and Y, whose modeling is a current challenge. Silicate and iron clouds are believed to disappear at the photosphere at the L/T transition, but cloudless models fail to reproduce correctly the spectra of T dwarfs, advocating for the addition of more physics, e.g. other types of clouds or internal energy transport mechanisms. We use a one-dimensional (1D) radiative/convective equilibrium code ATMO to investigate this issue. This code includes both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium chemistry and solves consistently the PT structure. Included opacity sources are H2-H2, H2-He, H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, K, Na, and TiO, VO if they are present in the atmosphere. We show that the spectra of Y dwarfs can be accurately reproduced with a cloudless model if vertical mixing and NH3 quenching are taken into account. T dwarf spectra still have some reddening in e.g. J - H compared to cloudless mode...

  18. On the numerical treatment of problems in atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aro, C.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric chemical-radiative-transport (CRT) models are vital in performing research on atmospheric chemical change. Even with the enormous computing capability delivered by massively parallel systems, extended three dimensional CRT simulations are still not computationally feasible. The major obstacle in a CRT model is the nonlinear ODE system describing the chemical kinetics in the model. These ODE systems are usually very stiff and account for anywhere from 75% to 90% of the CPU time required to run a CRT model. In this study, a simple explicit class of time stepping method is developed and demonstrated to be useful in treating chemical ODE systems without the use of a Jacobian matrix. These methods, called preconditioned time differencing methods, are tested on small mathematically idealized problems, box model problems, and full 2-D and 3-D CRT models. The methods are found to be both fast and memory efficient. Studies are performed on both vector and parallel systems. The preconditioned time differencing methods are established as a viable alternative to the more common backward differentiation formulas in terms of CPU speed across architectural platforms.

  19. DOPPLER SIGNATURES OF THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION ON HOT JUPITERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Showman, Adam P.; Lewis, Nikole K. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)] [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Shabram, Megan, E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation-and Doppler signature-of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blueshifted and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps these waves and inhibits jet formation. As a result, this second regime exhibits a circulation dominated by high-altitude, day-to-night airflow, leading to a predominantly blueshifted Doppler signature during transit. We present state-of-the-art circulation models including non-gray radiative transfer to quantify this regime shift and the resulting Doppler signatures; these models suggest that cool planets like GJ 436b lie in the first regime, HD 189733b is transitional, while planets hotter than HD 209458b lie in the second regime. Moreover, we show how the amplitude of the Doppler shifts constrains the strength of frictional drag in the upper atmospheres of hot Jupiters. If due to winds, the {approx}2 km s{sup -1} blueshift inferred on HD 209458b may require drag time constants as short as 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} s, possibly the result of Lorentz-force braking on this planet's hot dayside.

  20. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation doseCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 regulations of the Rules of the City of New York, Article 175, Radiation Control, there is a requirement

  1. Diabat L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004. SOLAR RADIATION CLIMATE IN AFRICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Diabaté L., Blanc Ph., Wald L., Solar radiation climate in Africa. Solar Energy, 76, 733-744, 2004 is very useful for preliminary assessment and modeling of solar energy systems. Following the approach: clearness index, atmosphere optics, clustering, interpolation, map, solar energy systems Nomenclature: (KTd

  2. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  3. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  4. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  5. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  6. Radiation detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Franks, Larry A. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lutz, Stephen S. (Santa Barbara, CA); Lyons, Peter B. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation detection system including a radiation-to-light converter and fiber optic wave guides to transmit the light to a remote location for processing. The system utilizes fluors particularly developed for use with optical fibers emitting at wavelengths greater than about 500 nm and having decay times less than about 10 ns.

  7. Precision Determination of Atmospheric Extinction at Optical and Near IR Wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, David L.; /SLAC; Axelrod, T.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.; Blondin, Stephane; /European Southern Observ. /Marseille, CPPM; Claver, Chuck; /NOAO, Tucson; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Saha, Abhijit; /NOAO, Tucson; Smith, Allyn; /Austin Peay State U.; Smith, R.Chris; /Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time and uniform over the sky to precisions of a per cent or better, and absolute calibration of color measurements that are similarly accurate. This performance will need to be achieved with measurements made from multiple images taken over the course of many years, and these surveys will observe in less than ideal conditions. This paper describes a technique to implement a new strategy to directly measure variations of atmospheric transmittance at optical wavelengths and application of these measurements to calibration of ground-based observations. This strategy makes use of measurements of the spectra of a small catalog of bright 'probe' stars as they progress across the sky and back-light the atmosphere. The signatures of optical absorption by different atmospheric constituents are recognized in these spectra by their characteristic dependences on wavelength and airmass. State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to accurately compute atmospheric extinction over a wide range of observing conditions. We present results of an observing campaign that demonstrate that correction for extinction due to molecular constituents and aerosols can be done with precisions of a few millimagnitudes with this technique.

  8. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  9. Physics-Based GOES Satellite Product for Use in NREL's National Solar Radiation Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Gotseff, P.; Weekley, A.; Lopez, A.; Molling, C.; Heidinger, A.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), University of Wisconsin, and National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration are collaborating to investigate the integration of the Satellite Algorithm for Shortwave Radiation Budget (SASRAB) products into future versions of NREL's 4-km by 4-km gridded National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). This paper describes a method to select an improved clear-sky model that could replace the current SASRAB global horizontal irradiance and direct normal irradiances reported during clear-sky conditions.

  10. RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yuanlin

    RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AT TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY................................................................................................................I-1 B. Radiation Protection Program...............................................................................I-3 D. Radiation Safety Management

  11. Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Aihua

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

  12. XUV exposed non-hydrostatic hydrogen-rich upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets. Part I: Atmospheric expansion and thermal escape

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erkaev, N V; Odert, P; Kulikov, Yu N; Kislyakova, K G; Khodachenko, M L; Güdel, M; Hanslmeier, A; Biernat, H

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The recently discovered low-density "super-Earths" Kepler-11b, Kepler-11f, Kepler-11d, Kepler-11e, and planets such as GJ 1214b represent most likely planets which are surrounded by dense H/He envelopes or contain deep H2O oceans also surrounded by dense hydrogen envelopes. Although these "super-Earths" are orbiting relatively close to their host stars, they have not lost their captured nebula-based hydrogen-rich or degassed steam protoatmospheres. Thus it is interesting to estimate the maximum possible amount of atmospheric hydrogen loss from a terrestrial planet orbiting within the habitable zone of a Sun-like G-type host star. For studying the thermosphere structure and escape we apply a 1-D hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model which solves the equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation for a planet with the mass and size of the Earth and for a "super-Earth" with a size of 2 R_Earth and a mass of 10 M_Earth. We calculate heating rates by the stellar soft X-rays and EUV radiation and expansion of th...

  13. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 Psychiatric Institute Radiation Safety Office (Please complete this form within 24 hours and send a copy to your supervisor and The Radiation Safety Office) Your Name

  14. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212: _______________ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Radiation Safety Office Approval: ______________________ Date: ________________________ Waste containers in place: Yes ___ No ___ Radiation signage on door: Yes ___ No ___ Room monitoring: Dates

  15. Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    to Workers; Inspections 27 10 CFR Part 20Standards for Protection Against Radiation 28 10 CFR Part 35Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated

  16. Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    Mass spectrometric approaches for chemical characterisation of atmospheric aerosols: critical. Atmospheric aerosols have profound effects on the environment through several physicochemical processes on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Understanding aerosol atmospheric chemistry and its environmental

  17. Atmospheric science encompasses meteorology and climatology, as well as fields such as atmospheric chemistry and remote sensing.Atmospheric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oceanography and Meteorology Building.The Doppler weather radar on the roof of the building is a campus Mobile Atmospheric Research and Teaching Radar (SMART-R).This radar is used in national and international

  18. Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

  19. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

  20. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  1. atmospheric pressure ionization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Atmospheric Pressure, in Vivo, and Imaging Mass. For example, atmospheric pressure infrared MALDI (AP IR-MALDI), capable of producing ions from small ionization (DESI),5...

  2. atmospheric carbon emissions: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxide (N2O) 13 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 13 Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon Dioxide Geosciences Websites Summary: Atmospheric Lifetime of Fossil Fuel Carbon...

  3. atmospheric oxygenation recorded: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cores may contain high quality records of atmospheric deposition. The qualitative Short, Daniel 3 Bistability of atmospheric oxygen and the Great Oxidation Geosciences Websites...

  4. atmospheric optical turbulence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics Physics Websites Summary: Atmospheric Turbulence and its Influence on Adaptive Optics...

  5. atmospheric ion measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Atmospheric CERN Preprints Summary: We report the first observation in a high energy neutrino telescope of cascades induced by atmospheric electron neutrinos and by...

  6. Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), Proton Elastic Scattering Analysis Comparative Analysis of Urban Atmospheric Aerosol by...

  7. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne Particle Analysis. Atmospheric Solids Analysis Probe Mass Spectrometry: A New Approach for Airborne...

  8. A Volcanologist'S Review Of Atmospheric Hazards Of Volcanic Activity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    atmospheric hazards caused by explosive volcanic activity. The hazard posed by fine silicate ash with long residence time in the atmosphere is probably much less serious than...

  9. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health...

  10. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963....

  11. atmospheric global electric: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion this paper. Key Words aerosol deposition, climate change, deserts Abstract Atmospheric inputs of iron sources of iron are...

  12. atmospheric dispersion coefficient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 3 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  13. atmospheric dispersion calculations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 4 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  14. atmospheric dispersion experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the earth surface. In general, the atmospheric motion is driven by the intense solar energy arriving at the equator 2 A GIS-based atmospheric dispersion model Computer...

  15. atmospheric climate model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curry & Webster Atmospheric Thermodynamics Ch1 Composition Ch2 Laws Ch3 Transfers Ch12 Energy Russell, Lynn 10 Climate Sciences: Atmospheric Thermodynamics Environmental...

  16. atmosphere box model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GloveBoxes Glove boxes allow the user to perform operations in an atmosphere 8 University Corporation for Atmospheric Research PO Box 3000 Boulder, Colorado 80307 Geosciences...

  17. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of...

  18. atmospheric modeling system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 Causes and implications of persistent atmospheric carbon dioxide biases in Earth System Models University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: Atmosphere and Ocean...

  19. atmospheric co2 content: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  20. atmospheric chemistry simulations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  1. atmospheric sciences exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  2. atmospheric chemistry project: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  3. atmospheric co2 concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  4. atmospheric co2 concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  5. atmospheric co2 laser: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  6. atmospheric loading effects: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large solar proton Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 7 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  7. atmospheric chemistry programme: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  8. atmospheric co2 measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  9. atmospheric co2 variations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  10. atmospheric chemistry experiment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  11. atmospheric science people: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 9 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  12. atmospheric chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: , nitrogen and oxygen The Greenhouse Effect Atmospheric Aerosols Atmospheric chemical kinetics including and oral reports to...

  13. atmospheric sciences: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    annual reviews of faculty performance in accordance 8 Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Physics Websites Summary: Space Science : Atmosphere Greenhouse Effect Part-5a...

  14. atmospheric co2 mixing: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Of Physics Version 4 Gerlich and Ralf D. Tscheuschner Abstract The atmospheric greenhouse effect, an idea that many authors Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects . . . 3...

  15. atmospheric aerosols basic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of atmospheric aerosol. Aplin, KL 2012-01-01 13 1. Introduction The atmospheric greenhouse effect is the basic mechanism Environmental Sciences and Ecology Websites Summary: 1....

  16. atmospheric deposition microbial: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  17. atmospheric deposition nutrient: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mercury in the Global Atmosphere: Chemistry, deposition, and land-atmosphere interactions Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: Mercury in the Global...

  18. Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model at NERSC

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmosphere Model Visualizing Storms from NCAR's Atmosphere Model CCSM-sprabhat.png Global warming will likely change the statistics of tropical cyclones and hurricanes. In this...

  19. The Intense Radiation Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

    2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

  20. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  1. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  2. Adaptive control for Mars atmospheric flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Restrepo, Carolina Isabel

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    landing accuracy requirements for a manned space vehicle make it necessary to ?y a controlled entry trajectory rather than a more robust ballistic entry trajectory used for some robotic missions. The large variations in Mars atmospheric properties make a...

  3. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large portion of the microscopic particles floating in the air originate from incomplete combustion of coal and oil and from dust storms. Once in the atmosphere, they can have...

  4. HYPERsensarium : an archive of atmospheric conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kelly E. (Kelly Evelyn)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYPERsensarium proposes a tangible interface of atmospheres for public experience through an archive of historical and projected weathers. While architecture's purpose has long been to act as the technical boundary between ...

  5. Space Science: Atmospheres Evolution of planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Robert E.

    ;Atmospheres / Evolution Heat Sources Compressional Energy Trapped Radioactive Material Tidal Interactions, same A) the surface temperature,Tg, increases. WOW! Simple #12;Temperature vs. time in an Early Epoch

  6. MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE DYNAMICS AT707 (3 credits)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., Holton, J. R., Leovy, C. B., Academic Press, 489 pp. · Atmospheric and Oceanic Fluid Dynamics, 2006 Review Articles: · Haynes, P. H., 2005: Stratospheric Dynamics. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37, 263­ 293

  7. Lookup tables to compute high energy cosmic ray induced atmospheric ionization and changes in atmospheric chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimitra Atri; Adrian L. Melott; Brian C. Thomas

    2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of events such as gamma-ray bursts and supernovae may expose the Earth to an increased flux of high-energy cosmic rays, with potentially important effects on the biosphere. Existing atmospheric chemistry software does not have the capability of incorporating the effects of substantial cosmic ray flux above 10 GeV . An atmospheric code, the NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center two-dimensional (latitude, altitude) time-dependent atmospheric model (NGSFC), is used to study atmospheric chemistry changes. Using CORSIKA, we have created tables that can be used to compute high energy cosmic ray (10 GeV - 1 PeV) induced atmospheric ionization and also, with the use of the NGSFC code, can be used to simulate the resulting atmospheric chemistry changes. We discuss the tables, their uses, weaknesses, and strengths.

  8. Trace analysis of atmospheric organic bases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Dwayne C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    chromatographic fractions for NS analyses ( 121) and its use as a thin layer chromatography (TLC) adsorbent ( 122). The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends its use in the analysis of many industrial vapors ( 113 - 120... analysis of atmospheric organic bases were investigated; the study included (1) the analysis of submarine charcoal filter bed samples for nitrogen bases and (2) the use of metallic tetraphenylporphines (TPP) as specific adsorbents for atmospheric...

  9. Quantum light in the turbulent atmosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. A. Semenov; W. Vogel

    2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonclassical properties of light propagating through the turbulent atmosphere are studied. We demonstrate by numerical simulation that the probability distribution of the transmission coefficient, which characterizes the effects of the atmosphere on the quantum state of light, can be reconstructed by homodyne detection. Nonclassical photon-statistics and, more generally, nonclassical Glauber-Sudarshan functions appear to be more robust against turbulence for weak light fields rather than for bright ones.

  10. Portal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kruse, Lyle W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  11. The Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Ignatov

    2001-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An example of discontinuity of the energy-momentum tensor moving at superluminal velocity is discussed. It is shown that the gravitational Mach cone is formed. The power spectrum of the corresponding Cherenkov radiation is evaluated.

  12. Radiation from Accelerated Branes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohab Abou-Zeid; Miguel S. Costa

    2000-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

  13. Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

  14. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  15. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  16. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  17. Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Pengcheng

    Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers: ZB, TU, GS Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of x-ray producing

  18. Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    of External and Internal Doses E. Reports and Notices to Workers Chapter VII: Radiation ProtectionRadiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual

  19. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  20. Pacific Northwest Laboratory annual report for 1993 to the DOE Office of Energy Research. Part 3: Atmospheric and climate research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) atmospheric sciences and carbon dioxide research programs provide the DOE with scientifically defensible information on the local, regional, and global distributions of energy-related pollutants and their effects on climate. PNL has had a long history of technical leadership in the atmospheric sciences research programs within OHER. Within the Environmental Sciences Division of OHER, the Atmospheric Chemistry Program continues DOE`s long-term commitment to understanding the local, regional, and global effects of energy-related air pollutants. Research through direct measurement, numerical modeling, and analytical studies in the Atmospheric Chemistry Program emphasizes the long-range transport, chemical transformation, and removal of emitted pollutants, photochemically produced oxidant species, nitrogen-reservoir species, and aerosols. The atmospheric studies in Complex Terrain Program applies basic research on atmospheric boundary layer structure and evolution over inhomogeneous terrain to DOE`s site-specific and generic mission needs in site safety, air quality, and climate change. Research at PNL provides basic scientific underpinnings to DOE`s program of global climate research. Research projects within the core carbon dioxide and ocean research programs are now integrated with those in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements, the Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics and Model Physics, and Quantitative Links program to form DOE`s contribution to the US Global Change Research Program. The description of ongoing atmospheric and climate research at PNL is organized in two broad research areas: atmospheric research; and climate research. This report describes the progress in fiscal year 1993 in each of these areas. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. Importance of Compton scattering for radiation spectra of isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Suleimanov; K. Werner

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Emergent model spectra of neutron star atmospheres are widely used to fit the observed soft X-ray spectra of different types of isolated neutron stars. We investigate the effect of Compton scattering on the emergent spectra of hot (T_eff > 10^6 K) isolated neutron stars with weak magnetic fields. In order to compute model atmospheres in hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium we solve the radiation transfer equation with the Kompaneets operator. We calculate a set of models with effective temperatures in the range 1 - 5 * 10^6 K, with two values of surface gravity (log g = 13.9 and 14.3) and different chemical compositions. Radiation spectra computed with Compton scattering are softer than those computed without Compton scattering at high energies (E > 5 keV) for light elements (H or He) model atmospheres. The Compton effect is more significant in H model atmospheres and models with low surface gravity. The emergent spectra of the hottest (T_eff > 3 * 10^6 K) model atmospheres can be described by diluted blackbody spectra with hardness factors ~ 1.6 - 1.9. Compton scattering is less important in models with solar abundance of heavy elements.

  2. Radiative Transitions in Charmonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jozef Dudek; Robert Edwards; David Richards

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The form factors for the radiative transitions between charmonium mesons are investigated. We employ an anisotropic lattice using a Wilson gauge action, and domain-wall fermion action. We extrapolate the form factors to Q{sup 2} = 0, corresponding to a real photon, using quark-model-inspired functions. Finally, comparison is made with photocouplings extracted from the measured radiative widths, where known. Our preliminary results find photocouplings commensurate with these experimentally extracted values.

  3. Radiative Processes Working Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The

  4. JournalofGeophysicalResearch: Atmospheres RESEARCH ARTICLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to optical frequencies, extending to X-rays and gamma rays. The electromagnetic pulse associated to its abundance in nature. Lightning processes radiate impulsive electromagnetic waves from DC

  5. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  6. Gravitational Tunneling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Rabinowitz

    2002-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The isolated black hole radiation of both Hawking and Zel'dovich are idealized abstractions as there is always another body to distort the potential. This is considered with respect to both gravitational tunneling, and black hole "no-hair" theorems. The effects of a second body are to lower the gravitational barrier of a black hole and to give the barrier a finite rather than infinite width so tha a particle can escape by tunneling (as in field emission) or over the top of the lowered barrier (as in Schottky emission). Thus radiation may be emitted from black holes in a process differing from that of Hawking radiation, P SH, which has been undetected for over 24 years. The radiated power from a black hole derived here is PR e ^2__ PSH, where e ^2__ is he ransmission probability for radiation through the barrier. This is similar to electric field emission of electrons from a metal in that the emission can in principle be modulated and beamed. The temperature and entropy of black holes are reexamined. Miniscule black holes herein may help explain the missing mass of the universe, accelerated expansion of the universe, and anomalous rotation of spiral galaxies. A gravitational interference effect for black hole radiation similar to the Aharonov-Bohm effect is also examined.

  7. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  8. Progress Report for Proposal entitled " The Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols: Investigations during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Progress Report for Proposal entitled " The Direct Radiative Forcing of Biomass Burning Aerosols irradiances (DSWI) at the surface and the atmospheric heating/cooling rate profiles. For example, the DSWI the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring

  9. Selective radiative cooling with MgO and/or LiF layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A selective radiation cooling material which is absorptive only in the 8 to 13 microns wavelength range is accomplished by placing ceramic magnesium oxide and/or polycrystalline lithium fluoride on an infrared-reflective substrate. The reflecting substrate may be a metallic coating, foil or sheet, such as aluminum, which reflects all atmospheric radiation from 0.3 to 8 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride being nonabsorptive at those wavelengths. <10% of submicron voids in the material is permissible in which case the MgO and/or LiF layer is diffusely scattering, but still nonabsorbing, in the wavelength range of 0.3 to 8 microns. At wavelengths from 8 to 13 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride radiate power through the ''window'' in the atmosphere, and thus remove heat from the reflecting sheet of material and the attached object to be cooled. At wavelengths longer than 13 microns, the magnesium oxide and lithium fluoride reflects the atmospheric radiation back into the atmosphere. This high reflectance is only obtained if the surface is sufficiently smooth: roughness on a scale of 1 micron is permissible but roughness on a scale of 10 microns is not. An infrared-transmitting cover or shield is mounted in spaced relationship to the material to reduce convective heat transfer. If this is utilized in direct sunlight, the infrared transmitting cover or shield should be opaque in the solar spectrum of 0.3 to 3 microns.

  10. Energetic outer radiation-belt electron precipitation during recurrent solar activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Otago, University of

    on the atmosphere [Seppälä et al., 2004]. During some intense solar storms solar protons in the energy range 1Energetic outer radiation-belt electron precipitation during recurrent solar activity Mark A and Physical Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia. Russell S. Grew School of Mathematical

  11. The effect of non-uniform radiative damping on the zonal-mean dynamics of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    to an imposed forcing or diabatic heating is examined in a zonal-mean model of the middle atmosphere. Attention radiative damping rates are more sensitive in terms of temperature to the remote in uence of the diabatic is the strongly relaxational nature of diabatic heating. It is this feature, for example, which leads to the zonal

  12. MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste

    MODELLING RADIATIVELY ACTIVE WATER-ICE CLOUDS: IMPACT ON THE THERMAL STRUCTURE AND WATER CYCLE. J. The essential role of water-ice clouds in shaping the thermal structure of the martian atmosphere has been long presumed [1] but neglected in GCMs because of the lack of observations and difficulty to predict

  13. Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haak, Hein

    Climatic Impact of Global-Scale Deforestation: Radiative versus Nonradiative Processes EDOUARD L­ocean­atmosphere GCM is used to explore the biogeophysical impact of large-scale deforestation on surface climate that the surface albedo increase owing to deforestation has a cooling effect of 21.36 K globally. On the other hand

  14. An Efficient Approach for Optical Radiative Transfer Tomography using the Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinates Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levis, Aviad; Aides, Amit; Davis, Anthony B

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces a method to preform optical tomography, using 3D radiative transfer as the forward model. We use an iterative approach predicated on the Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinates Method (SHDOM) to solve the optimization problem in a scalable manner. We illustrate with an application in remote sensing of a cloudy atmosphere.

  15. Evolution of the radiation processing industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cleland, Marshall R. [IBA Industrial, Inc., 151 Heartland Boulevard, Edgewood, NY 11717 (United States)

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Early investigations of the effects of treating materials with ionizing radiations began in 1894 with the irradiation of gases at atmospheric pressure using cathode rays from a Crookes gas-discharge tube, in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays emitted from a Crookes tube, and in 1896 with the discovery of radioactivity in uranium. In 1897, small electrically charged particles were detected and identified in the gas discharges inside Crookes tubes. These particles were then named electrons. During the next three decades, it was found that these novel forms of energy could produce ions to initiate chemical reactions in some gases and liquids. By 1921, it had also been shown that insects, parasites and bacteria could be killed by treatment with ionizing radiation. In 1925, a high-vacuum tube with a thermionic cathode and a thin metallic anode was developed to produce electron beams in air by using accelerating potentials up to 250 kilovolts. That unique apparatus was the precursor of the many types of electron accelerators that have been developed since then for a variety of industrial applications. In 1929, the vulcanization of natural rubber without using any chemical additives was achieved by irradiation with electrons from a 250 kilovolt accelerator. In 1939, several liquid monomers were polymerized by treatment with gamma rays from radioactive nuclides. These early results were not exploited before the end of World War II because intense sources of ionizing radiation were not available then. Shortly after that war, there was increased interest in developing the peaceful uses of atomic energy, which included the chemical and biological effects of radiation exposures. Many uses that have been developed since then are described briefly in this paper. These industrial applications are now producing billions of US dollars in revenue every year.

  16. Atmospheric Response to Fukushima Daiichi NPP (Japan) Accident Reviled by Satellite and Ground observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouzounov, D; Hattori, K; Kafatos, M; Taylor, P

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Immediately after the March 11, 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan we started to continuously survey the Outgoing Long-wavelength Radiation (OLR, 10-13 microns) from NOAA/AVHRR. Our preliminary results show the presence of hot spots on the top of the atmosphere over the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) and due to their persistence over the same region they are most likely not of meteorological origin. On March 14 and 21 we detected a significant increase in radiation (14 W/m2) at the top of the atmosphere which also coincides with a reported radioactivity gas leaks from the FDNPP. After March 21 the intensity of OLR started to decline, which has been confirmed by ground radiometer network. We hypothesize that this increase in OLR was a result of the radioactive leaks released in atmosphere from the FDNPP. This energy triggers ionization of the air near the ground and lead to release of latent heat energy due to change of air humidity and temperature. Our early results demonstrate the potential ...

  17. Modeling Activities in the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Ghan, Steven J.; Schwartz, Stephen E.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) conducts research pertinent to radiative forcing of climate change by atmospheric aerosols. The program consists of approximately 40 highly interactive peer-reviewed research projects that examine aerosol properties and processes and the evolution of aerosols in the atmosphere. Principal components of the program are instrument development, laboratory experiments, field studies, theoretical investigations, and modeling. The objectives of the Program are to 1) improve the understanding of aerosol processes associated with light scattering and absorption properties and interactions with clouds that affect Earth's radiative balance and to 2) develop model-based representations of these processes that enable the effects of aerosols on Earth's climate system to be properly represented in global-scale numerical climate models. Although only a few of the research projects within ASP are explicitly identified as primarily modeling activities, modeling actually comprises a substantial component of a large fraction of ASP research projects. This document describes the modeling activities within the Program as a whole, the objectives and intended outcomes of these activities, and the linkages among the several modeling components and with global-scale modeling activities conducted under the support of the Department of Energy's Climate Sciences Program and other aerosol and climate research programs.

  18. Working With Radiation For Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    working with radiation The radiation badge is not a protective device It cannot shield you from ­ Negative Exponential Protection From Radiation #12;18 Time Distance Shielding Basic Principles #121 Working With Radiation For Research Thomas Cummings Junior Physicist Environmental Health

  19. Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Radiation Safety Annual Refresher Training Radiation Protection Division Department of Environmental Health & Safety #12;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User;Topics in Radiation Safety (applicable RPD Manual sections indicated) User and Non-user topics Types

  20. Evaluation of GCM Column Radiation Models Under Cloudy Conditions with The Arm BBHRP Value Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Lazaros Oreopoulos and Dr. Peter M. Norris

    2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goal of the project was to improve the transfer of solar and thermal radiation in the most sophisticated computer tools that are currently available for climate studies, namely Global Climate Models (GCMs). This transfer can be conceptually separated into propagation of radiation under cloudy and under cloudless conditions. For cloudless conditions, the factors that affect radiation propagation are gaseous absorption and scattering, aerosol particle absorption and scattering and surface albedo and emissivity. For cloudy atmospheres the factors are the various cloud properties such as cloud fraction, amount of cloud condensate, the size of the cloud particles, and morphological cloud features such as cloud vertical location, cloud horizontal and vertical inhomogeneity and cloud shape and size. The project addressed various aspects of the influence of the above contributors to atmospheric radiative transfer variability. In particular, it examined: (a) the quality of radiative transfer for cloudless and non-complex cloudy conditions for a substantial number of radiation algorithms used in current GCMs; (b) the errors in radiative fluxes from neglecting the horizontal variabiity of cloud extinction; (c) the statistical properties of cloud horizontal and vertical cloud inhomogeneity that can be incorporated into radiative transfer codes; (d) the potential albedo effects of changes in the particle size of liquid clouds; (e) the gaseous radiative forcing in the presence of clouds; and (f) the relative contribution of clouds of different sizes to the reflectance of a cloud field. To conduct the research in the various facets of the project, data from both the DOE ARM project and other sources were used. The outcomes of the project will have tangible effects on how the calculation of radiative energy will be approached in future editions of GCMs. With better calculations of radiative energy in GCMs more reliable predictions of future climate states will be attainable, thus affecting public policy decisions with great impact to public life.

  1. New nonlinear mechanisms of midlatitude atmospheric low-frequency variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract

  2. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  3. Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)IntegratedSpeedingTechnicalPurchase, Delivery, andSmartRadiation EffectsProtection

  4. Inhomogeneous cloud coverage through the Coulomb explosion of dust in substellar atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Craig R; Diver, Declan A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent observations of brown dwarf spectroscopic variability in the infrared infer the presence of patchy cloud cover. This paper proposes a mechanism for producing inhomogeneous cloud coverage due to the depletion of cloud particles through the Coulomb explosion of dust in atmospheric plasma regions. Charged dust grains Coulomb-explode when the electrostatic stress of the grain exceeds its mechanical tensile stress, which results in grains below a critical radius $aatmospheres, the effect on the dust particle size distribution function, and the resulting radiative properties of the atmospheric regions. Our results show that for an atmospheric plasma region with an electron temperature of $T_{e}=10$~eV ($\\approx10^{5}$~K), the critical grain radius varies from $10^{-7}$ to $10^{-4}$~cm, depending on the grains' tensile strength. Higher critical radii up to $10^{-3}$~cm ...

  5. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  6. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  7. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus in the pilot radiation observation experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Platt, C.M.R.; Young, S.A.; Manson, P.; Patterson, G.R. [CSIRO, Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a sensitive filter radiometer for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been reported. The aim was to develop a reliable and fast instrument that could be used alongside a lidar to obtain near realtime optical properties of clouds, particularly high ice clouds, as they drifted over an ARM Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site allowing calculation of the radiation divergence in the atmosphere over the site. Obtaining cloud optical properties by the lidar/radiometer, or LIRAD, method was described by Platt et al.; the latter paper also describes a year`s data on mid-latitude cirrus. The optical properties of equatorial cirrus (i.e., cirrus within a few degrees of the equator) have hardly been studied at all. The same is true of tropical cirrus, although a few observations have been reported by Davis and Platt et al.This paper describes obersvations performed on cirrus clouds, analysis methods used, and results.

  8. H{alpha} ABSORPTION IN TRANSITING EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christie, Duncan; Arras, Phil; Li Zhiyun, E-mail: dac5zm@virginia.edu, E-mail: pla7y@virginia.edu, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption of stellar H{alpha} by the upper atmosphere of the planet HD 189733b has recently been detected by Jensen et al. Motivated by this observation, we have developed a model for atomic hydrogen in the n = 2 state and compared the resulting H{alpha} line profile to the observations. The model atmosphere is in hydrostatic balance, as well as thermal and photoionization equilibrium. Collisional and radiative transitions are included in the determination of the n = 2 state level population. We find that H{alpha} absorption is dominated by an optical depth {tau} {approx} 1 shell, composed of hydrogen in the metastable 2s state that is located below the hydrogen ionization layer. The number density of the 2s state within the shell is found to vary slowly with radius, while that of the 1s state falls rapidly. Thus while the Ly{alpha} absorption, for a certain wavelength, occurs inside a relatively well defined impact parameter, the contribution to H{alpha} absorption is roughly uniform over the entire atomic hydrogen layer. The model can approximately reproduce the observed Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} integrated transit depths for HD 189733b by using an ionization rate enhanced over that expected for the star by an order of magnitude. For HD 209458b, we are unable to explain the asymmetric H{alpha} line profile observed by Jensen et al., as the model produces a symmetric line profile with transit depth comparable to that of HD 189733b. In an appendix, we study the effect of the stellar Ly{alpha} absorption on the net cooling rate.

  9. Evaluation of Surface Flux Parameterizations with Long-Term ARM Observations Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    , China YANGANG LIU AND SATOSHI ENDO Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York (Manuscript received at the Southern Great Plains site by the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Mea- surement program and Forecasting (WRF) model and three U.S. general circulation models (GCMs). The unprecedented 7-yr

  10. Model atmospheres and X-ray spectra of iron-rich bursting neutron stars. II. Iron rich Comptonized Spectra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majczyna; J. Madej; P. C. Joss; A. Rozanska

    2004-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the set of plane-parallel model atmosphere equations for a very hot neutron star (X-ray burst source). The model equations assume both hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium, and the equation of state of an ideal gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The equation of radiative transfer includes terms describing Compton scattering of photons on free electrons in fully relativistic thermal motion, for photon energies approaching m_e *c^2. Model equations take into account many bound-free and free-free energy-dependent opacities of hydrogen, helium, and the iron ions, and also a dozen bound-bound opacities for the highest ions of iron. We solve model equations by partial linearisation and the technique of variable Eddington factors. Large grid of H-He-Fe model atmospheres of X-ray burst sources has been computed for 10^7 neutron stars from observational data.

  11. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Askins, Steve, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  12. Coherent Nuclear Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Yukalov; E. P. Yukalova

    2004-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The main part of this review is devoted to the comprehensive description of coherent radiation by nuclear spins. The theory of nuclear spin superradiance is developed and the experimental observations of this phenomenon are considered. The intriguing problem of how coherence develops from initially incoherent quantum fluctuations is analysed. All main types of coherent radiation by nuclear spins are discussed, which are: free nuclear induction, collective induction, maser generation, pure superradiance, triggered superradiance, pulsing superradiance, punctuated superradiance, and induced emission. The influence of electron-nuclear hyperfine interactions and the role of magnetic anisotropy are studied. Conditions for realizing spin superradiance by magnetic molecules are investigated. The possibility of nuclear matter lasing, accompanied by pion or dibaryon radiation, is briefly touched.

  13. Pediatric radiation oncology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halperin, E.C.; Kun, L.E.; Constine, L.S.; Tarbell, N.J.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This text covers all aspects of radiation therapy for treatment of pediatric cancer. The book describes the proper use of irradiation in each of the malignancies of childhood, including tumors that are rarely encountered in adult practice. These include acute leukemia; supratentorial brain tumors; tumors of the posterior fossa of the brain and spinal canal; retinoblastoma and optic nerve glioma; neuroblastoma; Hodgkin's disease; malignant lymphoma; Ewing's sarcoma; osteosarcoma; rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoid tumor; Wilms' tumor; liver and biliary tumors; germ cell and stromal cell tumors of the gonads; endocrine, aerodigestive tract, and breast tumors; Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; and skin cancer and hemangiomas. For each type of malignancy, the authors describe the epidemiology, common presenting signs and symptoms, staging, and proper diagnostic workup. Particular attention is given to the indications for radiation therapy and the planning of a course of radiotherapy, including the optimal radiation dose, field size, and technique.

  14. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  15. Magnetized Atmospheres around Accreting Neutron Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zane; R. Turolla; A. Treves

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed investigation of atmospheres around accreting neutron stars with high magnetic field ($B\\gtrsim 10^{12}$ G) and low luminosity ($L\\lesssim 10^{33}$ erg/s). We compute the atmospheric structure, intensity and emergent spectrum for a plane-parallel, pure hydrogen medium by solving the transfer equations for the normal modes coupled to the hydrostatic and energy balance equations. The hard tail found in previous investigations for accreting, non-magnetic neutron stars with comparable luminosity is suppressed and the X-ray spectrum, although still harder than a blackbody at the star effective temperature, is nearly planckian in shape. Spectra from accreting atmospheres, both with high and low fields, are found to exhibit a significant excess at optical wavelengths above the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the X-ray continuum.

  16. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  17. Super Kamiokande results: atmospheric and solar neutrinos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ishitsuka; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2004-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Atmospheric neutrino and solar neutrino data from the first phase of Super-Kamiokande (SK-I) are presented. The observed data are used to study atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations. Zenith angle distributions from various atmospheric neutrino data samples are used to estimate the neutrino oscillation parameter region. In addition, a new result of the $L/E$ measurement is presented. A dip in the $L/E$ distribution was observed in the data, as predicted from the sinusoidal flavor transition probability of neutrino oscillation. The energy spectrum and the time variation such as day/night and seasonal differences of solar neutrino flux are measured in Super-Kamiokande. The neutrino oscillation parameters are strongly constrained from those measurements.

  18. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  19. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  20. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G; Limmer, Steven J

    2013-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.