Sample records for thin-film solar cell

  1. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-for thin-film a-si:h solar cells. Progress in Photovoltaics,in thin-film silicon solar cells. Optics Communications,

  2. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-

  3. US polycrystalline thin film solar cells program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)) [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells and modules that meet the US Department of Energy's long-term goals by achieving high efficiencies (15%-20%), low-cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and long-time reliability (30 years). The importance of work in this area is due to the fact that the polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules have made rapid advances. They have become the leading thin films for PV in terms of efficiency and stability. The US Department of Energy has increased its funding through an initiative through the Solar Energy Research Institute in CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe with subcontracts to start in Spring 1990. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  4. DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important

  5. Efficient light trapping structure in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Thin film silicon solar cells are believed to be promising candidates for continuing cost reduction in photovoltaic panels because silicon usage could be greatly reduced. Since silicon is an indirect bandgap semiconductor, ...

  6. Recent technological advances in thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zwelbel, K.; Surek, T.

    1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-efficiency, low-cost thin film solar cells are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. This paper reviews the substantial advances made by several thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline silicon. Recent examples of utility demonstration projects of these emerging materials are also discussed. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Mode Splitting for Efficient Plasmoinc Thin-film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Tong; Jiang, Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an efficient plasmonic structure consisting of metal strips and thin-film silicon for solar energy absorption. We numerically demonstrate the absorption enhancement in symmetrical structure based on the mode coupling between the localized plasmonic mode in Ag strip pair and the excited waveguide mode in silicon slab. Then we explore the method of symmetry-breaking to excite the dark modes that can further enhance the absorption ability. We compare our structure with bare thin-film Si solar cell, and results show that the integrated quantum efficiency is improved by nearly 90% in such thin geometry. It is a promising way for the solar cell.

  8. DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Kuo-Jui Hsiao ELECTRON- REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-FILM SOLAR CELLS The CdTe thin-film solar cell has a large absorption coefficient and high theoretical

  9. EARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    materials for thin film solar cells such as CdTe and CIGS suffer from concerns over resource scarcity (eEARTH ABUNDANT MATERIALS FOR HIGH EFFICIENCY HETEROJUNCTION THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS Yun Seog Lee 1 conversion efficiencies should be increased. In terms of reducing module cost, thin film solar cells

  10. Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells Deep Panjwania as scattering centers to increase the effective optical thickness of thin-film solar cells. The particular type. Gold-black was deposited on commercial thin-film solar cells using a thermal evaporator in nitrogen

  11. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  12. Polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Stone, J.L.; Zweibel, K.; Surek, T.; Mitchell, R.L.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the recent technological advances in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells and modules. Three thin film materials, namely, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}, CIS) and silicon films (Si-films) have made substantial technical progress, both in device and module performance. Early stability results for modules tested outdoors by various groups worldwide are also encouraging. The major global players actively involved in the development of the these technologies are discussed. Technical issues related to these materials are elucidated. Three 20-kW polycrystalline thin-film demonstration photovoltaic (PV) systems are expected to be installed in Davis, CA in 1992 as part of the Photovoltaics for Utility-Scale Applications (PVUSA) project. This is a joint project between the US Department of Energy (DOE), Pacific Gas and Electric (PG E), Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), California Energy Commission (CEC), and a utility consortium.

  13. High efficiency thin film silicon solar cells with novel light trapping : principle, design and processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lirong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One major efficiency limiting factor in thin film solar cells is weak absorption of long wavelength photons due to the limited optical path length imposed by the thin film thickness. This is especially severe in Si because ...

  14. Accounting for Localized Defects in the Optoelectronic Design of Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deceglie, Michael G.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    silicon thin film solar cells," Solar Energy, vol. 77, pp.nano-crystalline silicon n–i–p solar cells," Solar EnergyMaterials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, pp. H. Sakai, T.

  15. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu (Troy, MI); Yang, Chi-Chung (Troy, MI); Ovshinsky, Stanford R. (Bloomfield Hills, MI)

    1989-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  16. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  17. LBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    -film polycrystalline solar cells, such as CdTe and CIGS, and the overall performance of these cells. LBIC is uniquelyLBIC ANALYSIS OF THIN-FILM POLYCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS James R. Sites and Timothy J. Nagle Physics response map, was developed and used to map defects in thin-film solar cells [4]. Improvements to the two

  18. Band Gap Energy of Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cell Absorbers Determined by Soft X-Ray Emission and Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bar, M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    8] J.R. Tuttle et al. , Solar Cells 30, 21 (1991). [9] D.OF CHALCOPYRITE THIN FILM SOLAR CELL ABSORBERS DETERMINED BYchalcopyrite thin film solar cell absorbers significantly

  19. Optimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bring down the cost of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells has gained huge momentum, and many strategiesOptimization of the absorption efficiency of an amorphous-silicon thin-film tandem solar cell-wave approach was used to compute the plane-wave absorptance of a thin-film tandem solar cell with a metallic

  20. DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION ANALYSIS OF IMPACT OF NON-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-UNIFORMITIES ON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS AND MODULES WITH 2-D SIMULATIONS Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic

  1. Focused ion beam specimen preparation for electron holography of electrically biased thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    solar cells M. Duchamp1 , M. den Hertog2 , R. Imlau1 , C. B. Boothroyd1 , A. Kovács1 , A. H. Tavabi1, biased TEM specimen, thin film solar cell, FIB Thin films of hydrogenated Si (Si:H) can be used as active absorber layers in solar cells deposited on low cost substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour

  2. METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    METAL BLACKS AS SCATTERING CENTERS TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS by DEEP R surface of thin-film solar cells to improve efficiency. The principle is that scattering, which film solar cell. The particular types of particles investigated here are known as "metal-black", well

  3. Industrial Upscaling of CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells , A. Bosioa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    , these devices are already produced in modules of 60x120 cm2 by two companies, namely Antec Solar in GermanyIndustrial Upscaling of CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells N. Romeoa , A. Bosioa , A. Romeob , S, ABSTRACT: CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells, since they are made with easily scalable techniques

  4. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells Final Technical Report for the Period This is the final report covering approximately 42 months of this subcontract for research on high efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Phases I and II have

  5. Anti-reflection zinc oxide nanocones for higher efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailoa, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film silicon solar cells, which are commonly made from microcrystalline silicon ([mu]c-Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), have been considered inexpensive alternatives to thick polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) solar ...

  6. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained...

  7. Thin Film Solar Cells with Light Trapping Transparent Conducting Oxide Layer 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Tianlin

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells, if film thickness is thinner than the optical absorption length, typically give lower cell performance. For the thinner structure, electric current loss due to light penetration can offset the electric current gain obtained...

  8. 1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CdTe thin films solar cells have shown long

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    for the solar cell, therefore high specific power (ratio of out- put power to the weight) solar cells]. The high specific power is an important issue for space solar cells: if satellites are lighter1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CdTe thin films solar cells have shown long term stable performance

  9. Integrated photonic structures for light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We explore the mechanisms for an efficient light trapping structure for thin-film silicon solar cells. The design combines a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and periodic gratings. Using photonic band theories and numerical ...

  10. Earth abundant materials for high efficiency heterojunction thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buonassisi, Tonio

    We investigate earth abundant materials for thin-film solar cells that can meet tens of terawatts level deployment potential. Candidate materials are identified by combinatorial search, large-scale electronic structure ...

  11. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  12. Identification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    cells [4]. The problem of shadowing of solar panels has been studied for quite some time; however of a solar cell, showing the dark and light current components. (b) The series connection in a solar panelIdentification, Characterization, and Implications of Shadow Degradation in Thin Film Solar Cells

  13. Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    conversion efficiency of solar cells made from this material [1]. One of the special qualities of the CIGS improve the solar cell performance. In many of the different CIGS fabrication techniques, an in depthDiffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells O. Lundberga,*, J. Lua , A

  14. Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lenstra, Arjen K.

    Extended light scattering model incorporating coherence for thin-film silicon solar cells Thomas film solar cells. The model integrates coherent light propagation in thin layers with a direct, non efficiency spectra of state-of-the-art microcrystalline silicon solar cells. The simulations agree very well

  15. Dual gratings for enhanced light trapping in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Ireland * christian.schuster@york.ac.uk Abstract: Thin film solar cells benefit significantly from; (350.6050) Solar energy. References and links 1. M. A. Green, J. Zhao, A. Wang, and S. R. Wenham, "Progress and outlook for high-efficiency crystalline silicon solar cells," Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65

  16. innovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Low-bandgap cells can lose 25% of their power output and efficiency ratings as solar cell operating energy output than a low-bandgap cell with the same wattage or power rating. NREL is a nationalinnovati nNREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells Researchers

  17. Thermodynamic limits of nanophotonic light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    with solar tracking may realize the predicted JSC improvement. PACS Nos.: 88.40.jj, 42.79.Dj, 88.05.De to a significant improvement in light-trapping for cells used with solar trackingARTICLE Thermodynamic limits of nanophotonic light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells1 Brian

  18. Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veronis, Georgios

    .1063/1.3377791 Thin-film organic solar cells OSCs are a promising candidate for low-cost energy conversion.1­6 HoweverEnhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation up to 50% for such solar cell structures. © 2010 American Institute of Physics. doi:10

  19. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . An industrial exploitation of these properties for solar cell production currently lacks of a cost effectiveCRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer

  20. Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alam, Muhammad A.

    Universality of non-Ohmic shunt leakage in thin-film solar cells S. Dongaonkar,1,a J. D. Servaites thin-film solar cell types: hydrogenated amorphous silicon a-Si:H p-i-n cells, organic bulk heterojunction BHJ cells, and Cu In,Ga Se2 CIGS cells. All three device types exhibit a significant shunt leakage

  1. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  2. Molecular solution processing of metal chalcogenide thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Wenbing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3-6,3-7] Chalcopyrite CIGS solar cells, without introducingperformance CISS and CIGS solar cells with efficiencies uptellurium might impede CIGS/CdTe solar cells from reaching

  3. NREL Produces Highly Efficient, Wide-Bandgap, Thin-Film Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are finding new ways to manufacture thin-film solar cells made from copper, indium, gallium, and selenium - called CIGS cells - that are different than conventional CIGS solar cells. Their use of high-temperature glass, designed by SCHOTT AG, allows higher fabrication temperatures, opening the door to new CIGS solar cells employing light-absorbing materials with wide 'bandgaps.'

  4. Towards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping and non-radiative recombinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    important evaluation criterion for photovoltaic (PV) technology. Therefore, research on novel structuresTowards high efficiency thin-film crystalline silicon solar cells: The roles of light trapping February 2014; published online 3 March 2014) Thin-film solar cells based on silicon have emerged

  5. Low cost and high performance light trapping structure for thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-scaled dielectric and metallic structures are popular light tapping structures in thin-film solar cells. However, a large parasitic absorption in those structures is unavoidable. Most schemes based on such structures also involve the textured active layers that may bring undesirable degradation of the material quality. Here we propose a novel and cheap light trapping structure based on the prism structured SiO2 for thin-film solar cells, and a flat active layer is introduced purposefully. Such a light trapping structure is imposed by the geometrical shape optimization to gain the best optical benefit. By examining our scheme, it is disclosed that the conversion efficiency of the flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted to exceed the currently certified highest value. As the cost of SiO2-based light trapping structure is much cheaper and easier to fabricate than other materials, this proposal would have essential impact and wide applications in thin-film solar cells.

  6. A Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Review of Thin Film Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cell Applications. Part 1 : Native Substrates. Michelle J. Mc Cann, Kylie R. Catchpole, Klaus J. Weber and Andrew W. Blakers Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Engineering Department, The Australian National University, ACT 0200, Australia. Email : michelle

  7. Method of forming particulate materials for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eberspacher, Chris; Pauls, Karen Lea

    2004-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing particulate materials useful in fabricating thin-film solar cells is disclosed. Particulate materials is prepared by the method include for example materials comprising copper and indium and/or gallium in the form of single-phase, mixed-metal oxide particulates; multi-phase, mixed-metal particulates comprising a metal oxide; and multinary metal particulates.

  8. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  9. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV�s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a mixture of solution and physical vapor deposition processing, but these films lacked the p-type doping levels that are required to make decent solar cells. Over the course of the project PLANT PV was able to fabricate efficient CIGS solar cells (8.7%) but could not achieve equivalent performance using AIGS. During the nine-month grant PLANT PV set up a variety of thin film characterization tools (e.g. drive-level capacitance profiling) at the Molecular Foundry, a Department of Energy User Facility, that are now available to both industrial and academic researchers via the grant process. PLANT PV was also able to develop the back end processing of thin film solar cells at Lawrence Berkeley National Labs to achieve 8.7% efficient CIGS solar cells. This processing development will be applied to other types of thin film PV cells at the Lawrence Berkeley National Labs. While PLANT PV was able to study AIGS film growth and optoelectronic properties we concluded that AIGS produced using these methods would have a limited efficiency and would not be commercially feasible. PLANT PV did not apply for the Phase II of this grant.

  10. INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS solar cells enable very high photovoltaic efficiencies by virtue of employing different band gap materials in series- connected tandem cells to access the full solar spectrum. Researchers focused

  11. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  12. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  13. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

  14. Angular behavior of the absorption limit in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, Ali; Söderström, Karin; Battaglia, Corsin; Paeder, Vincent; Scharf, Toralf; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the angular behavior of the upper bound of absorption provided by the guided modes in thin film solar cells. We show that the 4n^2 limit can be potentially exceeded in a wide angular and wavelength range using two-dimensional periodic thin film structures. Two models are used to estimate the absorption enhancement; in the first one, we apply the periodicity condition along the thickness of the thin film structure but in the second one, we consider imperfect confinement of the wave to the device. To extract the guided modes, we use an automatized procedure which is established in this work. Through examples, we show that from the optical point of view, thin film structures have a high potential to be improved by changing their shape. Also, we discuss the nature of different optical resonances which can be potentially used to enhance light trapping in the solar cell. We investigate the two different polarization directions for one-dimensional gratings and we show that the transverse magnetic pola...

  15. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  16. Characterization of the Electronic and Chemical Structure at the Thin Film Solar Cell Interfaces: June 2005 -- June 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heske, C.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Study using photoelectron spectroscopy, inverse photoemission, and X-ray absorption and emission to derive the electronic structure of interfaces in CIGSS and CdTe thin-film solar cells.

  17. Low-cost, deterministic quasi-periodic photonic structures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    Light trapping has been an important issue for thin film silicon solar cells because of the low absorption coefficient in the near infrared range. In this paper, we present a photonic structure which combines anodic aluminum ...

  18. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  19. Modeling of multilayer SiGe based thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christoffel, E.; Debarge, L.; Slaoui, A. [CNRS, Strasbourg (France). Lab. PHASE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Simulations using PC1D have been performed to demonstrate the viability of crystalline SiGe alloys implementation in thin film solar cells. An optimized structure would consist of a p-type doped SiGe layer, capped with a Si p-n junction at the top, and a Si BSF at the bottom. Further refinements in such cell structure include a gradual compositional profile of the SiGe alloy layer. Compared to a conventional Si thin film cell, up to 5% relative efficiency gain is demonstrated, for a 20 {micro}m thick SiGe layer with less than 10% Ge content, p-type doped to more than 1 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}3}, and a realistic minority carriers diffusion length of the order of the layer thickness.

  20. SiGe thin-film structures for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bremond, G.; Daami, A.; Laugier, A. [Inst. National des Sciences Appliquees de Lyon, Villeurbanne (France). Lab. de Physique de la Matiere] [and others

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to study their applicability as the active base material in Si thin crystalline film solar cell technology, SiGe relaxed layers grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE) and Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on Si substrates are investigated by optical and electrical measurements (TEM, EXD, PL, EBIC). The main results of this work is to point out the improvement of the SiGe active base layer by using smooth Ge graded SiGe buffer layer and remote plasma hydrogenation. TEM, EXD, PL experiments show the effect of the Ge graded buffer layer grown using LPE, by confining the threading dislocations in the SiGe buffer layer close to the Si/SiGe interface. EBIC measurements reveal low recombination activity of dislocations at 300 K providing the diffusion length exceeds the 15 {micro}m layer thickness. The enhanced luminescence of SiGe near bandgap indicates that remote plasma hydrogenation induces a decrease of the non-radiative recombination pathways due to dislocations on CVD layers where defect recombinations dominate as indicated by EBIC measurements. This study points out the importance of controlling relaxed SiGe layers with good minority carrier recombination quality as a key issue for the optimization of new SiGe/Si based solar cells.

  1. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS AND A REVIEW OF RECENT RESULTS ON GaAs By PAUL RAPPAPORT,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    154. THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS AND A REVIEW OF RECENT RESULTS ON GaAs By PAUL RAPPAPORT, RCA PHYSIQUE APPLIQUÃ?E TOME 1, SEPTEMBRE 1966, PAGE ' Two of the most urgent requirements of future solar cells are lower cost and lighter weight. Pre- sent cost of solar cells is in the s 200 to $ 400/watt range, which

  2. Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells bandgap absorber in an a-Si/a-SiGe/nc-SiGe(nc- Si) triple-junction solar cell due to its higher optical in an a-Si based multiple- junction solar cell. 1. INTRODUCTION Narrow bandgap amorphous SiGe (a

  3. Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    1 Performance and Loss Analyses of High-Efficiency CBD-ZnS/Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8572, Japan (Received ) KEYWORDS: ZnS buffer, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, thin-film solar cells alternative to CdS in polycrystalline thin-film Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. Cells with efficiency

  4. Identification of critical stacking faults in thin-film CdTe solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Butler, Keith T. [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Soon, Aloysius [Global E3 Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Abbas, Ali; Walls, John M., E-mail: j.m.wall@loughborough.ac.uk [Centre for Renewable Energy Systems Technology, School of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Loughborough University, Leicestershire LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a p-type semiconductor used in thin-film solar cells. To achieve high light-to-electricity conversion, annealing in the presence of CdCl{sub 2} is essential, but the underlying mechanism is still under debate. Recent evidence suggests that a reduction in the high density of stacking faults in the CdTe grains is a key process that occurs during the chemical treatment. A range of stacking faults, including intrinsic, extrinsic, and twin boundary, are computationally investigated to identify the extended defects that limit performance. The low-energy faults are found to be electrically benign, while a number of higher energy faults, consistent with atomic-resolution micrographs, are predicted to be hole traps with fluctuations in the local electrostatic potential. It is expected that stacking faults will also be important for other thin-film photovoltaic technologies.

  5. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Qihua; Liao Xianbo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Deng, Michael [Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States); Deng Xunming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a higher yield than direct current sputtering, and the reason is not clear. Here we show that the damage to the solar cell during the sputtering process is caused by a reverse bias applied to the n-i-p junction. This reverse bias is related to the characteristics of plasma discharge. The mechanism we reveal may significantly affect the solar cell process.

  6. Electron and hole drift mobility measurements on thin film CdTe solar cells Qi Long, Steluta A. Dinca, E. A. Schiff, Ming Yu, and Jeremy Theil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    .1063/1.2220491 Lock-in thermography and nonuniformity modeling of thin-film CdTe solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 729

  7. DISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, and L.C. Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at the significantly reduced computational cost. 3 TAILORING THE ROUGHNESS FOR LIGHT- TRAPPING Solar cell structureDISORDER ENGINEERING FOR LIGHT-TRAPPING IN THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini: In this work we focus on randomly rough textures for light-trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells. We use

  8. Structural and chemical investigations of CBD-and PVD-CdS buffer layers and interfaces in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    (In,Ga)Se2-based thin film solar cells D. Abou-Rasa,b,*, G. Kostorza , A. Romeob,1 , D. Rudmannb , A Available online 8 December 2004 Abstract It is known that high-efficiency thin film solar cells based on Cu in efficiencies of solar cells with CBD- and PVD-CdS buffer layers can partly be explained by referring

  9. Back contact buffer layer for thin-film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compaan, Alvin D.; Plotnikov, Victor V.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell structure is disclosed that includes a buffer/passivation layer at a CdTe/Back contact interface. The buffer/passivation layer is formed from the same material that forms the n-type semiconductor active layer. In one embodiment, the buffer layer and the n-type semiconductor active layer are formed from cadmium sulfide (CdS). A method of forming a photovoltaic cell includes the step of forming the semiconductor active layers and the buffer/passivation layer within the same deposition chamber and using the same material source.

  10. THE PERFORMANCE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS EMPLOYING PHOTOVOLTAIC Cu22014x Te-CdTe HETEROJUNCTIONS (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    195 THE PERFORMANCE OF THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS EMPLOYING PHOTOVOLTAIC Cu22014x Te the theore- tical optimum for conversion of solar energy by the intrinsic photovoltaic effect and lower degradation rates to penetrating radiation and 2) shorter minority carrier lifetimes are per

  11. Copper and Transparent-Conductor Reflectarray Elements on Thin-Film Solar Cell Panels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dreyer, Philippe; Nicolay, Sylvain; Ballif, Christophe; Perruisseau-Carrier, Julien

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work addresses the integration of reflectarray antennas (RA) on thin film Solar Cell (SC) panels, as a mean to save real estate, weight, or cost in platforms such as satellites or transportable autonomous antenna systems. Our goal is to design a good RA unit cell in terms of phase response and bandwidth, while simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and low microwave loss, to preserve good SC and RA energy efficiencies, respectively. Since there is a trade-off between the optical transparency and microwave surface conductivity of a conductor, here both standard copper and transparent conductors are considered. The results obtained at the unit cell level demonstrates the feasibility of integrating RA on a thin-film SC, preserving for the first time good performance in terms of both SC and RA efficiency. For instance, measurement at X-band demonstrate families of cells providing a phase range larger than 270{\\deg} with average microwave loss of -2.45dB (resp. -0.25dB) and average optical transpa...

  12. A survey of thin-film solar photovoltaic industry & technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grama, Sorin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of solar cell technology using so-called thin-film solar photovoltaic material has the potential to make a great impact on our lives. Because it uses very little or no silicon at all, thin- film (TF) solar ...

  13. A non-resonant dielectric metamaterial for enhancement of thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omelyanovich, Mikhail; Simovski, Constantin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, we have suggested dielectric metamaterial composed as an array of submicron dielectric spheres located on top of an amorphous thin-film solar cell. We have theoretically shown that this metamaterial can decrease the reflection and simultaneously can suppress the transmission through the photovoltaic layer because it transforms the incident plane wave into a set of focused light beams. This theoretical concept has been strongly developed and experimentally confirmed in the present paper. Here we consider the metamaterial for oblique angle illumination, redesign the solar cell and present a detailed experimental study of the whole structure. In contrast to our precedent theoretical study we show that our omnidirectional light-trapping structure may operate better than the optimized flat coating obtained by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Thin Film Solar Cells Derived from Sintered Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00226

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginley, D. S.

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NREL/Evident team will develop techniques to fabricate thin film solar cells where the absorption layers comprising the solar cells are derived from sintered semiconductor quantum dots.

  15. Enhanced efficiency of thin film solar cells using a shifted dual grating plasmonic structure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levy, Uriel

    .5403) Plasmonics; (310.2790) Guided waves. References and links 1. O. Morton, "Solar energy: A new day dawning Society of America OCIS codes: (350.6050) Solar energy; (050.2770) Gratings; (310.0310) Thin films; (250? Silicon valley sunrise," Nature 443(7107), 19­22 (2006). 2. M. A. Green and S. Pillai, "Harnessing

  16. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  17. Spin Coated Plasmonic Nanoparticle Interfaces for Photocurrent Enhancement in Thin Film Si Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Israelowitz, Miriam; Cong, Tao; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticle (NP) arrays of noble metals strongly absorb light in the visible to infrared wavelengths through resonant interactions between the incident electromagnetic field and the metal's free electron plasma. Such plasmonic interfaces enhance light absorption and photocurrent in solar cells. We report a cost effective and scalable room temperature/pressure spin-coating route to fabricate broadband plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver NPs. The NP interface yields photocurrent enhancement (PE) in thin film silicon devices by up to 200% which is significantly greater than previously reported values. For coatings produced from Ag nanoink containing particles with average diameter of 40 nm, an optimal NP surface coverage of 7% was observed. Scanning electron microscopy of interface morphologies revealed that for low surface coverage, particles are well-separated, resulting in broadband PE. At higher surface coverage, formation of particle strings and clusters caused red-shifting of the PE peak and a narro...

  18. Investigation of porous alumina as a self-assembled diffractive element to facilitate light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coronel, Naomi (Naomi Cristina)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film solar cells are currently being investigated as an affordable alternative energy source because of the reduced material cost. However, these devices suffer from low efficiencies, compared to silicon wafer solar ...

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL PRECURSOR FOR THE PREPARATION BY SELENIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY CuInGaSe2/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    /CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS N. Romeo1 , A. Bosio1 , V. Canevari2 , R. Tedeschi1 , S. Sivelli1 , A. Solar cells prepared by depositing in sequence on top of the CuInGaSe2 film 60 nm of CdS, 100 nm of pure(InGa)Se2, Thin Films, Selenization 1 INTRODUCTION CuInGaSe2 based solar cells exhibit the highest

  20. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells measured by Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledinský, M., E-mail: ledinsky@fzu.cz [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Moulin, E.; Bugnon, G.; Meillaud, F.; Ballif, C. [Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics Laboratory, Institute of Microengineering (IMT), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Rue de la Maladière 71b, CH-2000 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Ganzerová, K.; Vetushka, A.; Fejfar, A. [Laboratory of Nanostructures and Nanomaterials, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v. v. i., Cukrovarnická 10, 162 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, Raman spectroscopy is used as a tool to determine the light-trapping capability of textured ZnO front electrodes implemented in microcrystalline silicon (?c-Si:H) solar cells. Microcrystalline silicon films deposited on superstrates of various roughnesses are characterized by Raman micro-spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 442?nm, 514?nm, 633?nm, and 785?nm, respectively. The way to measure quantitatively and with a high level of reproducibility the Raman intensity is described in details. By varying the superstrate texture and with it the light trapping in the ?c-Si:H absorber layer, we find significant differences in the absolute Raman intensity measured in the near infrared wavelength region (where light trapping is relevant). A good agreement between the absolute Raman intensity and the external quantum efficiency of the ?c-Si:H solar cells is obtained, demonstrating the validity of the introduced method. Applications to thin-film solar cells, in general, and other optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  1. The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , to a better p-type, to insulating, and then to n-type -- is all due to different levels of Cu involvement treatment temperature. #12;2 I. Introduction CdTe based solar panels have emerged in recent years1 The Roles of Cu Impurity States in CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells Ken K. Chin1 , T.A. Gessert2

  2. Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    of energy. Reducing the overall cost per watt is thus one of the major challenges in solar cell research. The price of an installed solar cell includes both material and processing costs as well as system costs solar cells, material costs account for 40% of the final module price. Recently, thin- film solar cell

  3. New strategy to promote conversion efficiency using high-index nanostructures in thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, DongLin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano-scaled metallic or dielectric structures may provide various ways to trap light into thin-film solar cells for improving the conversion efficiency. In most schemes, the textured active layers are involved into light trapping structures that can provide perfect optical benefits but also bring undesirable degradation of electrical performance. Here we propose a novel approach to design high-performance thin-film solar cells. In our strategy, a flat active layer is adopted for avoiding electrical degradation, and an optimization algorithm is applied to seek for an optimized light trapping structure for the best optical benefit. As an example, we show that the efficiency of a flat a-Si:H thin-film solar cell can be promoted close to the certified highest value. It is also pointed out that, by choosing appropriate dielectric materials with high refractive index (>3) and high transmissivity in wavelength region of 350nm-800nm, the conversion efficiency of solar cells can be further enhanced.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rothwarf, Allen (Philadelphia, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell has as its transparent electrical contact a grid made from a non-noble metal by providing a layer of copper oxide between the transparent electrical contact and the absorber-generator.

  5. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  6. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA; Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA) [Seattle, WA

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order ot about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI{sub 2}

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI{sub 2} chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin ``composition-graded`` layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ({approx_equal}2.5 {mu}m to {approx_equal}5.0 {mu}m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii) a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion occurs (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer. 16 figs.

  8. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI[sub 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1982-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same are disclosed, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (1) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI[sub 2] chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin composition-graded'' layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns ([approx equal]2.5[mu]m to [approx equal]5.0[mu]m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (2), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, is allowed.

  9. Methods for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells from I-III-VI.sub. 2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved thin-film, large area solar cell, and methods for forming the same, having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5.mu.m to .congruent.5.0.mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material; wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in The Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042, Subcontract No. XJ-9-8021-1 awarded by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. Design, fabrication, and analysis of crystalline Si-SiGe heterostructure thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Said, K.; Poortmans, J.; Caymax, M.; Nijs, J.; Debarge, L.; Christoffel, E.; Slaoui, A.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One possible method to improve the efficiency of crystalline silicon (Ci) solar cells is by alloying with germanium (Ge). Although the improved absorption of the alloy leads to a gain in the current, the reduction of the alloy bandgap causes a loss in voltage, which overrides the increased current of the SiGe alloy solar cell. There has been a number of theoretical studies to circumvent this behavior. However, to date there has been no detailed study, which discusses the technological implementation of these concepts in solar cells. In this paper, the design issues of crystalline Si-SiGe heterostructure will be dealt with in an attempt to reduce the effect of the increased dark current of the alloyed cells, while at the same time sustaining the enhancement in the current. The enhanced back surface field at the back p{sup +}-Si/p-SiGe interface reduces the base component of the recombination current of the heterostructure cell if recombination caused by dislocations is neglected. A higher infrared (IR) response which results in a higher short-circuit current (2 mA/cm{sup 2} higher than a reference Si cell) has been recorded for the Si-Si{sub .9}Ge{sub .1}-thin-film structure of 15 {micro}m thickness. The reduction in dark saturation current, which has been predicted based on the theoretical calculations could not be realized in the heterostructure SiGe/Si cell due to the degradation effect of the misfit dislocations that decreases the bulk lifetime, and increases the interface recombination velocity. In a structure which contains a p{sup +}-SiGe buffer layer, and efficiency of 12.5% is achieved for a SiGe cell with 15 {micro}m thickness without texturing or optical confinement, which is about the same as the Si reference cell with equal active thickness, but with a higher short-circuit current. These results, for the first time, experimentally prove that alloying with Ge offers a higher current and might have a room for improving the efficiency of the multijunction solar cells or dual bandgap cells when SiGe is used to convert the IR-part of the spectrum.

  11. Development of Commercial Technology for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells on Glass: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-209

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has conducted basic research relating to high efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and the method of making solar cells. Two patents have been issued to NREL in the above field. In addition, specific process and metrology tools have been developed by NREL. Applied Optical Sciences Corp. (AOS) has expertise in the manufacture of solar cells and has developed its own unique concentrator technology. AOS wants to complement its solar cell expertise and its concentrator technology by manufacturing flat panel thin film silicon solar cell panels. AOS wants to take NREL's research to the next level, using it to develop commercially viable flat pane, thin film silicon solar cell panels. Such a development in equipment, process, and metrology will likely produce the lowest cost solar cell technology for both commercial and residential use. NREL's fundamental research capability and AOS's technology and industrial background are complementary to achieve this product development.

  12. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The stability of intrinsic and Al-doped single- and bi-layer ZnO for thin-film CuInGaSe2 solar cells, along with Al-doped Zn1-xMgxO alloy and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) and F-doped SnO2, was evaluated by direct exposure to damp heat (DH) at 85oC and 85% relative humidity. The results show that the DH-induced degradation rates followed the order of Al-doped ZnO and Zn1-xMgxO >> ITO > F:SnO2. The degradation rates of Al:ZnO were slower for films of higher thickness, higher substrate temperature in sputter-deposition, and with dry-out intervals. As inferred from the optical micro-imaging showing the initiation and propagation of degrading patterns and regions, the degradation behavior appears similar for all TCOs, despite the obvious difference in the degradation rate. A degradation mechanism is proposed to explain the temporal process involving thermal hydrolysis.

  13. Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and fabrication of photonic crystal thin film photovoltaic cells Guillaume Gomarda,b , Ounsi of an absorbing planar photonic crystal within a thin film photovoltaic cell. The devices are based on a stack with large areas. Keywords: Photonic crystal, Photovoltaic solar cell, Thin film solar cell, Hydrogenated

  14. Resonant cavity enhanced light harvesting in flexible thin-film organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (310.7005) Transparent conductive coatings; (310.6845) Thin film

  15. Bandgap-Graded Cu2Zn(Sn1-xGex)S4 Thin-Film Solar Cells Derived from Metal Chalcogenide Complex Ligand Capped Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    a power conversion efficiency of 6.3%. INTRODUCTION Kesterite, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS), has received significant has demonstrated the potential for generating highly efficient CZTS-based thin-film solar cells, which be highly beneficial to develop a method for fabricating high-efficiency CZTS solar cells without

  16. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CuInS x Se 2-x solar cells and its effect on defectabundant Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 solar cells”, submitted 5. B. K.Visibly transparent polymer solar cells produced by solution

  17. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [and 20.3% efficiency CIGS solar cells [6] through the use ofcm 2 ) efficiency CIGS solar cells taken from reference [6].

  18. Multilayer nanoparticle arrays for broad spectrum absorption enhancement in thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnan, Aravind; Krishna, Siva Rama; Khan, Mohammed Zafar Ali

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study on the absorption efficiency enhancement of a thin film amorphous Silicon (a-Si) photovoltaic cell over a broad spectrum of wavelengths using multiple nanoparticle arrays. The light absorption efficiency is enhanced in the lower wavelengths by a nanoparticle array on the surface and in the higher wavelengths by another nanoparticle array embedded in the active region. The efficiency at intermediate wavelengths is enhanced by the constructive interference of plasmon coupled light. We optimize this design by tuning the radius of particles in both arrays, the period of the array and the distance between the two arrays. The optimization results in 61.44% increase in total quantum efficiency for a 500 nm thick a-Si substrate.

  19. CuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    80523 ABSTRACT Copper indium gallium sulfide, CuIn1-xGaxS2 (CIGS2) solar cells prepared with chemicalCuIn1-xGaxS2 thin film solar cells with ZnxCd1-xS as heterojunction partner Bhaskar Kumar 1 , Parag/heterojunction partner/ ZnO/Cr/Ag contact fingers solar cells of area ~0.44 cm 2 were fabricated at FSEC

  20. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  1. Optimization of processing and modeling issues for thin film solar cell devices: Final report, February 3, 1997--September 1, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E.

    2000-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This final report describes results achieved under a 20-month NREL subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated to CuInSe{sub 2} and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE's long-range efficiency, reliability and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for the development of viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development and improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  2. Optimization-based design of surface textures for thin-film Si solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Xing

    We numerically investigate the light-absorption behavior of thin-film silicon for normal-incident light, using surface textures to enhance absorption. We consider a variety of texture designs, such as simple periodic ...

  3. Semiconductor heterostructures and optimization of light-trapping structures for efficient thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Edward T.

    applications. However, one of the most persistent issues in solar cell design continues to be how to most and integration of active and passive media in solar cells. Myriad photonic structures containing sub of semiconductor nanostructures have inspired a host of new solar cell structures, including designs based

  4. Photovoltaic mechanisms in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. Final report, 28 September 1978-28 September 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanio, K.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies were undertaken to examine grain boundaries in polycrystalline material and apply these results to the development of thin-film solar cells using InP as the absorber layers. A model was developed which related material parameters to leakage currents in a thin-film polycrystalline p-n junction. In this model, the grain boundary was treated as a semiconductor with bandgap lower than that of the surrounding bulk. Since a leakage current at the grain boundary might decrease for a wider bandgap material, InGaP was considered and deposited by planar reactive deposition (PRD) on a single-crystal InP and lattice-matched GaAs. X-ray analysis and Hall measurements indicated that the quality of the epitaxy on GaAs was superior to that on InP, presumably due to a closer lattice match. Parallel etching studies to preferentially remove the grain boundaries showed that a 5HCl: 3HNO/sub 3/ : 4HF etch was highly selective in attacking the grain boundaries in bulk polycrystalline InP. Canyons with depths greater than 10 ..mu..m and widths on the order of 1 ..mu..m are the most common form of attack.

  5. Defect physics of the kesterite thin-film solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4 Shiyou Chen,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Defect physics of the kesterite thin-film solar cell absorber Cu2ZnSnS4 Shiyou Chen,1,2 X. G. Gong Physics Laboratory, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China 2 Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, People's Republic of China 3

  6. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  7. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  8. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1994--January 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Shafarman, W.N. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results achieved during the second phase of a four year subcontract to develop and understand thin film solar cell technology related to a-Si and its alloys, CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, and CdTe. Accomplishments during this phase include, development of equations and reaction rates for the formation of CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} films by selenization, fabrication of a 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} cell, development of a reproducible, reliable Cu-diffused contact to CdTe, investigation of the role of CdTe-CdS interdiffusion on device operation, investigation of the substitution of HCl for CdCl{sub 2} in the post-deposition heat treatment of CdTe/CdS, demonstration of an improved reactor design for deposition of a-Si films, demonstration of improved process control in the fabrication of a ten set series of runs producing {approximately}8% efficient a-Si devices, demonstration of the utility of a simplified optical model for determining quantity and effect of current generation in each layer of a triple stacked a-Si cell, presentation of analytical and modeling procedures adapted to devices produced with each material system, presentation of baseline parameters for devices produced with each material system, and various investigations of the roles played by other layers in thin film devices including the Mo underlayer, CdS and ZnO in CuIn{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} devices, the CdS in CdTe devices, and the ZnO as window layer and as part of the back surface reflector in a-Si devices. In addition, collaborations with over ten research groups are briefly described. 73 refs., 54 figs., 34 tabs.

  9. High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film solar Cells by a Process Suitable for Large Scale Production. N. Romeo, A. Bosio, A. Romeo, M. Bianucci, L. Bonci, C. Lenti

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film solar Cells by a Process Suitable for Large Scale Production. N-mail:Nicola.Romeo@fis.unipr.it ABSTRACT: It has been demonstrated that CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells can exhibit an efficiency around 16 diffusor in CdTe and at a long run it can segregates at the grain boundaries damaging the solar cell

  10. Light trapping in thin film solar cells using textured photonic crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yi, Yasha (Somerville, MA); Kimerling, Lionel C. (Concord, MA); Duan, Xiaoman (Amesbury, MA); Zeng, Lirong (Cambridge, MA)

    2009-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell includes a photoactive region that receives light. A photonic crystal is coupled to the photoactive region, wherein the photonic crystal comprises a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) for trapping the light.

  11. Barrier Coatings for Thin Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, September 1, 2002 -- January 30, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L. C.

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This program has involved investigations of the stability of CdTe and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells under damp heat conditions and effects of barrier coatings.

  12. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  13. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  14. Configuration Optimization of a Nanosphere Array on Top of a Thin Film Solar Cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    solar cell fabrication. Index Terms -- Nanospheres, Whispering gallery modes, Photovoltaic systems is done. For a hexagonally close packed sphere configuration, we vary the size of the spheres as well in the photovoltaics industry [2]. II. DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL Our approach here is to consider an array

  15. A NOVEL LOW THERMAL BUDGET THIN-FILM POLYSILICON FABRICATION PROCESS FOR LARGE-AREA, HIGH-THROUGHPUT SOLAR CELL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue Kuo

    2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel thin-film poly-Si fabrication process has been demonstrated. This low thermal budget process transforms the single- and multi-layer amorphous silicon thin films into a poly-Si structure in one simple step over a pulsed rapid thermal annealing process with the enhancement of an ultrathin Ni layer. The complete poly-Si solar cell was fabricated in a short period of time without deteriorating the underneath glass substrate. The unique vertical crystallization process including the mechanism is discussed. Influences of the dopant type and process parameters on crystal structure will be revealed. The poly-Si film structure has been proved using TEM, XRD, Raman, and XPS methods. The poly-Si solar cell structure and the performance have been examined. In principle, the new process is potentially applicable to produce large-area thin-film poly-Si solar cells at a high throughput and low cost. A critical issue in this process is to prevent the excessive dopant diffusion during crystallization. Process parameters and the cell structure have to be optimized to achieve the production goal.

  16. Identification and Analysis of Distinct Features in Imaging Thin-Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaunbrecher, K. N.; Johnston, S. W.; Sites, J. R.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroluminescence and photoluminescence (EL and PL) are two imaging techniques employed at NREL that are used to qualitatively evaluate solar cells. In this work, imaging lab-scale CdTe and CIGS devices provides information about small-area PV response, which will aid in determining the effects of non-uniformities on cell performance. EL, PL, and dark lock-in thermography signatures are first catalogued. Their responses to varying conditions are then studied. Further analysis includes acquiring spectral data, making microscopy measurements, and correlating luminescence to device performance. The goal of this work is to quantitatively determine non-uniformity effects on cell performance using rapid imaging techniques.

  17. Optimal design of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu, E-mail: gfhou@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianjun, E-mail: jjzhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying [Institute of Photoelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin-film Devices and Technique, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    For thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSC), a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) is a good back reflector (BR) because it increases the total internal reflection at the back surface. We used the plane-wave expansion method and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate and analyze the photonic bandgap (PBG), the reflection and the absorption properties of a 1D PC and to further explore the optimal 1D PC design for use in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. With identified refractive index contrast and period thickness, we found that the PBG and the reflection of a 1D PC are strongly influenced by the contrast in bilayer thickness. Additionally, light coupled to the top three periods of the 1D PC and was absorbed if one of the bilayers was absorptive. By decreasing the thickness contrast of the absorptive layer relative to the non-absorptive layer, an average reflectivity of 96.7% was achieved for a 1D PC alternatively stacked with a-Si:H and SiO{sub 2} in five periods. This reflectivity was superior to a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure with 93.5% and an Ag film with 93.4%. n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells with an optimal 1D PC-based BR offer a higher short-circuit current density than those with a DBR-based BR or an AZO/Ag-based BR. These results provide new design rules for photonic structures in TFSC.

  18. Amorphous thin films for solar-cell applications. Final report, September 11, 1978-September 10, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, D E; Balberg, I; Crandall, R S; Goldstein, B C; Hanak, J J; Pankove, J I; Staebler, D L; Weakliem, H A; Williams, R

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Section II, Theoretical Modeling, theories for the capture of electrons by deep centers in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and for field-dependent quantum efficiency in a-Si:H are presented. In Section III, Deposition and Doping Studies, the optimization of phosphorus-doped a-Si:H carried out in four different discharge systems is described. Some details of the dc proximity and rf magnetron discharge systems are also provided. Preliminary mass spectroscopy studies of the rf magnetron discharge in both SiH/sub 4/ and SiF/sub 4/ are presented. In Section IV, Experimental Methods for Characterizing a-Si:H, recent work involving photoluminescence of fluorine-doped a-Si:H, photoconductivity spectra, the photoelectromagnetic effect, the photo-Hall effect and tunneling into a-Si:H is presented. Also, studies of the growth mechanism of Pt adsorbed on both crystalline Si and a-Si:H are described. Measurements of the surface photovoltage have been used to estimate the distribution of surface states of phosphorus-doped and undoped a-Si:H. Section V, Formation of Solar-Cell Structures, contains information on stacked or multiple-junction a-Si:H solar cells. In Section VI, Theoretical and Experimental Evaluation of Solar-Cell Parameters, an upper limit of approx. = 400 A is established for the hole diffusion length in undoped a-Si:H. A detailed description of carrier generation, recombination and transport in a-Si:H solar cells is given. Finally, some characteristics of Pd-Schottky-barrier cells are described for different processing histories.

  19. (Sr,Ba)(Si,Ge){sub 2} for thin-film solar-cell applications: First-principles study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Mukesh, E-mail: Kumar.Mukesh@nims.go.jp, E-mail: mkgarg79@gmail.com [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Umezawa, Naoto [Environmental Remediation Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), 4-1-8 Honcho Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan); TU-NIMS Joint Research Center, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, 92 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin (China); Imai, Motoharu [Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to meet the increasing demand for electric power generation from solar energy conversion, the development of efficient light absorber materials has been awaited. To this end, the electronic and optical properties of advanced alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides (SrSi{sub 2}, BaSi{sub 2}, SrGe{sub 2}, and BaGe{sub 2}) are studied by means of the density functional theory using HSE06 exchange-correlation energy functional. Our calculations show that all these orthorhombic structured compounds have fundamental indirect band gaps in the range E{sub g} ? 0.89–1.25 eV, which is suitable for solar cell applications. The estimated lattice parameters and band gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculations show that the electronic band structures of all four compounds are very similar except in the vicinity of the ?-point. The valence band of these compounds is made up by Si(Ge)-p states, whereas the conduction band is composed of Sr(Ba)-d states. Their band alignments are carefully determined by estimating the work function of each compound using slab model. The optical properties are discussed in terms of the complex dielectric function ?(?)?=??{sub 1}(?)?+?i?{sub 2}(?). The static and high-frequency dielectric constants are calculated, taking into account the ionic contribution. The absorption coefficient ?(?) demonstrates that a low energy dispersion of the conduction band, which results in a flat conduction band minimum, leads to large optical activity in these compounds. Therefore, alkaline-earth-metals disilicides and digermanides possess great potential as light absorbers for applications in thin-film solar cell technologies.

  20. Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E. Bouree (1), V. Perraki (*) (1), G. Revel (2),R. Kishore (2) (**), J. L. Pastol (2), R. Mertens (3), M. Caymax (3) and M. Eyckmans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    687 Thin film solar cells using impure polycrystalline silicon M. Rodot (1), M. Barbe (1), J. E avec les autres aptes à l'utilisation de Si-UMG bon marché. Abstract. 2014 Epitaxial solar cells have and electron diffusion length adequate to produce good solar cells. 10.3 % efficiency cells have been obtained

  1. Picosecond and nanosecond laser annealing and simulation of amorphous silicon thin films for solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theodorakos, I.; Zergioti, I.; Tsoukalas, D.; Raptis, Y. S., E-mail: yraptis@central.ntua.gr [Physics Department, National Technical University of Athens, Heroon Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zographou, Athens (Greece); Vamvakas, V. [Heliosphera SA, Industrial Area of Tripolis, 8th Building Block, 5th Road, GR-221 00 Tripolis (Greece)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a picosecond diode pumped solid state laser and a nanosecond Nd:YAG laser have been used for the annealing and the partial nano-crystallization of an amorphous silicon layer. These experiments were conducted as an alternative/complementary to plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method for fabrication of micromorph tandem solar cell. The laser experimental work was combined with simulations of the annealing process, in terms of temperature distribution evolution, in order to predetermine the optimum annealing conditions. The annealed material was studied, as a function of several annealing parameters (wavelength, pulse duration, fluence), as far as it concerns its structural properties, by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and micro-Raman techniques.

  2. Modeling of thin-film solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee Adragon

    Recent advances in solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) performance have raised their prospect as a potential technology to convert solar energy into electricity. This paper presents an analysis of thin-film STEGs. ...

  3. BACK CONTACT MONOCRYSTALLINE THIN-FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    voltage is 633 mV and the short-circuit current density is 28.7 mA/cm 2 . INTRODUCTION Layer transfer surface, an area of 79.2 cm 2 and a cell thickness of 30 µm. We reach an efficiency of 13.5 %. The open-circuit

  4. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V. (Lakewood, CA); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CA); Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CA); Keane, James (Lakewood, CA); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  5. Manipulating hybrid structures of polymer/a-Si for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Ying; He, Zhiqun, E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk; Zhang, Zhi; Liang, Chunjun [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Diyaf, Adel; Ivaturi, Aruna; Wilson, John I. B., E-mail: zhqhe@bjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: J.I.B.Wilson@hw.ac.uk [SUPA, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of uniform polymer/amorphous silicon hybrid structures have been fabricated by means of solution-casting for polymer and radio frequency excited plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) functioned as a photoactive donor, while the silicon layer acted as an acceptor. It is found that matching the hole mobility of the polymer to the electron mobility of amorphous silicon is critical to improve the photovoltaic performance from hybrid cells. A three-layer p-i-n structure of ITO/PEDOT:PSS(200?nm)/i-Si(450?nm)/n-Si(200?nm)/Al with a power conversion efficiency of 4.78% under a standard test condition was achieved.

  6. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells, and amorphous silicon (thin-film) solar

  7. Enhanced absorption of thin-film photovoltaic cells using an optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    We show via numerical simulations that the absorption and solar energy conversion efficiency of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell can be significantly enhanced by embedding it into an optical cavity. A reflective ...

  8. Development of Thin Film Silicon Solar Cell Using Inkjet Printed Silicon and Other Inkjet Processes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-260

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sopori, B.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cost of silicon photovoltaics (Si-PV) can be greatly lowered by developing thin-film crystalline Si solar cells on glass or an equally lower cost substrate. Typically, Si film is deposited by thermal evaporation, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering. NREL and Silexos have worked under a CRADA to develop technology to make very low cost solar cells using liquid organic precursors. Typically, cyclopentasilane (CPS) is deposited on a glass substrate and then converted into an a-Si film by UV polymerization followed by low-temperature optical process that crystallizes the amorphous layer. This technique promises to be a very low cost approach for making a Si film.

  9. High Efficiency Thin Film CdTe and a-Si Based Solar Cells: Annual Technical Report, 4 March 1999 - 3 March 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A. D.; Deng, X.; Bohn, R. G. (The University of Toledo)

    2001-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the research on high-efficiency CdTe-based thin-film solar cells and on high-efficiency a-Si-based thin-film solar cells. Implemented a diode-array spectrograph system and used optical emission spectroscopy to help optimize the reactive sputtering of N-doped ZnTe for CdTe back-contact structures. Identified the photoluminescence signatures of various defect states in CdTe related to Cd vacancies, CuCd acceptors, Cu-VCd complexes, and donor-acceptor pairs, and related these states to instabilities in the hole concentration at room temperature. Showed that Cu is an important non-radiative center in CdS, reducing the PL efficiency. Studied band tailing in CdS weakly alloyed with CdTe and CdTe weakly alloyed with CdS. Fabricated superstrate ITO/CdS/CdTe cells on Mo substrates with efficiencies above 7.5%. Collaborated in studies of EXAFS of Cu in CdTe which indicate a Cu-Te bond length of 2.62 {angstrom} or 6.7% shorter than the CdTe, bond in agreement with calculations of Wei et al. Provided assistance to two groups on laser scribing. Comparatively studied the performance of a-SiGe solar cells and properties of a-SiGe single-layer films deposited using a wide range of H dilution, observed transition from a-SiGe to {mu}c-SiGe at high H dilution and the impact on cell performances. Comparatively studied the performance of a-SiGe solar cells and properties of a-SiGe single-layer films with different Ge contents, suitable for use as component cells of triple-junction devices. Fabricated a-Si-based solar cells on ultra-thin stainless-steel substrate (7.5 micron) and obtained equivalent performance and yield as on the regular SS substrates (127 microns). Comparatively studied the performance of a-Si-based solar cells on SS substrates and on SnO2-coated glass substrates. Studied the performance of p-layers deposited under various deposition conditions for n-i-p type solar cells. Performed an analysis for the component cell current-matching within a triple-junction solar cell.

  10. Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Oxidation of In2S3 films to synthetize In2S3(1-x)O3x thin films as a buffer layer in solar cells S layers for solar cells. PACS : 68.55.ag Semiconductors, 68.55.J Morphology of films , 68.55.Nq for fabricating Cd-free CIGS solar cells [1, 2, 3]. One of its advantages is that it can be obtained from solution

  11. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    film solar cells. CIGS solar cell efficiencies have beenCIGS, making it a favorable choice for thin-film solar cells.thin film solar cell [3]. However, use of CIGS has a number

  12. Optimization of Processing and Modeling Issues for Thin-Film Solar Cell Devices; Annual Report, 3 February 1997-2 February 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R. W.; Phillips, J. E.; Shafarman, W. N.; Hegedus, S. S.; McCandless, B. E. (IEC, University of Delaware)

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes results achieved during phase I of a four-phase subcontract to develop and understand thin-film solar cell technology associated with CuInSe2 and related alloys, a-Si and its alloys, and CdTe. Modules based on all these thin films are promising candidates to meet DOE long-range efficiency, reliability, and manufacturing cost goals. The critical issues being addressed under this program are intended to provide the science and engineering basis for developing viable commercial processes and to improve module performance. The generic research issues addressed are: (1) quantitative analysis of processing steps to provide information for efficient commercial-scale equipment design and operation; (2) device characterization relating the device performance to materials properties and process conditions; (3) development of alloy materials with different bandgaps to allow improved device structures for stability and compatibility with module design; (4) development of improved window/heterojunction layers and contacts to improve device performance and reliability; and (5) evaluation of cell stability with respect to illumination, temperature, and ambient and with respect to device structure and module encapsulation.

  13. Sputtered Molybdenum Bilayer Back Contact for Copper Indium Diselenide-Based Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    of the CIS or CIGS solar cell structure (not to scale). In these investigations, however, the metal layers-Film Solar Cells John H. Scofield1, A. Duda, and D. Albin National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole-of-the-art polycrystalline copper indium gallium diselenide solar cells with good results. Thin Solid Films, 260 (1), pp. 26

  14. Research on polycrystalline thin-film CuGaInSe{sub 2} solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 3 May 1991--2 May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanbery, B.J.; Chen, W.S.; Devaney, W.E.; Stewart, J.W. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Defense and Space Systems Group

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research to fabricate high-efficiency CdZnS/CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS) thin-film solar cells, and to develop improved transparent conductor window layers such as ZnO. A specific technical milestone was the demonstration of an air mass (AM) 1.5 global, 13% efficient, 1-cm{sup 2}-total-area CIGS thin-film solar cell. Our activities focused on three areas. First, a CIGS deposition: system was modified to double its substrate capacity, thus increasing throughput, which is critical to speeding the process development by providing multiple substrates from the same CIGS run. Second, new tooling was developed to enable an investigation of a modified aqueous CdZnS process. The goal was to improve the yield of this critical step in the device fabrication process. Third, our ZnO sputtering system was upgraded to improve its reliability, and the sputtering parameters were further optimized to improve its properties as a transparent conducting oxide. The characterization of the new CIGS deposition system substrate fixturing was completed, and we produced good thermal uniformity and adequately high temperatures for device-quality CIGS deposition. Both the CIGS and ZnO deposition processes were refined to yield a ZnO//Cd{sub 0.82}Zn{sub 0.18}S/CuIn{sub 0.80}Ga{sub 0.20}Se{sub 2} cell that was verified at NREL under standard testing conditions at 13.1% efficiency with V{sub oc} = 0.581 V, J{sub sc} = 34.8 mA/cm{sup 2}, FF = 0.728, and a cell area of 0.979 cm{sup 2}.

  15. Optical and electrical properties study of sol-gel derived Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, B. L.; Liu, X. J.; Li, A. D., E-mail: wcliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Y. H. [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Photovoltaic Engineering Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, W. C., E-mail: wcliu@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: adli@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, College of Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Photovoltaic Engineering Center, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The fabrication of environmental-friendly Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films with pure kesterite phase is always a challenge to researchers in the field of solar cells. We introduce a simple non-vacuum sol-gel method to fabricate kesterite CZTS films. Ethylenediamine is used as the chelating agent and stabilizer and plays an important role in preparing stable precursor. X-ray diffraction, Raman and scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the microstructure and optical properties of CZTS films depend strongly on annealing temperatures. The temperature dependence of conductivity of 500?°C annealed CZTS film shows that the Mott law dominates in the low temperature region and thermionic emission is predominant at high temperatures.

  16. Modeling of capacitance transients of thin-film solar cells: A valuable tool to gain information on perturbing layers or interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lauwaert, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Lauwaert@UGent.be; Van Puyvelde, Lisanne; Vrielinck, Henk [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Lauwaert, Jeroen; Thybaut, Joris W. [Laboratory for Chemical Technology (LCT), Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S5, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2014-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film electronic and photovoltaic devices often comprise, in addition to the anticipated p-n junctions, additional non-ideal ohmic contacts between layers. This may give rise to additional signals in capacitance spectroscopy techniques that are not directly related to defects in the structure. In this paper, we present a fitting algorithm for transient signals arising from such an additional junction. The fitting results are in excellent agreement with the diode characteristics extracted from static measurements on individual components. Finally, the algorithm is applied for determining the barriers associated with anomalous signals reported for selected CuIn{sub 1–x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells.

  17. Enhancement of current collection in epitaxial lift-off InAs/GaAs quantum dot thin film solar cell and concentrated photovoltaic study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sogabe, Tomah, E-mail: sogabe@mbe.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shoji, Yasushi; Tamayo, Efrain; Okada, Yoshitaka [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology (RCAST), The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8504 (Japan); Mulder, Peter; Schermer, John [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the fabrication of a thin film InAs/GaAs quantum dot solar cell (QD cell) by applying epitaxial lift-off (ELO) approach to the GaAs substrate. We confirmed significant current collection enhancement (?0.91?mA/cm{sup 2}) in the ELO-InAs QD cell within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm when compared to the ELO-GaAs control cell. This is almost six times of the sub-GaAs bandgap current collection (?0.16?mA/cm{sup 2}) from the wavelength range of 900?nm and beyond, we also confirmed the ELO induced resonance cavity effect was able to increase the solar cell efficiency by increasing both the short circuit current and open voltage. The electric field intensity of the resonance cavity formed in the ELO film between the Au back reflector and the GaAs front contact layer was analyzed in detail by finite-differential time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We found that the calculated current collection enhancement within the wavelength range of 700?nm–900?nm was strongly influenced by the size and shape of InAs QD. In addition, we performed concentrated light photovoltaic study and analyzed the effect of intermediate states on the open voltage under varied concentrated light intensity for the ELO-InAs QD cell.

  18. Multi-resonant silver nano-disk patterned thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells for Staebler-Wronski effect compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vora, Ankit; Pearce, Joshua M; Bergstrom, Paul L; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study polarization independent improved light trapping in commercial thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar photovoltaic cells using a three-dimensional silver array of multi-resonant nano-disk structures embedded in a silicon nitride anti-reflection coating (ARC) to enhance optical absorption in the intrinsic layer (i-a-Si:H) for the visible spectrum for any polarization angle. Predicted total optical enhancement (OE) in absorption in the i-a-Si:H for AM-1.5 solar spectrum is 18.51% as compared to the reference, and producing a 19.65% improvement in short-circuit current density (JSC) over 11.7 mA/cm2 for a reference cell. The JSC in the nano-disk patterned solar cell (NDPSC) was found to be higher than the commercial reference structure for any incident angle. The NDPSC has a multi-resonant optical response for the visible spectrum and the associated mechanism for OE in i-a-Si:H layer is excitation of Fabry-Perot resonance facilitated by surface plasmon resonances. The detrimental Staebl...

  19. Core-Shell Nanopillar Array Solar Cells using Cadmium Sulfide Coating on Indium Phosphide Nanopillars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tu, Bor-An Clayton

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monocrystalline silicon solar cells, polycrystalline silicon solar cells, and amorphous silicon (thin-film)

  20. Impact of environmental conditions on the chemical surface properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin-film solar cell absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauschild, D., E-mail: dirk.hauschild@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu; Meyer, F. [Experimental Physics VII, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Pohlner, S.; Lechner, R.; Dietmüller, R.; Palm, J. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany); Heske, C. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Engesserstr. 18/20, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Weinhardt, L., E-mail: dirk.hauschild@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de, E-mail: l.weinhardt@kit.edu [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); ANKA Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-v.-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), 4505 Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154-4003 (United States); Reinert, F. [Experimental Physics VII, University of Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Gemeinschaftslabor für Nanoanalytik, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmentally driven aging effects play a crucial role in thin-film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2}, both for long-term stability and short air exposure during production. For a better understanding of such effects, Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} absorber surfaces were investigated by x-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy after exposure to different environmental conditions. Identical absorbers were stored in a nitrogen atmosphere, in damp heat, and under ambient conditions for up to 14 days. We find varying degrees of diffusion of sulfur, copper, and sodium towards the surface, with potential impact on the electronic surface structure (band gap) and the properties of the interface to a buffer layer in a solar cell device. Furthermore, we observe an oxidation (in decreasing order) of indium, copper, and selenium (but no oxidation of sulfur). And finally, varying amounts of carbon- and oxygen-containing adsorbates are found. In particular, the findings suggest that, for ambient air exposure, sodium carbonate is formed at the surface.

  1. Flexible Solar-Energy Harvesting System on Plastic with Thin-film LC Oscillators Operating Above ft for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flexible Solar-Energy Harvesting System on Plastic with Thin-film LC Oscillators Operating Above ft- This paper presents an energy-harvesting system consisting of amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar cells and thin of the energy-harvesting system. The solar module consists of solar cells in series operating at an output

  2. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

  3. Method of fabricating high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin films for solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noufi, R.; Gabor, A.M.; Tuttle, J.R.; Tennant, A.L.; Contreras, M.A.; Albin, D.S.; Carapella, J.J.

    1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for producing a slightly Cu-poor thin film of Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} comprises depositing a first layer of (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} followed by depositing just enough Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to produce the desired slightly Cu-poor material. In a variation, most, but not all, (about 90 to 99%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is deposited first, followed by deposition of all the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to go near stoichiometric, possibly or even preferably slightly Cu-rich, and then in turn followed by deposition of the remainder (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to end with a slightly Cu-poor composition. In yet another variation, a small portion (about 1 to 10%) of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} is first deposited as a seed layer, followed by deposition of all of the Cu+(Se,S) or Cu{sub x} (Se,S) to make a very Cu-rich mixture, and then followed deposition of the remainder of the (In,Ga){sub x} (Se,S){sub y} to go slightly Cu-poor in the final Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} thin film. 5 figs.

  4. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 17261732 Optical and structural properties of Ta2O5CeO2 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 91 (2007) 1726­1732 Optical and structural properties of Ta2O5

  5. Correlations of Capacitance-Voltage Hysteresis with Thin-Film CdTe Solar Cell Performance During Accelerated Lifetime Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present the correlation of CdTe solar cell performance with capacitance-voltage hysteresis, defined presently as the difference in capacitance measured at zero-volt bias when collecting such data with different pre-measurement bias conditions. These correlations were obtained on CdTe cells stressed under conditions of 1-sun illumination, open-circuit bias, and an acceleration temperature of approximately 100 degrees C.

  6. Apparatus for forming thin-film heterojunction solar cells employing materials selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for forming thin-film, large area solar cells having a relatively high light-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency and characterized in that the cell comprises a p-n-type heterojunction formed of: (i) a first semiconductor layer comprising a photovoltaic active material selected from the class of I-III-VI.sub.2 chalcopyrite ternary materials which is vacuum deposited in a thin "composition-graded" layer ranging from on the order of about 2.5 microns to about 5.0 microns (.congruent.2.5 .mu.m to .congruent.5.0 .mu.m) and wherein the lower region of the photovoltaic active material preferably comprises a low resistivity region of p-type semiconductor material having a superimposed region of relatively high resistivity, transient n-type semiconductor material defining a transient p-n homojunction; and (ii), a second semiconductor layer comprising a low resistivity n-type semiconductor material wherein interdiffusion (a) between the elemental constituents of the two discrete juxtaposed regions of the first semiconductor layer defining a transient p-n homojunction layer, and (b) between the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer and the second n-type semiconductor layer, causes the transient n-type material in the first semiconductor layer to evolve into p-type material, thereby defining a thin layer heterojunction device characterized by the absence of voids, vacancies and nodules which tend to reduce the energy conversion efficiency of the system.

  7. High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas in Substitution of CdCl2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    High Efficiency CdTe/CdS Thin Film Solar Cells Prepared by Treating CdTe Films with a Freon Gas process. A further simplification has been done by substituting the CdCl2 step by treating CdTe films to treat CdTe. In this case CdCl2 vapor is obtained by a source facing the CdTe film or conveyed from

  8. Sputtered Nickel Oxide Thin Film for Efficient Hole Transport Layer in Polymer-Fullerene Bulk-Heterojunction Organic Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widjonarko, N. E.; Ratcliff, E. L.; Perkins, C. L.; Sigdel, A. K.; Zakutayev, A.; Ndione, P. F.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Ginley, D. S.; Olson, D. C.; Berry, J. J.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic photovoltaics (OPV) are very promising thin film renewable energy conversion technologies due to low production cost by high-throughput roll-to-roll manufacturing, an expansive list of compatible materials, and flexible device fabrication. An important aspect of OPV device efficiency is good contact engineering. The use of oxide thin films for this application offers increased design flexibility and improved chemical stability. Here we present our investigation of radio frequency magnetron sputtered nickel oxide (NiO{sub x}) deposited from oxide targets as an efficient, easily scalable hole transport layer (HTL) with variable work-function, ranging from 4.8 to 5.8 eV. Differences in HTL work-function were not found to result in statistically significant changes in open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) for poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) BHJ device. Ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS) characterization of the NiO{sub x} film and its interface with the polymer shows Fermi level alignment of the polymer with the NiO{sub x} film. UPS of the blend also demonstrates Fermi level alignment of the organic active layer with the HTL, consistent with the lack of correlation between V{sub oc} and HTL work-function. Instead, trends in j{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and thus overall device performance are related to the surface treatment of the HTL prior to active layer deposition through changes in active layer thickness.

  9. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells. 4 figures.

  10. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  11. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.

    1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the, solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells. 4 figs.

  12. Method for producing textured substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention pertains to the production of ceramic substrates used in the manufacture of thin-film photovoltaic cells used for directly converting solar energy to electrical energy. Elongated ribbon-like sheets of substrate precursor containing a mixture of ceramic particulates, a binder, and a plasticizer are formed and then while green provided with a mechanically textured surface region used for supporting the thin film semiconductor of the photovoltaic cell when the sheets of the substrate precursor are subsequently cut into substrate-sized shapes and then sintered. The textured surface pattern on the substrate provides enhanced light trapping and collection for substantially increasing the solar energy conversion efficiency of thin-film photovoltaic cells.

  13. Use of 2nd and 3rd Level Correlation Analysis for Studying Degradation in Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D. S.; del Cueto, J. A.; Demtsu, S. H.; Bansal, S.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The correlation of stress-induced changes in the performance of laboratory-made CdTe solar cells with various 2nd and 3rd level metrics is discussed. The overall behavior of aggregated data showing how cell efficiency changes as a function of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current density (Jsc), and fill factor (FF) is explained using a two-diode, PSpice model in which degradation is simulated by systematically changing model parameters. FF shows the highest correlation with performance during stress, and is subsequently shown to be most affected by shunt resistance, recombination and in some cases voltage-dependent collection. Large decreases in Jsc as well as increasing rates of Voc degradation are related to voltage-dependent collection effects and catastrophic shunting respectively. Large decreases in Voc in the absence of catastrophic shunting are attributed to increased recombination. The relevance of capacitance-derived data correlated with both Voc and FF is discussed.

  14. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 and WO3SiO2 thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thirumalai, Devarajan

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 (2008) 821­829 Modeling the optical properties of WO3 the optical response of the films in the near-UV and visible region: two interband transitions for energies E

  15. Novel Materials Development for Polycrystalline Thin-Film Solar Cells: Final Subcontract Report, 26 July 2004--15 June 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keszler, D. A.; Wager, J. F.

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Focus on player interfacial assessment using Schottky barrier and heterojunction theory, and analysis of p-windows for CIGS and CdTe cells.

  16. 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, 3-7 September 2007 Cu(InGa)Se2 THIN from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Global Solar Energy, we examined the life-cycle Cd-FILM SOLAR CELLS: COMPARATIVE LIFE-CYCLE ANALYSIS OF BUFFER LAYERS Vasilis M. Fthenakis and Hyung Chul Kim

  17. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of thin- film Li-ion batteries under flexural deflection,”thin-film solar cells and batteries (2) Characterizesolar cells and batteries for multifunctional performance (

  18. STRUCTURAL AND CHEMICAL STUDIES ON CdTe/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH ANALYTICAL TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    at 430 C for 30 min. The cells exhibit an ef£ciency of 12.4 % with a short circuit current density of 23 mA/cm2 and an open circuit voltage of 800 mV. For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies

  19. RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THINFILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    THESIS RANDOM DEPOSITION MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Lei Chen LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS BE AC- CEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MODEL OF CDS LAYER IN CDS/CDTE THIN­FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin­film solar cells are developing dramatically

  20. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  1. area solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies A) Crystalline Silicon B) Thin Film C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6:...

  2. aluminium arsenide solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies A) Crystalline Silicon B) Thin Film C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6:...

  3. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  4. Thin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light-scattering substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Psaltis, Demetri

    solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221110 (2012) Error analysis for concentrated solar collectors JThin-film silicon triple-junction solar cell with 12.5% stable efficiency on innovative flat light of organic solar cells APL: Org. Electron. Photonics 5, 251 (2012) Effects of the Al cathode evaporation rate

  5. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  6. An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin Films into TiO2 Nanoparticle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    An Unconventional Route to High-Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells via Embedding Graphitic Thin into the conventional dye- sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in a remarkably improved cell efficiency due to its followed by direct carbonization. For dye-sensitized TiO2 based solar cells containing carbon/TiO2 thin

  7. Mechanisms of Zinc Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Film Formation by Thermal Degradation of Metal-Loaded Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrode in flat- panel displays,1 solar cells, and thin-film transistors.2,3 Other recent reports account

  8. The reversal of the laser-beam-induced-current contrast with varying illumination density in a Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Yong, E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Energy Production and Infrastructure Center (EPIC), The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Energy Production and Infrastructure Center (EPIC), The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223 (United States)

    2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply an array of correlated spatially-resolved techniques, including ?-Raman/photoluminescence/reflectance/laser-beam-induced-current in conjunction with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, to study the impact of the microscopic-scale thickness inhomogeneity of CdS layer in a Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} thin-film solar cell. Thicker CdS regions are found to cause more light reflecting loss thus yield lower external quantum efficiencies and energy conversion efficiencies than the general area. However, these regions show much less efficiency degradation at high illumination intensity, leading to an inversion of laser-beam-induced-current contrast in the area mapping. While improving the CdS layer uniformity can boost the device performance, the finding further points out the possibility of operating thin-film photovoltaic devices based on the similar materials (such as CuInGaSe{sub 2}, CdTe, Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4}) under a substantially higher illumination density for concentrated photovoltaic and photo-detection.

  9. Thin-film electrochemical power cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, B.B.; Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fundamental properties of research cells were correlated with the projected performance of full scale power sources, considering both battery and supercapacitor concepts. In addition to establishing the data base for modelling and performance projections, the program had the additional objective of identifying loss mechanisms and degradation reactions, especially those unique to polymer thin film cell designs. Because of the intrinsic high electrode/electrolyte interface areas, interfacial reactions must be understood. Many applications require power under extreme conditions, and low temperature performance needs to be improved.

  10. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  11. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, B. J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V., E-mail: veronika.haug@de.bosch.com; Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  12. almgb14 thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  13. aggase2 thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  14. area thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  15. aluminide thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  16. antiferroelectric thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  17. ain thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  18. advanced thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  19. Joint Development of Coated Conductor and Low Cost Thin Film Solar Cells: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-007-213

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    UES plans on developing CIGS thin films by using Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) technique as it is a low-cost, non-vacuum method for scale-up to large area PV modules. NREL will support UES, Inc. through expert processing, characterization and device fabrication. NREL scientists will also help develop a processing phase diagram which includes composition, film thickness, annealing temperature and ambient conditions. Routine measurements of devices and materials will be done under NREL's core support project.

  20. Quasi-Rheotaxy a new technique to grow large grain thin films on low cost amorphous substrates (*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , could be used to build low cost thin film solar cells. Revue Phys. Appl. 16 (1981) 11-14 JANVIER 1981 is required in thin film direct gap absorbers solar cells to overcome thebfficiency value of 10 % is about 2 comparable with the grain size, reports that a thin film solar cell based on GaAs with a resistivity of 10

  1. Ames Lab 101: Improving Solar Cell Efficiency

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Biswas, Rana

    2012-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Rana Biswas, a scientist with the Ames Laboratory, discusses his team's research in creating more efficient solar cells and working with Iowa Thin Film to produce these cells.

  2. Modeling and simulation of CuIn{sub 1?x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} based thin film solar cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumari, S., E-mail: sarita.kumari132@gmail.com; Verma, A. S. [Department of Physics, Banasthali University, Rajasthan-304022 (India); Singh, P.; Gautam, R. [Department of Electronics and Communication, Krishna Institute of Engg. and Tech., Ghaziabad-201206 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, CIGS (Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide) based solar cell structure has been simulated. We have been calculated short circuit current, open circuit voltage and efficiency of the cell. The thickness of the absorption layer is varied from 400 to 3000 nm, keeping the thickness of other layers unchanged. The effect of absorption layer thickness over cell performance has been analyzed and found that the efficiency increases upto 22% until the thickness of the absorption layer reaches around 2000 nm.

  3. High efficiency cadmium telluride and zinc telluride based thin-film solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 March 1990--28 February 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, A.; Sudharsanan, R.; Ringel, S.A.; Chou, H.C. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work to improve the basic understanding of CdTe and ZnTe alloys by growing and characterizing these films along with cell fabrication. The major objective was to develop wide-band-gap (1.6--1.8 eV) material for the top cell, along with compatible window material and transparent ohmic contacts, so that a cascade cell design can be optimized. Front-wall solar cells were fabricated with a glass/SnO{sub 2}/CdS window, where the CdS film is thin to maximize transmission and current. Wide-band-gap absorber films (E{sub g} = 1.75 eV) were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) techniques, which provided excellent control for tailoring the film composition and properties. CdZnTe films were grown by both MBE and MOCVD. All the as-grown films were characterized by several techniques (surface photovoltage spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) for composition, bulk uniformity, thickness, and film and interface quality. Front-wall-type solar cells were fabricated in collaboration with Ametek Materials Research Laboratory using CdTe and CdZnTe polycrystalline absorber films. The effects of processing on ternary film were studied by AES and XPS coupled with capacitance voltage and current voltage measurements as a function of temperature. Bias-dependent spectral response and electrical measurements were used to test some models in order to identify and quantify dominant loss mechanisms.

  4. Guided optical modes in randomly textured ZnO thin films imaged by near-field scanning optical K. Bittkau* and R. Carius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    relevance. In particular, when designing thin-film solar cells and light emitting diodes LEDs , ran- domly

  5. High-Rate Fabrication of a-Si-Based Thin-Film Solar Cells Using Large-Area VHF PECVD Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming [University of Toledo] [University of Toledo; Fan, Qi Hua

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo (UT), working in concert with it’s a-Si-based PV industry partner Xunlight Corporation (Xunlight), has conducted a comprehensive study to develop a large-area (3ft x 3ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate uniform fabrication of silicon absorber layers, and the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high performance a-Si/a-SiGe or a-Si/nc-Si tandem junction solar cells during the period of July 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2011, under DOE Award No. DE-FG36-08GO18073. The project had two primary goals: (i) to develop and improve a large area (3 ft × 3 ft) VHF PECVD system for high rate fabrication of > = 8 Å/s a-Si and >= 20 Å/s nc-Si or 4 Å/s a-SiGe absorber layers with high uniformity in film thicknesses and in material structures. (ii) to develop and optimize the large-area VHF PECVD processes to achieve high-performance a-Si/nc-Si or a-Si/a-SiGe tandem-junction solar cells with >= 10% stable efficiency. Our work has met the goals and is summarized in “Accomplishments versus goals and objectives”.

  6. Functional requirements for component films in a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnston, David [Power and Energy Research Group, School of Engineering, Northumbria University, Ellison Place, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The functional requirements of the component films of a solar thin-film photovoltaic/thermal panel were considered. Particular emphasis was placed on the new functions, that each layer is required to perform, in addition to their pre-existing functions. The cut-off wavelength of the window layer, required for solar selectivity, can be achieved with charge carrier concentrations typical of photovoltaic devices, and thus does not compromise electrical efficiency. The upper (semiconductor) absorber layer has a sufficiently high thermal conductivity that there is negligible temperature difference across the film, and thus negligible loss in thermal performance. The lower (cermet) absorber layer can be fabricated with a high ceramic content, to maintain high solar selectivity, without significant increase in electrical resistance. A thin layer of molybdenum-based cermet at the top of this layer can provide an Ohmic contact to the upper absorber layer. A layer of aluminium nitride between the metal substrate and the back metal contact can provide electrical isolation to avoid short-circuiting of series-connected cells, while maintaining a thermal path to the metal substrate and heat extraction systems. Potential problems of differential contraction of heated films and substrates were identified, with a recommendation that fabrication processes, which avoid heating, are preferable. (author)

  7. DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    i DISSERTATION ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT Submitted ENTITLED `ANTICIPATED PERFORMANCE OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT' BE ACCEPTED(In,Ga)Se2 SOLAR CELLS IN THE THIN-FILM LIMIT The demand for alternative sources of energy is rapidly

  8. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  9. Nanostructured Thin Film Electrolyte for Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Sungmee

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because they are clean, reliable, and almost entirely pollution-free. SOFCs have flexible fuel selections compared with other fuel cell technologies. The main...

  10. Project Profile: Development and Productization of High-Efficiency, Low-Cost Building-Integrated PV Shingles Using Monocrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Solexel-OC team is developing a BIPV roofing shingle product that includes low-profile solar modules and a unique attachment system that will be fastened directly to the roof and incorporates...

  11. Anode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Sossina M.

    on the anode, producing a complex response in fuel cell power output. Under optimized gas compositions and flowAnode-supported thin-film fuel cells operated in a single chamber configuration 2T-I-12 Zongping of anode-supported, thin-film, single chamber fuel cells (SCFCs) have been investigated. Cells, in which Ni

  12. A Noninvasive Thin Film Sensor for Monitoring Oxygen Tension during in Vitro Cell Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    demonstrated how low oxygen levels lead to vasoocclusion in sickle cell anemia.7 Cancer cells that existA Noninvasive Thin Film Sensor for Monitoring Oxygen Tension during in Vitro Cell Culture Peter C of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742, and SAIC, Arlington, VA 22203 Oxygen tension in mammalian cell

  13. EE580 Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    7/21/2010 1 EE580 ­ Solar Cells Todd J. Kaiser · Lecture 06 · Solar Cell Materials & Structures 1Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar Cells Solar Cell Technologies · A) Crystalline Silicon · B) Thin Film · C) Group III-IV Cells 2Montana State University: Solar Cells Lecture 6: Solar

  14. abrasion-resistant thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  15. al-cu-fe thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  16. alendronate-hydroxyapatite thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  17. ag-in-se thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  18. PV prospects: thinPV prospects: thin--film cellsfilm cells Si cell costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    1 PV prospects: thinPV prospects: thin--film cellsfilm cells LECTURE 8 · Si cell costs · optimizing://www.solarbuzz.com/Moduleprices.htm #12;6 Cost of PV modulesCost of PV modules The lowest retail price for a multicrystalline silicon for a monocrystalline silicon module is $1.48 per watt (1.04 per watt), from an Asian retailer. Brand, technical

  19. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CdTe/CdS thin-film solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. 2000;p/n-junction solar cells. Sol Energ Mat Sol C. Wohrle D,

  1. amorphous solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The convergence Schiff, Eric A. 20 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  2. arsenide solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 92 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  3. alingap solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 84 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  4. automated solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 103 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  5. arsenide solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 92 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  6. alloy solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 91 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  7. Solar Cells in 2009 and Beyond Mike McGehee

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    ;Inorganic Thin Film Solar Cells CdTe CIGS (CuInGaSe2) amorphous Si · A thin film of semiconductorSolar Cells in 2009 and Beyond Mike McGehee Materials Science and Engineering These slides parity cost depends on location #12;Conventional p-n junction photovoltaic (solar) cell #12;Efficiency

  8. Predictive Modeling for Glass-Side Laser Scribing of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    with reduced thermal effect. Film side laser scribing is governed by heating, melting and vaporizing of selective films. Glass side laser scribing is a thermal-mechanical process which involves stress inducedPredictive Modeling for Glass-Side Laser Scribing of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells Hongliang Wang

  9. Thin Film Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development of four thin-film technologies on the path to achieving cost-competitive solar energy, including:

  10. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  12. Antimony-Doped Tin(II) Sulfide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Rupak

    Thin-film solar cells made from earth-abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic materials are needed to replace the current technologies whose widespread use is limited by their use of scarce, costly, and toxic elements. Tin ...

  13. High-efficiency thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual technical report, January 20, 1996--January 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo photovoltaics group has been instrumental in developing rf sputtering for CDs/CdTe thin-film solar cells. During the third phase of the present contract our work focussed on efforts to determine factors which limit the efficiency in our {open_quotes}all-sputtered{close_quotes} thin-film CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass. We find that our all-sputtered cells, which are deposited at substantially lower temperature than those by sublimation or vapor deposition, require less aggressive CdCl{sub 2} treatments than do other deposition techniques and this is presumably related to CDs/CdTe interdiffusion. The CDs/CdTe interdiffusion process has been studied by several methods, including photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage measurements. Furthermore, we have deposited special thin bilayer films on quartz and borosilicate glass. Interdiffusion in these thin bilayers have been probed by Rutherford backscattering, with collaborators at Case Western Reserve University, and grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), with collaborators at the University at Buffalo and Brookhaven National Lab. Also, in order better to understand the properties of the ternary alloy material, we used laser physical vapor deposition to prepare a series of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films on borosilicate glass. The composition of the alloy films was determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy at NREL. These films are currently being investigated by us and other groups at NREL and IEC.

  14. Structural Integration of Silicon Solar Cells and Lithium-ion Batteries Using Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jin Sung

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 93, 2009, pp.Solar energy materials and solar cells, vol. 91, 2007, pp.to integrate thin-film solar cells and batteries (2)

  15. The research field of thin-film photovoltaics of the department of energy-and semiconductor research (EHF) of the institute of physics at the Carl-von-Ossietzky University of Oldenburg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    The research field of thin-film photovoltaics of the department of energy- and semiconductor and calibration of an optical simulation for thin-film solar cells In recent years, the photovoltaic has become is necessary to let photovoltaic remain economical attractive. Thin-film solar cells on basis of Cu(In,Ga)Se2

  16. Thin film preparation and interfacial reaction study of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiehcheng.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) operate at 1000 C and their components are processed at even higher temperatures. It is generally desirable to reduce the operating and processing temperatures of SOFC's to make them competitive with other types of fuel cells and to avoid the interactions and interdiffusion between cell components. This can be achieved by either developing a technology to produce thin film electrolytes, or by developing new electrolyte and electrode materials with reduced interaction, lower interfacial resistance. The synthesis and characterization of (Ce-O2)0.8(Sm01.5)0.2 thin films from polymeric precursors is discussed. The reaction mechanism of the precursors and important parameters for making dense, crack-free films were investigated. The cathode/electrolyte interactions and their expected impact on SOFC performance are addressed. The cathode characteristics and cathode/electrolyte interaction of various perovskites are studied. The impact of interfacial reactions on cell performance is investigated. The electrode characteristics of dense La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) thin film produced by polymeric precursors are presented. The electrode resistance and characteristics of the electrode (dense)/electrolyte interface are studied. The effect of reactions and interdiffusion on interfacial resistance are discussed. A potential method for making dense ZrO2 films at relatively low temperatures by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. The deposition parameters and characterization of ZrO2 film are reported.

  17. Enhancing solar cells with plasmonic nanovoids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lal, Niraj Narsey

    2012-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the use of plasmonic nanovoids for enhancing the efficiency of thin-film solar cells. Devices are fabricated inside plasmonically resonant nanostructures, demonstrating a new class of plasmonic photovoltaics. Novel cell...

  18. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  19. Nanoengineered Thin Films for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Qing

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are very attractive as energy generation devices because of their high energy efficiency, flexible fuel selections and clean energy conversion. To avoid cell cracking and formation of non-conducting compounds...

  20. Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Solar cell efficiency enhancement via light trapping in printable resonant dielectric nanosphere´de´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Microengineering (IMT), Photovoltaics and Thin Film Electronics, photovoltaics, resonant dielectric structures, solar cells * Corresponding author: e-mail jgrandid

  1. Electroless (autocatalytic) nickel-cobalt thin films as solar control coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, S.; Srinivasan, K.N.; Selvam, M. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Tamilnadu (India); Anuradha, S.; Rajendran, S. [Alagappa Univ., Tamilnadu (India). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the deposition of nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings by the electroless deposition technique for use as solar control coatings in architectural glazing of buildings. Electroless deposition is characterized by the autocatalytic deposition of a metal/alloy from an aqueous solution of its ions by interaction with a chemical reducing agent. The reducing agent provides electrons for the metal ions to be neutralized. The reduction is initiated by the catalyzed surface of the substrate and continued by the self catalytic activity of the deposited metal/alloy as long as the substrate is immersed in the electroless bath and operating conditions are maintained. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus thin films were deposited from a solution containing 15 g/l nickel sulphate, 5 g/l cobalt sulphate, 60 g/l ammonium citrate and 25 g/l sodium hypophosphite operating at 30 C, at a pH of 9.5 for two minutes. Electroless nickel-cobalt-phosphorus coatings are found to satisfy the basic requirements of solar control coatings. Autocatalytic deposition technique offers the possibilities of producing large area coatings with low capital investment, stability and good adhesion to glass substrates.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Functional Nanostructured Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    and development of alternative energy technologies, such as low cost flat-panel solar cells thin film devices and structural requirements of their applications in gas sensors and solar cells. The rapid photothermalV) and GaN (21eV), is of interest for various high tech applications, such as optical devices (1), solar

  3. amorphous-silicon solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    state of affairs Schiff, Eric A. 19 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  4. amorphous-silicon-based solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 89 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  5. amplified-efficiency solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pankaj J Edla; Dr. Bhupendra Gupta 87 Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics University of...

  6. High-efficiency, thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual subcontract report, 20 January 1994--19 January 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Rajakarunanayake, Y. [Toledo Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work performed to develop and optimize the process of radio frequency (RF) sputtering for the fabrication of thin-film solar cells on glass. The emphasis is on CdTe-related materials including CdTe, CdS, ZnTe, and ternary alloy semiconductors. Pulsed laser physical vapor deposition (LPVD) was used for exploratory work on these materials, especially where alloying or doping are involved, and for the deposition of cadmium chloride layers. For the sputtering work, a two-gun sputtering chamber was implemented, with optical access for monitoring temperature and growth rate. We studied the optical and electrical properties of the plasmas produced by two different kinds of planar magnetron sputter guns with different magnetic field configurations and strengths. Using LPVD, we studied alloy semiconductors such as CdZnTe and heavily doped semiconductors such as ZnTe:Cu for possible incorporation into graded band gap CdTe-based photovoltaic devices.

  7. Cu(In,Ga)Se2 alloys are the leading choice for absorber layers in high-efficiency thin film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rockett, Angus

    film solar cells due to their direct gap, high absorption coefficient and excellent thermal stability Cu(In,Ga)Se2 are used to interpret PL results. ·No evidence of band-to-band transitions (rare in CIGS

  8. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  9. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  10. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  11. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  12. Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cells and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Los Angeles, CA); Tseng, Eric S. (Los Angeles, CA); Rod, Robert L. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating a thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing a film of a near intrinsic or n-type semiconductor compound formed of at least one of the metal elements of Class II B of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least tellurium and then heating said film at a temperature between about 250.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to convert said film to a suitably low resistivity p-type semiconductor compound. Such film may be deposited initially on the surface of an n-type semiconductor substrate. Alternatively, there may be deposited on the converted film a layer of n-type semiconductor compound different from the film semiconductor compound. The resulting photovoltaic cell exhibits a substantially increased power output over similar cells not subjected to the method of the present invention.

  13. General method for simultaneous optimization of light trapping and carrier collection in an ultra-thin film organic photovoltaic cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia, E-mail: ct2443@columbia.edu; Grote, Richard R.; Beck, Jonathan H.; Kymissis, Ioannis [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Osgood, Richard M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Englund, Dirk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a general method for maximizing the short-circuit current in thin planar organic photovoltaic (OPV) heterojunction cells by simultaneous optimization of light absorption and carrier collection. Based on the experimentally obtained complex refractive indices of the OPV materials and the thickness-dependence of the internal quantum efficiency of the OPV active layer, we analyze the potential benefits of light trapping strategies for maximizing the overall power conversion efficiency of the cell. This approach provides a general strategy for optimizing the power conversion efficiency of a wide range of OPV structures. In particular, as an experimental trial system, the approach is applied here to a ultra-thin film solar cell with a SubPc/C{sub 60} photovoltaic structure. Using a patterned indium tin oxide (ITO) top contact, the numerically optimized designs achieve short-circuit currents of 0.790 and 0.980?mA/cm{sup 2} for 30?nm and 45?nm SubPc/C{sub 60} heterojunction layer thicknesses, respectively. These values correspond to a power conversion efficiency enhancement of 78% for the 30?nm thick cell, but only of 32% for a 45?nm thick cell, for which the overall photocurrent is actually higher. Applied to other material systems, the general optimization method can elucidate if light trapping strategies can improve a given cell architecture.

  14. TAPE CALENDERING MANUFACTURING PROCESS FOR MULTILAYER THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh; Kurt Montgomery

    2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC during the Phases I and II under Contract DE-AC26-00NT40705 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Tape Calendering Manufacturing Process For Multilayer Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells''. The main objective of this project was to develop the manufacturing process based on tape calendering for multilayer solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) using the unitized cell design concept and to demonstrate cell performance under specified operating conditions. Summarized in this report is the development and improvements to multilayer SOFC cells and the unitized cell design. Improvements to the multilayer SOFC cell were made in electrochemical performance, in both the anode and cathode, with cells demonstrating power densities of nearly 0.9 W/cm{sup 2} for 650 C operation and other cell configurations showing greater than 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} at 75% fuel utilization and 800 C. The unitized cell design was matured through design, analysis and development testing to a point that cell operation at greater than 70% fuel utilization was demonstrated at 800 C. The manufacturing process for both the multilayer cell and unitized cell design were assessed and refined, process maps were developed, forming approaches explored, and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques examined.

  15. Polymeric precursor derived nanocrystalline ZnO thin films using EDTA as chelating agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    properties, ZnO has plausible electro-optical applications, such as, solar cells [1, 2], light- emitting diodes [3, 4], UV lasers [5], thin film transistors [6,7], and UV photodetectors [8]. Besides

  16. Lateral heterojunction photodetector consisting of molecular organic and colloidal quantum dot thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    exception being the dye- sensitized solar cell.3 Owing to its unique geometry, the present device also and that is sensitized across visible wavelengths by a thin film of colloidal CdSe nanocrystal quantum dots QDs . High

  17. anti-reflective thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mailoa, Jonathan P 2012-01-01 3 Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell MIT - DSpace Summary: The proposed light trapping technology of...

  18. Defect engineering of cuprous oxide thin-films for photovoltaic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yun Seog

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film solar cells are promising for renewable-energy applications due to their low material usage and inexpensive manufacturing potential, making them compatible with terawatts-level deployment. Cuprous oxide (Cu?O) ...

  19. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology Advances in Thin Film PV: CIGS & CdTe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, Léonie

    and Photovoltaics Thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductor absorbers: CIGS and CdTe High efficiency and Photovoltaics Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology Key issues in high efficiency CIGSTe Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics Empa- Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science

  20. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  1. Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Weidong

    Microstructured surface design for omnidirectional antireflection coatings on solar cells Weidong to current crystalline silicon solar cells, as well as future thin film, quantum dot, and organic solar cells for light collection is vital in achieving high performance solar cells.1 An ideal antireflec- tion AR

  2. a-si solar cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the development of amorphous Si solar cells Seung May 2010 Keywords: a-Si:H Thin film Si solar cell Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) a b s t r a c t We Park, Byungwoo...

  3. a-si solar cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for the development of amorphous Si solar cells Seung May 2010 Keywords: a-Si:H Thin film Si solar cell Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) a b s t r a c t We Park, Byungwoo...

  4. Effect of Hysteresis on Measurements of Thin-Film Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albin, D.; del Cueto, J.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient or hysteresis effects in polycrystalline thin film CdS/CdTe cells are a function of pre-measurement voltage bias and whether Cu is introduced as an intentional dopant during back contact fabrication. When Cu is added, the current-density (J) vs. voltage (V) measurements performed in a reverse-to-forward voltage direction will yield higher open-circuit voltage (Voc), up to 10 mV, and smaller short-circuit current density (Jsc), by up to 2 mA/cm2, relative to scanning voltage in a forward-to-reverse direction. The variation at the maximum power point, Pmax, is however small. The resulting variation in FF can be as large as 3%. When Cu is not added, hysteresis in both Voc and Jsc is negligible however Pmax hysteresis is considerably greater. This behavior corroborates observed changes in depletion width, Wd, derived from capacitance (C) vs voltage (V) scans. Measured values of Wd are always smaller in reverse-to-forward voltage scans, and conversely, larger in the forward-to-reverse voltage direction. Transient ion drift (TID) measurements performed on Cu-containing cells do not show ionic behavior suggesting that capacitance transients are more likely due to electronic capture-emission processes. J-V curve simulation using Pspice shows that increased transient capacitance during light-soak stress at 100 degrees C correlates with increased space-charge recombination. Voltage-dependent collection however was not observed to increase with stress in these cells.

  5. FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS BY A LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS ON ITO/ZnO COATED A. Salavei, I. Rimmaudo, F. Piccinelli1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    FLEXIBLE CdTe SOLAR CELLS BY A LOW TEMPERATURE PROCESS ON ITO/ZnO COATED POLYMERS A. Salavei, I will be discussed. Keywords: Flexible Substrate, CdTe, ITO, Laser Processing, Thin Film Solar Cell 1 INTRODUCTION Thin film solar cells deposited on a flexible substrate are easier to integrate in buildings; they also

  6. Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Myriam Paire,1,2,3,4,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Microscale solar cells for high concentration on polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films Myriam experiments on polycrystalline thin film solar cells. High level regime is reached, thanks to the micrometric grids are used on concentrator solar cells. The grid coverage is a trade-off between the decreased

  7. Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 75 (2003) 307­312 Extreme radiation hardness and light-weighted thin-film indium phosphide solar cell and its computer simulation Guohua Lia, *, Qingfen Yanga+ -i-p+ InP solar cell is developed. The total thickness of its epitaxial layer is only 0.22 mm

  8. Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells and durabilityand durability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells Semitransparent ultrathin CdTe solar cells lines · Thinfilm CIGS--not available in transparent form · Dye sensitized solar thin films· Dye.E. McCandless, W.A. Buchanan. "High throughput processing of CdTe/CdS solar cells with thin absorber

  9. The Effect of Offcut Angle on Electrical Conductivity of Direct Wafer-Bonded n-GaAs/n-GaAs Structures for Wafer-Bonded Tandem Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, King Wah Sunny

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficiency of p?n Junction Solar Cells, J. Appl. Phys. 32,Inverted Triple- Junction Solar Cell with Two Independentlyof Thin-Film GaAs Solar Cells on Si Substrates, J. Appl.

  10. Investigation of polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells based on ZnSe windows. Annual subcontract report, 15 Febraury 1992--14 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, L C [Washington State Univ. at Tri-Cities, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Investigations of ZnSe/CIS solar cells are being carried out in an effort to improve the efficiencies CIS cells and to determine if ZnSe is a viable alternative to CdS as a window material. MOCVD growth of ZnSe is accomplished in a SPIRE 500XT reactor housed in the Electronic Materials Laboratory at WSU Tri-Cities by reacting a zinc adduct with H{sub 2}Se. Conductive n-type ZnSe is grown by using iodine as a dopant. Ethyliodide was mixed with helium and installed on one of the gas lines to the system. ZnSe films have been grown on CIS substrates at 200{degrees}C to 250{degrees}C. ZnO is also being deposited by MOCVD by reacting tetrahydrofuran (THF) with a zinc adduct. ZnSe/CIS heterojunctions have been studied by growing n-ZnSe films onto 2 cm x 2 cm CIS substrates diced from materials supplied by Siemens and then depositing an array of aluminum circular areas 2.8.mm in diameter on top of the ZnSe to serve as contacts. Al films are deposited with a thickness of 80 to l00 {angstrom}so that light can pass through the film, thus allowing the illuminated characteristics of the ZnSe/CIS junction to be tested. Accounting for the 20 to 25 % transmittance through the Al film into the ZnSe/CIS structure, current devices have estimated, active-area AM1.5 efficiencies of 14 %. Open circuit voltages > 500 mV are often attained.

  11. EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON SURFACE TEXTURING AND CRYSTALLIZATION ON A-SI:H THIN FILM IRRADIATED BY EXCIMER LASER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    considered for use in solar cell applications because of their significantly reduced cost compared-Si:H thin film solar cell applications. Introduction Many industrial solar cells in use today use bulk centers that severely reduce the carrier lifetime which results in the solar cell efficiency being below

  12. In-Line Post-Process Scribing for Reducing Cell to Module Efficiency Gap in Monolithic Thin Film Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongaonkar, Sourabh

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The gap between cell and module efficiency is a major challenge for all photovoltaic (PV) technologies. For monolithic thin film PV modules, a significant fraction of this gap has been attributed to parasitic shunts, and other defects, distributed across the module. In this paper, we show that it is possible to contain or isolate these shunt defects, using the state of the art laser scribing processes, after the fabrication of the series connected module is finished. We discuss three possible alternatives, and quantify the performance gains for each technique. We demonstrate that using these techniques, it is possible to recover up to 50% of the power lost to parasitic shunts, which results in 1-2% (absolute) increase in module efficiencies for typical thin film PV technologies.

  13. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rate profile. Chemical Engineering Science, 67:101–110,Feedback Control. Chemical Engineering Science, submitted.Monte-Carlo Model. Chemical Engineering Science, 66, 5955-

  14. Control of morphology for enhanced electronic transport in PECVD-grown a-Si : H Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castro Galnares, Sebastián

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar cells have become an increasingly viable alternative to traditional, pollution causing power generation methods. Although crystalline silicon (c-Si) modules make up most of the market, thin films such as hydrogenated ...

  15. Thin-film CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.G.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total-area conversion efficiency of 15%--15.8% have been achieved for thin-film CdTe and CIS solar cells. Modules with power output of 5--53 W have been demonstrated by several groups world-wide. Critical processes and reaction pathways for achieving excellent PV devices have been eluciated. Research, development and technical issues have been identified, which could result in potential improvements in device and module performance. A 1-kW thin-film CdTe array has been installed and is being tested. Multimegawatt thin-film CdTe manufacturing plants are expected to be completed in 1-2 years.

  16. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

  17. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

  18. Black Silicon Enhanced Thin Film Silicon Photovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin U. Pralle; James E. Carey

    2010-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    SiOnyx has developed an enhanced thin film silicon photovoltaic device with improved efficiency. Thin film silicon solar cells suffer from low material absorption characteristics resulting in poor cell efficiencies. SiOnyx’s approach leverages Black Silicon, an advanced material fabricated using ultrafast lasers. The laser treated films show dramatic enhancement in optical absorption with measured values in excess of 90% in the visible spectrum and well over 50% in the near infrared spectrum. Thin film Black Silicon solar cells demonstrate 25% higher current generation with almost no impact on open circuit voltage as compared with representative control samples. The initial prototypes demonstrated an improvement of nearly 2 percentage points in the suns Voc efficiency measurement. In addition we validated the capability to scale this processing technology to the throughputs (< 5 min/m2) required for volume production using state of the art commercially available high power industrial lasers. With these results we clearly demonstrate feasibility for the enhancement of thin film solar cells with this laser processing technique.

  19. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array Jonathan Grandidier Michael G. Deceglie Dennis M. Callahan Harry A. Atwater #12;Simulations of solar cell for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic arrangements of resonant

  20. Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Plasmonic Nanostructure Design for Efficient Light Coupling into Solar Cells Vivian E. Ferry, Luke sunlight into guided modes in thin film Si and GaAs plasmonic solar cells whose back interface is coated. These findings show promise for the design of ultrathin solar cells that exhibit enhanced absorption

  1. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TiO 2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics ATiO 2 Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics by

  2. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  3. Optimization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films using nitrilotriacetic acid as a complexing agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    thin film solar cells based on CdTe or CIGS [1,2]. CdS has also been used in other applications. The highest efficiencies reported for both CdTe and CIGS solar cells were obtained when chemical bath is known to greatly enhance the performance of CdS windows used in the above mentioned solar cells

  4. Low resistance thin film organic solar cell electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forrest, Stephen (Princeton, NJ); Xue, Jiangeng (Piscataway, NJ)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method which lower the series resistance of photosensitive devices includes providing a transparent film of a first electrically conductive material arranged on a transparent substrate; depositing and patterning a mask over the first electrically conductive material, such that openings in the mask have sloping sides which narrow approaching the substrate; depositing a second electrically conductive material directly onto the first electrically conductive material exposed in the openings of the mask, at least partially filling the openings; stripping the mask, leaving behind reentrant structures of the second electrically conductive material which were formed by the deposits in the openings of the mask; after stripping the mask, depositing a first organic material onto the first electrically conductive material in between the reentrant structures; and directionally depositing a third electrically conductive material over the first organic material deposited in between the reentrant structures, edges of the reentrant structures aligning deposition so that the third electrically conductive material does not directly contact the first electrically conductive material, and does not directly contact the second electrically conductive material.

  5. Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D. Venkataraman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkataraman, Dhandapani "DV"

    Review Organic solar cells: An overview focusing on active layer morphology Travis L. Benanti & D/acceptor blend, morphology, photovoltaic devices, plastic solar cells, thin films Abstract Solar cells heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief

  6. innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    innovati nNREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells material. The upper TCO contact in a solar cell allows light to reach the absorber material below, which by the TCO to an external circuit, forming the negative terminal of the solar cell. TCOs used in this fashion

  7. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Atul Verma; Nguyen Minh

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the technical progress from September 2002 to March 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. The causes have been identified for the unstable open circuit voltage (OCV) and low performance exhibited by the anode-supported lanthanum gallate based cells from the earlier development. Promising results have been obtained in the area of synthesis of electrolyte and cathode powders, which showed excellent sintering and densification at low temperatures. The fabrication of cells using tapecalendering process for anode-supported thin lanthanum gallate electrolyte cells and their performance optimization is in progress.

  8. Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  9. EEC 289-L Photovoltaics and Solar Cells 3 Units Winter Quarter (Alternate Years)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    %), midterm exam (20%), final exam (20%) Catalog Description: Physics and application of first, second strategies 4. Microcrystalline Si, and effects of defects on PV 5. Thin-Film Solar Cells a. -Si on glass b

  10. Efficient Light Trapping in Inverted Nanopyramid Thin Crystalline Silicon Membranes for Solar Cell Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrokefalos, Anastassios

    Thin-film crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells with light-trapping structures can enhance light absorption within the semiconductor absorber layer and reduce material usage. Here we demonstrate that an inverted nanopyramid ...

  11. MATERIAL AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT LEADING TO ECONOMICAL HIGH-PERFORMANCE THIN-FILM SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jie Guan; Nguyen Minh

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document summarizes the technical progress from April to September 2003 for the program, Material and Process Development Leading to Economical High-Performance Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, contract number DE-AC26-00NT40711. Characteristics of doped lanthanum gallate (LSGMF) powder suitable for thin electrolyte fabrication have been defined. Bilayers with thin LSGMF electrolyte supported on an anode were fabricated and the fabrication process was improved. Preliminary performance was characterized. High performance cathode material Sr{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} has been down-selected and is being optimized by modifying materials characteristics and processing parameters. The selected cathode exhibited excellent performance with cathode polarization of {approx}0.23 ohm-cm{sup 2} at 600 C.

  12. Preparation Of Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide Films For Solar Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO), Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  13. Silicon Solar Cell Light-Trapping Using Defect Mode Photonic Kelsey A. Whitesell*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    Silicon Solar Cell Light-Trapping Using Defect Mode Photonic Crystals Kelsey A. Whitesell to enhance performance of thin film solar cells because of their unique ability to control light. We show crystalline silicon solar cells of up to 205% from = 300nm to 1100nm compared to a planar cell

  14. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation presents the results of a research agenda aimed at improving integration and stability in nanocrystal-based solar cells through advances in active materials and device architectures. The introduction of 3-dimensional nanocrystals illustrates the potential for improving transport and percolation in hybrid solar cells and enables novel fabrication methods for optimizing integration in these systems. Fabricating cells by sequential deposition allows for solution-based assembly of hybrid composites with controlled and well-characterized dispersion and electrode contact. Hyperbranched nanocrystals emerge as a nearly ideal building block for hybrid cells, allowing the controlled morphologies targeted by templated approaches to be achieved in an easily fabricated solution-cast device. In addition to offering practical benefits to device processing, these approaches offer fundamental insight into the operation of hybrid solar cells, shedding light on key phenomena such as the roles of electrode-contact and percolation behavior in these cells. Finally, all-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells are presented as a wholly new cell concept, illustrating that donor-acceptor charge transfer and directed carrier diffusion can be utilized in a system with no organic components, and that nanocrystals may act as building blocks for efficient, stable, and low-cost thin-film solar cells.

  15. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com; T, Manju, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady P. O., Ernakulam Dist., Kerala (India); Kumar, Vineetha V. [Dept. of Physics, K. E. College, Mannanam, Kottayam Dist., Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  16. Thin film photovoltaic cells having increased durability and operating life and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnett, Allen M. (Newark, DE); Masi, James V. (Wilmington, DE); Hall, Robert B. (Newark, DE)

    1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar cell having a copper-bearing absorber is provided with a composite transparent encapsulating layer specifically designed to prevent oxidation of the copper sulfide. In a preferred embodiment, the absorber is a layer of copper sulfide and the composite layer comprises a thin layer of copper oxide formed on the copper sulfide and a layer of encapsulating glass formed on the oxide. It is anticipated that such devices, when exposed to normal operating conditions of various terrestrial applications, can be maintained at energy conversion efficiencies greater than one-half the original conversion efficiency for periods as long as thirty years.

  17. Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    efficiency thin film solar cells based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) [3,4]. It has also been used in other used in solar cell applications [6,7]. Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd2

  18. Solar Cells from Earth-Abundant Semiconductors with Plasmon-Enhanced Light Absorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwater, Harry

    2012-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress is reported in these areas: Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin Film a-Si Solar Cells; Plasmonic Light Trapping in Thin InGaN Quantum Well Solar Cells; and Earth Abundant Cu{sub 2}O and Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} Solar Cells.

  19. Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit Ali Naqavi,1,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petitpierre, Claude

    Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit Ali Naqavi,1,2, * Franz-Josef Haug,1 thin film silicon solar cells in the low absorption regime. We consider simultaneously wavelength.1950, 130.2790. 1. INTRODUCTION Enhancing light absorption in solar cells has been a topic of research

  20. Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    on a variety of 0.43 cm2 area, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) polycrystalline thin film solar cellsEffects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a) John H Energy Materials and Solar Cells on April 17, 1994) Admittance measurements have been performed

  1. NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    NUMERICAL MODELING OF CIGS AND CdTe SOLAR CELLS: SETTING THE BASELINE M. Gloeckler, A important complications that are often found in experimental CIGS and CdTe solar cells. 1. INTRODUCTION Numerical modeling of polycrystalline thin-film solar cells is an important strategy to test the viability

  2. Coupled optical and electrical modeling of solar cell based on conical pore silicon photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Sajeev

    a significant part of silicon solar cell cost. Thin film technology is a promising way to avoid these costCoupled optical and electrical modeling of solar cell based on conical pore silicon photonic://jap.aip.org/authors #12;Coupled optical and electrical modeling of solar cell based on conical pore silicon photonic

  3. The ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    international companies are making thin-film solar cells, but they are typically less efficient at convertingThe ultra-thin solar cells that could generate power through windows By Claire Bates Last updated at 11:11 AM on 06th October 2008 Solar cells that are transparent enough to be used to tint windows

  4. Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    Simulations of solar cell absorption enhancement using resonant modes of a nanosphere array an approach for enhancing the absorption of thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using periodic on the temporal coupled mode theory. Keywords: Resonant Dielectric Structures, Solar cells, Nanospheres

  5. Hydroxamate Anchors for Improved Photoconversion in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydroxamate Anchors for Improved Photoconversion in Dye- Sensitized Solar Cells Timothy P. Brewster-polypyridyl dyes to TiO2 surfaces in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The study provides fundamental insight materials such as dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made of sensitized nano- particulate thin-films.4 Since

  6. Towards an understanding of light activation processes in titanium oxide based inverted organic solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    solar cells S. Chambon, E. Destouesse, B. Pavageau, L. Hirsch, and G. Wantz Citation: J. Appl. Phys. 112. Related Articles Power losses in bilayer inverted small molecule organic solar cells Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 233903 (2012) Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic

  7. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF ABSORBER ETCHING ON THE BACK CONTACT PERFORMANCE OF CDTE SOLAR CELLS Ivan that has shown a remarkable market success in thin film solar cells. It is well known that deposition and defects are addressed. 2 EXPERIMENTAL CdTe solar cells, in our laboratory, are usually prepared as follows

  8. Process Development for High Voc CdTe Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferekides, C. S.; Morel, D. L.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a cumulative and final report for Phases I, II and III of this NREL funded project (subcontract # XXL-5-44205-10). The main research activities of this project focused on the open-circuit voltage of the CdTe thin film solar cells. Although, thin film CdTe continues to be one of the leading materials for large-scale cost-effective production of photovoltaics, the efficiency of the CdTe solar cells have been stagnant for the last few years. This report describes and summarizes the results for this 3-year research project.

  9. Mixed ternary heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA); Stewart, John M. (Seattle, WA)

    1992-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film heterojunction solar cell and a method of making it has a p-type layer of mixed ternary I-III-VI.sub.2 semiconductor material in contact with an n-type layer of mixed binary II-VI semiconductor material. The p-type semiconductor material includes a low resistivity copper-rich region adjacent the back metal contact of the cell and a composition gradient providing a minority carrier mirror that improves the photovoltaic performance of the cell. The p-type semiconductor material preferably is CuInGaSe.sub.2 or CuIn(SSe).sub.2.

  10. CFN | Thin Films Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility Thin-Film Processing Facility Online Manager (FOM) website FOM manual ESR for lab 1L32 (High-Resolution SEM and x-ray...

  11. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  12. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent.

  13. Dye-sensitized solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.

    1980-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-cost dye-sensitized Schottky barrier solar cell is comprised of a substrate of semiconductor with an ohmic contact on one face, a sensitizing dye adsorbed onto the opposite face of the semiconductor, a transparent thin-film layer of a reducing agent over the dye, and a thin-film layer of metal over the reducing agent. The ohmic contact and metal layer constitute electrodes for connection to an external circuit and one or the other or both are made transparent to permit light to penetrate to the dye and be absorbed therein for generating electric current. The semiconductor material chosen to be the substrate is one having a wide bandgap and which therefore is transparent; the dye selected is one having a ground state within the bandgap of the semiconductor to generate carriers in the semiconductor, and a first excited state above the conduction band edge of the semiconductor to readily conduct electrons from the dye to the semiconductor; the reducing agent selected is one having a ground state above the ground state of the sensitizer to provide a plentiful source of electrons to the dye during current generation and thereby enhance the generation; and the metal for the thin-film layer of metal is selected to have a Fermi level in the vicinity of or above the ground state of the reducing agent to thereby amply supply electrons to the reducing agent. 3 figs.

  14. New top layer reduces the"wiggle"that degrades the conversion of light to electricity in solar cells by absorbing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cells by absorbing light within a specific wavelength. Today's thin-film solar cells could not function the solar cell, free electrons tend to resonate (or"wiggle") within a TCO, which can degrade a PV device into the infrared, where the solar cell is not designed to respond. NREL scientists believe that improved TCO films

  15. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  16. Novel two-stage selenization methods for fabrication of thin-film CIS cells and submodules. Annual subcontract report, 25 March 1992--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basol, B.M.; Kapur, V.K.; Halani, A.; Leidholm, C. [International Solar Electric Technology, Inglewood, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Phase 1 Annual Technical Progress Report of a subcontract titled {open_quotes}Novel Two-Stage Selenization Methods for Fabrication of Thin-Film CIS Cells and Submodules.{close_quotes} The objectives of the program are the development of a cost effective process for CIS film deposition, optimization of various layers forming the CIS solar cell and fabrication of submodules using these processes and devices. During this first phase of the program the authors have completed their 1 ft{sup 2} size processing capabilities and added to their facilities an in-line sputtering system that can handle up to 1 ft{sup 2} size substrates. They have optimized the sputtering conditions for the Mo contact as well as the Cu and In films. Thickness uniformity of the Cu and In layers have also been optimized by masking the magnetron cathodes to obtain a variation of 3% throughout a ft{sup 2} substrate. Using the resulting films, they have demonstrated their first large area CIS submodules with outputs of about 3W/ft{sup 2}. Addition of a computer controlled mechanical scriber to the fabrication facilities, and optimization of the large-area ZnO layers are expected to improve the power output of these submodules to over 5W/ft{sup 2} shortly. In addition to the large-area submodule work, the authors have also carried out research aimed at the development of a non-vacuum processing approach for the growth of CIS layers. They have deposited films using this technique, and small-area cells with over 10% conversion efficiency have been demonstrated on such CIS layers.

  17. Tuning the transport properties of layer-by-layer thin films for fuel cell applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashcraft, James Nathan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing global focus on alternative energy sources has led to a renewed interest in fuel cells. For low power, portable applications, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are the most promising type of fuel cell. DMFCs ...

  18. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanoparticles in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells. ACS Nano. 2012,to the operation of a Dye-Sensitized solar cell. Figure 13:gas sensors, Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, and optical

  19. Atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties by oxygen annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CIGS-based solar cells use CdS,1,2 a toxic material, as an n-type buffer layer between the p-type CIGS(O,S) buffer layers in CIGS-based solar cells, much research has also been motivated to replace the expensive) is one of the most reliable materials used in thin-film solar cells, but currently the most efficient

  20. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  1. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  2. The dynamic behavior of thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Sebastian B., E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Hartmann, David; Sarfert, Wiebke, E-mail: sebastian.meier@belectric.com, E-mail: wiebke.sarfert@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, CT RTC MAT IEC-DE, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Winnacker, Albrecht [Department of Materials Science VI: Materials for Electronics and Energy Technology, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) have received increasing attention during recent years due to their simple architecture, based on solely air-stabile materials, and ease of manufacture in ambient atmosphere, using solution-based technologies. The LEC's active layer offers semiconducting, luminescent as well as ionic functionality resulting in device physical processes fundamentally different as compared with organic light-emitting diodes. During operation, electrical double layers (EDLs) form at the electrode interfaces as a consequence of ion accumulation and electrochemical doping sets in leading to the in situ development of a light-emitting p-i-n junction. In this paper, we comment on the use of impedance spectroscopy in combination with complex nonlinear squares fitting to derive key information about the latter events in thin-film ionic transition metal complex-based light-emitting electrochemical cells based on the model compound bis-2-phenylpyridine 6-phenyl-2,2?-bipyridine iridium(III) hexafluoridophosphate ([Ir(ppy){sub 2}(pbpy)][PF{sub 6}]). At operating voltages below the bandgap potential of the ionic complex used, we obtain the dielectric constant of the active layer, the conductivity of mobile ions, the transference numbers of electrons and ions, and the thickness of the EDLs, whereas the transient thickness of the p-i-n junction is determined at voltages above the bandgap potential. Most importantly, we find that charge transport is dominated by the ions when carrier injection from the electrodes is prohibited, that ion movement is limited by the presence of transverse internal interfaces and that the width of the intrinsic region constitutes almost 60% of the total active layer thickness in steady state at a low operating voltage.

  3. Simulation of Polycrystalline Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells in Two Dimensions Markus Gloeckler, Wyatt K. Metzger1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    10%­12% [2]. This work uses numerical simulations to predict the changes to CIGS solar-cell an electrostatic potential, which has been reported in the literature for CIGS solar cells [3­5]. A valence that a plausible reason behind highly efficient thin-film CIGS solar cells ( > 17%) is an inherent valence

  4. Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinrich, M P; Zhang, Y; Kiowski, O; Powalla, M; Lemmer, U; Slobodskyy, A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

  5. Direct measurements of band gap grading in polycrystalline CIGS solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. P. Heinrich; Z-H. Zhang; Y. Zhang; O. Kiowski; M. Powalla; U. Lemmer; A. Slobodskyy

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present direct measurements of depth-resolved band gap variations of CuIn(1-x)Ga(x)Se2 thin-film solar cell absorbers. A new measurement technique combining parallel measurements of local thin-film interference and spectral photoluminescence was developed for this purpose. We find sample-dependent correlation parameters between measured band gap depth and composition profiles, and emphasize the importance of direct measurements. These results bring a quantitative insight into the electronic properties of the solar cells and open a new way to analyze parameters that determine the efficiency of solar cells.

  6. INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films Lecture notes La Rosa Portland State University PH-213 through, a sheet of glass #12;Out of phase #12;In phase #12;#12;Interference from thin films Key reasoning for analyzing interference in a thin film: Waves undergo phase shift due to i) reflections at a interface

  7. Light trapping in solar cells at the extreme coupling limit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, Ali; Battaglia, Corsin; Herzig, Hans Peter; Ballif, Christophe

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate the maximal absorption enhancement obtainable by guided mode excitation in a weakly absorbing dielectric slab over wide wavelength ranges. The slab mimics thin film silicon solar cells in the low absorption regime. We consider simultaneously wavelength-scale periodicity of the texture, small thickness of the film, modal properties of the guided waves and their confinement to the film. Also we investigate the effect of the incident angle on the absorption enhancement. Our calculations provide tighter bounds for the absorption enhancement but still significant improvement is possible. Our explanation of the absorption enhancement can help better exploitation of the guided modes in thin film devices.

  8. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  9. alkali vapor cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high...

  10. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 668 @ 2001 Materials Research Society Influence of proton irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    power (defined as the ratio of output electrical power to the solar module weight). Thin film solar cells on polymer films can yield more than 2- kW/kg specific power. CIGS solar cells of about 10 to 12 irradiation and development of flexible CdTe solar cells on polyimide A. Romeo, D.L. Bätzner, H. Zogg and A

  11. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  12. Development of Thin Film Membrane Assemblies with Novel Nanostructured Electrocatalyst for Next Generation Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    Generation Fuel Cells Abstract: While problems related to CO poisoning still exist for the anode, most to internal combustion and diesel engine transportation. The present Department of energy targets. Improved CO tolerance of the anode would lead to simpler CO management systems and decrease the power

  13. Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagementOPAM5Parabolic TroughPhotoCell Structure BasicsEnergy

  14. ZnO transparent thin films for gas sensor applications M. Suchea a,b,, S. Christoulakis a,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in solar cells and flat panel displays as well as for the fabrication of gratings in optoelectronic de analysis of thin films sputtered from a ceramic target has shown a completely different surface behavior of the earliest discovered metal oxide gas sensing materials. It is an n-type semiconductor of wurtzite structure

  15. pH-Dependent Electron Transfer from Re-bipyridyl Complexes to Metal Oxide Nanocrystalline Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to a dye-sensitized solar cell, in which the rates of charge injection from a molecular excited state-CH2COOH] sensitized TiO2 and ReC1P sensitized SnO2 nanocrystalline thin films using femtosecond

  16. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  17. alkali-metal vapor cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer for manufacturing high...

  18. Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapati, Vidya; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light trapping in solar cells allows for increased current and voltage, as well as reduced materials cost. It is known that in geometrical optics, a maximum 4n^2 absorption enhancement factor can be achieved by randomly texturing the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption enhancement limit only holds when the thickness of the solar cell is much greater than the optical wavelength. In sub-wavelength thin films, the fundamental questions remain unanswered: (1) what is the sub-wavelength absorption enhancement limit and (2) what surface texture realizes this optimal absorption enhancement? We turn to computational electromagnetic optimization in order to design nanoscale textures for light trapping in sub-wavelength thin films. For high-index thin films, in the weakly absorbing limit, our optimized surface textures yield an angle- and frequency-averaged enhancement factor ~39. They perform roughly 30% better than randomly textured structures, but they fall...

  19. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    microstructure is a brand new architecture in thin films and an exciting approach that promises tunable material functionalities as well as novel nanostructures....

  20. SOLAR CELLS FABRICATED WTH CuInS2 FILMS DEPOSITED USING SINGLE-SOURCE PRECURSORS Michael H. Jin1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    in developing low-cost highly efficient solar cells on light-weight flexible substrates, which will ultimatelySOLAR CELLS FABRICATED WTH CuInS2 FILMS DEPOSITED USING SINGLE-SOURCE PRECURSORS Michael H. Jin1 report a chalcopyrite thin film solar cell fabrication process established at NASA Glenn Research Center

  1. Layer-By-Layer Self-Assembly of CIGS Nanoparticles and Polymers for All-Solution Processable Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Yaoqi

    -Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells Tung Ho1 , Robert Vittoe3 , Namratha Kakumanu2 , Sudhir Shrestha2-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), Indianapolis, IN 46202 Thin film solar cells made from copper indium gallium thereby affecting solar cell efficiency. This research aims to study various polymer materials to replace

  2. DOE/SERI polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, A.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent results, status, and future prospects for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaic program, managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The devices being studied most intensively are heterojunctions based on CuInSe/sub 2/ and on CdTe. Both materials have attained over 10% efficiency in polycrystalline form. The main emphasis is on CuInSe/sub 2/, for which Boeing has reported an 11%-efficient device (AMl ELH simulation). Important work is being done on studies of the composition/electronic properties of CuInSe/sub 2/ and its response to post-deposition annealing. In the CdTe research, ohmic, stable back-contacting and control of p-type doping are being investigated. New efforts to study polycrystalline two-junction stacked cells are underway with two-terminal cells (at IEC) and with four-terminal cells (at SMU). This preliminary work is expected to be expanded, with emphasis on CdTe and other top-cell (high-bandgap) materials. These efforts introduce a number of new research areas (e.g., transparent ohmic contacts to p-CdTe and sub-bandgap light-losses in polycrystalline materials). The aim of the program is to produce stable, high-efficiency (15%), thin-film cells that can be deposited inexpensively by techniques that are scalable to large areas.

  3. Metallophthalocyanine thin films : structure and physical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colesniuc, Corneliu Nicolai

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in copper phthalocyanine thin film transistors”, J. Park, J.free phthalocyanine thin films”, F. I. Bohrer, A. Sharoni,copper phthalocyanine thin-film transistors”, R. D. Yang, J.

  4. Doping in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zheng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of ZnO:Mn thin films were comprehensivelyd exchange in ZnO:Mn DMS thin films. Both the ordinary andspin-obital ferromagnetism in ZnO:Mn DMS thin films.

  5. 62 Journal of Student Research in Environmental Science at Appalachian Site Suitability Analysis for a Solar Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    ]. The semiconductor materials typically used are crystalline-silicone, containing monocrystalline or polycrystalline cells, or thin-film, containing materials including CdTe and copper indium gal- lium selenide, solar modules [2]. Although thin- film solar panels are typically less expensive than c-Si solar panels

  6. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  7. Fundamentals of polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a one-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. The research was conducted to better understand the limitations and potential of solar cells using CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe by systematically investigating the fundamental relationships linking material processing, material properties, and device behavior. By selenizing Cu and In layers, we fabricated device-quality CuInSe{sub 2} thin films and demonstrated a CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell with 7% efficiency. We added Ga, to increase the band gap of CuInSe{sub 2} devices to increase the open-circuit voltage to 0.55 V. We fabricated and analyzed Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}/CuInSe{sub 2} devices to demonstrate the potential for combining the benefits of higher V{sub oc} while retaining the current-generating capacity of CuInSe{sub 2}. We fabricated an innovative superstrate device design with more than 5% efficiency, as well as a bifacial spectral-response technique for determining the electron diffusion length and optical absorption coefficient of CuInSe{sub 2} in an operational cell. The diffusion length was found to be greater than 1 {mu}m. We qualitatively modeled the effect of reducing heat treatments in hydrogen and oxidizing treatments in air on the I-V behavior of CuInSe{sub 2} devices. We also investigated post-deposition heat treatments and chemical processing and used them to fabricate a 9.6%-efficient CdTe/CdS solar cell using physical vapor deposition.

  8. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL SUBSTRATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL specific power for space application, we deposited a-Si thin film solar cells on ultra-thin stainless steel-thin stainless steel (SS) substrates (down to 7.5 pm) for space power applications. In this paper, we report our

  9. DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION IMPACT OF SECONDARY BARRIERS ON CuIn1-xGaxSe2 SOLAR-CELL OPERATION Submitted by Alexei Impact of Secondary Barriers on CuIn1-xGaxSe2 Solar-Cell Operation Thin-film solar cells based on CuInSe2 layers in p-n junctions of CIGS solar cells often improve photodiode properties of the devices. Several

  10. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  11. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  12. Influence of Gas Flow Rate for Formation of Aligned Nanorods in ZnO Thin Films for Solar-Driven Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shet, S.; Chen, L.; Tang, H.; Nuggehalli, R.; Wang, H.; Yan, Y.; Turner, J.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO thin films have been deposited in mixed Ar/N{sub 2} gas ambient at substrate temperature of 500 C by radiofrequency sputtering of ZnO targets. We find that an optimum N{sub 2}-to-Ar ratio in the deposition ambient promotes the formation of well-aligned nanorods. ZnO thin films grown in ambient with 25% N{sub 2} gas flow rate promoted nanorods aligned along c-axis and exhibit significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) response, compared with ZnO thin films grown in an ambient with different N{sub 2}-to-Ar gas flow ratios. Our results suggest that chamber ambient is critical for the formation of aligned nanostructures, which offer potential advantages for improving the efficiency of PEC water splitting for H{sub 2} production.

  13. Conformal Metal Thin Films for H2 Purification and Fuel-Cell Catalyst Applications Tyler Munhollon, Coe College, SURF 2009 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    that will become a hydrogen filter in syngas pipelines. The thin film metal membranes are fairly inexpensive- shaped substrate that replicates a syngas pipeline. The membranes are also permeable to only hydrogen a heightened need for pure hydrogen gas at a low cost. Research has begun on thin film metal membranes

  14. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  15. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film solar cells: The electronic effects of point defects in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(Se,S){sub 4} devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varley, J. B.; Lordi, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate point defects in the buffer layers CdS and ZnS that may arise from intermixing with Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} (CIGS) or Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTS) absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaics. Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the electrical and optical behavior of Cu, In, Ga, Se, Sn, Zn, Na, and K impurities in the buffer. We find that In and Ga substituted on the cation site act as shallow donors in CdS and tend to enhance the prevailing n-type conductivity at the interface facilitated by Cd incorporation in CIGS, whereas they are deep donors in ZnS and will be less effective dopants. Substitutional In and Ga can favorably form complexes with cation vacancies (A-centers) which may contribute to the “red kink” effect observed in some CIGS-based devices. For CZTS absorbers, we find that Zn and Sn defects substituting on the buffer cation site are electrically inactive in n-type buffers and will not supplement the donor doping at the interface as in CIGS/CdS or ZnS devices. Sn may also preferentially incorporate on the S site as a deep acceptor in n-type ZnS, which suggests possible concerns with absorber-related interfacial compensation in CZTS devices with ZnS-derived buffers. Cu, Na, and K impurities are found to all have the same qualitative behavior, most favorably acting as compensating acceptors when substituting on the cation site. Our results suggest one beneficial role of K and Na incorporation in CIGS or CZTS devices is the partial passivation of vacancy-related centers in CdS and ZnS buffers, rendering them less effective interfacial hole traps and recombination centers.

  16. Electron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiff, Eric A.

    .1063/1.3692165] The chalcopyrite alloys CuIn1ÀxGaxSe2 (CIGS) are the basis of very promising thin film solar cells, with solar con conduction band states.8,9 Empirical optimization of CIGS for solar cells thus appears to have led to lowElectron drift-mobility measurements in polycrystalline CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solar cells S. A. Dinca, E. A

  17. Light Trapping, Absorption and Solar Energy Harvesting by Artificial Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John, Sajeev [University of Toronto

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide designs of thin-film solar cells utilizing optimized photonic-crystal light-trapping and numerical simulations of their solar-to-electrical power conversion efficiencies.

  18. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K. [ed.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting ``next-generation`` options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called ``government/industry partnerships``) that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  19. High-performance solar-blind ultraviolet photodetector based on mixed-phase ZnMgO thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, M. M. [Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, 130033 Changchun (China); Liu, K. W., E-mail: liukw@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn; Zhang, Z. Z.; Li, B. H.; Chen, X.; Zhao, D. X.; Shan, C. X.; Shen, D. Z., E-mail: liukw@ciomp.ac.cn, E-mail: shendz@ciomp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 3888 Dongnanhu Road, 130033 Changchun (China)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    High Mg content mixed-phase Zn{sub 0.38}Mg{sub 0.62}O was deposited on a-face sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, based on which a metal-semiconductor-metal solar-blind ultraviolet (UV) photodetector was fabricated. The dark current is only 0.25?pA at 5?V, which is much lower than that of the reported mixed-phase ZnMgO photodetectors. More interestingly, different from the other mixed-phase ZnMgO photodetectors containing two photoresponse bands, this device shows only one response peak and its ?3?dB cut-off wavelength is around 275?nm. At 10?V, the peak responsivity is as high as 1.664?A/W at 260?nm, corresponding to an internal gain of ?8. The internal gain is mainly ascribed to the interface states at the grain boundaries acting as trapping centers of photogenerated holes. In view of the advantages of mixed-phase ZnMgO photodetectors over single-phase ZnMgO photodetectors, including easy fabrication, high responsivity, and low dark current, our findings are anticipated to pave a new way for the development of ZnMgO solar-blind UV photodetectors.

  20. 335Nanostructured ZnO and ZAO transparent thin films by sputteringsurface characterization Corresponding author: M. Suchea, e-mail: mirasuchea@iesl.forth.gr

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as transparent electrode in solar cells and flat panel displays as well as for the fabrication of gratings Abstract. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum zinc oxide (ZAO) transparent thin films with different thickness Zinc oxide is one of the earliest discovered metal oxide gas sensing materials. It is an n-type semi

  1. IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandidier, Jonathan

    IEEE JOURNAL OF PHOTOVOLTAICS, VOL. 2, NO. 2, APRIL 2012 123 Gallium Arsenide Solar Cell Absorption--Gallium arsenide, nanospheres, photovoltaic systems, whispering gallery modes (WGMs). I. INTRODUCTION THE route as the active layer is thinned [2]. Thin-film photovoltaics offer the possibility to significantly reduce

  2. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO3)x:(Sm2O3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)x:(Mn3O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

  3. Recent improvements in materials for thin GaAs and multibandgap solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benner, J.P.

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The High Efficiency Concepts Program at SERI supports research on III-V compound semiconductors with the objective of achieving the maximum attainable photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for terrestrial solar electric power. The outcome of this research may also affect the future of space photovoltaic cells. While the interest in thin-film, high-efficiency solar cells for terrestrial applications is driven principally by consideration of system costs, such cells would also improve the power density of space power arrays.

  4. Solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peumans, Peter; Uchida, Soichi; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices are disclosed. The devises are thin-film crystalline organic optoelectronic devices capable of generating a voltage when exposed to light, and prepared by a method including the steps of: depositing a first organic layer over a first electrode; depositing a second organic layer over the first organic layer; depositing a confining layer over the second organic layer to form a stack; annealing the stack; and finally depositing a second electrode over the second organic layer.

  5. Enhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfide buffer layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .1063/1.4789855] The toxicity of Cd and the scarcity of Te, In, and Ga used in CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cellsEnhancing the efficiency of SnS solar cells via band-offset engineering with a zinc oxysulfideS is a promising earth-abundant material for photovoltaic applications. Heterojuction solar cells were made

  6. Method of making quasi-grain boundary-free polycrystalline solar cell structure and solar cell structure obtained thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Franklin N. (Gainesville, FL); Neugroschel, Arnost (Gainesville, FL)

    1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A new solar cell structure is provided which will increase the efficiency of polycrystalline solar cells by suppressing or completely eliminating the recombination losses due to the presence of grain boundaries. This is achieved by avoiding the formation of the p-n junction (or other types of junctions) in the grain boundaries and by eliminating the grain boundaries from the active area of the cell. This basic concept can be applied to any polycrystalline material; however, it will be most beneficial for cost-effective materials having small grains, including thin film materials.

  7. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  8. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensionalinorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction In recentoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  9. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  10. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  11. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  12. Tandem photonic-crystal thin films surpassing Lambertian light-trapping limit over broad bandwidth and angular range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oskooi, Ardavan; Noda, Susumu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The maximum absorption of solar radiation over the broadest range of frequencies and incident angles using the thinnest material possible has important applications for renewable-energy generation. Complete random texturing of an optically-thick film's surface to increase the path length of scattered light rays, first proposed nearly thirty years ago, has thus far remained the most effective approach for photon absorption over the widest set of conditions. Recent thin-film nanostructured designs involving resonant wave effects of photons have explored the possibility of superior performance though as of yet no proposal satisfying the dual requirements of enhanced and robust absorption over a large fraction of the solar spectrum has been made. Here using recent advances in computational electrodynamics we describe a general strategy for the design of a silicon thin film applicable to photovoltaic cells based on a quasi-resonant approach to light trapping where two partially-disordered photonic-crystal slabs, s...

  13. COMPARISON OF TRAP STATES BETWEEN CIGSS/CdS/ZnO AND Cd PE CIGSS/ZnO CELLS P.K. Johnson, A.O. Pudov, J.R. Sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    (CIGS) thin films were treated in Cd solutions (Cd PE treatment) yielded solar cells with efficiencies surface can produce a cell comparable to the best CdS/CIGS cells. We extend this work to include CIGSS Defects - 3 1. INTRODUCTION Polycrystalline CIGS thin film photovoltaic cells are known for their high

  14. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  15. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  16. Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Metcalfe; I. Mejia; J. Murphy; M. Quevedo; L. Smith; J. Alvarado; B. Gnade; H. Takai

    2014-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

  17. Potential of Thin Films for use in Charged Particle Tracking Detectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, J; Murphy, J; Quevedo, M; Smith, L; Alvarado, J; Gnade, B; Takai, H

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin Film technology has widespread applications in everyday electronics, notably Liquid Crystal Display screens, solar cells, and organic light emitting diodes. We explore the potential of this technology as charged particle radiation tracking detectors for use in High Energy Physics experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider or the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Through modern fabrication techniques, a host of semiconductor materials are available to construct thin, flexible detectors with integrated electronics with pixel sizes on the order of a few microns. We review the material properties of promising candidates, discuss the potential benefits and challenges associated with this technology, and review previously demonstrated applicability as a neutron detector.

  18. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  19. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  20. Preparation of CIGS-based solar cells using a buffered electrodeposition bath

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath (Littleton, CO)

    2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic cell exhibiting an overall conversion efficiency of at least 9.0% is prepared from a copper-indium-gallium-diselenide thin film. The thin film is prepared by simultaneously electroplating copper, indium, gallium, and selenium onto a substrate using a buffered electro-deposition bath. The electrodeposition is followed by adding indium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film.

  1. Application of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes as Transparent Electrodes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2-Based Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Contreras, M.; Barnes, T.; van de Lagemaat, J.; Rumbles, G.; Coutts, T. J.; Weeks, C.; Glatkowski, P.; Levitsky, I.; Peltola, J.

    2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a new thin-film solar cell structure in which the traditional transparent conductive oxide electrode (ZnO) is replaced by a transparent conductive coating consisting of a network of bundled single-wall carbon nanotubes. Optical transmission properties of these coatings are presented in relation to their electrical properties (sheet resistance), along with preliminary solar cell results from devices made using CuIn1-xGaxSe2 thin-film absorber materials. Achieving an energy conversion efficiency of >12% and a quantum efficiency of {approx}80% demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. A discussion of the device structures will be presented considering the physical properties of the new electrodes comparing current-voltage results from the new solar cell structure and those from standard ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2/Mo solar cells.

  2. DIRECT EVIDENCE OF MG-ZN-P ALLOY FORMATION IN MG/ZN3P2 SOLAR CELLS Gregory M. Kimball

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Gregory

    Te, CIGS, a-Si) for thin film photovoltaics. The record solar energy conversion efficiency for Zn3P2 cellsDIRECT EVIDENCE OF MG-ZN-P ALLOY FORMATION IN MG/ZN3P2 SOLAR CELLS Gregory M. Kimball 1 , Nathan S indicate that high efficiency should be realizable by optimization of Mg treatment in Mg/Zn3P2 solar cells

  3. Microstructure, residual stress, and mechanical properties of thin film materials for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quinn, David John, Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and residual stress of sputter-deposited films for use in microfabricated solid oxide fuel cells are presented. Much of the work focuses on the characterization of a candidate solid electrolyte: Yttria ...

  4. Structural and electrochemical characterization of two proton conducting oxide thin films for a microfabricated solid oxide fuel cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capozzoli, Peter M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of proton conducting oxide materials as an electrolyte offers the potential to reduce the operating temperature of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), leading to improved thermal management and material compatibility. ...

  5. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    films. Photovoltaic devices with power conversion efficiencyhigh efficiency fully solution-deposited CISS photovoltaic

  6. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    63 5.3 Photovoltaic performance……….64 5.4 Laterally resolvedaffect the photovoltaic performance of any resulting device.5.3 Photovoltaic performance Transmittance (%) (a) Sputtered

  7. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  8. High efficiency low cost thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, B.L.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device is described having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer. 9 figs.

  9. High efficiency, low cost, thin film silicon solar cell design and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sopori, Bhushan L. (Denver, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor device having a substrate, a conductive intermediate layer deposited onto said substrate, wherein the intermediate layer serves as a back electrode, an optical reflector, and an interface for impurity gettering, and a semiconductor layer deposited onto said intermediate layer, wherein the semiconductor layer has a grain size at least as large as the layer thickness, and preferably about ten times the layer thickness. The device is formed by depositing a metal layer on a substrate, depositing a semiconductive material on the metal-coated substrate to produce a composite structure, and then optically processing the composite structure by illuminating it with infrared electromagnetic radiation according to a unique time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface of the semiconductor material, then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor material and the metal layer, and finally produces a grain-enhanced semiconductor layer. The time-energy profile includes increasing the energy to a first energy level to initiate pit formation and create the desired pit size and density, then ramping up to a second energy level in which the entire device is heated to produce an interfacial melt, and finally reducing the energy to a third energy level and holding for a period of time to allow enhancement in the grain size of the semiconductor layer.

  10. Fully Solution-Processed Copper Chalcopyrite Thin Film Solar Cells: Materials Chemistry, Processing, and Device Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Choong-Heui

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    due to a reduced short circuit current density and fillor even higher short circuit current density and fill factorof 11.1% with a short circuit current density of 29.9 mA/cm

  11. Performance predictions for monolithic, thin-film CdTe/Ge tandem solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    and are being widely deployed in terrestrial, photovoltaic, power plants. However, the price of electricity from of the photovoltaic performance of this structure, and we indicate that an efficiency improvement in excess of 20% may these devices perform so well4,5 . Nevertheless, the high yields, reliability, and moderate efficiencies

  12. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOE Project Taps HPC for Next-GenerationSpectroscopic

  13. Absorptive carbon nanotube electrodes: Consequences of optical interference loss in thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tait, Jeffrey G.; Volder, Michaël F. L. De; Cheyns, David; Heremans, Paul; Rand, Barry P.

    2015-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ry o n 19 /0 3/ 20 15 0 9: 29 :1 0. View Article Online DOI: 10.1039/C5NR01119A 7 Materials and Methods The CNT ink used in these experiments was a MWCNT hydrocarbon suspension (Electra Colour™ - CNTBlack) provided by Owen Research... :PCBM devices fabricated with the same equipment and with different top electrodes and PAL thicknesses. PAL Thickness (nm) ? (%) FF (%) VOC (mV) JSC (mA cm-2) Conventional 240 4.2 72 620 9.1 Conventional 660 3.7 66 590 9.4 Inverted 230 3.6 62 600...

  14. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451 Clean Energy Technologies A

  15. DOE/SERI polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, A.; Mitchell, R.; Zwelbel, K.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent results, status, and future prospects for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaic Program, managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The devices being studied most intensively are heterojunctions based on CuInSe/sub 2/ and on CdTe. Both materials have attained over 10% efficiency in polycrystalline form. The main emphasis is on CuInSe/sub 2/, for which Boeing has reported an 11%-efficient device (AM) ELH simulation). Important work is being done on studies of the composition/electronic properties of CuInSe/sub 2/ and its response to post-deposition annealing. In the CdTe research, ohmic, stable back-contacting and control of p-type doping are being investigated. New efforts to study polycrystalline two-junction stacked cells are underway with two-terminal cells (at IEC) and with four-terminal cells (at SMU). This preliminary work is expected to be expanded, with emphasis on CdTe and other top-cell (high-bandgap) materials. These efforts introduce a number of new research areas (e.g., transparent ohmic contacts to p-CdTe and sub-bandgap light-losses in polycrystalline materials). The aim of the program is to produce stable, high-efficieny (15%), thinfilm cells that can be deposited inexpensively by techniques that are scalable to large areas.

  16. Flexible implementation of rigid solar cell technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollowell, Andrew E.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a source of clean, remote energy, photovoltaic (PV) systems are an important area of research. The majority of solar cells are rigid materials with negligible flexibility. Flexible PV systems possess many advantages, such as being transportable and incorporable on diverse structures. Amorphous silicon and organic PV systems are flexible; however, they lack the efficiency and lifetime of rigid cells. There is also a need for PV systems that are light weight, especially in space and flight applications. We propose a solution to this problem by arranging rigid cells onto a flexible substrate creating efficient, light weight, and flexible devices. To date, we have created a working prototype of our design using the 1.1cm x 1cm Emcore cells. We have achieved a better power to weight ratio than commercially available PowerFilm{reg_sign}, which uses thin film silicon yielding .034W/gram. We have also tested our concept with other types of cells and verified that our methods are able to be adapted to any rigid solar cell technology. This allows us to use the highest efficiency devices despite their physical characteristics. Depending on the cell size we use, we can rival the curvature of most available flexible PV devices. We have shown how the benefits of rigid solar cells can be integrated into flexible applications, allowing performance that surpasses alternative technologies.

  17. Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through Plasmonic Au Nanoparticle-doped Sol-derived TiO? Thin Films in Photocatalysis and Photovoltaics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelinski, Andrew

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SAN DIEGO Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through20 Solar Energy Conversion ThroughOF THE THESIS Investigation of Solar Energy Transfer through

  18. Nanopillar Photovoltaics: Photon Management and Junction Engineering for Next-Generation Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mariani, Giacomo

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for efficient photovoltaic cells, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 568-for efficient photovoltaic cells, Nat. Nanotechnol. 6, 568-trapping in thin-film photovoltaic cells, Opt. Express 8,

  19. Thin films of gallium arsenide on low-cost substrates. Final technical report, July 5, 1976-December 5, 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, R.P.; Dapkus, P.D.; Dupuis, R.D.; Johnson, R.E.; Moudy, L.A.; Yang, J.J.; Yingling, R.D.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The MO-CVD technique was applied to the growth of thin films of GaAs and GaAl As on inexpensive polycrystalline or amorphous substrate materials (primarily glasses and metals) for use in fabrication of large-area low-cost photovoltaic device structures. Trimethylgallium, arsine, and trimethylaluminum are mixed in appropriate concentrations at room temperature in the gaseous state and pyrolyzed at the substrate, which is heated in a vertical reactor chamber to temperatures of 700 to 750/sup 0/C, to produce the desired film composition and properties. Studies of the properties of grain boundaries in polycrystalline GaAs films by the use of transport measurements as a function of temperature indicated that the grain boundary regions are depleted of majority carriers by a large density of neutral traps at the grain boundary interface, causing a barrier to majority carrier flow in the material. Schottky-barrier solar cells of approx. 3 percent efficiency (simulated AM0 illumination, no AR coating) were demonstrated on thin-film polycrystalline GaAs n/n/sup +/ structures on Mo sheet, Mo film/glass, and graphite substrates. Substantial enhancement of average grain size in polycrystalline MO-CVD GaAs films on Mo sheet was obtained by the addition of HCl to the growth atmosphere during deposition. Extensive investigation of polycrystalline thin-film p-n junctions indicated that the forward voltage of such devices is apparently limited to 0.5 to 0.6V. A laboratory-type deposition apparatus for the formation of TiO/sub 2/ antireflection (AR) coatings by pyrolysis of titanium isopropoxide was assembled and tested. Detailed analyses were made of the materials and labor costs involved in the laboratory-scale fabrication of MO-CVD thin-film GaAs solar cells. Details are presented. (WHK)

  20. A thin film transistor driven microchannel device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    .1. Principle of Electrophoresis?????????????? 1.2. Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis????????... 1.3. Electrophoresis of DNA???????????????.. 2. Plasma Thin Film Deposition Process???????????... 2.1. Fundamentals of Plasma?????????????.?? 2.2. Plasma... Phase Chemical Reactions???????????.. 2.3. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition??????.. 2.4. PECVD Thin Film?????????????????.. 3. Thin Film Transistor??????????????????.. 7 7 12 17 20 20 23 24 25 29 III...

  1. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of organic based solar cells and distinguish them from theirof nanocrystal-based solar cells. No one approach orNov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional

  2. Nanocrystal Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gur, Ilan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nov, 2005). Chapter 4 Hybrid solar cells with 3-dimensional5 All-inorganic nanocrystal solar cells 5.1 Introduction Inoperation of organic based solar cells and distinguish them

  3. Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Keane, James (Lakewood, CO); Tennant, Andrew L. (Denver, CO); Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Ramanathan, Kannan (Lakewood, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO)

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  4. Thin Film Encapsulation Methods for Large Area MEMS Packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajerin, Armon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. J. French, “Robust Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulation ofThe Elastic Properties of Thin- Film Silicon Nitride,” IEEELPCVD Silicon Nitride Thin Films at Cryogenic Temperatures,”

  5. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS plate models, periodic pr* *o- files, and within the context of optimal design for thin films 5. Third application - Optimal design of a thin film 19 6. Final Remarks

  6. Mechanisms for fatigue and wear of polysilicon structural thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsem, Daniel Henricus

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of single-crystal silicon thin films from 1991 to 2006. Thefor polycrystalline silicon thin films After the initialThis mechanism is specific to thin-film silicon where cracks

  7. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  8. NREL Designs Promising New Oxides for Solar Cells (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-efficiency, thin-film solar cells require electrical contacts with high electrical conductivity, and the top contact must also have high optical transparency. This need is currently met by transparent conducting oxides (TCOs), which conduct electricity but are 90% transparent to visible light. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have derived three key design principles for selecting promising materials for TCO contacts. NREL's application of these design principles has resulted in a 10,000-fold improvement in conductivity for one TCO material.

  9. Final Report: Sintered CZTS Nanoparticle Solar Cells on Metal Foil; July 26, 2011 - July 25, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leidholm, C.; Hotz, C.; Breeze, A.; Sunderland, C.; Ki, W.; Zehnder, D.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report covering 12 months of this subcontract for research on high-efficiency copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS)-based thin-film solar cells on flexible metal foil. Each of the first three quarters of the subcontract has been detailed in quarterly reports. In this final report highlights of the first three quarters will be provided and details will be given of the final quarter of the subcontract.

  10. Structural and Optical Investigations of GaN-Si Interface for a Heterojunction Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Joshua J.; Jeffries, April M.; Bertoni, Mariana I.; Williamson, Todd L.; Bowden, Stuart G.; Honsberg, Christiana B.

    2014-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years the development of heterojunction silicon based solar cells has gained much attention, lea largely by the efforts of Panasonic’s HIT cell. The success of the HIT cell prompts the scientific exploration of other thin film layers, besides the industrially accepted amorphous silicon. In this paper we report upon the use of gallium nitride, grown by MBE at “low temperatures” (~200°C), on silicon wafers as one possible candidate for making a heterojunction solar cell; the first approximation of band alignments between GaN and Si; and the material quality as determined by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  12. Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using the Thermal Degradation of Cellulose Nitrate. Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using the Thermal...

  13. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

  14. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular Passivation. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular...

  15. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power...

  16. MG DOPING AND ALLOYING IN ZN3P2 HETEROJUNCTION SOLAR CELLS Gregory M. Kimball, Nathan S. Lewis, Harry A. Atwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimball, Gregory

    -Si) for thin film photovoltaics. We report the fabrication of Mg/Zn3P2 Schottky diodes with Voe values reaching 550 mV, Jse values up to 21.8 mAlcm 2 , and photovoltaic efficiency reaching 4.5%. Previous authors voltages > 500 mV without degradation in the blue response of the solar cell. These results indicate

  17. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  18. Impact of dislocations and dangling bond defects on the electrical performance of crystalline silicon thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffens, S.; Becker, C., E-mail: christiane.becker@helmholtz-berlin.de; Amkreutz, D.; Schnegg, A.; Abou-Ras, D.; Lips, K.; Rech, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Klossek, A. [Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Cottbus (Germany); Kittler, M. [Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Cottbus (Germany); IHP Microelectronics, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Chen, Y.-Y. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Berlin (Germany); Green Energy and Environment Research Labs, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Klingsporn, M. [IHP Microelectronics, Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide variety of liquid and solid phase crystallized silicon films are investigated in order to determine the performance limiting defect types in crystalline silicon thin-film solar cells. Complementary characterization methods, such as electron spin resonance, photoluminescence, and electron microscopy, yield the densities of dangling bond defects and dislocations which are correlated with the electronic material quality in terms of solar cell open circuit voltage. The results indicate that the strongly differing performance of small-grained solid and large-grain liquid phase crystallized silicon can be explained by intra-grain defects like dislocations rather than grain boundary dangling bonds. A numerical model is developed containing both defect types, dislocations and dangling bonds, describing the experimental results.

  19. Solar Cell Nanotechnology Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Biswajit [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to develop a low cost nonlithographic nanofabrication technology for the fabrication of thin film porous templates as well as uniform arrays of semiconductor nanostructures for the implementation of high efficiency solar cells. Solar cells based on semiconductor nanostructures are expected to have very high energy conversion efficiencies due to the increased absorption coefficients of semiconductor nanostructures. In addition, the thin film porous template can be used for optimum surface texturing of solar cells leading to additional enhancement in energy conversion efficiency. An important requirement for these applications is the ability to synthesize nanostructure arrays of different dimensions with good size control. This project employed nanoporous alumina templates created by the anodization of aluminum thin films deposited on glass substrates for the fabrication of the nanostructures and optimized the process parameters to obtain uniform pore diameters. An additional requirement is uniformity or regularity of the nanostructure arrays. While constant current anodization was observed to provide controlled pore diameters, constant voltage anodization was needed for regularity of the nanostructure arrays. Thus a two-step anodization process was investigated and developed in this project for improving the pore size distribution and pore periodicity of the nanoporous alumina templates. CdTe was selected to be the active material for the nanowires, and the process for the successful synthesis of CdTe nanowires was developed in this project. Two different synthesis approaches were investigated in this project, electrochemical and electrophoretic deposition. While electrochemical synthesis was successfully employed for the synthesis of nanowires inside the pores of the alumina templates, the technique was determined to be non-optimum due to the need of elevated temperature that is detrimental to the structural integrity of the nanoporous alumina templates. In order to eliminate this problem, electrophoretic deposition was selected as the more appropriate technique, which involves the guided deposition of semiconductor nanoparticles in the presence of ultrasonic energy to form the crystalline nanowires. Extensive experimental research was carried out to optimize the process parameters for formation of crystalline nanowires. It was observed that the environmental bath temperature plays a critical role in determining the structural integrity of the nanowires and hence their lengths. Investigation was carried out for the formation of semitransparent ohmic contacts on the nanowires to facilitate photocurrent spectroscopy measurements as well as for solar cell implementation. Formation of such ohmic contacts was found to be challenging and a process involving mechanical and electrochemical polishing was developed to facilitate such contacts. The use of nanoporous alumina templates for the surface texturing of mono- and multi-crystalline solar cells was extensively investigated by electrochemical etching of the silicon through the pores of the nanoporous templates. The processes for template formation as well as etching were optimized and the alumina/silicon interface was investigated using capacitance-voltage characterization. The process developed was found to be viable for improving solar cell performance.

  20. aluminum reduction cells: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S; Tichkiewitch, Serge 2009-01-01 140 LOSS ANALYSIS OF BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION THIN-FILM MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of the...

  1. aluminum reduction cell: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S; Tichkiewitch, Serge 2009-01-01 140 LOSS ANALYSIS OF BACK-CONTACT BACK-JUNCTION THIN-FILM MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON SOLAR CELLS Renewable Energy Websites Summary: of the...

  2. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  3. Efficient, air-stable colloidal quantum dot solar cells encapsulated using atomic layer deposition of a nanolaminate barrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ip, Alexander H.; Labelle, André J.; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition was used to encapsulate colloidal quantum dot solar cells. A nanolaminate layer consisting of alternating alumina and zirconia films provided a robust gas permeation barrier which prevented device performance degradation over a period of multiple weeks. Unencapsulated cells stored in ambient and nitrogen environments demonstrated significant performance losses over the same period. The encapsulated cell also exhibited stable performance under constant simulated solar illumination without filtration of harsh ultraviolet photons. This monolithically integrated thin film encapsulation method is promising for roll-to-roll processed high efficiency nanocrystal solar cells.

  4. CIBS Solar Cell Development Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Exstrom, Christopher L.; Soukup, Rodney J.; Ianno, Natale J.

    2011-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Efforts to fabricate and study a new photovoltaic material, copper indium boron diselenide (CuInxB1-xSe2 or CIBS), were undertaken. Attempts to prepare CIBS using sputtering deposition techniques resulted in segregation of boron from the rest of elements in the material. CIBS nanocrystals were prepared from the reaction of elemental Se with CuCl, InCl3, and boric acid in solution, but the product material quickly decomposed upon heating that was required in attempts to convert the nanocrystals into a thin film. The investigation of the reasons for the lack of CIBS material stability led to new structure-property studies of closely-related photovoltaic systems as well as studies of new solar cell materials and processing methods that could enhance the development of next-generation solar technologies. A detailed compositional study of CuIn1-xAlxSe2 (CIAS, a system closely related to CIBS) revealed a non-linear correlation between crystal lattice size and the Al/(In+Al) ratios with dual-phase formation being observed. A new nanocrystal-to-thin-film processing method was developed for the preparation of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) thin films in which colloidal Se particles are sprayed in contact with CuIn1-xGaxS2 nanoparticles and heated in an argon atmosphere with no other Se source in the system. The process is non-vacuum and does not require toxic gases such as Se vapor or H2Se. Expertise gained from these studies was applied to new research in the preparation of thin-film pyrite FeS2, an attractive earth-abundant candidate material for next-generation photovoltaics. Three methods successfully produced pure pyrite FeS2 films: sulfurization of sputtered Fe films, chemical bath deposition, and sulfurization of Fe2O3 sol-gel precursors. The last method produced pinhole-free films that may be viable for device development. Nickel, platinum, and possibly carbon would appear to serve as good ohmic contact materials. While CdS has a reasonable conduction band energy match to serve as an n-type buffer material in a pyrite FeS2-based solar cell, the less toxic SnS2 is being explored for this purpose.

  5. Aging phenomena in polystyrene thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koji Fukao; Hiroki Koizumi

    2008-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The aging behavior is investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene through measurements of complex electric capacitance. During isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increases with aging time, while the imaginary part decreases with aging time. This result suggests that the aging time dependence of the real and imaginary parts are mainly associated with change in thickness and dielectric permittivity, respectively. In thin films, the thickness depends on thermal history of aging even above the glass transition. Memory and `rejuvenation' effects are also observed in the thin films.

  6. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  7. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert (Palo Alto, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Pleasanton, CA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael (Tracy, CA); Rainer, Frank (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  8. Improved Electrodes and Electrolytes for Dye-Based Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harry R. Allcock; Thomas E. Mallouk; Mark W. Horn

    2011-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important factor in limiting the stability of dye-sensitized solar cells is the use of volatile liquid solvents in the electrolytes, which causes leakage during extended operation especially at elevated temperatures. This, together with the necessary complex sealing of the cells, seriously hampers the industrial-scale manufacturing and commercialization feasibilities of DSSCs. The objective of this program was to bring about a significant improvement in the performance and longevity of dye-based solar cells leading to commercialization. This had been studied in two ways first through development of low volatility solid, gel or liquid electrolytes, second through design and fabrication of TiO2 sculptured thin film electrodes.

  9. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 93(10): 1728-1723,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 92(8) 39. Sima, C.Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (

  10. Adhesion and Thin-Film Module Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, T. J.; Jorgenson, G. J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the infrequently measured but essential properties for thin-film (T-F) module reliability are the interlayer adhesion and cohesion within a layer. These can be cell contact layers to glass, contact layers to the semiconductor, encapsulant to cell, glass, or backsheet, etc. We use an Instron mechanical testing unit to measure peel strengths at 90deg or 180deg and, in some cases, a scratch and tape pull test to evaluate inter-cell layer adhesion strengths. We present peel strength data for test specimens laminated from the three T-F technologies, before and after damp heat, and in one instance at elevated temperatures. On laminated T-F cell samples, failure can occur uniformly at any one of the many interfaces, or non-uniformly across the peel area at more than one interface. Some peel strengths are Lt1 N/mm. This is far below the normal ethylene vinyl acetate/glass interface values of >10 N/mm. We measure a wide range of adhesion strengths and suggest that adhesion measured under higher temperature and relative humidity conditions is more relevant for module reliability.

  11. Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.

    Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

  12. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jae Hyeok

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

  13. Thermal Characterizationof Thin Film Superlattice Micro Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a microscopic scale. Semiconductor lasers or other high power devices could also benefit from monolithic. Low contact resistance is essential for thin film coolers [3]. A 100 nm titanium metal layer was first

  14. Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

  15. Trap and recombination centers study in sprayed Cu?ZnSnS? thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courel, Maykel, E-mail: maykelcourel@gmail.com; Vigil-Galán, O.; Jiménez-Olarte, D. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), C.P. 07738, México DF (Mexico); Espíndola-Rodríguez, M. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional (IPN), C.P. 07738, México DF (Mexico); Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona (Spain); Saucedo, E. [Catalonia Institute for Energy Research (IREC), Jardins de les Dones de Negre 1, 08930 Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a study of trap and recombination center properties in polycrystalline Cu?ZnSnS? thin films is carried out in order to understand the poor performance in Cu?ZnSnS? thin film solar cells. Thermally stimulated current has been studied in Cu?ZnSnS? deposited by pneumatic spray pyrolysis method using various heating rates, in order to gain information about trap centers and/or deep levels present within the band-gap of this material. A set of temperature-dependent current curves revealed three levels with activation energy of 126±10, 476±25, and 1100±100 meV. The possible nature of the three levels found is presented, in which the first one is likely to be related to Cu{sub Zn} antisites, while second and third to Sn vacancies and Sn{sub Cu} antisites, respectively. The values of frequency factor, capture cross section, and trap concentration have been determined for each center.

  16. Thin-film interference Aditya Joshi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packard, Richard E.

    , y, z, t) = Eo sin(kx - t)^y (1) It is worth noting what all the symbols stand for. · Eo is the peak of two important effects that will be explained presently. Figure 1: A thin film of oil floating on water that is incident upon the interface between air (na = 1) and a thin film of oil of thickness `t'(for this oil

  17. Amorphous Si Thin Film Based Photocathodes with High Photovoltage for Efficient Hydrogen Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Javey, Ali

    thin film with TiO2 encapsulation layer is demonstrated as a highly promising and stable photo- cathode for solar hydrogen production. With platinum as prototypical cocatalyst, a photocurrent onset potential of 0 for solar hydrogen production. KEYWORDS: Water splitting, hydrogen production, photochemistry, high

  18. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  20. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  1. Light induced phase change in Cu{sub 2?x}Zn{sub 1.3}SnS{sub 4} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar Samji, Sunil; Tiwari, Brajesh; Krishna Surendra, M.; Ramachandra Rao, M. S., E-mail: msrrao@iitm.ac.in [Department of Physics and Nano Functional Materials Technology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai–600036 (India)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and its alloy based thin film solar cells have shown better photovoltaic performance under Cu-poor and Zn-rich conditions. However, the effect of Cu-stoichiometry on the coexistence of kesterite (KS), stannite and/or partially disordered kesterite (PD-KS) phases and their influence on photovoltaic performance is not clearly understood. Raman studies were carried out on Cu{sub 2?x}Zn{sub 1.3}SnS{sub 4} (x?=?0, 0.3, and 0.5) thin films by changing the intensity of the incident laser beam. It was observed that both Cu-stoichiometry and incident laser beam intensity induce a disorder in the system. Disorder induced transformation of KS (I4{sup ¯}) to PD-KS (I4{sup ¯}2m) is explained by Raman studies.

  2. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jessica L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    elastic  properties of Au thin films by X?ray diffraction interface in  polythiophene thin?film transistors.  Nat copper  phthalocyanine thin films evaporated on amorphous 

  3. Integrated All-silicon Thin-film Power Electronics on Flexible Sheets For Ubiquitous Wireless Charging Stations based on Solar-energy Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The blocks overcome these challenges and generate AC power using a power inverter and control circuits, all the power inverter circuit. To generate an AC output current, the two solar modules (S1/2) are used maximizes the current, and all of the S1/2 current is delivered to the load, yielding high power-inverter

  4. Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin FilmsDelta--Beta Scatter Plot at 220 eVBeta Scatter Plot at 220 eV #12;Why Uranium Nitride?Why Uranium Nitride? UraniumUranium, uranium,Bombard target, uranium, with argon ionswith argon ions Uranium atoms leaveUranium atoms leave

  5. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran (Minneapolis, MN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  6. Unusual defect physics in CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite solar cell absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Wan-Jian, E-mail: wanjian.yin@utoledo.edu; Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa, E-mail: yanfa.yan@utoledo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Photovoltaics Innovation and Commercialization, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States)

    2014-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film solar cells based on Methylammonium triiodideplumbate (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}) halide perovskites have recently shown remarkable performance. First-principle calculations show that CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} has unusual defect physics: (i) Different from common p-type thin-film solar cell absorbers, it exhibits flexible conductivity from good p-type, intrinsic to good n-type depending on the growth conditions; (ii) Dominant intrinsic defects create only shallow levels, which partially explain the long electron-hole diffusion length and high open-circuit voltage in solar cell. The unusual defect properties can be attributed to the strong Pb lone-pair s orbital and I p orbital antibonding coupling and the high ionicity of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}.

  7. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, vol. 86, pp. 451-Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,

  8. Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Ralph R.

    Cardiff University Distinguished Lecture Symposium Advances in Solar Energy Thursday 22nd March prospects for inorganic thin film photovoltaic solar cells for large scale energy generation 2:55 Dr Emyr:50 Professor James Durrant (Imperial College London, England) Photochemical approaches to solar energy

  9. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  10. 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition 1.BO11.2 DOWN CONVERTER DEVICE COMBINING RARE-EARTH DOPED THIN LAYER AND PHOTONIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    COMBINING RARE-EARTH DOPED THIN LAYER AND PHOTONIC CRYSTAL FOR C-SI BASED SOLAR CELL Thierry Deschamps1 of the spectrum, hence demonstrating the relevance of such an approach. Keywords: Thin Film Solar Cell reducing the use of raw material, meaning the PV cell cost. Concerning the crystalline silicon-based solar

  11. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  12. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  13. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  14. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  15. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  16. 2008 Solar Technologies Market Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    10MW Thin Film Solar Power Plant for Sempra Generation. ”2009). “Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest1.11. Concentrating solar power plants of the southwest

  17. Light incoherence theory revisited by Heisenberg time-energy uncertainty challenges solar cell optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herman, Aline; Deparis, Olivier

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optimization of the efficiency of solar cells is a major challenge for renewable energies. Using a rigorous theoretical approach, we show that the photocurrent generated in a solar cell depends strongly on the degree of coherence of the incident light. In accordance with Heisenberg uncertainty time-energy, incoherent light at photons of carrier energy lower than the active material bandgap can be absorbed whereas coherent light at the same carrier energy cannot. We identify cases where incoherence does enhance efficiency. This result has a dramatical impact on the way solar cells must be optimized regarding sunlight. As an illustration, surface-corrugated GaAs and c-Si thin-film solar cells are considered.

  18. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM); Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  19. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cells by cooling and concentration techniques," inheat. Different techniques of cooling solar cells have been

  20. SAW determination of surface area of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

  1. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical,...

  2. Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications A. Bruno Frazier) In this work, graphite/polyimide composite thin films are introduced and characterized for micromachining tetracarboxylic dianhydride+xydianiline/metaphenylene diamine polyimide matrix. The resultant material represents

  3. The interplay between spatially separated ferromagnetic and superconducting thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Isaac John

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferromagnetic thin films have been grown via physical vapor deposition utilizing the technique of flash evaporation and characterized by measuring magnetization as a function of magnetic field. An Al thin film was evaporated atop the ferromagnetic...

  4. au thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    micro-machine (see S. S. Irudayaraj and A. Emadi 15). In general, magnetic thin-film elements are used in many applications Hadiji, Rejeb 29 Thin Films of Chiral Motors...

  5. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by Oxygen-plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by...

  6. aluminium thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Thin-Film Metamaterials called Sculptured Thin Films CERN Preprints Summary: Morphology...

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: thin-film technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology Combining 'Tinkertoy' Materials with Solar Cells for Increased Photovoltaic Efficiency On December 4, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News, News & Events,...

  8. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, J.M.

    1994-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell is described wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga[sub 0.52]In[sub 0.48]P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion efficiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer. 1 fig.

  9. Heterojunction solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olson, Jerry M. (Lakewood, CO)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-efficiency single heterojunction solar cell wherein a thin emitter layer (preferably Ga.sub.0.52 In.sub.0.48 P) forms a heterojunction with a GaAs absorber layer. The conversion effiency of the solar cell is at least 25.7%. The solar cell preferably includes a passivating layer between the substrate and the absorber layer. An anti-reflection coating is preferably disposed over the emitter layer.

  10. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    extensively in dye-sensitized solar cells for their porositylayers for dye-sensitized solar cells [59]. A mortar and

  11. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR MICROMAGNETIC THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR MICROMAGNETIC THIN FILMS Classification: 35E99, 35M10, 49J45, 74K35. Keywords: -limit, thin films, micromagnetics, relaxation; 1 1. Introduction In recent years the understanding of thin film behavior has been helped

  12. THIN FILM MECHANICS BULGING AND Ph.D Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huston, Dryver R.

    THIN FILM MECHANICS ­BULGING AND STRETCHING Ph.D Dissertation Mechanical Engineering University of Vermont Wolfgang Sauter October 2000 #12;ii Abstract Thin films have experienced revolutionary development for the intensive effort in research in materials and processing techniques. Thin film windows are window

  13. Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions C. Imbert and A. Mellet February 6, 2012 Abstract We consider an equation modeling the evolution of a viscous liquid thin film equation, Non-local equation, Thin film equation, Non-negative solutions MSC: 35G25, 35K25, 35A01, 35B09 1

  14. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS A.A. Volinsky* , J. Vella size, thin film microstructure and mechanical properties have become critical parameters-K dielectric materials and novel interconnects (Cu). For most reliability tests, knowledge of the thin film

  15. Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions C. Imbert and A. Mellet August 31, 2011 Abstract We consider an equation modeling the evolution of a viscous liquid thin film equation, Non-local equation, Thin film equation, Non-negative solutions MSC: 35G25, 35K25, 35A01, 35B09 1

  16. Thin Films for Microelectronics and Photonics: Physics, Mechanics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    4 Thin Films for Microelectronics and Photonics: Physics, Mechanics, Characterization, USA bUniversity of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA 4.1. TERMINOLOGY AND SCOPE 4.1.1. Thin Films Thin practice. The term thin films as used here refers to material layers deposited by vapor

  17. Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions C. Imbert and A. Mellet February 4, 2011 Abstract We consider an equation modeling the evolution of a viscous liquid thin film equation, Non-local equation, Thin film equation, Non-negative solutions MSC: 35G25, 35K25, 35A01, 35B09 1

  18. SEECOMMENTARYAPPLIEDPHYSICAL The macroscopic delamination of thin films from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    SEECOMMENTARYAPPLIEDPHYSICAL SCIENCES The macroscopic delamination of thin films from elastic toughness, our analysis suggests a number of design guidelines for the thin films used in flexible fatigue damage, the thin film thickness must be greater than a critical value, which we determine

  19. RisR980(EN) Epitaxy, Thin films and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø­R­980(EN) Epitaxy, Thin films and Superlattices Morten Jagd Christensen Risø National of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in structures were investigated. This thesis, "Epitaxy, Thin films and Superlattices", is written in partial

  20. Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film T. P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films are versatile materials that not only Chemistry Inside a Polymer Thin Film P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad metal

  1. Sensors and Actuators A 125 (2006) 170177 Thin film temperature sensor for real-time measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , a Fuel Cell Dynamic and Diagnostic Laboratory, and Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering of electrolyte temperature in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell Suhao Hea, Matthew M. Mencha, Srinivas Tadigadapab electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). A patterned thin film gold thermistor embedded in a 16 m thick parylene film

  2. Junctionless thin-film ferroelectric oxides for photovoltaic energy Farnood K. Rezaie*a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    , and the conditions for ideal poling. Photovoltaic characterization of KBNNO cells will determine the efficiency, and cell fill factor (FF). Keywords: Bulk photovoltaics, Perovskite oxide, Ferroelectric thin-film, KBNNO. This creates opportunities for innovation in photovoltaic cells and state of the art optoelectronic devices

  3. Polycrystalline CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. Annual subcontract report, April 15, 1992--April 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhere, N.G. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of the research project is to develop processes for the fabrication of cadmium-telluride, CdTe, and copper-indium-gallium-diselenide, Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2}, polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells using techniques that can be scaled-up for economic manufacture on a large scale. The aims are to fabricate CdTe solar cells using Cd and Te layers sputtered from elemental targets; to promote the interdiffusion between Cd/Te layers, CdTe phase formation, and grain growth; to utilize non-toxic selenization so as to avoid the use of extremely toxic H{sub 2}Se in the fabrication of Cu(In{sub l{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin-film solar cells; to optimize selenization parameters; to improve adhesion; to minimize residual stresses; to improve the uniformity, stoichiometry, and morphology of CdTe and Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} thin films, and the efficiency of CdTe and Cu(In{sub 1{minus}x}Ga{sub x})Se{sub 2} solar cells.

  4. Magnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    examples. During the past decade applications of nano-scale magnetic devices to data storage have hadMagnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures The College of William and MarY;'l Virginia http://www.as.wm.cdu/Faculty/Lukaszcw.html It is widely believed that revolutionary progress can be made as materials and devices are developed to operate

  5. A thin film transistor driven microchannel device 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    perturbation, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) was connected to the microchannel device. The self-aligned a-Si:H TFT was fabricated with a two-photomask process. The result shows that the attachment of the TFT successfully suppressed...

  6. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (in dye-sensitized solar cells based on Tio2 nanocrystal/R. J. ; Nozik, A. J. Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal

  7. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured Silicon- Based Solar Cells, 2013. X. C. Tong,heat exchangers, and solar cells," Sci-Tech News, vol. 65,in crystalline silicon solar cells," Renewable Energy, vol.

  8. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    output electricity. Solar cells panels that employ opticalsurfaces such as the solar cell back panel and a heat panelbe shaped as a flat panel below a solar cells array with fin

  9. Structural characterization and novel optical properties of defect chalcopyrite ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, S.S., E-mail: icgegypt@link.net [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Sakr, G.B., E-mail: gamalsaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Yahia, I.S., E-mail: dr_isyahia@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Basset, D.M. Abdel, E-mail: dalia.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)] [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: {yields} Preparation and characterization of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} in powder and thin film forms. {yields} Structure properties such as XRD and EDX. {yields} Optical constant of the as-deposited ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} for the first time. {yields} Extraction of the optical parameters of the studied films. -- Abstract: Stoichiometric thin film samples of the ternary ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} defect chalcopyrite compound were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction technique. The elemental chemical composition of the prepared bulk material as well as of the as-deposited film was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin films were deposited, by conventional thermal evaporation technique onto highly cleaned glass substrates. The X-ray and electron diffraction studies revealed that the as-deposited and the annealed ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} films at annealing temperature t{sub a} {<=} 548 K are amorphous, while those annealed at t{sub a} {>=} 573 K (for 1 h), are polycrystalline. The optical properties of the as-deposited films have been investigated for the first time at normal incidence in the spectral range from 500 to 2500 nm. The refractive index dispersion in the transmission and low absorption region is adequately described by the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, whereby, the values of the oscillator parameters have been calculated. The analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed an in-direct optical transition with energy of 1.33 eV for the as-deposited sample. This work suggested that ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate in solar cell devices as an absorbing layer.

  10. DISTORTIONS TO CURRENT-VOLTAGE CURVES OF CIGS CELLS WITH SPUTTERED Zn(O,S) BUFFER LAYERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    alternative to CdS for (CIGS) thin-film solar cells' buffer layer. It has a higher band gap and thus allows to current- voltage (J-V) curves of sputtered-Zn(O,S)/CIGS solar cells. A straightforward photodiode model partner in the CIGS team, and Russell for showing me the solar cells characterization, and John, Jen

  11. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f <MaintainedInformationThe yearThermalSoul Jump

  12. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  13. Technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., CdTe modules and array at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Strand, T.; Hansen, R. [and others] [and others

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Engineering and Technology Validation Team at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducts in-situ technical evaluations of polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic (PV) modules and arrays. This paper focuses on the technical evaluation of Solar Cells, Inc., (SCI) cadmium telluride (CdTe) module and array performance by attempting to correlate individual module and array performance. This is done by examining the performance and stability of the modules and array over a period of more than one year. Temperature coefficients for module and array parameters (P{sub max}V{sub oc}, V{sub max}, I{sub sc}, I{sub max}) are also calculated.

  14. Performance of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells with Nanostructures of Relief

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    of the materials. Solar cells based on thin films of amorphous or polycrystalline silicon require sub- stantially, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ABSTRACT Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells systems that benefit from thin construction and efficient materials utilization. KEYWORDS Nanoimprint

  15. Process Development for CIGS Based Thin Film Photovoltaics Modules, Phase II Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britt, J.; Wiedeman, S.; Albright, S.

    2000-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As a technology partner with NREL, Global Solar Energy (GSE) has initiated an extensive and systematic plan to accelerate the commercialization of thin-film photovoltaics (PV) based on copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). The distinguishing feature of the GSE manufacturing process is the exclusive use of lightweight, flexible substrates. GSE has developed the technology to fabricate CIGS photovoltaics on both stainless-steel and polymer substrates. CIGS deposited on flexible substrates can be fabricated into either flexible or rigid modules. Low-cost, rigid PV panels for remote power, bulk/utility, telecommunication, and rooftop applications have been produced by affixing the flexible substrate to an inexpensive rigid panel by lamination or adhesive. Stainless-steel-based PV modules are fabricated by a novel interconnect method that avoids the use of wires or foils and soldered connections. In the case of polymer-based PV modules, the continuous roll is not sectioned into individual panels until the module buss and power leads are attached. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition has several advantages that translate directly to reduced capital costs, greater productivity, improved yield, greater reliability, lower maintenance, and a larger volume of PV material. In combination with roll-to-roll processing, GSE has developed evaporation deposition operations that enable low-cost and high-efficiency CIGS modules. The CIGS deposition process relies heavily on effusion source technology developed at GSE, and solving numerous problems was an integral part of the source development effort. Cell interconnection for thin-film CIGS modules on a polyimide substrate presents a considerable challenge.

  16. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    D. Mills, "Cooling of photovoltaic cells under concentratedelectric performance of a photovoltaic cells by cooling andSolar Cell A photovoltaic cell is a semiconductor that

  17. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au; Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Suntech R and D Australia, Botany, New South Wales 2019 (Australia)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-?m thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550?°C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450?°C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550?°C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450?°C, which limits the solar cell performance by n?=?2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  18. Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldoa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    March 2007 The authors demonstrate that thin film organic photovoltaic cells are efficient detectors quantum efficiency in fullerene­copper phthalocyanine photovoltaic cells is doubled at resonance to 12 polaritons SPPs . The transduction ele- ment is a thin film organic photovoltaic cell.2 Under conven- tional

  19. NANOCOMPOSITE ENABLED SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuyal, Dibya

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    551, 2005. 2. Graztel, M. Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Y. , Warta, W. , Dunlop, E.D. Solar Cell efficiency tables (efficiency in dye-sensitized solar cells based on Tio2

  20. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  1. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (116 Baltimore Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Dudney, Nancy J. (11634 S. Monticello Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Weatherspoon, Kim A. (223 Wadsworth Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  2. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Resnick, Paul J

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electicity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  3. Photovoltaic solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar cell for generating electricity from sunlight is disclosed. The photovoltaic solar cell comprises a plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions formed in a semiconductor body to receive the sunlight and generate the electricity therefrom, the plurality of spaced-apart point contact junctions having a first plurality of regions having a first doping type and a second plurality of regions having a second doping type. In addition, the photovoltaic solar cell comprises a first electrical contact electrically connected to each of the first plurality of regions and a second electrical contact electrically connected to each of the second plurality of regions, as well as a passivation layer covering major surfaces and sidewalls of the photovoltaic solar cell.

  4. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  5. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  6. Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Solar Cells: Spin-Cast Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: A Dynamical Investigation Print Wednesday,...

  7. Optically optimal wavelength-scale patterned ITO/ZnO composite coatings for thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moreau, Antoine; Centeno, Emmanuel; Seassal, Christian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new methodology is proposed for finding structures that are, optically speaking, locally optimal : a physical analysis of much simpler structures is used to constrain the optimization process. The obtained designs are based on a flat amorphous silicon layer (to minimize recombination) with a patterned anti-reflective coating made of ITO or ZnO, or a composite ITO/ZnO coating. These latter structures are realistic and present good performances despite very thin active layers.

  8. High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights of the Technologies Challenges (Presentation)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Found The itemAIR57451DOE/SC0002390dVandHEATINGDOBEH -0454

  9. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, Michael E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell, E-mail: r.binions@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  10. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Annual subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results and conclusion of Phase I of a multi-year research program on polycrystalline thin film solar cells are presented. The research comprised investigation of the relationships among processing, materials properties and device performance of both CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells. The kinetics of the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} by selenization with hydrogen selenide was investigated and a CuInSe{sub 2}/CdS solar cell was fabricated. An alternative process involving the reaction of deposited copper-indium-selenium layers was used to obtain single phase CuInSe{sub 2} films and a cell efficiency of 7%. Detailed investigations of the open circuit voltage of CuInSe{sub 2} solar cells showed that a simple Shockley-Read-Hall recombination mechanism can not account for the limitations in open circuit voltage. Examination of the influence of CuInSe{sub 2} thickness on cell performance indicated that the back contact behavior has a significant effect when the CuInSe{sub 2} is less than 1 micron thick. CdTe/CdS solar cells with efficiencies approaching 10% can be repeatedly fabricated using physical vapor deposition and serial post deposition processing. The absence of moisture during post deposition was found to be critical. Improvements in short circuit current of CdTe solar cells to levels approaching 25 mA/cm{sup 2} are achievable by making the CdS window layer thinner. Further reductions in the CdS window layer thickness are presently limited by interdiffusion between the CdS and the CdTe. CdTe/CdS cells stored without protection from the atmosphere were found to degrade. The degradation was attributed to the metal contact. CdTe cells with ZnTe:Cu contacts to the CdTe were found to be more stable than cells with metal contacts. Analysis of current-voltage and spectral response of CdTe/CdS cells indicates the cell operates as a p-n heterojunction with the diode current dominated by SRH recombination in the junction region of the CdTe.

  11. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, James E. (Newark, DE); Lasswell, Patrick G. (Newark, DE)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  12. Microstructured porous ZnO thin film for increased light scattering and improved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    for enhancing light scattering and efficiency in inverted organic photovoltaics. High degree of porosity. References and links 1. S. R. Forrest, "The limits to organic photovoltaic cell efficiency," MRS Bull. 30Microstructured porous ZnO thin film for increased light scattering and improved efficiency

  13. Liquid phase deposition synthesis of hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deki, Shigehito; Beleke, Alexis Bienvenu; Kotani, Yuki [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokko, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Mizuhata, Minoru, E-mail: mizuhata@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokko, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films with good crystallinity and high purity have been fabricated by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique using molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) dissolved in 2.82% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as precursors. The crystal was found to belong to a hexagonal hydrate system MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (napprox0.56). The unit cell lattice parameters are a=10.651 A, c=3.725 A and V=365.997 A{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the as-deposited samples showed well-shaped hexagonal rods nuclei that grew and where the amount increased with increase in reaction time. X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed a Gaussian shape of the doublet of Mo 3d core level, indicating the presence of Mo{sup 6+} oxidation state in the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited an electrochromic behavior by lithium intercalation and deintercalation, which resulted in coloration and bleaching of the film. Upon dehydration at about 450 deg. C, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O was transformed into the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic phase. - Abstract: SEM photograph of typical h-MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O thin film nuclei obtained after 36 h at 40 deg. C by the LPD method. Display Omitted

  14. Modeling of Substrate-Induced Anisotropy in Through-Plane Thermal Behavior of Polymeric Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeong-Bong

    Modeling of Substrate-Induced Anisotropy in Through-Plane Thermal Behavior of Polymeric Thin Films, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0269 SYNOPSIS Polymeric thin films are widely used in microelectronic applications properties of isotropic thin films for single layer (thin film rigidly clamped) and bilayer (thin film

  15. Characterization of Field Exposed Thin Film Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Sastry, O. S.; Stokes, A.; Singh, Y. K.; Kumar, M.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test arrays of thin film modules have been deployed at the Solar Energy Centre near New Delhi, India since 2002-2003. Performances of these arrays were reported by O.S. Sastry [1]. This paper reports on NREL efforts to support SEC by performing detailed characterization of selected modules from the array. Modules were selected to demonstrate both average and worst case power loss over the 8 years of outdoor exposure. The modules characterized included CdTe, CIS and three different types of a-Si. All but one of the a-Si types were glass-glass construction. None of the modules had edge seals. Detailed results of these tests are presented along with our conclusions about the causes of the power loss for each technology.

  16. Fabrication and Characterization of Organic Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yengel, Emre

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells. 2005;86(2):197-205.in LEDs [18-20] and solar cells [ 20, 21]. What makes thesesolar cells, hybrid solar cells and dye-sensitized solar

  17. Effective Optical Properties of Highly Ordered Mesoporous Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Neal J.; Coquil, Thomas; Navid, Ashcon; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells”, Thin Solid Films,tions include dye-sensitized solar cells [8– 10], low-ke?ciency solar cell based on dye- a sensitized colloidal

  18. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of CIGS solar cells . Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . .roll-to-roll printed CIGS solar cell on aluminum substrateDepth profiling of CIGS solar cell using a nanosecond Nd:YAG

  19. Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    MRSEC Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films NSF Grant # 1121262 A. U. Adler Center In situ electrical properties of a-IGZO thin films were carried out at 200ºC as a function/"defect" structure of amorphous oxide films. In situ conductivity of 70 nm a-IGZO thin film at 200oC measured in van

  20. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is the ratio of the solar cell output power to the incidentmaximum power output at: The fill factor of a solar cell FFsolar cell temperature by about 15°C, which increases the output power