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Sample records for thin film devices

  1. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  3. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  5. Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Thin-Film Lithium-Based Electrochromic Devices ... For lithium-based electrochromic cells, the electrolyte contains mobile lithium which ...

  6. Enhanced Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Enhanced Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic Devices Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology An Embodiment of the Optical Field Confinement Device An Embodiment of the Optical Field Confinement Device Technology Marketing Summary A novel structure design for thin film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices provides a system for increasing the optical absorption in the active layer. The waveguided structure

  7. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.

    2012-01-03

    This invention provides thin film devices that have been processed on their front- and backside. The devices include an active layer that is sufficiently thin to be mechanically flexible. Examples of the devices include back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  8. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  9. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  11. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1997-10-07

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  12. Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric Devices - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Lead-free Thin Film Piezoelectric Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryIn a breakthrough discovery, Ramamoorthy Ramesh, Robert Zeches, and their research team at Berkeley Lab have developed a technology for lead-free piezoelectric materials using thin-film bismuth ferrite. In addition to being less hazardous to human health and the environment, the

  13. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries for Implantable Devices

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Dudney, N. J.

    1997-05-01

    Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001%/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li LiCoO{sub 2} thin film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

  14. Thin Film Electronic Devices with Conductive and Transparent Gas and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moisture Permeation Barriers - Energy Innovation Portal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Thin Film Electronic Devices with Conductive and Transparent Gas and Moisture Permeation Barriers National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Transparent conducting (TC) materials are extensively used in electronics and

  15. Front and backside processed thin film electronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2010-10-12

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  16. Optical sensors and multisensor arrays containing thin film electroluminescent devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aylott, Jonathan W.; Chen-Esterlit, Zoe; Friedl, Jon H.; Kopelman, Raoul; Savvateev, Vadim N.; Shinar, Joseph

    2001-12-18

    Optical sensor, probe and array devices for detecting chemical biological, and physical analytes. The devices include an analyte-sensitive layer optically coupled to a thin film electroluminescent layer which activates the analyte-sensitive layer to provide an optical response. The optical response varies depending upon the presence of an analyte and is detected by a photodetector and analyzed to determine the properties of the analyte.

  17. Steering and Separating Excitons in Organic Thin Films and Devices |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Steering and Separating Excitons in Organic Thin Films and Devices October 26, 2010 at 3pm/36-428 Mark Thompson University of Southern California (USC) thompson abstract: We have taken a materials intensive approach to developing an understanding of the mechanism of photocurrent and photovoltage generation in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) and electroluminescence in organic LEDs (OLEDs). The exciton is a critical part of each of these processes, and

  18. Organic thin film devices with stabilized threshold voltage and mobility, and method for preparing the devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nastasi, Michael Anthony; Wang, Yongqiang; Fraboni, Beatrice; Cosseddu, Piero; Bonfiglio, Annalisa

    2013-06-11

    Organic thin film devices that included an organic thin film subjected to a selected dose of a selected energy of ions exhibited a stabilized mobility (.mu.) and threshold voltage (VT), a decrease in contact resistance R.sub.C, and an extended operational lifetime that did not degrade after 2000 hours of operation in the air.

  19. High-temperature superconducting thin-film-based electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, X.D; Finokoglu, A.; Hawley, M.; Jia, Q.; Mitchell, T.; Mueller, F.; Reagor, D.; Tesmer, J.

    1996-09-01

    This the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project involved optimization of processing of Y123 and Tl-2212 thin films deposited on novel substrates for advanced electronic devices. The Y123 films are the basis for development of Josephson Junctions to be utilized in magnetic sensors. Microwave cavities based on the Tl-2212 films are the basis for subsequent applications as communication antennas and transmitters in satellites.

  20. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  1. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  2. Copper Antimony Chalcogenide Thin Film PV Device Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, Adam W.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; de Souza Lucas, Francisco Willian; Toberer, Eric S.; Wolden, Colin A.; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2015-06-14

    Emerging ternary chalcogenide thin film solar cell technologies, such as CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, have recently attracted attention as simpler alternatives to quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS). Despite suitable photovoltaic properties, the initial energy conversion efficiency of CuSbS2 is rather low (0.3%). Here, we report on our progress towards improving the efficiency of CuSbS2 solar cells using a high throughput approach. The combinatorial methodology quickly results in baseline solar cell prototypes with 0.6% efficiency, and then modification of the back contact architecture leads to 1% PV devices. We then translate the optimal CuSbS2 synthesis parameters to CuSbSe2 devices, which show 3% efficiencies.

  3. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very-thin polymeric film in a device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-04-26

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (< 10 ..mu..m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectiely dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to e successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  4. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very thin polymeric film in a device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (<10 .mu.m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectively dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to be successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  5. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  6. Thin film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices fabricated with nanocomposite electrode materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland

    2014-02-04

    Thin-film lithium-based batteries and electrochromic devices (10) are fabricated with positive electrodes (12) comprising a nanocomposite material composed of lithiated metal oxide nanoparticles (40) dispersed in a matrix composed of lithium tungsten oxide.

  7. Method of making suspended thin-film semiconductor piezoelectric devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casalnuovo, Stephen A.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming a very thin suspended layer of piezoelectric material of thickness less than 10 microns. The device is made from a combination of GaAs and AlGaAs layers to form either a sensor or an electronic filter. Onto a GaAs substrate is epitaxially deposited a thin (1-5 micron) sacrificial AlGaAs layer, followed by a thin GaAs top layer. In one embodiment the substrate is selectively etched away from below until the AlGaAs layer is reached. Then a second selective etch removes the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, that has acted here as an etch stop, leaving the thin suspended layer of piezoelectric GaAs. In another embodiment, a pattern of small openings is etched through the thin layer of GaAs on top of the device to expose the sacrificial AlGaAs layer. A second selective etch is done through these openings to remove the sacrificial AlGaAs layer, leaving the top GaAs layer suspended over the GaAs substrate. A novel etchant solution containing a surface tension reducing agent is utilized to remove the AlGaAs while preventing buildup of gas bubbles that would otherwise break the thin GaAs layer.

  8. Electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Dickson, Charles R.; D'Aiello, Robert V.

    1989-08-08

    A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

  9. Thin Film Si Bottom Cells for Tandem Device Structures: Final Technical Report, 15 December 2003 - 15 October 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yelundur, V.; Hegedus, S.; Rohatgi, A.; Birkmire, R.

    2008-11-01

    GIT and IEC developed thin-film Si bottom cell and showed that deposition of top cell in tandem device did not reduce bottom cell performance.

  10. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.

    1997-11-01

    During the third phase of the subcontract, IEC researchers have continued to provide the thin film PV community with greater depth of understanding and insight into a wide variety of issues including: the deposition and characterization of CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2}, a-Si, CdTe, CdS, and TCO thin films; the relationships between film and device properties; and the processing and analysis of thin film PV devices. This has been achieved through the systematic investigation of all aspects of film and device production and through the analysis and quantification of the reaction chemistries involved in thin film deposition. This methodology has led to controlled fabrications of 15% efficient CuIn{sub 1-x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} solar cells over a wide range of Ga compositions, improved process control of the fabrication of 10% efficient a-Si solar cells, and reliable and generally applicable procedures for both contacting and doping films. Additional accomplishments are listed below.

  11. Photoluminescence-based quality control for thin film absorber layers of photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Repins, Ingrid L.; Kuciauskas, Darius

    2015-07-07

    A time-resolved photoluminescence-based system providing quality control during manufacture of thin film absorber layers for photovoltaic devices. The system includes a laser generating excitation beams and an optical fiber with an end used both for directing each excitation beam onto a thin film absorber layer and for collecting photoluminescence from the absorber layer. The system includes a processor determining a quality control parameter such as minority carrier lifetime of the thin film absorber layer based on the collected photoluminescence. In some implementations, the laser is a low power, pulsed diode laser having photon energy at least great enough to excite electron hole pairs in the thin film absorber layer. The scattered light may be filterable from the collected photoluminescence, and the system may include a dichroic beam splitter and a filter that transmit the photoluminescence and remove scattered laser light prior to delivery to a photodetector and a digital oscilloscope.

  12. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2015-07-28

    Thin film electronic devices (or stacks integrated with a substrate) that include a permeation barrier formed of a thin layer of metal that provides a light transmitting and electrically conductive layer, wherein the electrical conductive layer is formed on a surface of the substrate or device layer such as a transparent conducting material layer with pin holes or defects caused by manufacturing and the thin layer of metal is deposited on the conductive layer and formed from a self-healing metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block is formed in or adjacent to the thin film of metal at or proximate to the pin holes to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes.

  13. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, James E.; Lasswell, Patrick G.

    1987-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device.

  14. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and moisture permeation barriers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Lin Jay

    2013-12-17

    A thin film stack (100, 200) is provided for use in electronic devices such as photovoltaic devices. The stack (100, 200) may be integrated with a substrate (110) such as a light transmitting/transmissive layer. A electrical conductor layer (120, 220) is formed on a surface of the substrate (110) or device layer such as a transparent conducting (TC) material layer (120,220) with pin holes or defects (224) caused by manufacturing. The stack (100) includes a thin film (130, 230) of metal that acts as a barrier for environmental contaminants (226, 228). The metal thin film (130,230) is deposited on the conductor layer (120, 220) and formed from a self-healing metal such as a metal that forms self-terminating oxides. A permeation plug or block (236) is formed in or adjacent to the thin film (130, 230) of metal at or proximate to the pin holes (224) to block further permeation of contaminants through the pin holes (224).

  15. Thin Film Materials and Processing Techniques for a Next Generation Photovoltaic Device: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-470

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Hest, M.

    2013-08-01

    This research extends thin film materials and processes relevant to the development and production of a next generation photovoltaic device.

  16. High efficiency thin-film multiple-gap photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1983-01-01

    A photovoltaic device includes at least two solar cells made from Group IV elements or their alloys in the amorphous state mounted on a substrate. The outermost or first cell has a larger bandgap than the second cell. Various techniques are utilized to improve the efficiency of the device.

  17. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, B.W.; Nystrom, M.J.

    1998-05-19

    Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface are disclosed. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components. 8 figs.

  18. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W.; Nystrom, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  19. Method and apparatus for increasing the durability and yield of thin film photovoltaic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.E.; Lasswell, P.G.

    1987-02-03

    Thin film photovoltaic cells having a pair of semiconductor layers between an opaque and a transparent electrical contact are manufactured in a method which includes the step of scanning one of the semiconductor layers to determine the location of any possible shorting defect. Upon the detection of such defect, the defect is eliminated to increase the durability and yield of the photovoltaic device. 10 figs.

  20. Graphene oxide/carbon nanoparticle thin film based IR detector: Surface properties and device characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chowdhury, Farzana Aktar; Hossain, Mohammad Abul; Uchida, Koji; Tamura, Takahiro; Sugawa, Kosuke; Mochida, Tomoaki; Otsuki, Joe; Mohiuddin, Tariq; Boby, Monny Akter; Alam, Mohammad Sahabul

    2015-10-15

    This work deals with the synthesis, characterization, and application of carbon nanoparticles (CNP) adorned graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposite materials. Here we mainly focus on an emerging topic in modern research field presenting GO-CNP nanocomposite as a infrared (IR) radiation detector device. GO-CNP thin film devices were fabricated from liquid phase at ambient condition where no modifying treatments were necessary. It works with no cooling treatment and also for stationary objects. A sharp response of human body IR radiation was detected with time constants of 3 and 36 sec and radiation responsivity was 3 mAW{sup −1}. The current also rises for quite a long time before saturation. This work discusses state-of-the-art material developing technique based on near-infrared photon absorption and their use in field deployable instrument for real-world applications. GO-CNP-based thin solid composite films also offer its potentiality to be utilized as p-type absorber material in thin film solar cell, as well.

  1. Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

  2. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Molodvan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busman, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-08-24

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors. However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAs) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure nanocrystalline diamond with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. The authors have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making nanocrystalline diamond a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  3. Science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films for multifunctional devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Gruen, D. M.; Krauss, A. R.; Jayatissa, A.; Sumant, A.; Tucek, J.; Mancini, D.; Moldovan, N.; Erdemir, A.; Ersoy, D.; Gardos, M. N.; Busmann, H. G.; Meyer, E. M.

    2000-11-15

    MEMS devices are currently fabricated primarily in silicon because of the available surface machining technology. However, Si has poor mechanical and tribological properties, and practical MEMS devices are currently limited primarily to applications involving only bending and flexural motion, such as cantilever accelerometers and vibration sensors, However, because of the poor flexural strength and fracture toughness of Si, and the tendency of Si to adhere to hydrophyllic surfaces, even these simple devices have limited dynamic range. Future MEMS applications that involve significant rolling or sliding contact will require the use of new materials with significantly improved mechanical and tribological properties, and the ability to perform well in harsh environments. Diamond is a superhard material of high mechanical strength, exceptional chemical inertness, and outstanding thermal stability. The brittle fracture strength is 23 times that of Si, and the projected wear life of diamond MEMS moving mechanical assemblies (MEMS-MMAS) is 10,000 times greater than that of Si MMAs. However, as the hardest known material, diamond is notoriously difficult to fabricate. Conventional CVD thin film deposition methods offer an approach to the fabrication of ultra-small diamond structures, but the films have large grain size, high internal stress, poor intergranular adhesion, and very rough surfaces, and are consequently ill-suited for MEMS-MMA applications. A thin film deposition process has been developed that produces phase-pure ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) with morphological and mechanical properties that are ideally suited for MEMS applications in general, and MMA use in particular. We have developed lithographic techniques for the fabrication of diamond microstructure including cantilevers and multi-level devices, acting as precursors to micro-bearings and gears, making UNCD a promising material for the development of high performance MEMS devices.

  4. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test the quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.

  5. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating electronic devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xiao, Zhigang; Kisslinger, Kim

    2015-06-17

    Thin films of hafnium dioxide (HfO2) are widely used as the gate oxide in fabricating integrated circuits because of their high dielectric constants. In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films of HfO2 using e-beam evaporation, and the fabrication of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits using this HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide. The authors analyzed the thin films using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, thereby demonstrating that the e-beam-evaporation-grown HfO2 film has a polycrystalline structure and forms an excellent interface with silicon. Accordingly, we fabricated 31-stage CMOS ring oscillator to test themore » quality of the HfO2 thin film as the gate oxide, and obtained excellent rail-to-rail oscillation waveforms from it, denoting that the HfO2 thin film functioned very well as the gate oxide.« less

  6. Micro/nano devices fabricated from Cu-Hf thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luber, Erik J; Ophus, Colin; Mitlin, David; Olsen, Brian; Harrower, Christopher; Radmilovi, Velimir

    2013-06-04

    An all-metal microdevice or nanodevice such as an atomic force microscope probe is manufactured from a copper-hafnium alloy thin film having an x-ray amorphous microstructure.

  7. Processing and modeling issues for thin-film solar cell devices: Annual subcontract report, January 16, 1995 -- January 15, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Buchanan, W.A.; Eser, E.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Meyers, P.V.; Shafarman, W.N.

    1996-08-01

    The overall mission of the Institute of Energy Conversion is the development of thin film photovoltaic cells, modules, and related manufacturing technology and the education of students and professionals in photovoltaic technology. The objectives of this four-year NREL subcontract are to advance the state of the art and the acceptance of thin film PV modules in the areas of improved technology for thin film deposition, device fabrication, and material and device characterization and modeling, relating to solar cells based on CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, on a-Si and its alloys, and on CdTe. In the area of CuInSe{sub 2} and its alloys, EEC researchers have produced CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} films by selenization of elemental and alloyed films with H{sub 2}Se and Se vapor and by a wide variety of process variations employing co-evaporation of the elements. Careful design, execution and analysis of these experiments has led to an improved understanding of the reaction chemistry involved, including estimations of the reaction rate constants. Investigation of device fabrication has also included studies of the processing of the Mo, US and ZnO deposition parameters and their influence on device properties. An indication of the success of these procedures was the fabrication of a 15% efficiency CuIn{sub 1-x}GaxSe{sub 2} solar cell.

  8. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  9. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  10. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  11. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  12. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  13. Development of a synchrotron biaxial tensile device for in situ characterization of thin films mechanical response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geandier, G.; Thiaudiere, D.; Bouaffad, A.; Randriamazaoro, R. N.; Chiron, R.; Castelnau, O.; Faurie, D.; Djaziri, S.; Lamongie, B.; Diot, Y.; Le Bourhis, E.; Renault, P. O.; Goudeau, P.; Hild, F.

    2010-10-15

    We have developed on the DIFFABS-SOLEIL beamline a biaxial tensile machine working in the synchrotron environment for in situ diffraction characterization of thin polycrystalline films mechanical response. The machine has been designed to test compliant substrates coated by the studied films under controlled, applied strain field. Technological challenges comprise the sample design including fixation of the substrate ends, the related generation of a uniform strain field in the studied (central) volume, and the operations from the beamline pilot. Preliminary tests on 150 nm thick W films deposited onto polyimide cruciform substrates are presented. The obtained results for applied strains using x-ray diffraction and digital image correlation methods clearly show the full potentialities of this new setup.

  14. Method for manufacturing electrical contacts for a thin-film semiconductor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, David E.; Dickson, Charles R.; D'Aiello, Robert V.

    1988-11-08

    A method of fabricating spaced-apart back contacts on a thin film of semiconductor material by forming strips of buffer material on top of the semiconductor material in locations corresponding to the desired dividing lines between back contacts, forming a film of metal substantially covering the semiconductor material and buffer strips, and scribing portions of the metal film overlying the buffer strips with a laser without contacting the underlying semiconductor material to separate the metal layer into a plurality of back contacts. The buffer material serves to protect the underlying semiconductor material from being damaged during the laser scribing. Back contacts and multi-cell photovoltaic modules incorporating such back contacts also are disclosed.

  15. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, Sami Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-15

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metalsemiconductormetal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH{sub 3} PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N{sub 2}:H{sub 2} ambient.

  16. Method for making photovoltaic devices using oxygenated semiconductor thin film layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, James Neil; Albin, David Scott; Feldman-Peabody, Scott; Pavol, Mark Jeffrey; Gossman, Robert Dwayne

    2014-12-16

    A method for making a photovoltaic device is presented. The method includes steps of disposing a window layer on a substrate and disposing an absorber layer on the window layer. Disposing the window layer, the absorber layer, or both layers includes introducing a source material into a deposition zone, wherein the source material comprises oxygen and a constituent of the window layer, of the absorber layer or of both layers. The method further includes step of depositing a film that comprises the constituent and oxygen.

  17. Porous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xu, Ting

    2015-11-17

    Compositions of porous thin films and methods of making are provided. The methods involve self-assembly of a cyclic peptide in the presence of a block copolymer.

  18. High performance AlScN thin film based surface acoustic wave devices with large electromechanical coupling coefficient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wenbo; He, Xingli; Ye, Zhi E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Wang, Xiaozhi; Mayrhofer, Patrick M.; Gillinger, Manuel; Bittner, Achim; Schmid, Ulrich

    2014-09-29

    AlN and AlScN thin films with 27% scandium (Sc) were synthesized by DC magnetron sputtering deposition and used to fabricate surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices. Compared with AlN-based devices, the AlScN SAW devices exhibit much better transmission properties. Scandium doping results in electromechanical coupling coefficient, K{sup 2}, in the range of 2.0% ∼ 2.2% for a wide normalized thickness range, more than a 300% increase compared to that of AlN-based SAW devices, thus demonstrating the potential applications of AlScN in high frequency resonators, sensors, and high efficiency energy harvesting devices. The coupling coefficients of the present AlScN based SAW devices are much higher than that of the theoretical calculation based on some assumptions for AlScN piezoelectric material properties, implying there is a need for in-depth investigations on the material properties of AlScN.

  19. Influence of curvature on the device physics of thin film transistors on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amalraj, Rex; Sambandan, Sanjiv

    2014-10-28

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) on elastomers promise flexible electronics with stretching and bending. Recently, there have been several experimental studies reporting the behavior of TFTs under bending and buckling. In the presence of stress, the insulator capacitance is influenced due to two reasons. The first is the variation in insulator thickness depending on the Poisson ratio and strain. The second is the geometric influence of the curvature of the insulator-semiconductor interface during bending or buckling. This paper models the role of curvature on TFT performance and brings to light an elegant result wherein the TFT characteristics is dependent on the area under the capacitance-distance curve. The paper compares models with simulations and explains several experimental findings reported in literature.

  20. Recrystallization method to selenization of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albin, David S.; Carapella, Jeffrey J.; Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Gabor, Andrew M.; Noufi, Rommel; Tennant, Andrew L.

    1995-07-25

    A process for fabricating slightly Cu-poor thin-films of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes the steps of forming initially a slightly Cu-rich, phase separated, mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se on the substrate in solid form followed by exposure of the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture to an overpressure of Se vapor and (In,Ga) vapor for deposition on the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se solid mixture while simultaneously increasing the temperature of the solid mixture toward a recrystallization temperature (about 550.degree. C.) at which Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 is solid and Cu.sub.x Se is liquid. The (In,Ga) flux is terminated while the Se overpressure flux and the recrystallization temperature are maintained to recrystallize the Cu.sub.x Se with the (In, Ga) that was deposited during the temperature transition and with the Se vapor to form the thin-film of slightly Cu-poor Cu.sub.x (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. The initial Cu-rich, phase separated large grain mixture of Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 :Cu.sub.x Se can be made by sequentially depositing or co-depositing the metal precursors, Cu and (In, Ga), on the substrate at room temperature, ramping up the thin-film temperature in the presence of Se overpressure to a moderate anneal temperature (about 450.degree. C.) and holding that temperature and the Se overpressure for an annealing period. A nonselenizing, low temperature anneal at about 100.degree. C. can also be used to homogenize the precursors on the substrates before the selenizing, moderate temperature anneal.

  1. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, P. Chen, T. P. Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  2. All-thin-film multilayered multiferroic structures with a slot-line for spin-electromagnetic wave devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikitin, Andrey A.; Ustinov, Alexey B.; Semenov, Alexander A.; Kalinikos, Boris A.; Lähderanta, E.

    2014-03-03

    Spin-electromagnetic waves propagating in thin-film multilayered multiferroic structures containing a slot transmission line have been investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The thin-film structure was composed of a ferrite film, a ferroelectric film, and a slot-line. It was shown that the spectrum of the spin-electromagnetic wave was formed as a result of hybridization of the spin wave in the ferrite film with the electromagnetic wave in the slot-line and was electrically and magnetically tunable. For the experimental investigations, a microwave phase shifter based on the multiferroic structure has been fabricated. Performance characteristics are presented.

  3. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  4. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  5. Research Update: Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition of ZnO thin films: Reactors, doping, and devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoye, Robert L. Z. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. E-mail: jld35@cam.ac.uk; Muoz-Rojas, David; Nelson, Shelby F.; Illiberi, Andrea; Poodt, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition (AP-SALD) has recently emerged as an appealing technique for rapidly producing high quality oxides. Here, we focus on the use of AP-SALD to deposit functional ZnO thin films, particularly on the reactors used, the film properties, and the dopants that have been studied. We highlight how these films are advantageous for the performance of solar cells, organometal halide perovskite light emitting diodes, and thin-film transistors. Future AP-SALD technology will enable the commercial processing of thin films over large areas on a sheet-to-sheet and roll-to-roll basis, with new reactor designs emerging for flexible plastic and paper electronics.

  6. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  7. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  8. Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin films are unlike single-crystal silicon cells, which must be individually interconnected into a module. Thin-film devices can be made as a single unit-that is, ...

  9. SAW determination of surface area of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1990-01-01

    N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

  10. Layered CU-based electrode for high-dielectric constant oxide thin film-based devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Auciello, Orlando

    2010-05-11

    A layered device including a substrate; an adhering layer thereon. An electrical conducting layer such as copper is deposited on the adhering layer and then a barrier layer of an amorphous oxide of TiAl followed by a high dielectric layer are deposited to form one or more of an electrical device such as a capacitor or a transistor or MEMS and/or a magnetic device.

  11. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

    2005-11-01

    We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

  12. Thin film application device and method for coating small aperture vacuum vessels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walters, Dean R; Este, Grantley O

    2015-01-27

    A device and method for coating an inside surface of a vessel is provided. In one embodiment, a coating device comprises a power supply and a diode in electrical communication with the power supply, wherein electrodes comprising the diode reside completely within the vessel. The method comprises reversibly sealing electrodes in a vessel, sputtering elemental metal or metal compound on the surface while maintaining the surface in a controlled atmosphere.

  13. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J.R.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R.; Albin, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu[sub w](In,Ga[sub y])Se[sub z] for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu[sub x]Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu[sub x]Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z]. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300--600 C, where the Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] remains solid, while the excess Cu[sub x]Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu[sub w](In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z] can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500--600 C, result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2], whereas lower temperatures, such as 300--400 C, result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu[sub z](In,Ga)[sub 4]Se[sub 7] phase. 7 figs.

  14. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Noufi, Rommel; Albin, David S.

    1994-01-01

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300.degree.-600.degree. C., where the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 remains solid, while the excess Cu.sub.x Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu.sub.w (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500.degree.-600.degree. C., result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, whereas lower temperatures, such as 300.degree.-400.degree. C., result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu.sub.z (In,Ga).sub.4 Se.sub.7 phase.

  15. Nonlinear dielectric thin films for active and electrically tunable microwave devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A.T.; Jia, Q.X.; Reagor, D.W.; Wu, X.D.

    1996-11-01

    The authors have prepared electrically tunable and active microwave devices incorporating (superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x})/(nonlinear dielectric SrTiO{sub 3}) or (normal metal Au)/(nonlinear dielectric Sr{sub 0.5}Ba{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}) bilayers. The dielectric layer thickness for these samples varied between 0.5 {micro}m and 2 {micro}m. The top electrode layer for each sample was patterned into a coplanar waveguide device structure. The authors have configures these devices as voltage-tunable resonators, voltage-tunable phase shifters, voltage-tunable mixers, and voltage-tunable filters. Under dc voltage bias, these prototype devices have exhibited up to 30% resonant frequency modulation, about 1{degree}/mm-GHz phase shift, more than 40 dB change in mixed microwave power, and fine-tunable symmetric filter profile with less than 2% bandwidth and more than 15% adaptive range.

  16. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  17. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  18. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  19. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  20. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal, successfully directing the self--assembly of nanoparticles into device-ready thin films, which have...

  1. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  2. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  3. Epitaxial Mn{sub 2.5}Ga thin films with giant perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for spintronic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Feng; Mizukami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Terunobu; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Oogane, Mikihiko; Ando, Yasuo

    2009-03-23

    We report on epitaxial growth and magnetic properties of Mn{sub 2.5}Ga thin films, which were deposited on Cr/MgO single crystal substrates by magnetron sputtering. X-ray diffraction results revealed the epitaxial relationships as Mn{sub 2.5}Ga(001)[100] parallel Cr(001)[110] parallel MgO(001)[100]. The presence of (002) and (011) superlattice peaks indicates that the films were crystallized into DO{sub 22} ordered structures. The perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) properties were found to be related to the extent of DO{sub 22} chemical ordering. A giant PMA (K{sub u}{sup eff}=1.2x10{sup 7} erg/cm{sup 3}) and low saturation magnetization (M{sub s}=250 emu/cm{sup 3}) can be obtained for the film with highest chemical ordering parameter (S=0.8)

  4. Epitaxial Ni{sub 3}FeN thin films: A candidate for spintronic devices and magnetic sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loloee, Reza

    2012-07-15

    A new type of epitaxial ferromagnetic nitride (Ni{sub 3} Fe N = permalloy nitride = 'PyN') compound films were grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1120) substrates using reactive triode magnetron sputtering. The results of electron back-scattering diffraction and x-ray diffraction techniques indicate a high quality epitaxial crystalline structure with growth normal of (100). Magnetization measurements of epitaxial PyN films revealed several unique results. (1) A textbook square hysteresis loop that suggest existence of single magnetic domain in these films. (2) A coercive field is tunable from a few mOe up to a few Oe by changing the film thickness. (3) A magnetization that switches (rotate) over a very small field range of {delta}H{sub C} {<=} 0.05 Oe, independent of the film thickness. This small {delta}H indicates a very large resistive sensitivity ({delta}R/{delta}H) of the epitaxial PyN. (4) The epitaxial PyN thermal cycling through several cycles between '2 and 800 K' (-271 Degree-Sign C to +527 Degree-Sign C) shows much less degradation only about 2-5% compared to 40% degradation of a simple Py film. Four-probe transport measurements give an anisotropic magnetoresistance of Almost-Equal-To 6%, sufficiently higher than other known ferromagnetic materials. These interesting properties are ideal for a variety of spintronic devices and magnetic sensors.

  5. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Malloy, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  6. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  7. Processing Materials Devices and Diagnostics for Thin Film Photovoltaics: Fundamental and Manufacturability Issues; Final Report, 5 September 2001 - 31 May 2008

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    20-45545 April 2009 Processing Materials Devices and Diagnostics for Thin Film Photovoltaics: Fundamental and Manufacturability Issues Final Report 1 March 2005 - 30 November 2008 R.W. Birkmire, W.N. Shafarman, E. Eser, S.S. Hegedus, B.E. McCandless, K.D. Dobson, and S. Bowden University of Delaware Newark, Delaware National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy

  8. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  9. Innovative Thin Films LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Thin Films LLC Place: Toledo, Ohio Zip: 43607 Product: Provider of altnernative energy thin film deposition technology. Coordinates: 46.440613, -122.847838 Show Map Loading...

  10. Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    help OpenEI by expanding it. Thin Film Solar Technologies is a company located in South Africa . References "Thin Film Solar Technologies" Retrieved from "http:...

  11. Enhanced performance of CdS/CdTe thin-film devices through temperature profiling techniques applied to close-spaced sublimation deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaonan Li; Sheldon, P.; Moutinho, H.; Matson, R.

    1996-05-01

    The authors describe a methodology developed and applied to the close-spaced sublimation technique for thin-film CdTe deposition. The developed temperature profiles consisted of three discrete temperature segments, which the authors called the nucleation, plugging, and annealing temperatures. They have demonstrated that these temperature profiles can be used to grow large-grain material, plug pinholes, and improve CdS/CdTe photovoltaic device performance by about 15%. The improved material and device properties have been obtained while maintaining deposition temperatures compatible with commercially available substrates. This temperature profiling technique can be easily applied to a manufacturing environment by adjusting the temperature as a function of substrate position instead of time.

  12. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  13. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  14. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  15. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  16. Vapor deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.C.; Pattillo, S.G.; Laia, J.R. Jr.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    1990-10-05

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl){sub 3}, iridium(allyl){sub 3}, molybdenum(allyl){sub 4}, tungsten(allyl){sub 4}, rhenium (allyl){sub 4}, platinum(allyl){sub 2}, or palladium(allyl){sub 2} are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  17. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  18. Process for making dense thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-07-26

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for firing of device substrate to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  19. Subdiffraction instrumentation development and application to the elucidation of biological systems, thin films, and organic photovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesoine, Michael D

    2014-12-01

    Fluorescence and Raman instrumentation was developed to elucidate morphology, information on local environment, and material properties of target systems. Far-field fluorescence and luminescence spectroscopic measurements were performed using a pulsed super-continuum laser source and detector with high temporal resolution. With this arrangement morphologies of structures were coupled with time-correlated data. Polymeric beads and Alexa Fluor 594-phalloidin labeled cellular actin structures of cultured cells were imaged below the diffraction limit using stimulated emission depletion to resolve structures to ≈40nm. Lifetime imaging revealed a 2.0 ± 0.1 ns lifetime for fluorescently-labeled beads in confocal and depletion imaging modes. Depletion imaging was also able to display a change of 2.2 to 2.9 ns for different regions of the cellular actin network of cultured cells with a possible difference in lifetime caused by tryptophan quenching of the dye. Subdiffraction imaging with a resolution of ≈40 nm was also accomplished using luminescence depletion of photostable giant CdSe/14CdS nanocrystal quantum dots in air. Nanocrystal quantum dots, typically not prone to depletion, exhibited this phenomenon when excited with an energy of 50 pJ and 2 nJ of depletion energy. Luminescence depletion required half the energy compared to stimulated emission depletion to achieve the same resolution limit. The luminescence was depleted by as much as ≈92% with no observable photobleaching. Raman measurements of polymer films were performed with 532-nm laser illumination using scanning angle and conventional 180° backscattering modes to determine chemical information. The scanning angle mode achieved an angle resolution of 0.09° and was used to probe a thin layer of polystyrene as well as a diblock copolymer of polystyrene and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl). Enhancements to the Raman signals at selected angles lower than the critical angle for total internal reflection

  20. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  1. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  2. Methods for preparing colloidal nanocrystal-based thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Fafarman, Aaron T.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Koh, Weon-kyu; Kim, David K.; Oh, Soong Ju; Lai, Yuming; Hong, Sung-Hoon; Saudari, Sangameshwar Rao; Murray, Christopher B.

    2016-05-10

    Methods of exchanging ligands to form colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) with chalcogenocyanate (xCN)-based ligands and apparatuses using the same are disclosed. The ligands may be exchanged by assembling NCs into a thin film and immersing the thin film in a solution containing xCN-based ligands. The ligands may also be exchanged by mixing a xCN-based solution with a dispersion of NCs, flocculating the mixture, centrifuging the mixture, discarding the supernatant, adding a solvent to the pellet, and dispersing the solvent and pellet to form dispersed NCs with exchanged xCN-ligands. The NCs with xCN-based ligands may be used to form thin film devices and/or other electronic, optoelectronic, and photonic devices. Devices comprising nanocrystal-based thin films and methods for forming such devices are also disclosed. These devices may be constructed by depositing NCs on to a substrate to form an NC thin film and then doping the thin film by evaporation and thermal diffusion.

  3. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rourke, Devin; Ahn, Sungmo; Nardes, Alexandre M.; Lagemaat, Jao van de; Kopidakis, Nikos; Park, Wounjhang

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent.

  4. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  5. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  6. Thin films and uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  7. Progress in thin film solar photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper focuses on the rapid recent advances made by thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. It also indicates the several advantages of thin films. Various consumer products and power applications using thin film solar cells are also discussed. The increasing interest among the utilities for PV system applications is also elucidated.

  8. Integrated optical and electrical modeling of plasmon-enhanced thin film photovoltaics: A case-study on organic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rourke, D; Ahn, S; Nardes, AM; van de Lagemaat, J; Kopidakis, N; Park, W

    2014-09-21

    The nanoscale light control for absorption enhancement of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices inevitably produces strongly non-uniform optical fields. These non-uniformities due to the localized optical modes are a primary route toward absorption enhancement in OPV devices. Therefore, a rigorous modeling tool taking into account the spatial distribution of optical field and carrier generation is necessary. Presented here is a comprehensive numerical model to describe the coupled optical and electrical behavior of plasmon-enhanced polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In this model, a position-dependent electron-hole pair generation rate that could become highly non-uniform due to photonic nanostructures is directly calculated from the optical simulations. By considering the absorption and plasmonic properties of nanophotonic gratings included in two different popular device architectures, and applying the Poisson, current continuity, and drift/diffusion equations, the model predicts quantum efficiency, short-circuit current density, and desired carrier mobility ratios for bulk heterojunction devices incorporating nanostructures for light management. In particular, the model predicts a significant degradation of device performance when the carrier species with lower mobility are generated far from the collecting electrode. Consequently, an inverted device architecture is preferred for materials with low hole mobility. This is especially true for devices that include plasmonic nanostructures. Additionally, due to the incorporation of a plasmonic nanostructure, we use simulations to theoretically predict absorption band broadening of a BHJ into energies below the band gap, resulting in a 4.8% increase in generated photocurrent. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  9. Thin-Film Fiber Optic Sensors for Power Control and Fault Detection. Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, Paul Grems

    2003-09-30

    Described is the development of an optical current measurement device, an active power conditioning system, and sol gel type thin films for the detection of magnetic fields.

  10. Preparation and characterization of highly L2{sub 1}-ordered full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} thin films for spintronics device applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Wenhong; Sukegawa, Hiroaki; Shan Rong; Furubayashi, Takao; Inomata, Koichiro

    2008-06-02

    We report the investigation of structure and magnetic properties of full-Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl{sub 0.5}Si{sub 0.5} (CFAS) thin films grown on MgO-buffered MgO (001) substrates through magnetron sputtering. It was found that single-crystal CFAS thin films with high degree of L2{sub 1} ordering and sufficiently flat surface could be obtained after postdeposition annealing. All the films show a distinct uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with the easy axis of magnetization along the in-plane [110] direction. These results indicate that the use of the MgO buffer for CFAS is a promising approach for achieving a higher tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, and thus for spintronics device applications.

  11. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies.

  12. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  13. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah; Mansour, Hazim Louis

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  14. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  15. Progress in thin film solar photovoltaic technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.

    1989-12-01

    This paper focuses on the rapid recent advances made by thin film solar cell technologies, namely, amorphous silicon, copper indium diselenide, and cadmium telluride. It also indicates the several advantages of thin films. Various consumer products and power applications using thin film solar cells are also discussed. The increasing interest among the utilities for PV system applications is also elucidated. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Sputtered Thin Film Photovoltaics - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Sputtered Thin Film Photovoltaics Naval Research Laboratory Contact NRL About This Technology ...

  17. Superhydrophobic Thin Film Coatings - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Industrial Technologies ... Find More Like This Return to Search Superhydrophobic Thin Film Coatings Oak Ridge ...

  18. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  19. Seebeck Effects in N-Type and P-Type Polymers Driven Simultaneously by Surface Polarization and Entropy Differences Based on Conductor/Polymer/Conductor Thin-Film Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Dehua; Liu, Qing; Tisdale, Jeremy; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Wang, Hsin; Urbas, Augustine; Hu, Bin

    2015-04-15

    This paper reports Seebeck effects driven by both surface polarization difference and entropy difference by using intramolecular charge-transfer states in n-type and p-type conjugated polymers, namely IIDT and IIDDT, based on vertical conductor/polymer/conductor thin-film devices. Large Seebeck coefficients of -898 V/K and 1300 V/K from are observed from n-type IIDT p-type IIDDT, respectively, when the charge-transfer states are generated by a white light illumination of 100 mW/cm2. Simultaneously, electrical conductivities are increased from almost insulating states in dark condition to conducting states under photoexcitation in both n-type IIDT and p-type IIDDT devices. We find that the intramolecular charge-transfer states can largely enhance Seebeck effects in the n-type IIDT and p-type IIDDT devices driven by both surface polarization difference and entropy difference. Furthermore, the Seebeck effects can be shifted between polarization and entropy regimes when electrical conductivities are changed. This reveals a new concept to develop Seebeck effects by controlling polarization and entropy regimes based on charge-transfer states in vertical conductor/polymer/conductor thin-film devices.

  20. Seebeck Effects in N-Type and P-Type Polymers Driven Simultaneously by Surface Polarization and Entropy Differences Based on Conductor/Polymer/Conductor Thin-Film Devices

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Dehua; Liu, Qing; Tisdale, Jeremy; Lei, Ting; Pei, Jian; Wang, Hsin; Urbas, Augustine; Hu, Bin

    2015-04-15

    This paper reports Seebeck effects driven by both surface polarization difference and entropy difference by using intramolecular charge-transfer states in n-type and p-type conjugated polymers, namely IIDT and IIDDT, based on vertical conductor/polymer/conductor thin-film devices. Large Seebeck coefficients of -898 V/K and 1300 V/K from are observed from n-type IIDT p-type IIDDT, respectively, when the charge-transfer states are generated by a white light illumination of 100 mW/cm2. Simultaneously, electrical conductivities are increased from almost insulating states in dark condition to conducting states under photoexcitation in both n-type IIDT and p-type IIDDT devices. We find that the intramolecular charge-transfer states canmore » largely enhance Seebeck effects in the n-type IIDT and p-type IIDDT devices driven by both surface polarization difference and entropy difference. Furthermore, the Seebeck effects can be shifted between polarization and entropy regimes when electrical conductivities are changed. This reveals a new concept to develop Seebeck effects by controlling polarization and entropy regimes based on charge-transfer states in vertical conductor/polymer/conductor thin-film devices.« less

  1. Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaics: Research, Development, and Technologies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.; Zweibel, K.; von Roedern, B.

    2002-05-01

    II-VI binary thin-film solar cells based on cadmium telluride (CdTe) and I-III-VI ternary thin-film solar cells based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) and related materials have been the subject of intense research and development in the past few years. Substantial progress has been made thus far in the area of materials research, device fabrication, and technology development, and numerous applications based on CdTe and CIS have been deployed worldwide. World record efficiency of 16.5% has been achieved by NREL scientists for a thin-film CdTe solar cell using a modified device structure. Also, NREL scientists achieved world-record efficiency of 21.1% for a thin-film CIGS solar cell under a 14X concentration and AM1.5 global spectrum. When measured under a AM1.5 direct spectrum, the efficiency increases to 21.5%. Pathways for achieving 25% efficiency for tandem polycrystalline thin-film solar cells are elucidated. R&D issues relating to CdTe and CIS are reported in this paper, such as contact stability and accelerated life testing in CdTe, and effects of moisture ingress in thin-film CIS devices. Substantial technology development is currently under way, with various groups reporting power module efficiencies in the range of 7.0% to 12.1% and power output of 40.0 to 92.5 W. A number of lessons learned during the scale-up activities of the technology development for fabrication of thin-film power modules are discussed. The major global players actively involved in the technology development and commercialization efforts using both rigid and flexible power modules are highlighted.

  2. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun; Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol; Kim, Donghwan

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2 MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  3. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  4. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  5. Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Partial Shading in Monolithic Thin Film PV Modules: Analysis and Design Presented at the PV Module ...

  6. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems 2009 ...

  7. Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partial Shade Stress Test for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules Preprint Timothy J. ... Partial shade stress test for thin-film photovoltaic modules Timothy J Silverman , ...

  8. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers...

  9. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  10. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  12. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Hao-Chih; Wang, Guogong; Eriksson, Mark A.; Evans, Paul G.; Lagally, Max G.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  13. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  14. Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, X.; Coutts, T.J.; Sheldon, P.; Rose, D.H.

    1999-07-13

    A photovoltaic device is disclosed having a substrate, a layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4] layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd[sub 2]SnO[sub 4], and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials. 10 figs.

  15. Photovoltaic devices comprising cadmium stannate transparent conducting films and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Coutts, Timothy J.; Sheldon, Peter; Rose, Douglas H.

    1999-01-01

    A photovoltaic device having a substrate, a layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 disposed on said substrate as a front contact, a thin film comprising two or more layers of semiconductor materials disposed on said layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and an electrically conductive film disposed on said thin film of semiconductor materials to form a rear electrical contact to said thin film. The device is formed by RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a substrate, depositing a thin film of semiconductor materials onto the layer of Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4, and depositing an electrically conductive film onto the thin film of semiconductor materials.

  16. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  17. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  18. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  19. Thin-Film Photovoltaics on Solar House

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this photograph, people are reflected on Team Germany's window louvers with integrated thin-film copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) cells during the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon...

  20. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  1. Thin-Film Solar Cell Manufacturing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this b-roll, thin-film photovoltaic cells are manufactured and deployed in Arizona. Steps shown in the manufacturing process include the screen printing of conductive material onto laminated...

  2. Conductive polymer/fullerene blend thin films with honeycomb framework for transparent photovoltaic application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cotlet, Mircea; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Tsai, Hsinhan; Xu, Zhihua

    2015-04-21

    Optoelectronic devices and thin-film semiconductor compositions and methods for making same are disclosed. The methods provide for the synthesis of the disclosed composition. The thin-film semiconductor compositions disclosed herein have a unique configuration that exhibits efficient photo-induced charge transfer and high transparency to visible light.

  3. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu -Feng; et al

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layeredperovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90 within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelasticmore » switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.« less

  4. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  5. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  6. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  7. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  8. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  9. Study on the Humidity Susceptibility of Thin-Film CIGS Absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Egaas, B.; To, B.; Jiang, C. S.; Li, J. V.; Glynn, S.; DeHart, C.

    2010-01-01

    The report summarizes the research on the susceptibility of a thermally co-evaporated CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) thin-film absorber to humidity and its consequence on composition, morphology, electrical and electronic properties, and device efficiency.

  10. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  11. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  12. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  13. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  14. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; Lee, H.S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  15. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of science. If nanoparticles could be coaxed into routinely assembling themselves into predictable complex structures and hierarchical patterns, devices could be mass-produced that are one thousand times smaller than today's microtechnologies. Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley scientists have made progress toward this goal,

  16. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-06-30

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized

  17. Thin-Film Material Science and Processing | Materials Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin-Film Material Science and Processing Photo of a stainless steel piece of equipment with multiple hoses and other equipment attached. NREL's expertise focuses on using thin ...

  18. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  19. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  20. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  1. Solar Thin Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Films Inc formerly American United Global Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Thin Films Inc (formerly American United Global Inc) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10038...

  2. Atomic layer deposition of superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic magnetite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn Ren, Wei E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuepeng; Chen, Xing; Ye, Zuo-Guang E-mail: wren@mail.xjtu.edu.cn

    2015-05-07

    One of the key challenges in realizing superparamagnetism in magnetic thin films lies in finding a low-energy growth way to create sufficiently small grains and magnetic domains which allow the magnetization to randomly and rapidly reverse. In this work, well-defined superparamagnetic and ferrimagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are successfully prepared using atomic layer deposition technique by finely controlling the growth condition and post-annealing process. As-grown Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films exhibit a conformal surface and poly-crystalline nature with an average grain size of 7 nm, resulting in a superparamagnetic behavior with a blocking temperature of 210 K. After post-annealing in H{sub 2}/Ar at 400 °C, the as-grown α−Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample is reduced to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase, exhibiting a ferrimagnetic ordering and distinct magnetic shape anisotropy. Atomic layer deposition of magnetite thin films with well-controlled morphology and magnetic properties provides great opportunities for integrating with other order parameters to realize magnetic nano-devices with potential applications in spintronics, electronics, and bio-applications.

  3. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Komashko, Aleksey M.

    2006-05-30

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  4. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  5. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carver, Gary E. (Tucson, AZ); Seraphin, Bernhard O. (Tucson, AZ)

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  6. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries A ...

  7. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, ...

  8. Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers | ANSER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Solvothermal Thin Film Deposition of Electron Blocking Layers

  9. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  10. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  11. Negative resistance in an organic thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehara, S. ); Takagi, T. ); Yoshida, T.; Inaba, H.; Naito, H.; Okuda, M. )

    1992-08-20

    This paper reports that the negative resistance of the tunneling currents was observed in a semiconducting organic thin film on a graphite substrate by an STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy). This negative resistance may be understood by the theory of a molecular resonance tunneling effect.

  12. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  13. Preparation of thin film high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VenKatesan, X.X.T.; Li, Q.; Findikoglu, A.; Hemmick, D. . Dept. of Physics); Wu, X.D. ); Inam, A.; Chang, C.C.; Ramesh, R.; Hwang, D.M.; Ravi, T.S.; Etemad, S.; Martinez, J.A.; Wilkens, B. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper addresses fundamental issues in preparing high quality high T{sub c} YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} thin films. The techniques of inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition are chosen as successful examples to illustrate how the key problems can be solved. The fabrication of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x}/PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} superlattices where superconductivity in a single unit cell layer of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}x} was observed demonstrates the state of the art of thin film deposition of high T{sub c} materials. Systematic variations of the deposition parameters result in changes of superconducting and structural properties of the films that correlate with their microwave and infrared characteristics.

  14. Thin film solar energy collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrauto, R.J.; Myers, H.; Williams, J.C.

    1982-03-23

    A solar energy collector has improved absorptance and emissivity levels comprising: (1) a silver-copper oxide-rhodium oxide solar absorption film, (2) a cerium oxide interlayer and a substrate of quartz, silica glass or metal. The cerium oxide interlayer minimizes agglomeration of the metal particles, maintains a relatively low thermal emittance and improves overall stability.

  15. Thin film battery and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Gruzalski, Greg R.; Luck, Christopher F.

    1994-01-01

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between -15.degree. C. and 150.degree. C.

  16. Thin film battery and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, J.B.; Dudney, N.J.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Luck, C.F.

    1994-08-16

    Described is a thin-film battery, especially a thin-film microbattery, and a method for making same having application as a backup or primary integrated power source for electronic devices. The battery includes a novel electrolyte which is electrochemically stable and does not react with the lithium anode and a novel vanadium oxide cathode. Configured as a microbattery, the battery can be fabricated directly onto a semiconductor chip, onto the semiconductor die or onto any portion of the chip carrier. The battery can be fabricated to any specified size or shape to meet the requirements of a particular application. The battery is fabricated of solid state materials and is capable of operation between [minus]15 C and 150 C. 9 figs.

  17. Thin-film spectroscopic sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burgess, Jr., Lloyd W.; Goldman, Don S.

    1992-01-01

    There is disclosed an integrated spectrometer for chemical analysis by evanescent electromagnetic radiation absorption in a reaction volume. The spectrometer comprises a noninteractive waveguide, a substrate, an entrance grating and an exit grating, an electromagnetic radiation source, and an electromagnetic radiation sensing device. There is further disclosed a chemical sensor to determine the pressure and concentration of a chemical species in a mixture comprising an interactive waveguide, a substrate, an entrance grating and an exit grating, an electromagnetic radiation source, and an electromagnetic radiation sensing device.

  18. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thin Film Photovoltaic Partnership Project NREL's Thin Film Photovoltaic (PV) Partnership Project led R&D on emerging thin-film solar technologies in the United States from 1994 to 2009. The project made many advances in thin-film PV technologies that allowed the United States to attain world leadership in this area of solar technology. Three national R&D teams focused on thin-film semiconductor materials: amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium

  19. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, B.; Albright, S.P.; Jordan, J.F.

    1991-06-11

    This patent describes an improved stability photovoltaic panel. It comprises photovoltaic cells each having polycrystalline thin film layers, each of the thin film layers respectively deposited on a common vitreous substrate for allowing light to pass therethrough to reach a photovoltaic heterojunction formed by at least two of the thin film layers, at least one of the film layers forming the photovoltaic heterojunction for each of the photovoltaic cells, each of the photovoltaic cells lying within a plane substantially parallel to an interior planar surface of the vitreous substrate, each of the photovoltaic cells being connected electrically in series to pass electrical current from the photovoltaic panel, a pliable sheet material backcap opposite the vitreous substrate with respect to the photovoltaic cells and spaced from the photovoltaic cells so as to form a substantially planar spacing between the photovoltaic cells and an interior surface of the sheet material backcap, a perimeter portion of the sheet material backcap having a bend for positioning an edge strip of the sheet material backcap spaced from the interior surface of the backcap to form the planar spacing, the edge strip forming a planar surface parallel with a sealingly engaging the vitreous substrate for forming a fluid-tight seal with the vitreous substrate about the perimeter of the photovoltaic cells for protecting the photovoltaic cells from elements exterior of the photovoltaic panel, and a selected desiccant filling substantially the planar spacing for preventing water vapor within the planar spacing from adversely affecting the photovoltaic cells.

  20. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  1. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore » field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  2. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  3. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Steve R. (111 Beryl St., Los Alamos, NM 87544)

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  4. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak T, Manju; Kumar, Vineetha V.

    2014-10-15

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  5. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  6. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  7. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  8. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Jessica L; Jimison, Leslie H; Mannsfeld, Stefan; Volkman, Steven; Yin, Shong; Subramanian, Vivek; Salleo, Alberto; Alivisatos, A Paul; Toney, Michael F

    2010-02-19

    As thin films become increasingly popular (for solar cells, LEDs, microelectronics, batteries), quantitative morphological information is needed to predict and optimize the film's electronic, optical and mechanical properties. This quantification can be obtained quickly and easily with X-ray diffraction using an area detector and synchrotron radiation in two simple geometries. In this paper, we describe a methodology for constructing complete pole figures for thin films with fiber texture (isotropic in-plane orientation). We demonstrate this technique on semicrystalline polymer films, self-assembled nanoparticle semiconductor films, and randomly-packed metallic nanoparticle films. This method can be immediately implemented to help understand the relationship between film processing and microstructure, enabling the development of better and less expensive electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  9. Strain controlled metal-insulator transition in epitaxial NdNiO{sub 3} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiang, P.-H. Zhong, N.; Duan, C.-G.; Tang, X. D.; Hu, Z. G.; Yang, P. X.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-12-28

    We have fabricated epitaxial thin films of NdNiO{sub 3} (NNO) on various single crystal substrates. The transport properties of NNO films are very sensitive to substrate-controlled epitaxial strain. As the strain varies from tensile to compressive, the Mott metal-insulator transition of NNO films shifts to low temperatures. Under a larger compressive strain, the film on LaSrAlO{sub 4} substrate exhibits a practically metallic transport characteristic. We have found that the conductivities of NNO films at low temperatures follow Mott's variable range hopping mechanism rather than thermal activation model and the epitaxial strain has a strong effect on Mott's parameters of NNO films. These findings demonstrate that the electronic transport of NNO thin films can be tuned by the epitaxial strain for next-generation perovskite-based microelectronic devices.

  10. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford Synchrotron

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Radiation Lightsource Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to unravel the orientation of organic molecules on surfaces or in thin films. This information on the alignment of - most often - highly anisotropic molecules can become crucial if an epitaxial or even crystalline organic growth is desired, if such thin film should serve

  11. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  12. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk. With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.

  13. Superconducting thin films of (100) and (111) oriented indium doped topological crystalline insulator SnTe

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Si, W.; Zhang, C.; Wu, L.; Ozaki, T.; Gu, G.; Li, Q.

    2015-09-01

    Recent discovery of the topological crystalline insulator SnTe has triggered a search for topological superconductors, which have potential application to topological quantum computing. The present work reports on the superconducting properties of indium doped SnTe thin films. The (100) and (111) oriented thin films were epitaxially grown by pulsed-laser deposition on (100) and (111) BaF2 crystalline substrates respectively. The onset superconducting transition temperatures are about 3.8 K for (100) and 3.6 K for (111) orientations, slightly lower than that of the bulk. Magneto-resistive measurements indicate that these thin films may have upper critical fields higher than that of the bulk.more » With large surface-to-bulk ratio, superconducting indium doped SnTe thin films provide a rich platform for the study of topological superconductivity and potential device applications based on topological superconductors.« less

  14. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique ... films from highly ordered one--, two- and three-dimensional arrays of gold nanoparticles. ...

  15. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  16. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  17. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  18. Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Radiation tolerance of ultra-thin Formvar films Citation Details ... OSTI Identifier: 22089363 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  19. Comparison of Thin Epitaxial Film Silicon Photovoltaics Fabricated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Silicon Photovoltaics Fabricated on Monocrystalline and Polycrystalline Seed Layers on Glass Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Comparison of Thin Epitaxial Film Silicon ...

  20. Photovoltaic Single-Crystalline, Thin-Film Cell Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Single-crystalline thin films are made from gallium arsenide (GaAs), a compound semiconductor that is a mixture of gallium and arsenic.

  1. Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fast lithium-ion conducting thin film electrolytes integrated directly on flexible substrates for high power solid-state batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fast ...

  2. New modalities of strain-control of ferroelectric thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: New modalities of strain-control of ferroelectric thin films This content will become publicly available on May 17, 2017 Prev Next Title: New ...

  3. Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by liquid cell transmission electron microscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin-film lithiation structural transformations imaged in situ by liquid cell ...

  4. Utility-scale flat-plate thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The thin-film photovoltaics section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  5. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies H.S. Ullal Presented at the World Renewable Energy Congress X and Exhibition 2008 Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom July ...

  6. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  7. NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL Achieves World Record Performance For Thin Film Solar Cell Technology Golden, Colo., May 10, 1996 -- Scientists at the U. S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy ...

  8. Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries - Energy...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flexible Thin Film Solid State Lithium Ion Batteries National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Batteries are ...

  9. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  10. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method Citation Details ... This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary ...

  11. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  12. TEM characterization of nanodiamond thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin, L.-C.; Zhou, D.; Krauss, A. R.; Gruen, D. M.; Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    The microstructure of thin films grown by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) from fullerene C{sub 60} precursors has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), bright-field electron microscopy, high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and parallel electron energy loss spectroscopy (PEELS). The films are composed of nanosize crystallites of diamond, and no graphitic or amorphous phases were observed. The diamond crystallite size measured from lattice images shows that most grains range between 3-5 nm, reflecting a gamma distribution. SAED gave no evidence of either sp2-bonded glassy carbon or sp3-bonded diamondlike amorphous carbon. The sp2-bonded configuration found in PEELS was attributed to grain boundary carbon atoms, which constitute 5-10% of the total. Occasionally observed larger diamond grains tend to be highly faulted.

  13. Medium scale carbon nanotube thin film integrated circuits on flexible plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A; Cao, Qing; Alam, Muhammad; Pimparkar, Ninad

    2015-02-03

    The present invention provides device components geometries and fabrication strategies for enhancing the electronic performance of electronic devices based on thin films of randomly oriented or partially aligned semiconducting nanotubes. In certain aspects, devices and methods of the present invention incorporate a patterned layer of randomly oriented or partially aligned carbon nanotubes, such as one or more interconnected SWNT networks, providing a semiconductor channel exhibiting improved electronic properties relative to conventional nanotubes-based electronic systems.

  14. Nanomechanical investigation of thin-film electroceramic/metal-organic framework multilayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, James P. E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu Michler, Johann; Maeder, Xavier; Liu, Jianxi; Wang, Zhengbang; Tsotsalas, Manuel; Liu, Jinxuan; Gliemann, Hartmut; Weidler, Peter G.; Redel, Engelbert E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu Wöll, Christof E-mail: engelbert.redel@kit.edu; Röse, Silvana; Oberst, Vanessa; Walheim, Stefan

    2015-09-07

    Thin-film multilayer stacks of mechanically hard magnetron sputtered indium tin oxide (ITO) and mechanically soft highly porous surface anchored metal-organic framework (SURMOF) HKUST-1 were studied using nanoindentation. Crystalline, continuous, and monolithic surface anchored MOF thin films were fabricated using a liquid-phase epitaxial growth method. Control over respective fabrication processes allowed for tuning of the thickness of the thin film systems with a high degree of precision. It was found that the mechanical indentation of such thin films is significantly affected by the substrate properties; however, elastic parameters were able to be decoupled for constituent thin-film materials (E{sub ITO} ≈ 96.7 GPa, E{sub HKUST−1} ≈ 22.0 GPa). For indentation of multilayer stacks, it was found that as the layer thicknesses were increased, while holding the relative thickness of ITO and HKUST-1 constant, the resistance to deformation was significantly altered. Such an observation is likely due to small, albeit significant, changes in film texture, interfacial roughness, size effects, and controlling deformation mechanism as a result of increasing material deposition during processing. Such effects may have consequences regarding the rational mechanical design and utilization of MOF-based hybrid thin-film devices.

  15. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  16. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  17. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  18. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  19. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  20. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  1. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  2. Characterization Of Superconducting Samples With SIC System For Thin Film Developments: Status And Recent Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, H. Lawrence; Reece, Charles E.; Valente-Feliciano, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Binping; Eremeev, Grigory V.

    2014-02-01

    Within any thin film development program directed towards SRF accelerating structures, there is a need for an RF characterization device that can provide information about RF properties of small samples. The current installation of the RF characterization device at Jefferson Lab is Surface Impedance Characterization (SIC) system. The data acquisition environment for the system has recently been improved to allow for automated measurement, and the system has been routinely used for characterization of bulk Nb, films of Nb on Cu, MgB{sub 2}, NbTiN, Nb{sub 3}Sn films, etc. We present some of the recent results that illustrate present capabilities and limitations of the system.

  3. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Ni–Cr thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petley, Vijay; Sathishkumar, S.; Thulasi Raman, K.H.; Rao, G.Mohan; Chandrasekhar, U.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Ni–Cr thin films of varied composition deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering. • Thin film with Ni–Cr: 80–20 at% composition exhibits most distinct behavior. • The films were tensile tested and exhibited no cracking till the substrate yielding. - Abstract: Ni–Cr alloy thin films have been deposited using magnetron co-sputtering technique at room temperature. Crystal structure was evaluated using GIXRD. Ni–Cr solid solution upto 40 at% of Cr exhibited fcc solid solution of Cr in Ni and beyond that it exhibited bcc solid solution of Ni in Cr. X-ray diffraction analysis shows formation of (1 1 1) fiber texture in fcc and (2 2 0) fiber texture in bcc Ni–Cr thin films. Electron microscopy in both in-plane and transverse direction of the film surface revealed the presence of columnar microstructure for films having Cr upto 40 at%. Mechanical properties of the films are evaluated using nanoindentation. The modulus values increased with increase of Cr at% till the film is fcc. With further increase in Cr at% the modulus values decreased. Ni–Cr film with 20 at% Ni exhibits reduction in modulus and is correlated to the poor crystallization of the film as reflected in XRD analysis. The Ni–Cr thin film with 80 at% Ni and 20 at% Cr exhibited the most distinct columnar structure with highest electrical resistivity, indentation hardness and elastic modulus.

  4. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  5. Engineering Gilbert damping by dilute Gd doping in soft magnetic Fe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, W. Jiang, S.; Sun, L.; Wang, Y. K.; Zhai, Y.; Wong, P. K. J.; Wang, K.; Jong, M. P. de; Wiel, W. G. van der; Laan, G. van der

    2014-05-07

    By analyzing the ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, we show that the Gilbert damping constant in soft magnetic Fe thin films can be enhanced by ?6 times with Gd doping of up to 20%. At the same time, the magnetic easy axis remains in the film plane while the coercivity is strongly reduced after Gd inclusion. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements reveal a strong increase in the orbital-to-spin moment ratio of Fe with increasing Gd concentration, in full agreement with the increase in the Gilbert damping obtained for these thin films. Combined with x-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry, the results demonstrate that the FeGd thin films with dilute Gd doping of up to 20% are promising candidates for spin-transfer-torque applications in soft magnetic devices, in which an enhanced damping is required.

  6. Thin Film Femtosecond Laser Damage Competition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolz, C J; Ristau, D; Turowski, M; Blaschke, H

    2009-11-14

    In order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors, a damage competition was started at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state of the art of high laser resistance coatings since they are tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. In 2009 a high reflector coating was selected at a wavelength of 786 nm at normal incidence at a pulse length of 180 femtoseconds. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials and layer count, and spectral results will also be shared.

  7. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  8. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  9. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  10. Effect of current injection into thin-film Josephson junctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kogan, V. G.; Mints, R. G.

    2014-11-11

    New thin-film Josephson junctions have recently been tested in which the current injected into one of the junction banks governs Josephson phenomena. One thus can continuously manage the phase distribution at the junction by changing the injected current. Our method of calculating the distribution of injected currents is also proposed for a half-infinite thin-film strip with source-sink points at arbitrary positions at the film edges. The strip width W is assumed small relative to Λ=2λ2/d;λ is the bulk London penetration depth of the film material and d is the film thickness.

  11. Titanium nitride thin films for minimizing multipactoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M.

    1979-01-01

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  12. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  13. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hong You

    2010-08-31

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  14. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Lu, Yunfeng (San Jose, CA); Fan, Hongyou (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  15. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  16. The state of the art of thin-film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Thin-film photovoltaic technologies, based on materials such as amorphous or polycrystalline silicon, copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and gallium arsenide, offer the potential for significantly reducing the cost of electricity generated by photovoltaics. The significant progress in the technologies, from the laboratory to the marketplace, is reviewed. The common concerns and questions raised about thin films are addressed. Based on the progress to date and the potential of these technologies, along with continuing investments by the private sector to commercialize the technologies, one can conclude that thin-film PV will provide a competitive alternative for large-scale power generation in the future.

  17. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  18. Damp-Heat Induced Degradation of Transparent Conducting Oxides for Thin Film Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.; Noufi, R.; Li, X.; DeHart, C.; To, B.

    2008-05-01

    The objectives are: (1) To achieve a high long-term performance reliability for the thin-film CIGS PV modules with more stable materials, device structure designs, and moisture-resistant encapsulation materials and schemes; (2) to evaluate the DH stability of various transparent conducting oxides (TCOs); (3) to identify the degradation mechanisms and quantify degradation rates; (4) to seek chemical and/or physical mitigation methods, and explore new materials. It's important to note that direct exposure to DH represents an extreme condition that a well-encapsulated thin film PV module may never experience.

  19. TI--CR--AL--O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  20. Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sol-gel-derived Epitaxial Nanocomposite Thin Films with Large Sharp Magnetoelectric Effect Home Author: B. Liu, T. Sun, J. He, V. P. Dravid Year: 2010 Abstract: Nanostructures of...

  1. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. You ...

  2. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  3. Self-Assembling Process for Fabricating Tailored Thin Films

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Sandia

    2009-09-01

    A simple, economical nanotechnology coating process that enables the development of nanoparticle thin films with architectures and properties unattainable by any other processing method. 2007 R&D 100 winner (SAND2007-1878P)

  4. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is a very powerful tool to...

  5. Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in Li-Ion Batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improving the Cycling Life of Aluminum and Germanium Thin Films for use as Anodic Materials in Li-Ion Batteries. ...

  6. Polycrystalline Thin-Film Research: Cadmium Telluride (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-06-01

    This National Center for Photovoltaics sheet describes the capabilities of its polycrystalline thin-film research in the area of cadmium telluride. The scope and core competencies and capabilities are discussed.

  7. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Polycrystalline Thin-Film Materials...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    researchers, postdocs, and students. CdTe Research CdTe-based thin-film solar cell modules currently represent one of the fastest-growing segments of commercial module production. ...

  8. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of...

  9. CeO2 Thin Films Nan Yang, Alex Belianinov...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... transfer 3 of ions and energy can take place, especially upon variation of the gas environment. In addition, in the case of our thin films, the large in-plane geometry factor ...

  10. Flexible, transparent thin film transistors raise hopes for flexible...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the thin-film transistor, fabricated using single-atom-thick layers of graphene and tungsten diselenide, among other materials. The white scale bar shows 5 microns, which is...

  11. Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with Picosecond and ... The inset shows a streak camera measurement of the x-ray pulse duration. Ultrafast x-ray ...

  12. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  13. Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Ozone | Argonne National Laboratory Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Title Indium Oxide Thin Films by Atomic Layer Deposition Using Trimethylindium and Ozone Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2016 Authors Mane, AU, Allen, AJ, Kanjolia, RK, Elam, JW Journal Journal of Physical Chemistry C Volume 120 Start Page 9874 Issue 18 Pagination 10 Date Published 04182016 Abstract We investigated the atomic layer deposition (ALD)

  14. Charge Transport in Thin Film Ionomers | Argonne Leadership Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Characters Characters Meet the characters of the game! Meet the characters of the game! Dr Raoul Fernandez's profile Helena Edison's profile Jerome Zabel's profile Nancy Sanders' profile Roc Bridges' profile Facility

    Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membrane/catalyst interface Model of a thin film Nafion ionomer (green translucent surface) in a fuel cell membrane/catalyst interface that forms interfaces with both the electrode and air (bottom

  15. Structure of Molecular Thin Films for Organic Electronics | Stanford

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Structure of Molecular Thin Films for Organic Electronics Friday, April 6, 2012 - 1:00pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Bert Nickel, Physics Faculty and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, München Thin films made out of conjugated small molecules and polymers exhibit very interesting semiconducting properties. While some applications such as light emitting diodes (OLED) are already on the market, other application such as solar cells, integrated circuits,

  16. Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Conductive Polymer/Fullerene Blend Thin Films with Honeycomb Framework Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Structural dynamics and charge transfer via complexation with fullerene in large area conjugated polymer honeycomb thin films (728 KB) Technology Marketing Summary This composite conductive polymer/fullerene blend

  17. Flexible Thin-Film Silicon Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vijh, Aarohi; Cao, Simon; Mohring, Brad

    2014-01-11

    High fuel costs, environmental concerns and issues of national energy security have brought increasing attention to a distributed generation program for electricity based on solar technology. Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems provide distributed generation since the power is consumed at the point of production, thus eliminating the need for costly additional transmission lines. However, most current photovoltaic modules are heavy and require a significant amount of labor and accessory hardware such as mounting frames for installation on rooftops. This makes rooftop systems impractical or cost prohibitive in many instances. Under this project, Xunlight has advanced its manufacturing process for the production of lightweight, flexible thin-film silicon based photovoltaic modules, and has enhanced the reliability and performance of Xunlights products. These modules are easily unrolled and adhered directly to standard commercial roofs without mounting structures or integrated directly into roofing membrane materials for the lowest possible installation costs on the market. Importantly, Xunlight has now established strategic alliances with roofing material manufacturers and other OEMs for the development of building integrated photovoltaic roofing and other PV-enabled products, and has deployed its products in a number of commercial installations with these business partners.

  18. Thin transparent conducting films of cadmium stannate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    A process for preparing thin Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 films. The process comprises the steps of RF sputter coating a Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer onto a first substrate; coating a second substrate with a CdS layer; contacting the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer with the CdS layer in a water- and oxygen-free environment and heating the first and second substrates and the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 and CdS layers to a temperature sufficient to induce crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer into a uniform single-phase spinel-type structure, for a time sufficient to allow full crystallization of the Cd.sub.2 SnO.sub.4 layer at that temperature; cooling the first and second substrates to room temperature; and separating the first and second substrates and layers from each other. The process can be conducted at temperatures less than 600.degree. C., allowing the use of inexpensive soda lime glass substrates.

  19. Fabrication of Transparent Capacitive Structure by Self-Assembled Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Q.; Shing, Y. J.; Hua, Feng; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Matson, Dean W.

    2008-06-01

    An approach to fabricating transparent electronic devices by using nanomaterial and nanofabrication is presented in this paper. A see-through capacitor is constructed from selfassembled silica nanoparticle layers that are stacked on the transparent substrate. The electrodes are made of indium tin oxide. Unlike the traditional processes used to fabricate such devices, the self-assembly approach enables one to synthesize the thin film layers at lower temperature and cost, and with a broader availability of nanomaterials. The vertical dimension of the selfassembled thin films can be precisely controlled, as well as the molecular order in the thin film layers. The shape of the capacitor is generated by planar micropatterning. The quartz crystal demonstrates the steady growth of the silica nanoparticle multilayer. In addition, because the nanomaterial synthesis and the device fabrication steps are separate, the device is not affected by the harsh conditions required for the material synthesis. A clear pattern is allowed over a large area on the substrate. The prepared capacitive structure has an optical transparency higher than 92% over the visible spectrum. The capacitive impedance is measured at different frequencies and fit the theoretical results. As one of the fundamental components, this type of capacitive structure can serve in the transparent circuits, interactive media and sensors, as well as being applicable to other transparent devices.

  20. Thin aerogel films for optical, thermal, acoustic, and electronic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1994-09-01

    Aerogels are a special class of continuously porous solid materials which are characterized by nanometer size particles and pores. Typically, aerogels are made using sol-gel chemistry to form a solvent filled, high porosity gel that is dried by removing the solvent without collapsing the tenuous solid phase. As bulk materials, aerogels are known to have many exceptional, and even some unique physical properties. Aerogels provide the highest thermal insulation and lowest dielectric constant of any other material known. However, some important applications require the aerogels in the form of thin films or sheets. For example, electronic applications require micrometer thin aerogel films bonded to a substrate, and others require thicker films, either on a substrate or as free standing sheets. Special methods are required to make aerogel thin films or sheets. In this paper, the authors discuss the special conditions needed to fabricate thin aerogel films and they describe methods to make films and thin sheets. They also give some specific applications for which aerogel films are being developed.

  1. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  2. Transferred metal electrode films for large-area electronic devices...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We show here that the self-release layer transfer method recently developed for high-quality graphene transfer is also capable of giving high-quality metal thin-film transfers to ...

  3. Exciton-dominated dielectric function of atomically thin MoS2 films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Yiling; Yu, Yifei; Cai, Yongqing; Li, Wei; Gurarslan, Alper; Peelaers, Hartwin; Aspnes, David E.; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Zhang, Yong -Wei; Cao, Linyou

    2015-11-24

    We systematically measure the dielectric function of atomically thin MoS2 films with different layer numbers and demonstrate that excitonic effects play a dominant role in the dielectric function when the films are less than 5–7 layers thick. The dielectric function shows an anomalous dependence on the layer number. It decreases with the layer number increasing when the films are less than 5–7 layers thick but turns to increase with the layer number for thicker films. We show that this is because the excitonic effect is very strong in the thin MoS2 films and its contribution to the dielectric function may dominate over the contribution of the band structure. We also extract the value of layer-dependent exciton binding energy and Bohr radius in the films by fitting the experimental results with an intuitive model. The dominance of excitonic effects is in stark contrast with what reported at conventional materials whose dielectric functions are usually dictated by band structures. Lastly, the knowledge of the dielectric function may enable capabilities to engineer the light-matter interactions of atomically thin MoS2 films for the development of novel photonic devices, such as metamaterials, waveguides, light absorbers, and light emitters.

  4. Exciton-dominated dielectric function of atomically thin MoS2 films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Yiling; Yu, Yifei; Cai, Yongqing; Li, Wei; Gurarslan, Alper; Peelaers, Hartwin; Aspnes, David E.; Van de Walle, Chris G.; Nguyen, Nhan V.; Zhang, Yong -Wei; et al

    2015-11-24

    We systematically measure the dielectric function of atomically thin MoS2 films with different layer numbers and demonstrate that excitonic effects play a dominant role in the dielectric function when the films are less than 5–7 layers thick. The dielectric function shows an anomalous dependence on the layer number. It decreases with the layer number increasing when the films are less than 5–7 layers thick but turns to increase with the layer number for thicker films. We show that this is because the excitonic effect is very strong in the thin MoS2 films and its contribution to the dielectric function maymore » dominate over the contribution of the band structure. We also extract the value of layer-dependent exciton binding energy and Bohr radius in the films by fitting the experimental results with an intuitive model. The dominance of excitonic effects is in stark contrast with what reported at conventional materials whose dielectric functions are usually dictated by band structures. Lastly, the knowledge of the dielectric function may enable capabilities to engineer the light-matter interactions of atomically thin MoS2 films for the development of novel photonic devices, such as metamaterials, waveguides, light absorbers, and light emitters.« less

  5. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2014-10-25

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in-situ at 450°C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. As a result, these observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition.

  6. Deuterium phase behavior in thin-film Pd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munter, A.E.; Heuser, B.J.

    1998-07-01

    The absorption of deuterium from the gas phase into two Pd thin films 668 {Angstrom} and 1207 {Angstrom} thick was measured at room temperature with {ital in situ} neutron reflectometry. Room-temperature solubility isothermal curves, out-of-plane film expansion, and deuterium depth profiles were determined from fits to the neutron reflectivity data. The measurements demonstrate that the deuterium solubility behavior, both in solid solution and within the two-phase region, is strongly perturbed by the thin-film geometry, consistent with previous solubility measurements in the published literature. The phase behavior investigated here was observed to depend on film thickness and on deuterium cycling through the two-phase region. The 668-{Angstrom} film exhibited the greatest initial phase perturbation and most significant changes upon cycling. Upon repeated cycling, both films approach nearly identical deuterium isothermal solubility and out-of-plane expansion behaviors. The observed equilibrium out-of-plane expansion behavior was consistent with the films expanding under an in-plane clamping constraint imposed by the substrate. The effect of this substrate constraining force is to amplify the out-of-plane expansion beyond that expected in bulk Pd. Taken together, these measurements implicate the film/substrate interfacial clamping interaction as the origin of the perturbed hydrogen phase behavior in thin-film geometry. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Advances in Thin-Film Proton-Reaction Cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George H. Miley; Giovanna Selvaggi; Andy Tate; Carlos Castano

    2000-11-12

    Thin-film electrodes (layers of the order of thousands of angstroms) offer several very important advantages for cold fusion research: Good reproducibility has been demonstrated, an extremely high power density is obtained in the thin film, and reaction rates can be optimized by appropriate selection of materials and interfaces. The motivation for thin films stems from the Swimming Electron Theory, which predicts that enhanced reaction rates can occur with the careful selection of interface materials. Recent experiments have concentrated on the measurement of the H or D loading (atoms H/atom metal), using thin (1-m-long, 50-{mu}m-diam) wires to simulate thin films. Wires facilitate measurement of the loading as a function of time during a run by use of a simple resistivity measurement. These experiments show that excess heat production is associated with a dynamic resistivity oscillation, both being suddenly initiated (coincidence within 2 to 3 s) when a D/Pd loading ratio >0.9 9 is achieved. The counterpart of these experiments involves use of a unique compact electrode design where thin films are coated onto a small glass slide to provide both the anode and cathode. Experiments with these compact electrodes have consistently produced >100 W/cm{sup 3} metal.

  8. Thin-film absorber for a solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1982-02-09

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  9. 2010 Thin Film & Small Scale Mechanical Behavior Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Thomas Balk

    2010-07-30

    Over the past decades, it has been well established that the mechanical behavior of materials changes when they are confined geometrically at least in one dimension to small scale. It is the aim of the 2010 Gordon Conference on 'Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior' to discuss cutting-edge research on elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation as well as degradation mechanisms like fracture, fatigue and wear at small scales. As in the past, the conference will benefit from contributions from fundamental studies of physical mechanisms linked to material science and engineering reaching towards application in modern applications ranging from optical and microelectronic devices and nano- or micro-electrical mechanical systems to devices for energy production and storage. The conference will feature entirely new testing methodologies and in situ measurements as well as recent progress in atomistic and micromechanical modeling. Particularly, emerging topics in the area of energy conversion and storage, such as material for batteries will be highlighted. The study of small-scale mechanical phenomena in systems related to energy production, conversion or storage offer an enticing opportunity to materials scientists, who can provide new insight and investigate these phenomena with methods that have not previously been exploited.

  10. Shape variation of micelles in polymer thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Jiajia Shi, An-Chang

    2014-01-14

    The equilibrium properties of block copolymer micelles confined in polymer thin films are investigated using self-consistent field theory. The theory is based on a model system consisting of AB diblock copolymers and A homopolymers. Two different methods, based on the radius of gyration tensor and the spherical harmonics expansion, are used to characterize the micellar shape. The results reveal that the morphology of micelles in thin films depends on the thickness of the thin films and the selectivity of the confining surfaces. For spherical (cylindrical) micelles, the spherical (cylindrical) symmetry is broken by the presence of the one-dimensional confinement, whereas the top-down symmetry is broken by the selectivity of the confining surfaces. Morphological transitions from spherical or cylindrical micelles to cylinders or lamella are predicted when the film thickness approaches the micellar size.

  11. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe{sub 2} thin-film switches and logic circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Yan, Z.; Samnakay, R.; Goli, P.; Pope, T. R.; Salguero, T. T.; Wickramaratne, D.; Lake, R. K.; Khitun, A. G.; Balandin, A. A.

    2014-01-21

    We report the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with tantalum diselenide thin-film conducting channels. For this proof-of-concept demonstration, the layers of 2H-TaSe{sub 2} were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Devices with nanometer-scale thicknesses exhibit strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. We have found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe{sub 2}Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films of van der Waals materials.

  12. Chapter 1.19: Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Thin Film: CdTe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews the history, development, and present processes used to fabricate thin-film, CdTe-based photovoltaic (PV) devices. It is intended for readers who are generally familiar with the operation and material aspects of PV devices but desire a deeper understanding of the process sequences used in CdTe PV technology. The discussion identifies why certain processes may have commercial production advantages and how the various process steps can interact with each other to affect device performance and reliability. The chapter concludes with a discussion of considerations of large-area CdTe PV deployment including issues related to material availability and energy-payback time.

  13. Cross-sectional electrostatic force microscopy of thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballif, C.; Moutinho, H. R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2001-01-15

    In a recent work, we showed that atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful technique to image cross sections of polycrystalline thin films. In this work, we apply a modification of AFM, namely, electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), to investigate the electronic properties of cleaved II--VI and multijunction thin-film solar cells. We cleave the devices in such a way that they are still working with their nominal photovoltaic efficiencies and can be polarized for the measurements. This allows us to differentiate between surface effects (work function and surface band bending) and bulk device properties. In the case of polycrystalline CdTe/CdS/SnO{sub 2}/glass solar cells, we find a drop of the EFM signal in the area of the CdTe/CdS interface ({+-}50 nm). This drop varies in amplitude and sign according to the applied external bias and is compatible with an n-CdS/p-CdTe heterojunction model, thereby invalidating the possibility of a deeply buried n-p CdTe homojunction. In the case of a triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/Ge device, we observe a variation of the EFM signal linked to both the material work-function differences and to the voltage bias applied to the cell. We attempt a qualitative explanation of the results and discuss the implications and difficulties of the EFM technique for the study of such thin-film devices.

  14. Optically activated sub-millimeter dielectric relaxation in amorphous thin film silicon at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahman, Rezwanur; Ohno, Tim R.; Taylor, P. C.; Scales, John A.

    2014-05-05

    Knowing the frequency-dependent photo-induced complex conductivity of thin films is useful in the design of photovoltaics and other semi-conductor devices. For example, annealing in the far-infrared could in principle be tailored to the specific dielectric properties of a particular sample. The frequency dependence of the conductivity (whether dark or photo-induced) also gives insight into the effective dimensionality of thin films (via the phonon density of states) as well as the presence (or absence) of free carriers, dopants, defects, etc. Ultimately, our goal is to make low-noise, phase-sensitive room temperature measurements of the frequency-dependent conductivity of thin films from microwave frequencies into the far-infrared; covering, the frequency range from ionic and dipole relaxation to atomic and electronic processes. To this end, we have developed a high-Q (quality factor) open cavity resonator capable of resolving the complex conductivity of sub-micron films in the range of 100350?GHz (0.10.35 THz, or 0.41?meV). In this paper, we use a low-power green laser to excite bound charges in high-resistivity amorphous silicon thin film. Even at room temperature, we can resolve both the dark conductivity and photo-induced changes associated with dielectric relaxation and possibly some small portion of free carriers.

  15. Beta (β) tungsten thin films: Structure, electron transport, and giant spin Hall effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hao, Qiang; Chen, Wenzhe; Xiao, Gang

    2015-05-04

    We use a simple magnetron sputtering process to fabricate beta (β) tungsten thin films, which are capable of generating giant spin Hall effect. As-deposited thin films are always in the metastable β-W phase from 3.0 to 26.7 nm. The β-W phase remains intact below a critical thickness of 22.1 nm even after magnetic thermal annealing at 280 °C, which is required to induce perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in a layered structure of β-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO. Intensive annealing transforms the thicker films (>22.1 nm) into the stable α-W phase. We analyze the structure and grain size of both β- and α-W thin films. Electron transport in terms of resistivity and normal Hall effect is studied over a broad temperature range of 10 K to at least 300 K on all samples. Very low switching current densities are achieved in β-W/Co{sub 40}Fe{sub 40}B{sub 20}/MgO with PMA. These basic properties reveal useful behaviors in β-W thin films, making them technologically promising for spintronic magnetic random access memories and spin-logic devices.

  16. Thin-film transistors based on p-type Cu{sub 2}O thin films produced at room temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortunato, Elvira; Figueiredo, Vitor; Barquinha, Pedro; Elamurugu, Elangovan; Goncalves, Goncalo; Martins, Rodrigo; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Hwang, Chi-Sun

    2010-05-10

    Copper oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) thin films were used to produce bottom gate p-type transparent thin-film transistors (TFTs). Cu{sub 2}O was deposited by reactive rf magnetron sputtering at room temperature and the films exhibit a polycrystalline structure with a strongest orientation along (111) plane. The TFTs exhibit improved electrical performance such as a field-effect mobility of 3.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio of 2x10{sup 2}.

  17. Processing approach towards the formation of thin-film Cu(In,Ga)Se2

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beck, Markus E.; Noufi, Rommel

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage method of producing thin-films of group IB-IIIA-VIA on a substrate for semiconductor device applications includes a first stage of depositing an amorphous group IB-IIIA-VIA precursor onto an unheated substrate, wherein the precursor contains all of the group IB and group IIIA constituents of the semiconductor thin-film to be produced in the stoichiometric amounts desired for the final product, and a second stage which involves subjecting the precursor to a short thermal treatment at 420.degree. C.-550.degree. C. in a vacuum or under an inert atmosphere to produce a single-phase, group IB-III-VIA film. Preferably the precursor also comprises the group VIA element in the stoichiometric amount desired for the final semiconductor thin-film. The group IB-IIIA-VIA semiconductor films may be, for example, Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S).sub.2 mixed-metal chalcogenides. The resultant supported group IB-IIIA-VIA semiconductor film is suitable for use in photovoltaic applications.

  18. Gas expanded polymer process to anneal nanoparticle dispersion in thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ambuken, Preejith V.; Stretz, Holly A.; Dadmun, Mark; Michael Kilbey, S.

    2015-04-21

    A spin-coating solution comprising poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) nanoparticles used to create organic photovoltaic (OPV) active layers have been shown to adopt a non-uniform concentration profile across the thin film dimension. This inhomogeneous distribution can reduce the efficiency of the device. For our new process, gas expanded polymer (GXP) annealing, is applied to P3HT/PCBM thin film blends, enabling the distribution of the PCBM nanoparticles to be manipulated by varying the GXP processing conditions. Films of 50 nm thickness (nominally) created by spin casting a blend of P3HT mixed with PCBM were annealed by oscillatory GXP andmore » GXP at constant pressure using high pressure CO2. An increase in P3HT crystallinity (detected by X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy) along with a more uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles in the thickness dimension, as interpreted from neutron reflectivity measurements, were observed after oscillatory GXP annealing. In addition, static water contact angles suggest that the film/air interface is enriched in PCBM relative to the as-cast film. Finally, these results demonstrate that GXP annealing, which is commercially scalable, can be successfully used to create a uniform distribution of PCBM nanoparticles across the thickness dimension in a P3HT thin film.« less

  19. Domain epitaxy for thin film growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayan, Jagdish

    2005-10-18

    A method of forming an epitaxial film on a substrate includes growing an initial layer of a film on a substrate at a temperature T.sub.growth, said initial layer having a thickness h and annealing the initial layer of the film at a temperature T.sub.anneal, thereby relaxing the initial layer, wherein said thickness h of the initial layer of the film is greater than a critical thickness h.sub.c. The method further includes growing additional layers of the epitaxial film on the initial layer subsequent to annealing. In some embodiments, the method further includes growing a layer of the film that includes at least one amorphous island.

  20. Optical and structural properties of sputtered CdS films for thin film solar cell applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Donguk; Park, Young; Kim, Minha; Choi, Youngkwan; Park, Yong Seob; Lee, Jaehyoeng

    2015-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Photo current–voltage curves (a) and the quantum efficiency (QE) (b) for the solar cell with CdS film grown at 300 °C. - Highlights: • CdS thin films were grown by a RF magnetron sputtering method. • Influence of growth temperature on the properties of CdS films was investigated. • At higher T{sub g}, the crystallinity of the films improved and the grains enlarged. • CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at 300 °C. - Abstract: CdS thin films were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at various temperatures. The effects of growth temperature on crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Raman spectra, UV–visible spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. As the growth temperature was increased, the crystallinity of the sputtered CdS films was improved and the grains were enlarged. The characteristics of CdS/CdTe thin film solar cell appeared to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature of the CdS films. Thin film CdS/CdTe solar cells with efficiencies of 9.41% were prepared at a growth temperature of 300 °C.

  1. Generation of localized strain in a thin film piezoelectric to control individual magnetoelectric heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Jizhai; Liang, Cheng-Yen; Sepulveda, Abdon; Carman, Gregory P.; Lynch, Christopher S.; Paisley, Elizabeth A.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.

    2015-08-31

    Experimental results demonstrate the ability of a surface electrode pattern to produce sufficient in-plane strain in a PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film clamped by a Si substrate to control magnetism in a 1000 nm diameter Ni ring. The electrode pattern and the Ni ring/PZT thin film heterostructure were designed using a finite element based micromagnetics code. The magnetoelectric heterostructures were fabricated on the PZT film using e-beam lithography and characterized using magnetic force microscopy. Application of voltage to the electrodes moved one of the “onion” state domain walls. This method enables the development of complex architectures incorporating strain-mediated multiferroic devices.

  2. Highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3} thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radetinac, Aldin Mani, Arzhang; Ziegler, Jürgen; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Melnyk, Sergiy; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Zheng, Yuliang; Jakoby, Rolf

    2014-09-15

    We have measured the microwave resistance of highly conducting perovskite oxide SrMoO{sub 3} thin film coplanar waveguides. The epitaxial SrMoO{sub 3} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition and showed low mosaicity and smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness below 0.3 nm. Layer-by-layer growth could be achieved for film thicknesses up to 400 nm as monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We obtained a constant microwave resistivity of 29 μΩ·cm between 0.1 and 20 GHz by refining the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that SrMoO{sub 3} is a viable candidate as a highly conducting electrode material for all-oxide microwave electronic devices.

  3. Carbon nanotube network thin-film transistors on flexible/stretchable substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Takei, Kuniharu; Takahashi, Toshitake; Javey, Ali

    2016-03-29

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for flexible thin-film transistors. In one aspect, a device includes a polymer substrate, a gate electrode disposed on the polymer substrate, a dielectric layer disposed on the gate electrode and on exposed portions of the polymer substrate, a carbon nanotube network disposed on the dielectric layer, and a source electrode and a drain electrode disposed on the carbon nanotube network.

  4. Thin film cadmium telluride and zinc phosphide solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chu, T.

    1984-10-01

    This report describes research performed from June 1982 to October 1983 on the deposition of cadmium telluride films by direct combination of the cadmium and tellurium vapor on foreign substrates. Nearly stoichiometric p-type cadmium telluride films and arsenic-doped p-type films have been prepared reproducibly. Major efforts were directed to the deposition and characterization of heterojunction window materials, indium tin oxide, fluorine-doped tin oxide, cadmium oxide, and zinc oxide. A number of heterojunction solar cells were prepared, and the best thin-film ITO/CdTe solar cells had an AMl efficiency of about 7.2%. Zinc phosphide films were deposited on W/steel substrates by the reaction of zinc and phosphine in a hydrogen flow. Films without intentional doping had an electrical resistivity on the order of 10/sup 6/ ohm-cm, and this resistivity may be reduced to about 5 x 10/sup 4/ ohm-cm by adding hydrogen chloride or hydrogen bromide to the reaction mixture. Lower resistivity films were deposited by adding a controlled amount of silver nitrate solution on to the substrate surface. Major efforts were directed to the deposition of low-resistivity zinc selenide in order to prepare ZnSe/An/sub 3/P/sub 2/ heterojunction thin-film solar cells. However, zinc selenide films deposited by vacuum evaporation and chemical vapor deposition techniques were all of high resistivity.

  5. Properties of zirconia thin films deposited by laser ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cancea, V. N.; Filipescu, M.; Colceag, D.; Dinescu, M.; Mustaciosu, C.

    2013-11-13

    Zirconia thin films have been deposited by laser ablation of a ceramic ZrO{sub 2} target in vacuum or in oxygen background at 0.01 mbar. The laser beam generated by an ArF laser (λ=193 nm, ν=40 Hz) has been focalized on the target through a spherical lens at an incident angle of 45°. The laser fluence has been established to a value from 2.0 to 3.4 Jcm{sup −2}. A silicon (100) substrate has been placed parallel to the target, at a distance of 4 cm, and subsequently has been heated to temperatures ranging between 300 °C and 600 °C. Thin films morphology has been characterized by atomic force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Biocompatibility of these thin films has been assessed by studying the cell attachment of L929 mouse fibroblasts.

  6. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S.; Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I.

    2003-12-09

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  7. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin; Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  8. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  9. Investigation of deep level defects in CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankar, H.; Castaldini, A.; Dauksta, E.; Medvid, A.; Cavallini, A.

    2014-02-21

    In the past few years, a large body of work has been dedicated to CdTe thin film semiconductors, as the electronic and optical properties of CdTe nanostructures make them desirable for photovoltaic applications. The performance of semiconductor devices is greatly influenced by the deep levels. Knowledge of parameters of deep levels present in as-grown materials and the identification of their origin is the key factor in the development of photovoltaic device performance. Photo Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy technique (PICTS) has proven to be a very powerful method for the study of deep levels enabling us to identify the type of traps, their activation energy and apparent capture cross section. In the present work, we report the effect of growth parameters and LASER irradiation intensity on the photo-electric and transport properties of CdTe thin films prepared by Close-Space Sublimation method using SiC electrical heating element. CdTe thin films were grown at three different source temperatures (630, 650 and 700 C). The grown films were irradiated with Nd:YAG LASER and characterized by Photo-Induced Current Transient Spectroscopy, Photocurrent measurementand Current Voltage measurements. The defect levels are found to be significantly influenced by the growth temperature.

  10. Thin palladium films on silicon and titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, L.A.

    1982-12-01

    Films of Pd from 20 to 160A thick were deposited on sputter-etched Si and on Ti films of Si and then tested electrochemically in 0.5M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The behavior characteristic of Pd metal was lost with prolonged storage or with extended electrochemical cycling. The thinner films produced oxidation and reduction peaks in the voltammograms similar to the hydrogen peaks observed with Pt. Hydrogen sorption measured from voltammograms at different sweep rates and by pulse measurements indicates a definite diffusion component that begins to limit hydrogen sorption for P films thicker than about 80A. Shifts of the oxygen reduction peak indicate an increase in oxygen bonding strength as the films are made thinner.

  11. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Truher, Joel B. (San Rafael, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-02-03

    A method for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells.

  12. Progress and issues in polycrystalline thin-film PV technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.; Roedern, B. von

    1996-05-01

    Substantial progress has occurred in polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic technologies in the past 18 months. However, the transition to first-time manufacturing is still under way, and technical problems continue. This paper focuses on the promise and the problems of the copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride technologies, with an emphasis on continued R&D needs for the near-term transition to manufacturing and for next-generation improvements. In addition, it highlights the joint R&D efforts being performed in the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Thin-Film Photovoltaic Partnership Program.

  13. Fabrication of polycrystalline thin films by pulsed laser processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Truher, J.B.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Colella, N.J.

    1998-02-03

    A method is disclosed for fabricating polycrystalline thin films on low-temperature (or high-temperature) substrates which uses processing temperatures that are low enough to avoid damage to the substrate, and then transiently heating select layers of the thin films with at least one pulse of a laser or other homogenized beam source. The pulse length is selected so that the layers of interest are transiently heated to a temperature which allows recrystallization and/or dopant activation while maintaining the substrate at a temperature which is sufficiently low to avoid damage to the substrate. This method is particularly applicable in the fabrication of solar cells. 1 fig.

  14. Investigation of defects in InGaZn oxide thin film using electron spin resonance signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nonaka, Yusuke; Kurosawa, Yoichi; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Ishihara, Noritaka; Oota, Masashi; Nakashima, Motoki; Hirohashi, Takuya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Obonai, Toshimitsu; Hosaka, Yasuharu; Koezuka, Junichi; Yamauchi, Jun

    2014-04-28

    InGaZn oxide (IGZO) is a next-generation semiconductor material seen as an alternative to silicon. Despite the importance of the controllability of characteristics and the reliability of devices, defects in IGZO have not been fully understood. We investigated defects in IGZO thin films using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. In as-sputtered IGZO thin films, we observed an ESR signal which had a g-value of g?=?2.010, and the signal was found to disappear under thermal treatment. Annealing in a reductive atmosphere, such as N{sub 2} atmosphere, generated an ESR signal with g?=?1.932 in IGZO thin films. The temperature dependence of the latter signal suggests that the signal is induced by delocalized unpaired electrons (i.e., conduction electrons). In fact, a comparison between the conductivity and ESR signal intensity revealed that the signal's intensity is related to the number of conduction electrons in the IGZO thin film. The signal's intensity did not increase with oxygen vacancy alone but also with increases in both oxygen vacancy and hydrogen concentration. In addition, first-principle calculation suggests that the conduction electrons in IGZO may be generated by defects that occur when hydrogen atoms are inserted into oxygen vacancies.

  15. Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundaries in thin nanocrystalline silicon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, G.P.; Doolen, G.D.; Mainieri, R.; Campbell, D.K.; Luchnikov, V.A. |

    1997-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, the grain boundaries in thin polycrystalline silicon films (considered as promising material for future nanoelectronic devices) are investigated. It is shown that in polysilicon film with randomly oriented grains the majority of grain boundaries are disordered. However, some grains with small mutual orientation differences can form extended crystalline patterns. The structure of the grain boundaries satisfies the thermodynamical criterion. The majority of atoms in the grain boundaries are tetrahedrally coordinated with the nearest neighbors, even though the grain boundaries are disordered. The grain boundary matter is characterized as an amorphous phase with a characteristic tetragonality value.

  16. Perovskite phase thin films and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Rodriguez, Mark A.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention comprises perovskite-phase thin films, of the general formula A.sub.x B.sub.y O.sub.3 on a substrate, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, and barium or a combination thereof; B is selected from niobium and tantalum or a combination thereof; and x and y are mole fractions between approximately 0.8 and 1.2. More particularly, A is strontium or barium or a combination thereof and B is niobium or tantalum or a combination thereof. Also provided is a method of making a perovskite-phase thin film, comprising combining at least one element-A-containing compound, wherein A is selected from beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium or barium, with at least one element-B-containing compound, wherein B niobium or tantalum, to form a solution; adding a solvent to said solution to form another solution; spin-coating the solution onto a substrate to form a thin film; and heating the film to form the perovskite-phase thin film.

  17. Stress Evolution in Sn Thin Films During Thermal Cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, K. J.; Cheong, K. C.; Cai Zhonghou; Ingham, B.; Toney, M. F.

    2009-07-23

    Finite Element Modelling and corresponding X-ray and Electron Back-Scatter Diffraction measurements have been used to investigate the development of strain in thin tin films during thermal cycling. The modeled average strain in the film was found to agree within 20% to the experimental result, although the strain within individual grains was found to vary dramatically as observed by electron backscatter diffraction and synchrotron microdiffraction.

  18. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1993-01-01

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  19. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strongin, Myron; Ruckman, Mark; Strongin, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate.

  20. Method for producing high quality thin layer films on substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strongin, M.; Ruckman, M.; Strongin, D.

    1994-04-26

    A method for producing high quality, thin layer films of inorganic compounds upon the surface of a substrate is disclosed. The method involves condensing a mixture of preselected molecular precursors on the surface of a substrate and subsequently inducing the formation of reactive species using high energy photon or charged particle irradiation. The reactive species react with one another to produce a film of the desired compound upon the surface of the substrate. 4 figures.

  1. Photocathode Device Using Diamondoid and Cesium Bromide Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Photocathode Device Using Diamondoid and Cesium Bromide Films Authors: Clay, William A.:a Juan R.Maldonado ; Pianetta, Piero ; Dahl, Jeremy E.P. ; Carlson, Robert M.K. ; ...

  2. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  3. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  4. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D.; Banks, Paul S.; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-01-01

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanoscale Spin-State Ordering in LaCoO3 Epitaxial Thin Films Authors: Kwon, ...

  6. CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and Accomplishments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CIGS Thin-Film Solar Cell Research at NREL: FY04 Results and ...

  7. Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter deposition Title: Solid-solution CrCoCuFeNi high-entropy alloy thin films synthesized by sputter ...

  8. PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents PID Failure of c-Si and Thin-Film Modules and Possible Correlation with Leakage Currents ...

  9. Buffer layer for thin film structures (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Buffer layer for thin film structures Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Buffer layer for thin film structures A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer...

  10. Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)[subscript...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Iron Pyrite Thin Films Synthesized from an Fe(acac)subscript 3 Ink...

  11. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2001-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  12. High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability High-Efficiency GaAs Thin-Film Solar Cell Reliability Presented at the PV Module Reliability Workshop, February 26 - 27 2013, Golden, Colorado ...

  13. A Sensitivity Analysis of a Thin Film Conductivity Estimation Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMasters, Robert L; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton

    2010-01-01

    An analysis method was developed for determining the thermal conductivity of a thin film on a substrate of known thermal properties using the flash diffusivity method. In order to determine the thermal conductivity of the film using this method, the volumetric heat capacity of the film must be known, as determined in a separate experiment. Additionally, the thermal properties of the substrate must be known, including conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. The ideal conditions for the experiment are a low conductivity film adhered to a higher conductivity substrate. As the film becomes thinner with respect to the substrate or, as the conductivity of the film approaches that of the substrate, the estimation of thermal conductivity of the film becomes more difficult. The present research examines the effect of inaccuracies in the known parameters on the estimation of the parameter of interest, the thermal conductivity of the film. As such, perturbations are introduced into the other parameters in the experiment, which are assumed to be known, to find the effect on the estimated thermal conductivity of the film. A baseline case is established with the following parameters: Substrate thermal conductivity 1.0 W/m-K Substrate volumetric heat capacity 106 J/m3-K Substrate thickness 0.8 mm Film thickness 0.2 mm Film volumetric heat capacity 106 J/m3-K Film thermal conductivity 0.01 W/m-K Convection coefficient 20 W/m2-K Magnitude of heat absorbed during the flash 1000 J/m2 Each of these parameters, with the exception of film thermal conductivity, the parameter of interest, is varied from its baseline value, in succession, and placed into a synthetic experimental data file. Each of these data files is individually analyzed by the program to determine the effect on the estimated film conductivity, thus quantifying the vulnerability of the method to measurement errors.

  14. Method for fabricating thin films of pyrolytic carbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Lewis, Jr., John; Weber, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating ultra-thin films of pyrolytic carbon. Pyrolytic carbon is vapor deposited onto a concave surface of a heated substrate to a total uniform thickness in the range of about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer. The carbon film on the substrate is provided with a layer of adherent polymeric resin. The resulting composite film of pyrolytic carbon and polymeric resin is then easily separated from the substrate by shrinking the polymeric resin coating with thermally induced forces.

  15. Junction Evolution During Fabrication of CdS/CdTe Thin-film PV Solar Cells (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.

    2010-09-01

    Discussion of the formation of CdTe thin-film PV junctions and optimization of CdTe thin-film PV solar cells.

  16. Detection of saliva-range glucose concentrations using organic thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elkington, D.; Belcher, W. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Zhou, X. J.

    2014-07-28

    We describe the development of a glucose sensor through direct incorporation of an enzyme (glucose oxidase) into the gate of an organic thin film transistor (OTFT). We show that glucose diffusion is the key determinant of the device response time and present a mechanism of glucose sensing in these devices that involves protonic doping of the transistor channel via enzymatic oxidation of glucose. The integrated OTFT sensor is sensitive across 4 decades of glucose concentration; a range that encompasses both the blood and salivary glucose concentration levels. As such, this work acts as a proof-of-concept for low-cost printed biosensors for salivary glucose.

  17. Infrared and thermoelectric power generation in thin atomic layer deposited Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Harkirat S.; Lang, Brian N.; Schwab, Yosyp; Scarel, Giovanna; Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-15

    Infrared radiation is used to radiatively transfer heat to a nanometric power generator (NPG) device with a thermoelectric Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the active element, onto a borosilicate glass substrate. The linear rise of the produced voltage with respect to the temperature difference between the “hot” and “cold” junctions, typical of the Seebeck effect, is missing. The discovery of the violation of the Seebeck effect in NPG devices combined with the ability of ALD to tune thermoelectric thin film properties could be exploited to increase the efficiency of these devices for energy harvesting purposes.

  18. Thiogallate Blue Phosphors for Thin Film Electroluminescent Flat Panel Displays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, Robert C.; Tuenge, Richard T.

    1997-04-03

    This project helped to develop a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method that could improve the efficiency of the blue phosphor for full color thin-film electroluminescent (TFEL) flat panel displays. High quality SrS and SrS:Ce thin films were deposited from Sr(thd)2, Ce(thd)4 and H2S via a low pressure MOCVD process. Film characteristics were found to be insensitive to the presence of the cerium dopant in the concn. range investigated. Depositions were carried out for a wide temp. range (250-550°C). Deposition rates were found to be relatively insensitive for the temp. range investigated. The films produced were found to be highly cryst. at all temps. investigated. Deposited material showed texturing as a function of substrate material and temp. FWHM of the a 111 ii reflections were found to have a 2Q values of 0.15-0.18 deg. for all temps. RBS and AES shows stoichiometric 1 : 1 SrS with less than 2% carbon and oxygen contaminates. ERO indicates the films to have 1- 2.5% hydrogen. Films doped with 0.019-0.043 atom % Ce showed weak blue-green to green PL with increasing dopant concn. Doped films yielded up to 3.2 cd/m2 EL emission with CIE coordinates of x = 0.22 and y = 0.32 and turn-on voltages of 150-250 V.

  19. Equiatomic CoPt thin films with extremely high coercivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varghese, Binni; Piramanayagam, S. N. Yang, Yi; Kai Wong, Seng; Khume Tan, Hang; Kiat Lee, Wee; Okamoto, Iwao

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, magnetic and structural properties of near-equiatomic CoPt thin films, which exhibited a high coercivity in the film-normal directionsuitable for perpendicular magnetic recording media applicationsare reported. The films exhibited a larger coercivity of about 6.5 kOe at 8?nm. The coercivity showed a monotonous decrease as the film thickness was increased. The transmission electron microscopy images indicated that the as fabricated CoPt film generally consists of a stack of magnetically hard hexagonal-close-packed phase, followed by stacking faults and face-centred-cubic phase. The thickness dependent magnetic properties are explained on the basis of exchange-coupled composite media. Epitaxial growth on Ru layers is a possible factor leading to the unusual observation of magnetically hard hcp-phase at high concentrations of Pt.

  20. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles

    1997-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  1. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1997-11-25

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte is described, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  2. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J.; Halpern, Bret L.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  3. Utility of reactively sputtered CuN{sub x} films in spintronics devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang Yeyu; Persson, J.; Zha, C.; Willman, J.; Miller, Casey W.; Aakerman, Johan

    2012-04-01

    We have studied nitrified copper (CuN{sub x}) thin films grown by reactive sputtering in the context of spintronic devices. The Ar-to-N{sub 2} flow ratio enables tunability of the electrical resistivity and surface roughness of the CuN{sub x} films, with the former increasing to nearly 20 times that of Cu, and the latter reduced to the atomic scale. Incorporating this into a Ta/CuN{sub x}/Ta seed stack for spin valves improves the current-in-plane (CIP) magnetoresistance; maximum magnetoresistance results with CuN{sub x} seed layer and Cu interlayer. Finally, finite element modeling results are presented that suggest the use of CuN{sub x} in nanocontact spin torque oscillators can enhance current densities by limiting the current spread through the device. This may positively impact threshold currents, power requirements, and device reliability.

  4. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Conde, J. P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Tcnico (IST), 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-11-14

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n{sup +}-type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force.

  5. Characterization of Thin Films by XAFS: Application to Spintronics Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heald, Steve M.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2009-10-25

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) has proven very valuable in characterizing thin films. This is illustrated with some examples from the area of diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) materials for spintronics applications. A promising route to DMS materials is doping of oxides such as TiO2 and ZnO with magnetic atoms such as Co. These can be grown as epitaxial thin films on various substrates. XAFS is especially valuable for characterizing the dopant atoms. The near edge region is sensitive to the symmetry of the bonding and valence of the dopants, and the extended XAFS can determine the details of the lattice site. XAFS is also valuable for detecting metallic nanoparticles. These can be difficult to detect by other methods, and can give a spurious magnetic signal. The power of XAFS is illustrated by examples from studies on Co doped ZnO films.

  6. APIVT-Grown Silicon Thin Layers and PV Devices: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T. H.; Ciszek, T. F.; Page, M. R.; Bauer, R. E.; Wang, Q.; Landry, M. D.

    2002-05-01

    Large-grained (5-20 ..mu..m) polycrystalline silicon layers have been grown at intermediate temperatures of 750-950C directly on foreign substrates without a seeding layer by iodine vapor transport at atmospheric pressure with rates as high as 3 mm/min. A model is constructed to explain the atypical temperature dependence of growth rate. We have also used this technique to grow high-quality epitaxial layers on heavily doped CZ-Si and on upgraded MG-Si substrates. Possible solar cell structures of thin-layer polycrystalline silicon on foreign substrates with light trapping have been examined, compared, and optimized by two-dimensional device simulations. The effects of grain boundary re-combination on device performance are presented for two grain sizes of 2 and 20 mm. We found that 104 cm/s recombination velocity is adequate for 20-m m grain-sized thin silicon, whereas a very low recombination velocity of 103 cm/s must be accomplished in order to achieve reasonable performance for a 2- mm grain-sized polycrystalline silicon device.

  7. Research on the electronic and optical properties of polymer and other organic molecular thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The main goal of the work is to find materials and methods of optimization of organic layered electroluminescent cells and to study such properties of polymers and other organic materials that can be used in various opto-electronic devices. The summary of results obtained during the first year of work is presented. They are: (1) the possibility to produce electroluminescent cells using a vacuum deposition photoresist technology for commercial photoresists has been demonstrated; (2) the idea to replace the polyaryl polymers by other polymers with weaker hole conductivity for optimization of electroluminescent cells with ITO-Al electrodes has been suggested. The goal is to obtain amorphous processable thin films of radiative recombination layers in electroluminescent devices; (3) procedures of preparation of high-quality vacuum-deposited poly (p-phenylene) (PPP) films on various substrates have been developed; (4) it was found for the first time that the fluorescence intensity of PPP films depends on the degree of polymerization; (5) the role of interfaces between organic compounds, on one side, and metals or semiconductors, on the other side, has been studied and quenching of the fluorescence caused by semiconductor layer in thin sandwiches has been observed; (6) studies of the dynamics of photoexcitations revealed the exciton self-trapping in quasi-one-dimensional aggregates; and (7) conditions for preparation of highly crystalline fullerene C{sub 60} films by vacuum deposition have been found. Composites of C{sub 60} with conjugated polymers have been prepared.

  8. Mimicking Conjugated Polymer Thin Film Photophysics with a Well-Defined Triblock Copolymer in Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brazard, Johanna; Ono, Robert J.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Barbara, Paul F.; Vanden Bout, David A.

    2013-04-25

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are promising materials for use in electronic applications, such as low-cost, easily processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Improving OPV efficiencies is hindered by a lack of a fundamental understanding of the photophysics in CP-based thin films that is complicated by their heterogeneous nanoscale morphologies. Here, we report on a poly(3-hexylthiophene)-block-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(3-hexylthiophene) rodcoilrod triblock copolymer. In good solvents, this polymer resembles solutions of P3HT; however, upon the addition of a poor solvent, the two P3HT chains within the triblock copolymer collapse, affording a material with electronic spectra identical to those of a thin film of P3HT. Using this new system as a model for thin films of P3HT, we can attribute the low fluorescence quantum yield of films to the presence of a charge-transfer state, providing fundamental insights into the condensed phase photophysics that will help to guide the development of the next generation of materials for OPVs.

  9. High quality transparent conducting oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Duenow, Joel N.; Barnes, Teresa; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2012-08-28

    A transparent conducting oxide (TCO) film comprising: a TCO layer, and dopants selected from the elements consisting of Vanadium, Molybdenum, Tantalum, Niobium, Antimony, Titanium, Zirconium, and Hafnium, wherein the elements are n-type dopants; and wherein the transparent conducting oxide is characterized by an improved electron mobility of about 42 cm.sup.2/V-sec while simultaneously maintaining a high carrier density of .about.4.4e.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3.

  10. Current-voltage characteristics of layer-by-layer self-assembled colloidal thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jafri, S. H. M.; Dutta, J.; Sweatman, D.; Sharma, A. B.

    2006-09-25

    Self-organized construction of advanced materials and devices has been carried out starting with tailor-made colloidal nanoparticles as building blocks. Multilayer thin films of gold nanoparticles stabilized by glutamates and zinc sulfide nanoparticles capped with chitosan were self-organized by a modified polyelectrolyte deposition process. Resistive current-voltage characteristic was observed in devices (less than 50 layers). The conduction onset in thicker devices (>50 layers) was found to be at applied voltages of {approx}1.6, {approx}1.94, and {approx}2.79 V for 75, 100, and 150 layer structures, respectively. Devices exhibit similar behavior in forward and reverse biases and the electrical characteristics were repeatable.

  11. Thin-film metal coated insulation barrier in a Josephson tunnel junction. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawkins, G.A.; Clarke, J.

    1975-10-31

    A highly stable, durable, and reproducible Josephson tunnel junction consists of a thin-film electrode of a hard superconductor, a thin oxide insulation layer over the electrode constituting a Josephson tunnel junction barrier, a thin-film layer of stabilizing metal over the barrier, and a second thin-film hard superconductive electrode over the stabilizing film. The thin stabilizing metal film is made only thick enough to limit penetration of the electrode material through the insulation layer so as to prevent a superconductive short.

  12. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, A.A.; Song, L.

    1999-09-28

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphous structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphous structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobial, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflammatory, steroid, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor consisting of the compositions listed above.

  13. Thin film composition with biological substance and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Allison A.; Song, Lin

    1999-01-01

    The invention provides a thin-film composition comprising an underlying substrate of a first material including a plurality of attachment sites; a plurality of functional groups chemically attached to the attachment sites of the underlying substrate; and a thin film of a second material deposited onto the attachment sites of the underlying substrate, and a biologically active substance deposited with the thin-film. Preferably the functional groups are attached to a self assembling monolayer attached to the underlying substrate. Preferred functional groups attached to the underlying substrate are chosen from the group consisting of carboxylates, sulfonates, phosphates, optionally substituted, linear or cyclo, alkyl, alkene, alkyne, aryl, alkylaryl, amine, hydroxyl, thiol, silyl, phosphoryl, cyano, metallocenyl, carbonyl, and polyphosphate. Preferred materials for the underlying substrate are selected from the group consisting of a metal, a metal alloy, a plastic, a polymer, a proteic film, a membrane, a glass or a ceramic. The second material is selected from the group consisting of inorganic crystalline structures, inorganic amorphus structures, organic crystalline structures, and organic amorphus structures. Preferred second materials are phosphates, especially calcium phosphates and most particularly calcium apatite. The biologically active molecule is a protein, peptide, DNA segment, RNA segment, nucleotide, polynucleotide, nucleoside, antibiotic, antimicrobal, radioisotope, chelated radioisotope, chelated metal, metal salt, anti-inflamatory, steriod, nonsteriod anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antihistamine, receptor binding agent, or chemotherapeutic agent, or other biologically active material. Preferably the biologically active molecule is an osteogenic factor the compositions listed above.

  14. Quantum states of neutrons in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radu, F.; Zabel, H.; Leiner, V.; Wolff, M.; Ignatovich, V.K.

    2005-06-01

    We have studied experimentally and theoretically the interaction of polarized neutrons with magnetic thin films and magnetic multilayers. In particular, we have analyzed the behavior of the critical edges for total external reflection in both cases. For a single film we have observed experimentally and theoretically a simple behavior: the critical edges remain fixed and the intensity varies according to the angle between the polarization axis and the magnetization vector inside the film. For the multilayer case we find that the critical edges for spin-up and spin-down polarized neutrons move toward each other as a function of the angle between the magnetization vectors in adjacent ferromagnetic films. Although the results for multilayers and single thick layers appear to be different, in fact, the same spinor method explains both results. An interpretation of the critical edges behavior for the multilyers as a superposition of ferromagnetic and antifferomagnetic states is given.

  15. Pyroelectric response of lead zirconate titanate thin films on silicon: Effect of thermal stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesim, M. T.; Zhang, J.; Alpay, S. P.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Mantese, J. V.; Whatmore, R. W.

    2013-11-28

    Ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x}O){sub 3}, (PZT x:1-x)] has received considerable interest for applications related to uncooled infrared devices due to its large pyroelectric figures of merit near room temperature, and the fact that such devices are inherently ac coupled, allowing for simplified image post processing. For ferroelectric films made by industry-standard deposition techniques, stresses develop in the PZT layer upon cooling from the processing/growth temperature due to thermal mismatch between the film and the substrate. In this study, we use a non-linear thermodynamic model to investigate the pyroelectric properties of polycrystalline PZT thin films for five different compositions (PZT 40:60, PZT 30:70, PZT 20:80, PZT 10:90, PZT 0:100) on silicon as a function of processing temperature (25800?C). It is shown that the in-plane thermal stresses in PZT thin films alter the out-of-plane polarization and the ferroelectric phase transformation temperature, with profound effect on the pyroelectric properties. PZT 30:70 is found to have the largest pyroelectric coefficient (0.042??C cm{sup ?2}?C{sup ?1}, comparable to bulk values) at a growth temperature of 550?C; typical to what is currently used for many deposition processes. Our results indicate that it is possible to optimize the pyroelectric response of PZT thin films by adjusting the Ti composition and the processing temperature, thereby, enabling the tailoring of material properties for optimization relative to a specific deposition process.

  16. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brian E. Hardin, Stephen T. Connor, Craig H. Peters

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PVâ??s goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to 1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and 2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS thin films using a

  17. Polarization-dependent thin-film wire-grid reflectarray for terahertz waves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Tiaoming; Upadhyay, Aditi; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Sriram, Sharath; Withayachumnankul, Withawat; Headland, Daniel; Abbott, Derek; Fumeaux, Christophe

    2015-07-20

    A thin-film polarization-dependent reflectarray based on patterned metallic wire grids is realized at 1 THz. Unlike conventional reflectarrays with resonant elements and a solid metal ground, parallel narrow metal strips with uniform spacing are employed in this design to construct both the radiation elements and the ground plane. For each radiation element, a certain number of thin strips with an identical length are grouped to effectively form a patch resonator with equivalent performance. The ground plane is made of continuous metallic strips, similar to conventional wire-grid polarizers. The structure can deflect incident waves with the polarization parallel to the strips into a designed direction and transmit the orthogonal polarization component. Measured radiation patterns show reasonable deflection efficiency and high polarization discrimination. Utilizing this flexible device approach, similar reflectarray designs can be realized for conformal mounting onto surfaces of cylindrical or spherical devices for terahertz imaging and communications.

  18. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  19. InGaN-based thin film solar cells: Epitaxy, structural design, and photovoltaic properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang, Liwen; Liao, Meiyong; Koide, Yasuo; Sumiya, Masatomo

    2015-03-14

    In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N, with the tunable direct bandgaps from ultraviolet to near infrared region, offers a promising candidate for the high-efficiency next-generation thin-film photovoltaic applications. Although the adoption of thick InGaN film as the active region is desirable to obtain efficient light absorption and carrier collection compared to InGaN/GaN quantum wells structure, the understanding on the effect from structural design is still unclear due to the poor-quality InGaN films with thickness and difficulty of p-type doping. In this paper, we comprehensively investigate the effects from film epitaxy, doping, and device structural design on the performances of the InGaN-based solar cells. The high-quality InGaN thick film is obtained on AlN/sapphire template, and p-In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N is achieved with a high hole concentration of more than 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}. The dependence of the photovoltaic performances on different structures, such as active regions and p-type regions is analyzed with respect to the carrier transport mechanism in the dark and under illumination. The strategy of improving the p-i interface by using a super-thin AlN interlayer is provided, which successfully enhances the performance of the solar cells.

  20. Structural, magnetic, and transport properties of Fe-doped CoTiSb epitaxial thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, N. Y.; Zhang, Y. Q.; Che, W. R.; Shan, R.; Qin, J.

    2015-11-07

    Epitaxial intrinsic and Fe-doped CoTiSb thin films with C1{sub b} structure were grown on MgO(100) substrates by magnetron sputtering. The semiconducting-like behavior in both intrinsic and Fe-doped thin films was demonstrated by temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity. The Fe-doped CoTiSb films with a wide range of doping concentrations can maintain semiconducting-like and magnetic properties simultaneously, while the semiconducting behavior is weakening with the increasing Fe concentration. For 21 at. % Fe-doped film, low lattice magnetic moment (around 0.65 μ{sub B}) and high resistivity (larger than 800 μΩ cm) are beneficial to its application as a magnetic electrode in spintronic devices. Anomalous Hall effect of 21 at. % Fe-doped film was also investigated and its behaviors can be treated well by recent-reported anomalous Hall scaling including the contribution of spin-phonon skew scattering.

  1. Autophagy induction by silver nanowires: A new aspect in the biocompatibility assessment of nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verma, Navin K.; Conroy, Jennifer; Lyons, Philip E.; Coleman, Jonathan; O'Sullivan, Mary P.; Kornfeld, Hardy; Kelleher, Dermot; Volkov, Yuri

    2012-11-01

    Nanomaterials and their enabled products have increasingly been attracting global attention due to their unique physicochemical properties. Among these emerging products, silver nanowire (AgNW)-based thin films are being developed for their promising applications in next generation nanoelectronics and nanodevices. However, serious concerns remain about possible health and safety risks they may pose. Here, we employed a multi-modal systematic biocompatibility assessment of thin films incorporating AgNW. To represent the possible routes of nanomaterial entry during occupational or environmental exposure, we employed four different cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, gastric, and phagocytic origin. Utilizing a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we observed a low level of cytotoxicity of AgNW, which was dependent on cell type, nanowire lengths, doses and incubation times. Similarly, no major cytotoxic effects were induced by AgNW-containing thin films, as detected by conventional cell viability and imaging assays. However, transmission electron microscopy and Western immunoblotting analysis revealed AgNW-induced autophasosome accumulation together with an upregulation of the autophagy marker protein LC3. Autophagy represents a crucial mechanism in maintaining cellular homeostasis, and our data for the first time demonstrate triggering of such mechanism by AgNW in human phagocytic cells. Finally, atomic force microscopy revealed significant changes in the topology of cells attaching and growing on these films as substrates. Our findings thus emphasize the necessity of comprehensive biohazard assessment of nanomaterials in modern applications and devices and a thorough analysis of risks associated with their possible contact with humans through occupational or environmental exposure. Highlights: ► Thin films containing nanomaterials are subject to increasing contact with humans. ► This

  2. Compositional depth profiling of TaCN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adelmann, Christoph; Conard, Thierry; Franquet, Alexis; Brijs, Bert; Munnik, Frans; Burgess, Simon; Witters, Thomas; Meersschaut, Johan; Kittl, Jorge A.; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Van Elshocht, Sven

    2012-07-15

    The composition profiling of thin TaCN films was studied. For the composition profile determination using x-ray photoemission spectrometry (XPS) in combination with Ar sputtering, preferential sputtering effects of N with respect to Ta and C were found to lead to inaccurate elemental concentrations. Sputter yield calculations for the given experimental conditions allowed for the correction of a part of the error, leading to fair accuracy by reference-free measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy was demonstrated by the calibration of the XPS compositions against elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) results. For Auger electron spectrometry (AES) in combination with Ar sputtering, accurate results required the calibration against ERDA. Both XPS and AES allowed for a reliable and accurate determination of the compositional profiles of TaCN-based thin films after calibration. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry was also used to assess the composition of the TaCN films. However, the analysis was hampered by large matrix effects due to small unintentional oxygen contents in the films. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry is also discussed, and it is shown that an accurate reference-free measurement of the average film concentration can be achieved.

  3. Temperature dependence of the spin relaxation in highly degenerate ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prestgard, M. C.; Siegel, G.; Tiwari, A.; Roundy, R.; Raikh, M.

    2015-02-28

    Zinc oxide is considered a potential candidate for fabricating next-generation transparent spintronic devices. However, before this can be achieved, a thorough scientific understanding of the various spin transport and relaxation processes undergone in this material is essential. In the present paper, we are reporting our investigations into these processes via temperature dependent Hanle experiments. ZnO thin films were deposited on c-axis sapphire substrates using a pulsed laser deposition technique. Careful structural, optical, and electrical characterizations of the films were performed. Temperature dependent non-local Hanle measurements were carried out using an all-electrical scheme for spin injection and detection over the temperature range of 20–300 K. From the Hanle data, spin relaxation time in the films was determined at different temperatures. A detailed analysis of the data showed that the temperature dependence of spin relaxation time follows the linear-in-momentum Dyakonov-Perel mechanism.

  4. Laser-induced metallic nanograined thin films processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tosa, Nicoleta E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Toadere, Florin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Hojbota, Calin E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro; Tosa, Valer E-mail: florin.toadere@itim-cj.ro

    2013-11-13

    A direct laser writing method for designing metallic nanograined thin films is presented. This method takes advantage of photon conversion within a chemical process localized at the focal point. A computer controlled positioning system allows the control of experimental parameters and spatial resolution of the pattern. Spectroscopic investigations reveal variable attenuation of the optical properties in UV-visible range and a spectral imaging processing algorithm simulated the functionality of these films in visible light. This could be an important step for obtaining neutral density attenuators.

  5. Encapsulation Advancements Extend Life of Thin-Film PV; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL's transparent metal oxide coating used to protect thin-film photovoltaic modules.

  6. Design and development of an in-line sputtering system and process development of thin film multilayer neutron supermirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biswas, A.; Sampathkumar, R.; Kumar, Ajaya; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.; Lagoo, K. D.; Veerapur, R. D.; Padmanabhan, M.; Puri, R. K.; Bhattacharya, Debarati; Singh, Surendra; Basu, S.

    2014-12-15

    Neutron supermirrors and supermirror polarizers are thin film multilayer based devices which are used for reflecting and polarizing neutrons in various neutron based experiments. In the present communication, the in-house development of a 9 m long in-line dc sputtering system has been described which is suitable for deposition of neutron supermirrors on large size (1500 mm × 150 mm) substrates and in large numbers. The optimisation process of deposition of Co and Ti thin film, Co/Ti periodic multilayers, and a-periodic supermirrors have also been described. The system has been used to deposit thin film multilayer supermirror polarizers which show high reflectivity up to a reasonably large critical wavevector transfer of ∼0.06 Å{sup −1} (corresponding to m = 2.5, i.e., 2.5 times critical wavevector transfer of natural Ni). The computer code for designing these supermirrors has also been developed in-house.

  7. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B.; Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N.; Okyay, A. K. E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr

    2014-06-16

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  8. Stable thin film resistors using double layer structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Lee, H.J.; Ma, E.; Anderson, W.A.; Collins, F.M.

    1995-06-01

    Highly stable bilayer thin film resistors, which consist of an underlying layer of tantalum nitride and of a capping layer of ruthenium oxide, were developed by taking advantage of the desired characteristics of two different materials in a single system. The resistors fabricated in such a way were highly stable under power loading or thermal cycling. Resistors with one digit temperature coefficient of resistance could be easily controlled by the layer thickness ratio of the tantalum nitride to the ruthenium oxide and the {ital ex} {ital situ} annealing temperature or duration. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profile on the thin films indicates that the ruthenium oxide layer is well defined for the as-deposited form. Nevertheless, interdiffusion takes place after thermal treatment of the bilayer which is used to tune the temperature coefficient of resistance and to stabilize the resistance of the resistors.

  9. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  10. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    1998-10-06

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  11. Thin-Film Reliability Trends Toward Improved Stability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2011-07-01

    Long-term, stable performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules will be increasingly important to their successful penetration of the power grid. This paper summarizes more than 150 thin-film and more than 1700 silicon PV degradation rates (Rd) quoted in publications for locations worldwide. Partitioning the literature results by technology and date of installation statistical analysis shows an improvement in degradation rate especially for thin-film technologies in the last decade. A CIGS array deployed at NREL for more than 5 years that appears to be stable supports the literature trends. Indoor and outdoor data indicate undetectable change in performance (0.2+/-0.2 %/yr). One module shows signs of slight degradation from what appears to be an initial manufacturing defect, however it has not affected the overall system performance.

  12. Status of High Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-02-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of photovoltaics (PV) for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to our energy supply and our environment. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course. This work includes bringing thin-film cells and modules toward 25% and 20% efficiencies, respectively, and developing multijunction concentrator cells and modules able to convert more than one-third of the sun's energy to electricity (i.e., 33% efficiency). This paper will address recent accomplishments of the NREL in-house research effort involving polycrystalline thin-film tandems, as well as the research efforts under way in the subcontracted area.

  13. Electrochemical solar cells using CdSe thin film electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xu-Rui; Tien, H.Ti.

    1983-01-01

    Electrochemical photocells consisting of a CdSe thin film anode and a Pt cathode immersed in 1M Na/sub 2/S-NaOH-S solution have been studied. CdSe thin films were formed on Ti, Cr, Mo, SnO/sub 2/, glassy carbon, and graphite substrates by coating an aqueous mixture of CdSe, ZnCl/sub 2/, and surfactant, subsequently sintering at 400/sup 0/-500/sup 0/C in air. The current-voltage (I-V) relations, output power efficiency, open-circuit voltage, and short-circuit current were measured. Seven percent power conversion efficiency was obtained at 20 mW/cm/sup 2/ light intensity after photoetching. The monochromatic I-V curves were analyzed.

  14. Ultra-thin titanium nanolayers for plasmon-assisted enhancement of bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsun Su, Yen; Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan ; Hsu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chung-Chien; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan ; Tu, Sheng-Lung; Shen, Yun-Hwei

    2013-08-05

    Ultra-thin titanium films were deposited via ultra-high vacuum ion beam sputter deposition. Since the asymmetric electric field of the metal foil plane matches the B-band absorption of chlorophyll a, the ultra-thin titanium nanolayers were able to generate surface plasmon resonance, thus enhancing the photoluminescence of chlorophyll a. Because the density of the states of plasmon resonance increases, the enhancement of photoluminescence also rises. Due to the biocompatibility and inexpensiveness of titanium, it can be utilized to enhance the bioluminescence of chloroplast in biological light emitting devices, bio-laser, and biophotonics.

  15. Synthesis of thin films and materials utilizing a gaseous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morse, Daniel E; Schwenzer, Birgit; Gomm, John R; Roth, Kristian M; Heiken, Brandon; Brutchey, Richard

    2013-10-29

    A method for the fabrication of nanostructured semiconducting, photoconductive, photovoltaic, optoelectronic and electrical battery thin films and materials at low temperature, with no molecular template and no organic contaminants. High-quality metal oxide semiconductor, photovoltaic and optoelectronic materials can be fabricated with nanometer-scale dimensions and high dopant densities through the use of low-temperature biologically inspired synthesis routes, without the use of any biological or biochemical templates.

  16. NREL: Energy Analysis - Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Crystalline Silicon and Thin Film Photovoltaic Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet) Cover of the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics factsheet Download the Fact Sheet Over the last 30 years, hundreds of life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been conducted and published for a variety of residential and utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV)

  17. Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnable, George L.; Wu, Chung P.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

  18. Method for making dense crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-01-16

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  19. Status review of the science and technology of Ultrananoscrystalline Diamond (UNCD (sup {trademark}) films and application to multifunctional devices.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auciello, O.; Sumant, A. V.

    2010-07-01

    This review focuses on a status report on the science and technology of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films developed and patented at Argonne National Laboratory. The UNCD material has been developed in thin film form and exhibit multifunctionalities applicable to a broad range of macro to nanoscale multifunctional devices. UNCD thin films are grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) or hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) using new patented Ar-rich/CH4 or H2/CH4 plasma chemistries. UNCD films exhibit a unique nanostructure with 2-5 nm grain size (thus the trade name UNCD) and grain boundaries of 0.4-0.6 nm for plain films, and grain sizes of 7-10 nm and grain boundaries of 2-4 nm when grown with nitrogen introduced in the Ar-rich/CH4 chemistry, to produce UNCD films incorporated with nitrogen, which exhibit electrical conductivity up to semi-metallic level. This review provides a status report on the synthesis of UNCD films via MPCVD and integration with dissimilar materials like oxides for piezoactuated MEMS/NEMS, metal films for contacts, and biological matter for a new generation of biomedical devices and biosensors. A broad range of applications from macro to nanoscale multifunctional devices is reviewed, such as coatings for mechanical pumps seals, field-emission cold cathodes, RF MEMS/NEMS resonators and switches for wireless communications and radar systems, NEMS devices, biomedical devices, biosensors, and UNCD as a platform for developmental biology, involving biological cells growth on the surface. Comparisons with nanocrystalline diamond films and technology are made when appropriate.

  20. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  1. Optical, electrical and surface properties of annealed CdO:Mg thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakaya, Seniye E-mail: oozbas@ogu.edu.tr; Ozbas, Omer E-mail: oozbas@ogu.edu.tr

    2013-12-16

    The use of transparent conducting oxides in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices has encouraged research on this field in recent years. Especially, cadmium oxide is a promising material for solar cell application but also for photodiodes and gas sensors. Mg doped CdO (CdO:Mg) films have been prepared on glass substrates by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) technique. After the production, the films have been annealed in air atmosphere at 475C and half hour. Results on surface, optical and electrical properties of the films as a function of the thermal annealing have been reported. Thicknesses of the films have been determined by the filmetrics thin film measurement system. Transmission and absorbance spectra have been taken by UV-vis spectrophotometer. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis indicates that the roughness of the surface decreases upon increasing Mg concentration. The minimum resistivity value of the films was 210{sup ?3} ? cm.

  2. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se -Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, John Roland; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-28

    A lithium metal thin-film battery composite structure is provided that includes a combination of a thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18] such as Lipon, designed in use to be in contact with a lithium metal anode layer; and a rapid-deposit solid electrolyte layer [16] such as LiAlF.sub.4 in contact with the thin, stable, solid electrolyte layer [18]. Batteries made up of or containing these structures are more efficient to produce than other lithium metal batteries that use only a single solid electrolyte. They are also more resistant to stress and strain than batteries made using layers of only the stable, solid electrolyte materials. Furthermore, lithium anode batteries as disclosed herein are useful as rechargeable batteries.

  3. A comparison of light-coupling into high and low index nanostructured photovoltaic thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfadler, T.; Stärk, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Putnik, M.; Boneberg, J.; Weickert, J. E-mail: lukas.schmidt-mende@uni-konstanz.de; Schmidt-Mende, L. E-mail: lukas.schmidt-mende@uni-konstanz.de

    2015-06-01

    Periodically structured electrodes are typically introduced to thin-film photovoltaics for the purpose of light management. Highly effective light-trapping and optimal in-coupling of light is crucial to enhance the overall device performance in such thin-film systems. Here, wavelength-scale structures are transferred via direct laser interference patterning to electron-selective TiO{sub 2} electrodes. Two representative thin-film solar cell architectures are deposited on top: an organic solar cell featuring blended P3HT:PCBM as active material, and a hybrid solar cell with Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} as inorganic active material. A direct correlation in the asymmetry in total absorption enhancement and in structure-induced light in-coupling is spectroscopically observed for the two systems. The structuring is shown to be beneficial for the total absorption enhancement if a high n active material is deposited on TiO{sub 2}, but detrimental for a low n material. The refractive indices of the employed materials are determined via spectroscopic ellipsometry. The study outlines that the macroscopic Fresnel equations can be used to investigate the spectroscopically observed asymmetry in light in-coupling at the nanostructured TiO{sub 2} active material interfaces by visualizing the difference in reflectivity caused by the asymmetry in refractive indices.

  4. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the mist CVD process, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  5. Studies on atomic layer deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmi, Leo D. Heikkil, Mikko J.; Vehkamki, Marko; Puukilainen, Esa; Ritala, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2015-01-15

    Deposition of IRMOF-8 thin films by atomic layer deposition was studied at 260320?C. Zinc acetate and 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid were used as the precursors. The as-deposited amorphous films were crystallized in 70% relative humidity at room temperature resulting in an unknown phase with a large unit cell. An autoclave with dimethylformamide as the solvent was used to recrystallize the films into IRMOF-8 as confirmed by grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. The films were further characterized by high temperature x-ray diffraction (HTXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), nanoindentation, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. HTXRD measurements revealed similar behavior to bulk IRMOF-8. According to TOF-ERDA and FTIR, composition of the films was similar to IRMOF-8. Through-porosity was confirmed by loading the films with palladium using Pd(thd){sub 2} (thd?=?2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) as the precursor.

  6. Supercritical fluid molecular spray thin films and fine powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.

    1988-01-01

    Solid films are deposited, or fine powders formed, by dissolving a solid material into a supercritical fluid solution at an elevated pressure and then rapidly expanding the solution through a short orifice into a region of relatively low pressure. This produces a molecular spray which is directed against a substrate to deposit a solid thin film thereon, or discharged into a collection chamber to collect a fine powder. The solvent is vaporized and pumped away. Solution pressure is varied to determine, together with flow rate, the rate of deposition and to control in part whether a film or powder is produced and the granularity of each. Solution temperature is varied in relation to formation of a two-phase system during expansion to control porosity of the film or powder. A wide variety of film textures and powder shapes are produced of both organic and inorganic compounds. Films are produced with regular textural feature dimensions of 1.0-2.0 .mu.m down to a range of 0.01 to 0.1 .mu.m. Powders are formed in very narrow size distributions, with average sizes in the range of 0.02 to 5 .mu.m.

  7. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Auciello, O.

    1990-05-08

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams. 10 figs.

  8. Sputter deposition for multi-component thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R.; Auciello, Orlando

    1990-01-01

    Ion beam sputter-induced deposition using a single ion beam and a multicomponent target is capable of reproducibly producing thin films of arbitrary composition, including those which are close to stoichiometry. Using a quartz crystal deposition monitor and a computer controlled, well-focused ion beam, this sputter-deposition approach is capable of producing metal oxide superconductors and semiconductors of the superlattice type such as GaAs-AlGaAs as well as layered metal/oxide/semiconductor/superconductor structures. By programming the dwell time for each target according to the known sputtering yield and desired layer thickness for each material, it is possible to deposit composite films from a well-controlled sub-monolayer up to thicknesses determined only by the available deposition time. In one embodiment, an ion beam is sequentially directed via a set of X-Y electrostatic deflection plates onto three or more different element or compound targets which are constituents of the desired film. In another embodiment, the ion beam is directed through an aperture in the deposition plate and is displaced under computer control to provide a high degree of control over the deposited layer. In yet another embodiment, a single fixed ion beam is directed onto a plurality of sputter targets in a sequential manner where the targets are each moved in alignment with the beam under computer control in forming a multilayer thin film. This controlled sputter-deposition approach may also be used with laser and electron beams.

  9. Long-laser-pulse method of producing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi; Olander, Donald K.; Russo, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A method of depositing thin films by means of laser vaporization employs a long-pulse laser (Nd-glass of about one millisecond duration) with a peak power density typically in the range 10.sup.5 -10.sup.6 W/cm.sup.2. The method may be used to produce high T.sub.c superconducting films of perovskite material. In one embodiment, a few hundred nanometers thick film of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x is produced on a SrTiO.sub.3 crystal substrate in one or two pulses. In situ-recrystallization and post-annealing, both at elevated temperature and in the presence of an oxidizing agen The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-C03-76SF0098 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California.

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry characterization of thin-film silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.; Modine, F.A.; Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.

    1997-05-01

    We have measured and analyzed the optical characteristics of a series of silicon nitride thin films prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates for photovoltaic applications. Spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements were made by using a two-channel spectroscopic polarization modulator ellipsometer that measures N, S, and C data simultaneously. The data were fit to a model consisting of air / roughness / SiN / crystalline silicon. The roughness was modeled using the Bruggeman effective medium approximation, assuming 50% SiN, 50% voids. The optical functions of the SiN film were parameterized using a model by Jellison and Modine. All the {Chi}{sup 2} are near 1, demonstrating that this model works extremely well for all SiN films. The measured dielectric functions were used to make optimized SiN antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells.

  11. FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrophotometry for thin film monitors: Computer and equipment integration for enhanced capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, J.N.; Sedayao, J.; Shergill, G.; Villasol, R. ); Haaland, D.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) is a valuable technique for monitoring thin films used in semiconductor device manufacture. Determinations of the constituent contents in borophosphosilicate (BPSG), phosphosilicate (PSG), silicon oxynitride (SiON:H,OH), and spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films are a few applications. Due to the nature of the technique, FTIR instrumentation is one of the most extensively computer-dependent pieces of equipment that is likely to be found in a microelectronics plant. In the role of fab monitor or reactor characterization tool, FTIR instruments can rapidly generate large amounts of data. By linking a local FTIR data station to a remote minicomputer its capabilities are greatly improved. We discuss three caused of enhancement. First, the FTIR in the fab area communicates and interacts in real time with the minicomputer: transferring data segments to it, instructing it to perform sophisticated processing, and returning the result to the operator in the fab. Characterizations of PSG thin films by this approach are discussed. Second, the spectra of large numbers of samples are processed locally. The large database is then transmitted to the minicomputer for study by statistical/graphics software. Results of CVD-reactor spatial profiling experiments for plasma SiON are presented. Third, processing of calibration spectra is performed on the minicomputer to optimize the accuracy and precision of a Partial Least Squares'' analysis mode. This model is then transferred to the data station in the fab. The analysis of BPSG thin films is discussed in this regard. The prospects for fully automated at-line monitoring and for real-time, in-situ monitoring will be discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Robust topological surface state in Kondo insulator SmB{sub 6} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yong, Jie Jiang, Yeping; Zhang, Xiaohang; Greene, Richard L.; Usanmaz, Demet; Curtarolo, Stefano; Li, Linze; Pan, Xiaoqing; Shin, Jongmoon; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2014-12-01

    Fabrication of smooth thin films of topological insulators with true insulating bulk are extremely important for utilizing their novel properties in quantum and spintronic devices. Here, we report the growth of crystalline thin films of SmB{sub 6}, a topological Kondo insulator with true insulating bulk, by co-sputtering both SmB{sub 6} and B targets. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicate films that are polycrystalline with a (001) preferred orientation. When cooling down, resistivity ρ shows an increase around 50 K and saturation below 10 K, consistent with the opening of the hybridization gap and surface dominated transport, respectively. The ratio ρ{sub 2K}/ρ{sub 300K} is only about two, much smaller than that of bulk, which indicates a much larger surface-to-bulk ratio. Point contact spectroscopy using a superconductor tip on SmB{sub 6} films shows both a Kondo Fano resonance and Andeev reflection, indicating an insulating Kondo lattice with metallic surface states.

  13. Method for microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01

    A thin film is formed on a substrate positioned in a vacuum chamber by use of a gas jet apparatus affixed to a vacuum chamber port and having an outer nozzle with an interior cavity into which carrier gas is fed, an inner nozzle located within the outer nozzle interior cavity into which reactant gas is introduced, a tip of the inner nozzle being recessed from the vacuum chamber port within the outer nozzle interior cavity, and a microwave discharge device configured about the apparatus for generating a discharge in the carrier gas and reactant gas only in a portion of the outer nozzle interior cavity extending from approximately the inner nozzle tip towards the vacuum chamber. A supersonic free jet of carrier gas transports vapor species generated in the microwave discharge to the surface of the substrate to form a thin film on the substrate. The substrate can be translated from the supersonic jet to a second supersonic jet in less time than needed to complete film formation so that the film is chemically composed of chemical reaction products of vapor species in the jets.

  14. Method for microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18

    A thin film is formed on a substrate positioned in a vacuum chamber by use of a gas jet apparatus affixed to a vacuum chamber port and having an outer nozzle with an interior cavity into which carrier gas is fed, an inner nozzle located within the outer nozzle interior cavity into which reactant gas is introduced, a tip of the inner nozzle being recessed from the vacuum chamber port within the outer nozzle interior cavity, and a microwave discharge device configured about the apparatus for generating a discharge in the carrier gas and reactant gas only in a portion of the outer nozzle interior cavity extending from approximately the inner nozzle tip towards the vacuum chamber. A supersonic free jet of carrier gas transports vapor species generated in the microwave discharge to the surface of the substrate to form a thin film on the substrate. The substrate can be translated from the supersonic jet to a second supersonic jet in less time than needed to complete film formation so that the film is chemically composed of chemical reaction products of vapor species in the jets. 5 figs.

  15. Comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A. T.; Jia, Q. X.; Kwon, C.; Reagor, D. W.; Kaduchak, G.; Rasmussen, K. Oe.; Bishop, A. R.

    1999-12-27

    We have used a coplanar waveguide structure to study broadband electrodynamic properties of single-crystal and thin-film strontium titanate. We have incorporated both time- and frequency-domain measurements to determine small-signal effective refractive index and loss tangent as functions of frequency (up to 4 GHz), dc bias (up to 10{sup 6} V/m), and cryogenic temperature (17 and 60 K). The large-signal impulse response of the devices and the associated phenomenological nonlinear wave equation illustrate how dissipation and nonlinearity combine to produce the overall response in the large-signal regime. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

  16. Thin film reactions on alloy semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, D.A.

    1990-11-01

    The interactions between Pt and In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As have been studied. In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As substrates with 70nm Pt films were encapsulated in SiO{sub 2}, and annealed up to 600{degree}C in flowing forming gas. The composition and morphology of the reaction product phases were studied using x-ray diffraction, Auger depth profiling, and transmission electron microscopy. The reaction kinetics were examined with Rutherford Backscattering. Results show that Pt/In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As reacts to form many of the reaction products encountered in the Pt/GaAs and Pt/InP reactions: PtGa, Pt{sub 3}Ga, and PtAs{sub 2}. In addition, a ternary phase, Pt(In:Ga){sub 2}, develops, which is a solid solution between PtIn{sub 2} and PtGa{sub 2}. The amount of Ga in the ternary phase increases with annealing temperature, which causes a decrease in the lattice parameter of the phase. The reaction products show a tendency to form layered structures, especially for higher temperatures and longer annealing times. Unlike the binary case, the PtAs{sub 2}, phase is randomly oriented on the substrate, and is intermingle with a significant amount of Pt(In:Ga){sub 2}. Following Pt/In{sub .53}Ga{sub .47}As reactions, two orientation relationships between the Pt(In:Ga){sub 2} product phase and the substrate were observed, despite the large mismatch with the substrate ({approximately}8%). For many metal/compound semiconductor interactions, the reaction rate is diffusion limited, i.e. exhibits a parabolic dependence on time. An additional result of this study was the development of an In-rich layer beneath the reacted layer. The Auger depth profile showed a substantial increase in the sample at this layer. This is a significant result for the production of ohmic contacts, as the Schottky barrier height in this system lower for higher In concentrations. 216 refs.

  17. Zinc Oxide Thin Films Fabricated with Direct Current Magnetron Sputtering Deposition Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoon, Jian-Wei; Chan, Kah-Yoong; Krishnasamy, Jegenathan; Tou, Teck-Yong

    2011-03-30

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a very promising material for emerging large area electronic applications including thin-film sensors, transistors and solar cells. We fabricated ZnO thin films by employing direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering deposition technique. ZnO films with different thicknesses ranging from 100 nm to 1020 nm were deposited on silicon (Si) substrate. The deposition pressure was varied from 12 mTorr to 25 mTorr. The influences of the film thickness and the deposition pressure on structural properties of the ZnO films were investigated using Mahr surface profilometer and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experimental results reveal that the film thickness and the deposition pressure play significant role in the structural formation of the deposited ZnO thin films. ZnO films deposited on Si substrates are promising for variety of thin-film sensor applications.

  18. Improving thermostability of CrO{sub 2} thin films by doping with Sn

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Shuo; Shi, Jing; Yin, Di; Yuan, Cheng; Lu, Zhihong; Xiong, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Chromium dioxide (CrO{sub 2}) is an ideal material for spin electronic devices since it has almost 100% spin polarization near Fermi level. However, it is thermally unstable and easily decomposes to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} even at room temperature. In this study, we try to improve the thermal stability of CrO{sub 2} thin films by doping with Sn whose oxide has the same structure as CrO{sub 2}. High quality epitaxial CrO{sub 2} and Sn-doped CrO{sub 2} films were grown on single crystalline TiO{sub 2} (100) substrates by chemical vapor deposition. Sn{sup 4+} ions were believed to be doped into CrO{sub 2} lattice and take the lattice positions of Cr{sup 4+}. The magnetic measurements show that Sn-doping leads to a decrease of magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The thermal stabilities of the films were evaluated by annealing the films at different temperatures. Sn-doped films can withstand a temperature up to 510 °C, significantly higher than what undoped films can do (lower than 435 °C), which suggests that Sn-doping indeed enhances the thermal stability of CrO{sub 2} films. Our study also indicates that Sn-doping may not change the essential half metallic properties of CrO{sub 2}. Therefore, Sn-doped CrO{sub 2} is expected to be very promising for applications in spintronic devices.

  19. A simple solution to the problem of effective utilisation of the target material for pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzanyan, A S; Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Pilosyan, S Kh; Grasiuk, A Z

    2013-12-31

    The factors determining the efficiency of the target material utilisation for pulsed laser deposition of films are considered. The target volume is calculated, which is evaporated in the ablation process by the focused laser radiation having a rectangular form. The new device is suggested and developed for obtaining thin films by the method of laser deposition, which is specific in the employment of a simple optical system mounted outside a deposition chamber that comprises two lenses and the diaphragm and focuses the laser beam onto a target in the form of a sector-like spot. Thin films of CuO and YBaCuO were deposited with this device. Several deposition cycles revealed that the target material is consumed uniformly from the entire surface of the target. A maximal spread of the target thickness was not greater than ±2% both prior to deposition and after it. The device designed provides a high coefficient of the target material utilisation efficiency. (laser deposition of thin films)

  20. Structure disorder degree of polysilicon thin films grown by different processing: Constant C from Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Quan; Zhang, Yanmin; Hu, Ran; Ren, Naifei; Ge, Daohan

    2013-11-14

    Flat, low-stress, boron-doped polysilicon thin films were prepared on single crystalline silicon substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the polysilicon films with different deposition processing have different microstructure properties. The confinement effect, tensile stresses, defects, and the Fano effect all have a great influence on the line shape of Raman scattering peak. But the effect results are different. The microstructure and the surface layer are two important mechanisms dominating the internal stress in three types of polysilicon thin films. For low-stress polysilicon thin film, the tensile stresses are mainly due to the change of microstructure after thermal annealing. But the tensile stresses in flat polysilicon thin film are induced by the silicon carbide layer at surface. After the thin film doped with boron atoms, the phenomenon of the tensile stresses increasing can be explained by the change of microstructure and the increase in the content of silicon carbide. We also investigated the disorder degree states for three polysilicon thin films by analyzing a constant C. It was found that the disorder degree of low-stress polysilicon thin film larger than that of flat and boron-doped polysilicon thin films due to the phase transformation after annealing. After the flat polysilicon thin film doped with boron atoms, there is no obvious change in the disorder degree and the disorder degree in some regions even decreases.

  1. Lattice cluster theory for dense, thin polymer films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, Karl F.

    2015-04-07

    While the application of the lattice cluster theory (LCT) to study the miscibility of polymer blends has greatly expanded our understanding of the monomer scale molecular details influencing miscibility, the corresponding theory for inhomogeneous systems has not yet emerged because of considerable technical difficulties and much greater complexity. Here, we present a general formulation enabling the extension of the LCT to describe the thermodynamic properties of dense, thin polymer films using a high dimension, high temperature expansion. Whereas the leading order of the LCT for bulk polymer systems is essentially simple Flory-Huggins theory, the highly non-trivial leading order inhomogeneous LCT (ILCT) for a film with L layers already involves the numerical solution of 3(L − 1) coupled, highly nonlinear equations for the various density profiles in the film. The new theory incorporates the essential “transport” constraints of Helfand and focuses on the strict imposition of excluded volume constraints, appropriate to dense polymer systems, rather than the maintenance of chain connectivity as appropriate for lower densities and as implemented in self-consistent theories of polymer adsorption at interfaces. The ILCT is illustrated by presenting examples of the computed profiles of the density, the parallel and perpendicular bonds, and the chain ends for free standing and supported films as a function of average film density, chain length, temperature, interaction with support, and chain stiffness. The results generally agree with expected general trends.

  2. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  3. Methods for fabricating thin film III-V compound solar cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pan, Noren; Hillier, Glen; Vu, Duy Phach; Tatavarti, Rao; Youtsey, Christopher; McCallum, David; Martin, Genevieve

    2011-08-09

    The present invention utilizes epitaxial lift-off in which a sacrificial layer is included in the epitaxial growth between the substrate and a thin film III-V compound solar cell. To provide support for the thin film III-V compound solar cell in absence of the substrate, a backing layer is applied to a surface of the thin film III-V compound solar cell before it is separated from the substrate. To separate the thin film III-V compound solar cell from the substrate, the sacrificial layer is removed as part of the epitaxial lift-off. Once the substrate is separated from the thin film III-V compound solar cell, the substrate may then be reused in the formation of another thin film III-V compound solar cell.

  4. Ultrafast transient reflectance of epitaxial semiconducting perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolin, S. Y.; Guglietta, G. W.; Baxter, J. B. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu; Scafetta, M. D.; May, S. J. E-mail: smay@coe.drexel.edu

    2014-07-14

    Ultrafast pump-probe transient reflectance (TR) spectroscopy was used to study carrier dynamics in an epitaxial perovskite oxide thin film of LaFeO{sub 3} (LFO) with a thickness of 40 unit cells (16?nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} (LSAT). TR spectroscopy shows two negative transients in reflectance with local maxima at ?2.5?eV and ?3.5?eV which correspond to two optical transitions in LFO as determined by ellipsometry. The kinetics at these transients were best fit with an exponential decay model with fast (540 ps), medium (?200 ps), and slow (??3?ns) components that we attribute mainly to recombination of photoexcited carriers. Moreover, these reflectance transients did not completely decay within the observable time window, indicating that ?10% of photoexcited carriers exist for at least 3?ns. This work illustrates that TR spectroscopy can be performed on thin (<20?nm) epitaxial oxide films to provide a quantitative understanding of recombination lifetimes, which are important parameters for the potential utilization of perovskite films in photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

  5. Deployable telescope having a thin-film mirror and metering structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumel, Leslie J.; Martin, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-24

    A deployable thin-film mirror telescope comprises a base structure and a metering structure. The base structure houses a thin-film mirror, which can be rolled for stowage and unrolled for deployment. The metering structure is coupled to the base structure and can be folded for stowage and unfolded for deployment. In the deployed state, the unrolled thin-film mirror forms a primary minor for the telescope and the unfolded metering structure positions a secondary minor for the telescope.

  6. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1993-10-26

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

  7. Phase-Controlled Electrochemical Activity of Epitaxial Spinel Thin films as

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mg-Cathodes - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 7, 2015, Research Highlights Phase-Controlled Electrochemical Activity of Epitaxial Spinel Thin films as Mg-Cathodes Using epitaxial thin film methods, two polymorphs of MgMn2O4 (MMO) are stabilized in tetragonal (MMOT) and cubic (MMOC) phases. The MMOT thin film shows negligible activity with no structural changes, while MMOC (normally found at high temperature or high pressure) exhibits reversible Mg2+ activity with associated changes

  8. Structural Studies of Al:ZnO Powders and Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the ZnO lattice, and measure its effect on the crystallinity of thin films prepared by sol-gel techniques, with an aim to understand how these properties affect the film...

  9. Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Electrochromism vs. the Bugs:DevelopingWO3 Thin Film Windows toControl Photoactive Biological Systems. Abstract not provided. Authors: Small, Leo J ; Spoerke, Erik David ; ...

  10. Investigation of the optical properties of MoS{sub 2} thin films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ellipsometry Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) characterization of layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) thin films grown by vapor phase sulfurization is reported. By...

  11. Intermixing at the absorber-buffer layer interface in thin-film...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... DOPED MATERIALS; IMPURITIES; INTERFACES; LAYERS; PASSIVATION; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; RECOMBINATION; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS; TRAPS; ZINC SULFIDES Word Cloud More Like This Full ...

  12. Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 36 ... INDEX; SHRINKAGE; SIMULATION; SOLVENTS; TESTING; THICKNESS; THIN FILMS Word Cloud More ...

  13. Photoelectrochemical etching of epitaxial InGaN thin films: Self...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    lasers with linewidth less than 1 nm. In the initial stages of PEC etching, when the thin film is flat, characteristic voltammogram shapes are observed. At low...

  14. Thin-film lithium batteries highlighted at OSTI | OSTI, US Dept...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed just such a high-performance thin-film lithium battery for a variety of technological applications. ...

  15. High Efficiency CdTe and CIGS Thin Film Solar Cells: Highlights...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; EFFICIENCY; ENERGY CONVERSION; SOLAR CELLS; THIN FILMS ...

  16. Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Direct Thin Film Path to Low Cost, Large Area III-V Photovoltaics ...

  17. New Selection Metric for Design of Thin-Film Solar Cell Absorber...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Maximum Efficiency (SLME) is a new and calculable selection metric to identify new andor improved photovoltaic (PV) absorber candidate materials for thin- film solar cells. ...

  18. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  19. Nonlinear optical characterization of ZnS thin film synthesized by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G, Sreeja V; Anila, E. I. R, Reshmi John, Manu Punnan; V, Sabitha P; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2014-10-15

    ZnS thin film was prepared by Chemical Spray Pyrolysis (CSP) method. The sample was characterized by X-ray diffraction method and Z scan technique. XRD pattern showed that ZnS thin film has hexagonal structure with an average size of about 5.6nm. The nonlinear optical properties of ZnS thin film was studied by open aperture Z-Scan technique using Q-switched Nd-Yag Laser at 532nm. The Z-scan plot showed that the investigated ZnS thin film has saturable absorption behavior. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity were also estimated.

  20. Underpotential deposition-mediated layer-by-layer growth of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jia Xu; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-05-19

    A method of depositing contiguous, conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin films with atomic-level control is described. The process involves the use of underpotential deposition of a first element to mediate the growth of a second material by overpotential deposition. Deposition occurs between a potential positive to the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element where a full monolayer of mediating element forms, and a potential which is less than, or only slightly greater than, the bulk deposition potential of the material to be deposited. By cycling the applied voltage between the bulk deposition potential for the mediating element and the material to be deposited, repeated desorption/adsorption of the mediating element during each potential cycle can be used to precisely control film growth on a layer-by-layer basis. This process is especially suitable for the formation of a catalytically active layer on core-shell particles for use in energy conversion devices such as fuel cells.

  1. Studies on nickel-tungsten oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usha, K. S.; Sivakumar, R.; Sanjeeviraja, C.

    2014-10-15

    Nickel-Tungsten oxide (95:5) thin films were prepared by rf sputtering at 200W rf power with various substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction study reveals the amorphous nature of films. The substrate temperature induced decrease in energy band gap with a maximum transmittance of 71%1 was observed. The Micro-Raman study shows broad peaks at 560 cm{sup −1} and 1100 cm{sup −1} correspond to Ni-O vibration and the peak at 860 cm{sup −1} can be assigned to the vibration of W-O-W bond. Photoluminescence spectra show two peaks centered on 420 nm and 485 nm corresponding to the band edge emission and vacancies created due to the addition of tungsten, respectively.

  2. Comparative studies of optical and elastic properties of ZrO{sub 2} thin films prepared under normal and oblique incidence deposition geometries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarkar, P. Tokas, R. B. Jena, S. Thakur, S. Sahoo, N. K.

    2014-04-24

    Oblique angle deposited optical thin films have attracted recent researcher’s interest because of their attractive optical, micro-structural, mechanical properties and more importantly because of their great potential in achieving tunability in refractive index. These properties in turn make it important in case of designing different optical devices. In the present work, ZrO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited on fused silica substrate by electron beam evaporation technique in normal as well as oblique angle deposition configurations. Optical properties, especially refractive index of the films have been estimated by fitting the measured transmission spectra with suitable theoretical dispersion models. Atomic force microscopy has been employed to characterize morphological properties of samples. The elastic properties of both the films are estimated by Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy, a new and highly sensitive technique for thin films.

  3. Preparation of thin ceramic films via an aqueous solution route

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1989-01-01

    A new chemical method of forming thin ceramic films has been developed. An aqueous solution of metal nitrates or other soluble metal salts and a low molecular weight amino acid is coated onto a substrate and pyrolyzed. The amino acid serves to prevent precipitation of individual solution components, forming a very viscous, glass-like material as excess water is evaporated. Using metal nitrates and glycine, the method has been demonstrated for zirconia with various levels of yttria stabilization, for lanthanum-strontium chromites, and for yttrium-barium-copper oxide superconductors on various substrates.

  4. Thin film superconductors and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1988-01-21

    A process for the preparation of oxide superconductors from high-viscosity non-aqueous solution is described. Solutions of lanthanide nitrates, alkaline earth nitrates and copper nitrates in a 1:2:3 stoichiometric ratio, when added to ethylene glycol containing citric acid solutions, have been used to prepare highly viscous non-aqueous solutions of metal mixed nitrates-citrates. Thin films of these compositions are produced when a layer of the viscous solution is formed on a substrate and subjected to thermal decomposition.

  5. Thin film solar cell including a spatially modulated intrinsic layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi-Chung; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1989-03-28

    One or more thin film solar cells in which the intrinsic layer of substantially amorphous semiconductor alloy material thereof includes at least a first band gap portion and a narrower band gap portion. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is spatially graded through a portion of the bulk thickness, said graded portion including a region removed from the intrinsic layer-dopant layer interfaces. The band gap of the intrinsic layer is always less than the band gap of the doped layers. The gradation of the intrinsic layer is effected such that the open circuit voltage and/or the fill factor of the one or plural solar cell structure is enhanced.

  6. Techniques for producing free-standing thin films on frames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, J.H.; McNamara, W.F.

    1993-09-01

    The procedures of vapor-deposition polymerization, spin coating and orientation-dependent etching have been employed to make free-standing thin films of Parylene-N, Parylene-D, polystyrene, polycarbonate and perfluoro-dimethyl-dioxole/tetrafluoroethylene copolymer (Teflon{reg_sign} AF-1600). The polymeric materials were vapor-deposited or spin-coated onto substrates of polished single-crystal silicon (wafers) and removed on frames of various shapes and sizes after application of adhesive and an etching process using potassium hydroxide. Thicknesses range from 2000{Angstrom} to 12000{Angstrom}.

  7. Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

  8. Apparatus and method for the determination of grain size in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J

    2000-01-01

    A method for the determination of grain size in a thin film sample comprising the steps of measuring first and second changes in the optical response of the thin film, comparing the first and second changes to find the attenuation of a propagating disturbance in the film and associating the attenuation of the disturbance to the grain size of the film. The second change in optical response is time delayed from the first change in optical response.

  9. Chemical stability of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films with a thin Ta capping layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao Haibao; Wang Hao; Liu Xiaoqi; Wang Jianping; Zhang Tao

    2011-04-01

    With the highest magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant (Ku) among practical magnetic materials, SmCo{sub 5} could be a very attractive candidate for future high areal density magnetic recording. However, its corrosion resistance is always a concern in recording media applications. In this paper, the chemical stability and microstructures of highly (0001) textured Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films with and without a 3 nm Ta capping layer were reported. For Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films without a capping layer, the coercivity decreases significantly (from 8kOe to 1kOe) within one month. Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films capped with a thin Ta layer (3 nm) behave differently. Even exposed to a laboratory environment (25 deg. C) over 3 years, the Ta-capped Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films are stable in terms of structural and magnetic properties, i.e., there were no changes in X-ray diffraction peaks and vibrating sample magnetometer hysteresis loops. Microstructure of Ta-capped Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films showed that Sm(CoCu){sub 5} formed a domelike particle assembly structure on a smooth Ru underlayer and were well covered by partially oxidized Ta capping layer, as shown by TEM cross-section micrographs. Accelerated corrosion treatment (130 deg. C, 95% relative humidity, 6 h) was performed on Ta-capped Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that no Co was detected on the sample surface before the corrosion treatment, but strong XPS signals of CoOx and Co(OH)x were observed after treatment. Therefore, none of our Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films can pass the accelerated corrosion test. Hcp-phased CoPt-alloys are proposed as better capping materials for Sm(CoCu){sub 5} thin films in future high-density magnetic recording applications.

  10. Silicon-integrated thin-film structure for electro-optic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick Joseph

    2000-01-01

    A crystalline thin-film structure suited for use in any of an number of electro-optic applications, such as a phase modulator or a component of an interferometer, includes a semiconductor substrate of silicon and a ferroelectric, optically-clear thin film of the perovskite BaTiO.sub.3 overlying the surface of the silicon substrate. The BaTiO.sub.3 thin film is characterized in that substantially all of the dipole moments associated with the ferroelectric film are arranged substantially parallel to the surface of the substrate to enhance the electro-optic qualities of the film.

  11. Efficient combining of ion pumps and getter-palladium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paolini, C.; Mura, M.; Ravelli, F.

    2008-07-15

    Nonevaporable getters (NEGs) have been extensively studied in the last several years for their sorption properties toward many gases. In particular, an innovative alloy as a thin film by magnetron sputtering was developed and characterized at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. It is composed of Ti-Zr-V and protected by an overlayer of palladium (Pd), according to a technology for which the authors got the licence. NEG-Pd thin films used in combination with ion getter pumps is a simple, easy way to handle pumping devices for ultrahigh and extremely high vacuum applications. To show how to apply this coating technology to the internal surface of different types of ion pumps, the authors carried out several tests on pumps of various shapes, sizes (in terms of nominal pumping speed), and types (diode, noble diode, and triode). Special care was taken during the thermal cycle of baking and activation of the pumps to preserve the internal film from sources of contamination and/or from the sputtering of the titanium cathodes of the pump. Some important remarks will be made about the most appropriate conditions of pressure and temperature. The performance of the NEG-Pd-coated ion pumps was evaluated in terms of ultimate pressure and hydrogen pumping speed. The contribution of the thin film is particularly relevant for the pumping of this gas, due to its high sticking factor on palladium and the great sorption capacity of the underlying getter. Finally, the possibility of further improvement by substituting palladium with other Pd-based alloys will also be evaluated.

  12. Hydrogen adsorption in thin films of Prussian blue analogue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ding, Vivian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Luo, Junhua [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Currier, Robert P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Obrey, Steve [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zhao, Yusheng [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) measurement was used to investigate the kinetics of the molecular hydrogen adsorption into thin films of prussian blue analogues - Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} at ambient conditions. Although the equilibrium adsorption seems to be independent of the thickness, the adsorption rate substantially decreases with the thickness of the films. In addition, the reversibility of H{sub 2} adsorption into the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} films was investigated. The results indicate that the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} maily interacts with H{sub 2} molecules physically. The highest H{sub 2} uptake by the Cu{sub 3}[Co(CN){sub 6}]{sub 2} films is obtained when the gas phase is stagnant inside the testing cell. However, the unusual high H{sub 2} uptake obtained from the QCM-D measurement makes us question how reliable this analytic methodology is.

  13. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  14. Impact of magnetron configuration on plasma and film properties of sputtered aluminum nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duquenne, C.; Tessier, P. Y.; Besland, M. P.; Angleraud, B.; Jouan, P. Y.; Djouadi, M. A.; Aubry, R.; Delage, S.

    2008-09-15

    We have investigated the growth of the c-axis oriented aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films on (100) silicon by reactive dc magnetron sputtering at low temperature, considering the effect of the magnet configuration on plasma and film properties. It appears that a magnet modification can significantly modify both the plasma characteristics and the film properties. Electrical and optical characterizations of the plasma phase highlight that depending on the magnet configuration, two very different types of deposition process can be involved in the same deposition chamber. On the one hand, with a balanced magnetron (type 1), the deposition process enhances the production of AlN dimers in the plasma phase and enables to synthesize AlN films with different preferential orientations (100, 002, and even 101). On the other hand, a strongly unbalanced magnetron (type 2) provides a limited production of AlN species in the plasma phase and a strong increase in the ratio of ions to metal atom flux on the growing films. In the latter case, the ion energy provided by the ion flux to the growing film is typically in the 20-30 eV range. Thus, dense (002) oriented films with high crystalline quality are obtained without any substrate heating.

  15. Method for producing silicon thin-film transistors with enhanced forward current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1998-01-01

    A method for fabricating amorphous silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) with a polycrystalline silicon surface channel region for enhanced forward current drive. The method is particularly adapted for producing top-gate silicon TFTs which have the advantages of both amorphous and polycrystalline silicon TFTs, but without problem of leakage current of polycrystalline silicon TFTs. This is accomplished by selectively crystallizing a selected region of the amorphous silicon, using a pulsed excimer laser, to create a thin polycrystalline silicon layer at the silicon/gate-insulator surface. The thus created polysilicon layer has an increased mobility compared to the amorphous silicon during forward device operation so that increased drive currents are achieved. In reverse operation the polysilicon layer is relatively thin compared to the amorphous silicon, so that the transistor exhibits the low leakage currents inherent to amorphous silicon. A device made by this method can be used, for example, as a pixel switch in an active-matrix liquid crystal display to improve display refresh rates.

  16. Method for producing silicon thin-film transistors with enhanced forward current drive

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiner, K.H.

    1998-06-30

    A method is disclosed for fabricating amorphous silicon thin film transistors (TFTs) with a polycrystalline silicon surface channel region for enhanced forward current drive. The method is particularly adapted for producing top-gate silicon TFTs which have the advantages of both amorphous and polycrystalline silicon TFTs, but without problem of leakage current of polycrystalline silicon TFTs. This is accomplished by selectively crystallizing a selected region of the amorphous silicon, using a pulsed excimer laser, to create a thin polycrystalline silicon layer at the silicon/gate-insulator surface. The thus created polysilicon layer has an increased mobility compared to the amorphous silicon during forward device operation so that increased drive currents are achieved. In reverse operation the polysilicon layer is relatively thin compared to the amorphous silicon, so that the transistor exhibits the low leakage currents inherent to amorphous silicon. A device made by this method can be used, for example, as a pixel switch in an active-matrix liquid crystal display to improve display refresh rates. 1 fig.

  17. Optimization of synthesis protocols to control the nanostructure and the morphology of metal oxide thin films for memristive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldi, G. Bosi, M.; Attolini, G.; Berzina, T.; Mosca, R.; Ponraj, J. S.; Iannotta, S.

    2015-03-10

    We propose a multi-technique approach based on in-vacuum synthesis of metal oxides to optimize the memristive properties of devices that use a metal oxide thin film as insulating layer. Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS) is based on supersonic beams seeded by clusters of the metal oxide. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films can be grown at room temperature, controlling the oxide stoichiometry from titanium metal up to a significant oxygen excess. Pulsed Electron beam Deposition (PED) is suitable to grow crystalline thin films on large areas, a step towards producing device arrays with controlled morphology and stoichiometry. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful technique to grow materials layer-by-layer, finely controlling the chemical and structural properties of the film up to thickness of 50-80 nm. We will present a few examples of metal-insulator-metal structures showing a pinched hysteresis loop in their current-voltage characteristic. The structure, stoichiometry and morphology of the metal oxide layer, either aluminum oxide or titanium dioxide, is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Raman scattering.

  18. Charge-carrier dynamics in polycrystalline thin-film CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} photovoltaic devices after pulsed laser excitation: Interface and space-charge region analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuciauskas, Darius; Li, Jian V.; Kanevce, Ana; Guthrey, Harvey; Contreras, Miguel; Pankow, Joel; Dippo, Pat; Ramanathan, Kannan

    2015-05-14

    We used time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy to analyze time-domain and spectral-domain charge-carrier dynamics in CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) devices. This new approach allowed detailed characterization for the CIGS/CdS buffer interface and for the space-charge region. We find that dynamics at the interface is dominated by diffusion, where the diffusion rate is several times greater than the thermionic emission or interface recombination rate. In the space-charge region, the electric field of the pn junction has the largest effect on the carrier dynamics. Based on the minority-carrier (electron) drift-rate dependence on the electric field strength, we estimated drift mobility in compensated CuIn{sub 1−x}Ga{sub x}Se{sub 2} (with x ≈ 0.3) as 22 ± 2 cm{sup 2}(Vs){sup −1}. Analysis developed in this study could be applied to evaluate interface and junction properties of PV and other electronic devices. For CIGS PV devices, TRPL spectroscopy could contribute to understanding effects due to absorber compositional grading, which is one of the focus areas in developing record-efficiency CIGS solar cells.

  19. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  20. Soldering of Thin Film-Metallized Glass Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosking, F.M.; Hernandez, C.L.; Glass, S.J.

    1999-03-31

    The ability to produce reliable electrical and structural interconnections between glass and metals by soldering was investigated. Soldering generally requires premetallization of the glass. As a solderable surface finish over soda-lime-silicate glass, two thin films coatings, Cr-Pd-Au and NiCr-Sn, were evaluated. Solder nettability and joint strengths were determined. Test samples were processed with Sn60-Pb40 solder alloy at a reflow temperature of 210 C. Glass-to-cold rolled steel single lap samples yielded an average shear strength of 12 MPa. Solder fill was good. Control of the Au thickness was critical in minimizing the formation of AuSn{sub 4} intermetallic in the joint, with a resulting joint shear strength of 15 MPa. Similar glass-to-glass specimens with the Cr-Pd-Au finish failed at 16.5 MPa. The NiCr-Sn thin film gave even higher shear strengths of 20-22.5 MPa, with failures primarily in the glass.

  1. Novel thin-film CuInSe sub 2 fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mooney, G.D.; Hermann, A.M. )

    1992-03-01

    This report describes research in Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP), a process that allows the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} without the use of H{sub 2}Se. RTP is a well-established method of rapidly achieving temperatures necessary to melt and recrystallize materials such as Si and and silicides. RTP processes can rapidly and uniformly heat large surface areas to hundreds of degrees Celsius. RTP is the most promising method of rapid recrystallization studied to date, being readily scalable from the research to the production level. The approach to the experiment was divided into two sections: (1) fabricating the precursor film and (2) processing the precursor film. The objective of the first phase of the work was to fabricate the thin films by RTP, then fully characterize them, to demonstrate the viability of the process as a method by which to make device-quality CuInSe{sub 2}. The second phase was to demonstrate that material made by this method could be used to make an active photovoltaic device. 24 refs.

  2. Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K.; Yu, Hyun Yong

    2015-01-01

    ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?C. I{sub D}V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

  3. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld

    2013-12-02

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  4. Direct Evidence for Abrupt Postcrystallization Germanium Precipitation in Thin Phase-Change Films of Sb-15 at. % Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral,C.; Krusin-Elbaum, L.; Bruley, J.; Raoux, S.; Deline, V.; Madan, A.; Pinto, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present evidence for the instability in the crystalline (metallic) state of binary Te-free phase-change Ge-Sb thin films considered for integration into nonvolatile nanosized memory cells. We find that while the amorphous (semiconducting) phase of eutectic Sb-15 at. % Ge is very robust until Sb crystallization at 240 C, at about 350 C, germanium rapidly precipitates out. Ge precipitation, visualized directly with transmission electron microscopy, is exothermic and is found to affect the films' reflectivity, resistance, and stress. It converts melting into a two-step process, which may seriously impact the switching reliability of a device.

  5. Method of lift-off patterning thin films in situ employing phase change resists

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bahlke, Matthias Erhard; Baldo, Marc A; Mendoza, Hiroshi Antonio

    2014-09-23

    Method for making a patterned thin film of an organic semiconductor. The method includes condensing a resist gas into a solid film onto a substrate cooled to a temperature below the condensation point of the resist gas. The condensed solid film is heated selectively with a patterned stamp to cause local direct sublimation from solid to vapor of selected portions of the solid film thereby creating a patterned resist film. An organic semiconductor film is coated on the patterned resist film and the patterned resist film is heated to cause it to sublime away and to lift off because of the phase change.

  6. Dissociation of dilute immiscible copper alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barmak, K.; Lucadamo, G. A.; Cabral, C. Jr.; Lavoie, C.; Harper, J. M. E.

    2000-03-01

    The dissociation behavior of dilute, immiscible Cu-alloy thin films is found to fall into three broad categories that correlate most closely with the form of the Cu-rich end of the binary alloy phase diagrams. Available thermodynamic and tracer diffusion data shed further light on alloy behavior. Eight alloying elements were selected for these studies, with five elements from groups 5 and 6, two from group 8, and one from group 11 of the periodic table. They are respectively V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ru, and Ag. The progress of precipitation in approximately 500-nm-thick alloy films, containing 2.5-3.8 at. % solute, was followed with in situ resistance and stress measurements as well as with in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction. In addition, texture analysis and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate the evolution of microstructure and texture of Cu(Ta) and Cu(Ag). For all eight alloys, dissociation occurred upon heating, with the rejection of solute and evolution of microstructure often occurring in multiple steps that range over several hundred degrees between approximately 100 and 900 degree sign C. However, in most cases, substantial reductions in resistivity of the films took place below 400 degree sign C, at temperatures of interest to copper metallization schemes for silicon chip technology. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O'Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  8. Heteroepitaxial growth of Pt and Au thin films on MgO single crystals by bias-assisted sputtering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tolstova, Yulia; Omelchenko, Stefan T.; Shing, Amanda M.; Atwater, Harry A.

    2016-03-17

    The crystallographic orientation of a metal affects its surface energy and structure, and has profound implications for surface chemical reactions and interface engineering, which are important in areas ranging from optoelectronic device fabrication to catalysis. However, it can be very difficult and expensive to manufacture, orient, and cut single crystal metals along different crystallographic orientations, especially in the case of precious metals. One approach is to grow thin metal films epitaxially on dielectric substrates. In this work, we report on growth of Pt and Au films on MgO single crystal substrates of (100) and (110) surface orientation for use asmore » epitaxial templates for thin film photovoltaic devices. We develop bias-assisted sputtering for deposition of oriented Pt and Au films with sub-nanometer roughness. We show that biasing the substrate decreases the substrate temperature necessary to achieve epitaxial orientation, with temperature reduction from 600 to 350 °C for Au, and from 750 to 550 °C for Pt, without use of transition metal seed layers. Additionally, this temperature can be further reduced by reducing the growth rate. Biased deposition with varying substrate bias power and working pressure also enables control of the film morphology and surface roughness.« less

  9. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  10. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred; Hoard, Ronald W.

    1994-01-01

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  11. Stranski-Krastanow islanding initiated on the stochastic rough surfaces of the epitaxially strained thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarik Ogurtani, Omer; Celik, Aytac; Emre Oren, Ersin

    2014-06-14

    Quantum dots (QD) have discrete energy spectrum, which can be adjusted over a wide range by tuning composition, density, size, lattice strain, and morphology. These features make quantum dots attractive for the design and fabrication of novel electronic, magnetic and photonic devices and other functional materials used in cutting-edge applications. The formation of QD on epitaxially strained thin film surfaces, known as Stranski-Krastanow (SK) islands, has attracted great attention due to their unique electronic properties. Here, we present a systematic dynamical simulation study for the spontaneous evolution of the SK islands on the stochastically rough surfaces (nucleationless growth). During the development of SK islands through the mass accumulation at randomly selected regions of the film via surface drift-diffusion (induced by the capillary and mismatch stresses) with and/or without growth, one also observes the formation of an extremely thin wetting layer having a thickness of a few Angstroms. Above a certain threshold level of the mismatch strain and/or the size of the patch, the formation of multiple islands separated by shallow wetting layers is also observed as metastable states such as doublets even multiplets. These islands are converted into a distinct SK islands after long annealing times by coalescence through the long range surface diffusion. Extensive computer simulation studies demonstrated that after an initial transient regime, there is a strong quadratic relationship between the height of the SK singlet and the intensity of the lattice mismatch strain (in a wide range of stresses up to 8.5?GPa for germanium thin crystalline films), with the exception at those critical points where the morphological (shape change with necking) transition takes place.

  12. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  13. Investigation of blister formation in sputtered Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} absorbers for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bras, Patrice; Sterner, Jan; Platzer-Björkman, Charlotte

    2015-11-15

    Blister formation in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films sputtered from a quaternary compound target is investigated. While the thin film structure, composition, and substrate material are not correlated to the blister formation, a strong link between sputtering gas entrapment, in this case argon, and blistering effect is found. It is shown that argon is trapped in the film during sputtering and migrates to locally form blisters during the high temperature annealing. Blister formation in CZTS absorbers is detrimental for thin film solar cell fabrication causing partial peeling of the absorber layer and potential shunt paths in the complete device. Reduced sputtering gas entrapment, and blister formation, is seen for higher sputtering pressure, higher substrate temperature, and change of sputtering gas to larger atoms. This is all in accordance with previous publications on blister formation caused by sputtering gas entrapment in other materials.

  14. Near-ambient pressure XPS of high-temperature surface chemistry in Sr2Co2O5 thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hong, Wesley T.; Stoerzinger, Kelsey; Crumlin, Ethan J.; Mutoro, Eva; Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Lee, Ho Nyung; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-02-11

    Transition metal perovskite oxides are promising electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells, but a lack of fundamental understanding of oxide surfaces impedes the rational design of novel catalysts with improved device efficiencies. In particular, understanding the surface chemistry of oxides is essential for controlling both catalytic activity and long-term stability. Thus, elucidating the physical nature of species on perovskite surfaces and their catalytic enhancement would generate new insights in developing oxide electrocatalysts. In this article, we perform near-ambient pressure XPS of model brownmillerite Sr2Co2O5 (SCO) epitaxial thin films with different crystallographic orientations. Detailed analysis of themore » Co 2p spectra suggests that the films lose oxygen as a function of temperature. Moreover, deconvolution of the O 1s spectra shows distinct behavior for (114)-oriented SCO films compared to (001)-oriented SCO films, where an additional bulk oxygen species is observed. These findings indicate a change to a perovskite-like oxygen chemistry that occurs more easily in (114) SCO than (001) SCO, likely due to the orientation of oxygen vacancy channels out-of-plane with respect to the film surface. This difference in surface chemistry is responsible for the anisotropy of the oxygen surface exchange coefficient of SCO and may contribute to the enhanced ORR kinetics of La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ thin films by SCO surface particles observed previously.« less

  15. Fabrication of ionic liquid electrodeposited Cu--Sn--Zn--S--Se thin films and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu Nath

    2016-01-12

    A semiconductor thin-film and method for producing a semiconductor thin-films comprising a metallic salt, an ionic compound in a non-aqueous solution mixed with a solvent and processing the stacked layer in chalcogen that results in a CZTS/CZTSS thin films that may be deposited on a substrate is disclosed.

  16. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, Archie H.; Carapella, Jeffrey C.; Gallagher, Alan C.

    1995-01-01

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH.sub.4) over a high temperature, 2000.degree. C., tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400.degree. C., substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20-30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content.

  17. Deposition of device quality low H content, amorphous silicon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahan, A.H.; Carapella, J.C.; Gallagher, A.C.

    1995-03-14

    A high quality, low hydrogen content, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) film is deposited by passing a stream of silane gas (SiH{sub 4}) over a high temperature, 2,000 C, tungsten (W) filament in the proximity of a high temperature, 400 C, substrate within a low pressure, 8 mTorr, deposition chamber. The silane gas is decomposed into atomic hydrogen and silicon, which in turn collides preferably not more than 20--30 times before being deposited on the hot substrate. The hydrogenated amorphous silicon films thus produced have only about one atomic percent hydrogen, yet have device quality electrical, chemical, and structural properties, despite this lowered hydrogen content. 7 figs.

  18. The electron beam hole drilling of silicon nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howitt, D. G.; Chen, S. J.; Gierhart, B. C.; Smith, R. L.; Collins, S. D.

    2008-01-15

    The mechanism by which an intense electron beam can produce holes in thin films of silicon nitride has been investigated using a combination of in situ electron energy loss spectrometry and electron microscopy imaging. A brief review of electron beam interactions that lead to material loss in different materials is also presented. The loss of nitrogen and silicon decreases with decreasing beam energy and although still observable at a beam energy of 150 keV ceases completely at 120 keV. The linear behavior of the loss rate coupled with the energy dependency indicates that the process is primarily one of direct displacement, involving the sputtering of atoms from the back surface of the specimen with the rate controlling mechanism being the loss of nitrogen.

  19. Origin of superstructures in (double) perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabadi, V. Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Vafaee, M.; Radetinac, A.; Baghaie Yazdi, M.; Donner, W.; Alff, L.

    2014-09-21

    We have investigated the origin of superstructure peaks as observed by X-ray diffraction of multiferroic Bi(Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The photon energy dependence of the contrast between the atomic scattering factors of Fe and Cr is used to rule out a chemically ordered double perovskite Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6} (BFCO). Structural calculations suggest that the experimentally observed superstructure occurs due to unequal cation displacements along the pseudo-cubic [111] direction that mimic the unit cell of the chemically ordered compound. This result helps to clarify discrepancies in the correlations of structural and magnetic order reported for Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6}. The observation of a superstructure in itself is not a sufficient proof of chemical order in double perovskites.

  20. Ultra-high current density thin-film Si diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang; Qi

    2008-04-22

    A combination of a thin-film .mu.c-Si and a-Si:H containing diode structure characterized by an ultra-high current density that exceeds 1000 A/cm.sup.2, comprising: a substrate; a bottom metal layer disposed on the substrate; an n-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited the bottom metal layer; an i-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the n-layer; a buffer layer of a-Si:H deposited on the i-layer, a p-layer of .mu.c-Si deposited on the buffer layer; and a top metal layer deposited on the p-layer.

  1. Method for making thick and/or thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Glass, Robert S.

    2004-11-02

    A method to make thick or thin films a very low cost. The method is generally similar to the conventional tape casting techniques while being more flexible and versatile. The invention involves preparing a slip (solution) of desired material and including solvents such as ethanol and an appropriate dispersant to prevent agglomeration. The slip is then sprayed on a substrate to be coated using an atomizer which spreads the slip in a fine mist. Upon hitting the substrate, the solvent evaporates, leaving a green tape containing the powder and other additives, whereafter the tape may be punctured, cut, and heated for the desired application. The tape thickness can vary from about 1 .mu.m upward.

  2. Surfaces and thin films studied by picosecond ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maris, J.H.; Tauc, J.

    1992-05-01

    This research is the study of thin films and interfaces via the use of the picosecond ultrasonic technique. In these experiments ultrasonic waves are excited in a structure by means of a picosecond light pulse ( pump pulse''). The propagation of these waves is detected through the use of a probe light pulse that is time-delayed relative to the pump. This probe pulse measures the change {Delta}R(t) in the optical reflectivity of the structure that occurs because the ultrasonic wave changes the optical properties of the structure. This technique make possible the study of the attenuation and velocity of ultrasonic waves up to much higher frequencies than was previously possible (up to least 500 GHz). In addition, the excellent time-resolution of the method makes it possible to study nanostructures of linear dimensions down to 100 {Angstrom} or less by ultrasonic pulse-echo techniques. 25 refs.

  3. Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kogan, V G; Mints, R G

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I-c(H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I-c(H) has zero at H = 0 instead of the traditional maximum of '0-type' junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction-vortex separation exceeds similar to W, the strip width, I-c(H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrodeposition of Zn based nanostructure thin films for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Bathi, S. A. M.

    2015-03-30

    We present here a systematic study on the synthesis thin films of various ZnO, CdO, Zn{sub x}Cd{sub 1-x} (O) and ZnTe nanostructures by electrodeposition technique with ZnCl{sub 2,} CdCl{sub 2} and ZnSO{sub 4} solution as starting reactant. Several reaction parameters were examined to develop an optimal procedure for controlling the size, shape, and surface morphology of the nanostructure. The results showed that the morphology of the products can be carefully controlled through adjusting the concentration of the electrolyte. The products present well shaped Nanorods arrays at specific concentration and temperature. UV-VIS spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction results show that the product presents good crystallinity. A possible formation process has been proposed.

  5. Optical limiting effects in nanostructured silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borshch, A A; Starkov, V N; Volkov, V I; Rudenko, V I; Boyarchuk, A Yu; Semenov, A V

    2013-12-31

    We present the results of experiments on the interaction of nanosecond laser radiation at 532 and 1064 nm with nanostructured silicon carbide thin films of different polytypes. We have found the effect of optical intensity limiting at both wavelengths. The intensity of optical limiting at ? = 532 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 6} W cm{sup -2}) is shown to be an order of magnitude less than that at ? = 1064 nm (I{sub cl} ? 10{sup 7} W cm{sup -2}). We discuss the nature of the nonlinearity, leading to the optical limiting effect. We have proposed a method for determining the amount of linear and two-photon absorption in material media. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  6. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apreutesei, Mihai; Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco; Borges, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  7. Recovery Act : Near-Single-Crystalline Photovoltaic Thin Films on Polycrystalline, Flexible Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Selvamanickam; Alex Freundlich

    2010-11-29

    III-V photovoltaics have exhibited efficiencies above 40%, but have found only a limited use because of the high cost of single crystal substrates. At the other end of the spectrum, polycrystalline and amorphous thin film solar cells offer the advantage of low-cost fabrication, but have not yielded high efficiencies. Our program is based on single-crystalline-like thin film photovoltaics on polycrystalline substrates using biaxially-textured templates made by Ion Beam-Assisted Deposition (IBAD). MgO templates made by IBAD on flexible metal substrate have been successfully used for epitaxial growth of germanium films. In spite of a 4.5% lattice mismatch, heteroepitaxial growth of Ge was achieved on CeO2 that was grown on IBAD MgO template. Room temperature optical bandgap of the Ge films was identified at 0.67 eV indicating minimal residual strain. Refraction index and extinction coefficient values of the Ge films were found to match well with that measured from a reference Ge single crystal. GaAs has been successfully grown epitaxially on Ge on metal substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. RHEED patterns indicate self annihilation of antiphase boundaries and the growth of a single domain GaAs. The GaAs is found to exhibit strong photoluminescence signal and, an existence of a relatively narrow (FWHM~20 meV) band-edge excitons measured in this film indicates a good optoelectronic quality of deposited GaAs. While excellent epitaxial growth has been achieved in GaAs on flexible metal substrates, the defect density of the films as measured by High Resolution X-ray Diffraction and etch pit experiments showed a high value of 5 * 10^8 per cm^2. Cross sectional transmission electron microscopy of the multilayer architecture showed concentration of threading dislocations near the germanium-ceria interface. The defect density was found decrease as the Ge films were made thicker. The defects appear to originate from the MgO layer presumably because of large lattice mismatches

  8. Effects of ruthenium seed layer on the microstructure and spin dynamics of thin permalloy films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin Lichuan; Zhang Huaiwu; Tang Xiaoli; Bai Feiming; Zhong Zhiyong

    2013-02-07

    The spin dynamics and microstructure properties of a sputtered 12 nm Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} thin film have been enhanced by the use of a ruthenium seed layer. Both the ferromagnetic resonance field and linewidth are enhanced dramatically as the thickness of ruthenium seed layer is increased. The surface anisotropy energy constant can also be largely tailored from 0.06 to 0.96 erg/cm{sup -2} by changing the seed layer thickness. The changes to the dynamics magnetization properties are caused by both ruthenium seed layer induced changes in the Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} structure properties and surface topography properties. Roughness induced inhomogeneous linewidth broadening is also seen. The damping constant is highly tunable via the ruthenium thickness. This approach can be used to tailor both the structure and spin dynamic properties of thin Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} films over a wide range. And it may benefit the applications of spin dynamics and spin current based devices.

  9. 2012 THIN FILM AND SMALL SCALE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR GRS/GRC, JULY 21-27, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balk, Thomas

    2012-07-27

    The mechanical behavior of materials with small dimension(s) is of both fundamental scientific interest and technological relevance. The size effects and novel properties that arise from changes in deformation mechanism have important implications for modern technologies such as thin films for microelectronics and MEMS devices, thermal and tribological coatings, materials for energy production and advanced batteries, etc. The overarching goal of the 2012 Gordon Research Conference on "Thin Film and Small Scale Mechanical Behavior" is to discuss recent studies and future opportunities regarding elastic, plastic and time-dependent deformation, as well as degradation and failure mechanisms such as fatigue, fracture and wear. Specific topics of interest include, but are not limited to: fundamental studies of physical mechanisms governing small-scale mechanical behavior; advances in test techniques for materials at small length scales, such as nanotribology and high-temperature nanoindentation; in-situ mechanical testing and characterization; nanomechanics of battery materials, such as swelling-induced phenomena and chemomechanical behavior; flexible electronics; mechanical properties of graphene and carbon-based materials; mechanical behavior of small-scale biological structures and biomimetic materials. Both experimental and computational work will be included in the oral and poster presentations at this Conference.

  10. Progress in High-Performance PV: Polycrystalline Thin-Film Tandem Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Symko-Davies, M.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications. The goal is that PV will contribute significantly to the U.S. and world energy supply and environmental enhancement in the 21st century. The HiPerf PV Project aims at exploring the ultimate performance limits of existing PV technologies, approximately doubling their sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies during its course, to accelerate and enhance their impact in the marketplace. To accomplish this, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices. This paper will describe progress of the subcontractor and in-house R&D on critical pathways for a PV technology having a high potential to reach cost-competitiveness goals: 25%-efficient, low-cost polycrystalline thin-film tandems for large-area, flat-plate modules.

  11. Effects of Cu Diffusion from ZnTe:Cu/Ti Contacts on Carrier Lifetime of CdS/CdTe Thin Film Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, T. A.; Metzger, W. K.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M. R.; Johnston, S.; Dhere, R. G.; Duda, A.

    2008-05-01

    We study the performance of CdS/CdTe thin film PV devices processed with a ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact to investigate how carrier lifetime in the CdTe layer is affected by Cu diffusion from the contact.

  12. Nanocarbon-copper thin film as transparent electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isaacs, R. A.; Zhu, H.; Preston, Colin; LeMieux, M.; Jaim, H. M. Iftekhar; Hu, L. Salamanca-Riba, L. G.; Mansour, A.; Zavalij, P. Y.; Rabin, O.

    2015-05-11

    Researchers seeking to enhance the properties of metals have long pursued incorporating carbon in the metallic host lattice in order to combine the strongly bonded electrons in the metal lattice that yield high ampacity and the free electrons available in carbon nanostructures that give rise to high conductivity. The incorporation of carbon nanostructures into the copper lattice has the potential to improve the current density of copper to meet the ever-increasing demands of nanoelectronic devices. We report on the structure and properties of carbon incorporated in concentrations up to 5 wt. % (∼22 at. %) into the crystal structure of copper. Carbon nanoparticles of 5 nm–200 nm in diameter in an interconnecting carbon matrix are formed within the bulk Cu samples. The carbon does not phase separate after subsequent melting and re-solidification despite the absence of a predicted solid solution at such concentrations in the C-Cu binary phase diagram. This material, so-called, Cu covetic, makes deposition of Cu films containing carbon with similar microstructure to the metal possible. Copper covetic films exhibit greater transparency, higher conductivity, and resistance to oxidation than pure copper films of the same thickness, making them a suitable choice for transparent conductors.

  13. Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Yu; Wang Lian; Yan He; Jin Shu; Marks, Tobin J.; Li Shuyou

    2006-07-31

    Double-layer transparent conducting oxide thin film structures containing In-doped CdO (CIO) and Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) layers were grown on glass by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and ion-assisted deposition (IAD), respectively, and used as anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). These films have a very low overall In content of 16 at. %. For 180-nm-thick CIO/ITO films, the sheet resistance is 5.6 {omega}/{open_square}, and the average optical transmittance is 87.1% in the 400-700 nm region. The overall figure of merit ({phi}=T{sup 10}/R{sub sheet}) of the double-layer CIO/ITO films is significantly greater than that of single-layer CIO, IAD-ITO, and commercial ITO films. CIO/ITO-based PLEDs exhibit comparable or superior device performance versus ITO-based control devices. CIO/ITO materials have a much lower sheet resistance than ITO, rendering them promising low In content electrode materials for large-area optoelectronic devices.

  14. Round robin analyses of hydrogen isotope thin films standards.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browning, James Frederick; Doyle, Barney Lee; Wampler, William R.; Wetteland, C. J.; LaDuca, Carol A.; Banks, James Clifford; Wang, Y. Q.; Tesmer, Joseph R.

    2003-06-01

    Hydrogen isotope thin film standards have been manufactured at Sandia National Laboratories for use by the materials characterization community. Several considerations were taken into account during the manufacture of the ErHD standards, with accuracy and stability being the most important. The standards were fabricated by e-beam deposition of Er onto a Mo substrate and the film stoichiometrically loaded with hydrogen and deuterium. To determine the loading accuracy of the standards two random samples were measured by thermal desorption mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques with a stated combined accuracy of {approx}1.6% (1{sigma}). All the standards were then measured by high energy RBS/ERD and RBS/NRA with the accuracy of the techniques {approx}5% (1{sigma}). The standards were then distributed to the IBA materials characterization community for analysis. This paper will discuss the suitability of the standards for use by the IBA community and compare measurement results to highlight the accuracy of the techniques used.

  15. Process For Direct Integration Of A Thin-Film Silicon P-N Junction Diode With A Magnetic Tunnel Junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    2005-08-23

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  16. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  17. Process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toet, Daniel; Sigmon, Thomas W.

    2004-12-07

    A process for direct integration of a thin-film silicon p-n junction diode with a magnetic tunnel junction for use in advanced magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells for high performance, non-volatile memory arrays. The process is based on pulsed laser processing for the fabrication of vertical polycrystalline silicon electronic device structures, in particular p-n junction diodes, on films of metals deposited onto low temperature-substrates such as ceramics, dielectrics, glass, or polymers. The process preserves underlayers and structures onto which the devices are typically deposited, such as silicon integrated circuits. The process involves the low temperature deposition of at least one layer of silicon, either in an amorphous or a polycrystalline phase on a metal layer. Dopants may be introduced in the silicon film during or after deposition. The film is then irradiated with short pulse laser energy that is efficiently absorbed in the silicon, which results in the crystallization of the film and simultaneously in the activation of the dopants via ultrafast melting and solidification. The silicon film can be patterned either before or after crystallization.

  18. Thin Metal Oxide Films to Modify a Window Layer in CdTe-Based Solar Cells for Improved Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemmon, John P.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Bennett, Wendy D.; Kovarik, Libor

    2012-05-25

    We report on CdS/CdTe photovoltaic devices that contain a thin Ta₂O₅ film deposited onto the CdS window layer by sputtering. We show that for thicknesses below 5 nm, Ta₂O₅ films between CdS and CdTe positively affect the solar cell performance, improving JSC, VOC, and the cell power conversion efficiency despite the insulating nature of the interlayer material. Using the Ta₂O₅ interlayer, a VOC gain of over 100 mV was demonstrated compared to a CdTe/CdS baseline. Application of a 1nm Ta₂O₅ interlayer enabled the fabrication of CdTe solar cells with extremely thin (less than 30 nm) CdS window layers. The efficiency of these cells exceeded that of a base line cell with 95 nm of CdS.

  19. Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells; January 28, 2010 -- January 31, 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slafer, D.; Dalal, V.

    2012-03-01

    Final subcontract report for PV Incubator project 'Novel R2R Manufacturable Photonic-Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells.' The goal of this program was to produce tandem Si cells using photonic bandgap enhancement technology developed at ISU and Lightwave Power that would have an NREL-verified efficiency of 7.5% on 0.25 cm{sup 2} area tandem junction cell on plastic substrates. This goal was met and exceeded within the timeframe and budget of the program. On smaller area cells, the efficiency was even higher, {approx}9.5% (not verified by NREL). Appropriate polymers were developed to fabricate photonic and plasmonic devices on stainless steel, Kapton and PEN substrates. A novel photonic-plasmon structure was developed which shows a promise of improving light absorption in thin film cells, a better light absorption than by any other scheme.

  20. Tailoring the coercivity in ferromagnetic ZnO thin films by 3d and 4f elements codoping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. J.; Xing, G. Z. Yi, J. B.; Li, S.; Chen, T.; Ionescu, M.

    2014-01-06

    Cluster free, Co (3d) and Eu (4f) doped ZnO thin films were prepared using ion implantation technique accompanied by post annealing treatments. Compared with the mono-doped ZnO thin films, the samples codoped with Co and Eu exhibit a stronger magnetization with a giant coercivity of 1200 Oe at ambient temperature. This was further verified through x-ray magnetic circular dichroism analysis, revealing the exchange interaction between the Co 3d electrons and the localized carriers induced by Eu{sup 3+} ions codoping. The insight gained with modulating coercivity in magnetic oxides opens up an avenue for applications requiring non-volatility in spintronic devices.

  1. Hybrid ZnO nanowire/a-Si:H thin-film radial junction solar cells using nanoparticle front contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathirane, M. Iheanacho, B.; Lee, C.-H.; Wong, W. S.; Tamang, A.; Knipp, D.; Lujan, R.

    2015-10-05

    Hydrothermally synthesized disordered ZnO nanowires were conformally coated with a-Si:H thin-films to fabricate three dimensional hybrid nanowire/thin-film structures. The a-Si:H layer formed a radial junction p-i-n diode solar cell around the ZnO nanowire. The cylindrical hybrid solar cells enhanced light scattering throughout the UV-visible-NIR spectrum (300 nm–800 nm) resulting in a 22% increase in short-circuit current density compared to the reference planar p-i-n device. A fill factor of 69% and a total power conversion efficiency of 6.5% were achieved with the hybrid nanowire solar cells using a spin-on indium tin oxide nanoparticle suspension as the top contact.

  2. Understanding the Structure of Amorphous Thin Film Hafnia - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, Andre

    2015-08-27

    Hafnium Oxide (HfO2) amorphous thin films are being used as gate oxides in transistors because of their high dielectric constant (κ) over Silicon Dioxide. The present study looks to find the atomic structure of HfO2 thin films which hasn’t been done with the technique of this study. In this study, two HfO2 samples were studied. One sample was made with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a silicon wafer. The second sample was made with plasma ALD on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a Silicon wafer. Both films were deposited at a thickness of 50nm. To obtain atomic structure information, Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was carried out on the HfO2 samples. Because of this, absorption, footprint, polarization, and dead time corrections were applied to the scattering intensity data collected. The scattering curves displayed a difference in structure between the ALD processes. The plasma ALD sample showed the broad peak characteristic of an amorphous structure whereas the thermal ALD sample showed an amorphous structure with characteristics of crystalline materials. This appears to suggest that the thermal process results in a mostly amorphous material with crystallites within. Further, the scattering intensity data was used to calculate a pair distribution function (PDF) to show more atomic structure. The PDF showed atom distances in the plasma ALD sample had structure up to 10 Å, while the thermal ALD sample showed the same structure below 10 Å. This structure that shows up below 10 Å matches the bond distances of HfO2 published in literature. The PDF for the thermal ALD sample also showed peaks up to 20 Å, suggesting repeating atomic spacing outside the HfO2 molecule in the sample. This appears to suggest that there is some crystalline structure within the thermal ALD sample.

  3. Method for making surfactant-templated, high-porosity thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Lu, Yunfeng; Fan, Hongyou

    2001-01-01

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a surfactant-templated thin film by mixing a silica sol, a surfactant, and a hydrophobic polymer and then evaporating a portion of the solvent during coating onto a substrate and then heating to form a liquid-phase, thin film material with a porosity greater than approximately 50 percent. The high porosity thin films can have dielectric constants less than 2 to be suitable for applications requiring low-dielectric constants. An interstitial compound can be added to the mixture, with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the pores or physically entrapped within the porous structure. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  4. Highly mobile ferroelastic domain walls in compositionally graded ferroelectric thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Damodaran, Anoop; Okatan, M. B.; Kacher, J.; Gammer, C.; Vasudevan, Rama; Pandya, S.; Dedon, L. R.; Mangalam, R. V.; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; et al

    2016-02-15

    Domains and domain walls are critical in determining the response of ferroelectrics, and the ability to controllably create, annihilate, or move domains is essential to enable a range of next-generation devices. Whereas electric-field control has been demonstrated for ferroelectric 180° domain walls, similar control of ferroelastic domains has not been achieved. Here, using controlled composition and strain gradients, we demonstrate deterministic control of ferroelastic domains that are rendered highly mobile in a controlled and reversible manner. Through a combination of thin-film growth, transmission-electron-microscopy-based nanobeam diffraction and nanoscale band-excitation switching spectroscopy, we show that strain gradients in compositionally graded PbZr1-xTixO3 heterostructuresmore » stabilize needle-like ferroelastic domains that terminate inside the film. These needle-like domains are highly labile in the out-of-plane direction under applied electric fields, producing a locally enhanced piezoresponse. This work demonstrates the efficacy of novel modes of epitaxy in providing new modalities of domain engineering and potential for as-yet-unrealized nanoscale functional devices.« less

  5. Structural characterization and novel optical properties of defect chalcopyrite ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, S.S.; Sakr, G.B.; Yahia, I.S.; Basset, D.M. Abdel

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Preparation and characterization of ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} in powder and thin film forms. {yields} Structure properties such as XRD and EDX. {yields} Optical constant of the as-deposited ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} for the first time. {yields} Extraction of the optical parameters of the studied films. -- Abstract: Stoichiometric thin film samples of the ternary ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} defect chalcopyrite compound were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction technique. The elemental chemical composition of the prepared bulk material as well as of the as-deposited film was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} thin films were deposited, by conventional thermal evaporation technique onto highly cleaned glass substrates. The X-ray and electron diffraction studies revealed that the as-deposited and the annealed ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} films at annealing temperature t{sub a} {<=} 548 K are amorphous, while those annealed at t{sub a} {>=} 573 K (for 1 h), are polycrystalline. The optical properties of the as-deposited films have been investigated for the first time at normal incidence in the spectral range from 500 to 2500 nm. The refractive index dispersion in the transmission and low absorption region is adequately described by the Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model, whereby, the values of the oscillator parameters have been calculated. The analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed an in-direct optical transition with energy of 1.33 eV for the as-deposited sample. This work suggested that ZnGa{sub 2}Te{sub 4} is a good candidate in solar cell devices as an absorbing layer.

  6. Thickness-dependent electronlattice equilibration in laser-excited thin bismuth films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sokolowski-Tinten, K.; Li, R. K.; Reid, A. H.; Weathersby, S. P.; Quirin, F.; Chase, T.; Coffee, R.; Corbett, J.; Fry, A.; Hartmann, N.; et al

    2015-11-19

    Electronphonon coupling processes determine electronic transport properties of materials and are responsible for the transfer of electronic excess energy to the lattice. With decreasing device dimensions an understanding of these processes in nanoscale materials is becoming increasingly important. We use time-resolved electron diffraction to directly study energy relaxation in thin bismuth films after optical excitation. Precise measurements of the transient DebyeWaller-effect for various film thicknesses and over an extended range of excitation fluences allow to separate different contributions to the incoherent lattice response. While phonon softening in the electronically excited state is responsible for an immediate increase of the r.m.s.moreatomic displacement within a few hundred fs, 'ordinary' electronphonon coupling leads to subsequent heating of the material on a few ps time-scale. Moreover, the data reveal distinct changes in the energy transfer dynamics which becomes faster for stronger excitation and smaller film thickness, respectively. The latter effect is attributed to a cross-interfacial coupling of excited electrons to phonons in the substrate.less

  7. Goos-Hänchen effect and bending of spin wave beams in thin magnetic films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruszecki, P. Krawczyk, M.; Romero-Vivas, J.; Dadoenkova, Yu. S.; Dadoenkova, N. N.; Lyubchanskii, I. L.

    2014-12-15

    For magnon spintronic applications, the detailed knowledge of spin wave (SW) beam dispersion, transmission (reflection) of SWs passing through (reflected from) interfaces, or borders or the scattering of SWs by inhomogeneities is crucial. These wave properties are decisive factors on the usefulness of a particular device. Here, we demonstrate, using micromagnetic simulations supported by an analytical model, that the Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift exists for SW reflecting from thin film edge and that with the effect becomes observable. We show that this effect will exist for a broad range of frequencies in the dipole-exchange range, with the magnetization degree of pinning at the film edge as the crucial parameter, whatever its nature. Moreover, we have also found that the GH effect can be accompanied or even dominating by a bending of the SW beam due to the inhomogeneity of the internal magnetic field. This inhomogeneity, created by demagnetizing field taking place at the film edge, causes gradual change of SWs refractive index. The refraction of the SW beams by the non-uniformity of the magnetic field enables the exploration of graded index magnonics and metamaterial properties for the transmission and processing of information at nanoscale.

  8. Fatigue failure in thin-film polysilicon is due to subcriticalcracking within the oxide layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alsem, D.H.; Muhlstein, C.L.; Stach, E.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2005-01-11

    It has been established that microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) created from polycrystalline silicon thin-films are subject to cyclic fatigue. Prior work by the authors has suggested that although bulk silicon is not susceptible to fatigue failure in ambient air, fatigue in micron-scale silicon is a result of a ''reaction-layer'' process, whereby high stresses induce a thickening of the post-release oxide at stress concentrations such as notches, which subsequently undergoes moisture-assisted cracking. However, there exists some controversy regarding the post-release oxide thickness of the samples used in the prior study. In this Letter, we present data from devices from a more recent fabrication run that confirm our prior observations. Additionally, new data from tests in high vacuum show that these devices do not fatigue when oxidation and moisture are suppressed. Each of these observations lends credence to the '''reaction-layer'' mechanism. Recent advances in the design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have increased the demand for more reliable microscale structures. Although silicon is an effective and widely used structural material at the microscale, it is very brittle. Consequently, reliability is a limiting factor for commercial and defense applications. Since the surface to volume ratio of these structural films is very large, classical models for failure modes in bulk materials cannot always be applied. For example, whereas bulk silicon is immune to cyclic fatigue failure thin micron-scale structural films of silicon appear to be highly susceptible. It is clear that at these size scales, surface effects may become dominant in controlling mechanical properties. The main reliability issues for MEMS are stiction, fatigue and wear. Fatigue is important in cases where devices are subjected to a large number of loading cycles with amplitudes below their (single-cycle) fracture stress, which may arise due to vibrations intentionally induced in the

  9. Method of fabricating conductive electrodes on the front and backside of a thin film structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tabada, Phillipe J.; Tabada, legal representative, Melody; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2011-05-22

    A method of fabricating a thin film device having conductive front and backside electrodes or contacts. Top-side cavities are first formed on a first dielectric layer, followed by the deposition of a metal layer on the first dielectric layer to fill the cavities. Defined metal structures are etched from the metal layer to include the cavity-filled metal, followed by depositing a second dielectric layer over the metal structures. Additional levels of defined metal structures may be formed in a similar manner with vias connecting metal structures between levels. After a final dielectric layer is deposited, a top surface of a metal structure of an uppermost metal layer is exposed through the final dielectric layer to form a front-side electrode, and a bottom surface of a cavity-filled portion of a metal structure of a lowermost metal layer is also exposed through the first dielectric layer to form a back-side electrode.

  10. Process for fabricating polycrystalline semiconductor thin-film solar cells, and cells produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xuanzhi; Sheldon, Peter

    2000-01-01

    A novel, simplified method for fabricating a thin-film semiconductor heterojunction photovoltaic device includes initial steps of depositing a layer of cadmium stannate and a layer of zinc stannate on a transparent substrate, both by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, followed by the depositing of dissimilar layers of semiconductors such as cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride, and heat treatment to convert the cadmium stannate to a substantially single-phase material of a spinel crystal structure. Preferably, the cadmium sulfide layer is also deposited by radio frequency sputtering at ambient temperature, and the cadmium telluride layer is deposited by close space sublimation at an elevated temperature effective to convert the amorphous cadmium stannate to the polycrystalline cadmium stannate with single-phase spinel structure.

  11. Influence of epitaxial strain on elastocaloric effect in ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yang Dkhil, Brahim; Wei, Jie; Lou, Xiaojie; Bellaiche, L.; Scott, James F.

    2015-01-19

    We report the influence of epitaxial strain u{sub m} on the elastocaloric properties of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films. Using thermodynamic calculations, we show that there exists a critical compressive stress σ{sub 3c} at which the elastocaloric effect is maximized for any compressive misfit strain we investigate. Moreover, it is found that |σ{sub 3c}| decreases significantly with decreasing |u{sub m}|, which is accompanied by a reduction of the elastocaloric response. Interestingly, a several fold enhancement in the electrocaloric effect can be achieved for stress in proximity of σ{sub 3c}. The elastocaloric effect predicted here may find potential cooling applications by combining the stress-mediated electrocaloric effect or designing hybrid elastocaloric/electrocaloric devices in the future.

  12. Cadmium-free junction fabrication process for CuInSe.sub.2 thin film solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Kannan V.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Keane, James; Noufi, Rommel

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides an economical, simple, dry and controllable semiconductor layer junction forming process to make cadmium free high efficiency photovoltaic cells having a first layer comprised primarily of copper indium diselenide having a thin doped copper indium diselenide n-type region, generated by thermal diffusion with a group II(b) element such as zinc, and a halide, such as chlorine, and a second layer comprised of a conventional zinc oxide bilayer. A photovoltaic device according the present invention includes a first thin film layer of semiconductor material formed primarily from copper indium diselenide. Doping of the copper indium diselenide with zinc chloride is accomplished using either a zinc chloride solution or a solid zinc chloride material. Thermal diffusion of zinc chloride into the copper indium diselenide upper region creates the thin n-type copper indium diselenide surface. A second thin film layer of semiconductor material comprising zinc oxide is then applied in two layers. The first layer comprises a thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide. The second relatively thick layer of zinc oxide is doped to exhibit low resistivity.

  13. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  14. Computer modeling of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin film deposition and growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burmester, C.; Gronsky, R. ); Wille, L. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-07-01

    The deposition and growth of epitaxial thin films of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} are modeled by means of Monte Carlo simulations of the deposition and diffusion of Y, Ba, and Cu oxide particles. This complements existing experimental characterization techniques to allow the study of kinetic phenomena expected to play a dominant role in the inherently non-equilibrium thin film deposition process. Surface morphologies and defect structures obtained in the simulated films are found to closely resemble those observed experimentally. A systematic study of the effects of deposition rate and substrate temperature during in-situ film fabrication reveals that the kinetics of film growth can readily dominate the structural formation of the thin film. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  16. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. ... conductivity; suitable; lithium; batteries; electrochromic; devices; ...

  17. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  18. Thin Film Electronic Devices with Conductive and Transparent Gas and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Moisture Permeation Barriers - Energy Innovation Portal 68436 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search

  19. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moisture permeation barriers - Energy Innovation Portal 93,661 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like

  20. THIN FILM ELECTRONIC DEVICES WITH CONDUCTIVE AND TRANSPARENT GAS AND

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOISTURE PERMEATION BARRIERS - Energy Innovation Portal 065358 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search

  1. Thin film electronic devices with conductive and transparent gas and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    moisture permeation barriers - Energy Innovation Portal 09,994 Site Map Printable Version Share this resource About Search Categories (15) Advanced Materials Biomass and Biofuels Building Energy Efficiency Electricity Transmission Energy Analysis Energy Storage Geothermal Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydropower, Wave and Tidal Industrial Technologies Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Startup America Vehicles and Fuels Wind Energy Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Find More Like

  2. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface. Annual technical progress report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  3. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  4. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Schmid, Anthony P.

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  5. Reactive sputter deposition of pyrite structure transition metal disulfide thin films: Microstructure, transport, and magnetism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baruth, A.; Manno, M.; Narasimhan, D.; Shankar, A.; Zhang, X.; Johnson, M.; Aydil, E. S.; Leighton, C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Transition metal disulfides crystallizing in the pyrite structure (e.g., TMS{sub 2}, with TM = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are a class of materials that display a remarkably diverse array of functional properties. These properties include highly spin-polarized ferromagnetism (in Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2}), superconductivity (in CuS{sub 2}), an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating ground state (in NiS{sub 2}), and semiconduction with close to optimal parameters for solar absorber applications (in FeS{sub 2}). Exploitation of these properties in heterostructured devices requires the development of reliable and reproducible methods for the deposition of high quality pyrite structure thin films. In this manuscript, we report on the suitability of reactive sputter deposition from metallic targets in an Ar/H{sub 2}S environment as a method to achieve exactly this. Optimization of deposition temperature, Ar/H{sub 2}S pressure ratio, and total working gas pressure, assisted by plasma optical emission spectroscopy, reveals significant windows over which deposition of single-phase, polycrystalline, low roughness pyrite films can be achieved. This is illustrated for the test cases of the ferromagnetic metal CoS{sub 2} and the diamagnetic semiconductor FeS{sub 2}, for which detailed magnetic and transport characterization are provided. The results indicate significant improvements over alternative deposition techniques such as ex situ sulfidation of metal films, opening up exciting possibilities for all-sulfide heterostructured devices. In particular, in the FeS{sub 2} case it is suggested that fine-tuning of the sputtering conditions provides a potential means to manipulate doping levels and conduction mechanisms, critical issues in solar cell applications. Parenthetically, we note that conditions for synthesis of phase-pure monosulfides and thiospinels are also identified.

  6. Role of Polycrystalline Thin-Film PV Technologies in Competitive PV Module Markets: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    von Roedern, B.; Ullal, H. S.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the developments in thin-film PV technologies and provides an outlook on future commercial module efficiencies achievable based on today's knowledge about champion cell performance.

  7. Nanocrystallization of LiCoO2 Cathodes for Thin Film Batteries Utilizing Pulse Thermal Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-04-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose focus is on the nanocrystallization of the LiCoO2 cathode thin films on polyimide substrates and evaluate the microstructural evolution and resistance as a function of PTP processing conditions.

  8. Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Preparation of W...

  9. Solid state thin film battery having a high temperature lithium alloy anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobson, David O.

    1998-01-01

    An improved rechargeable thin-film lithium battery involves the provision of a higher melting temperature lithium anode. Lithium is alloyed with a suitable solute element to elevate the melting point of the anode to withstand moderately elevated temperatures.

  10. Water-mediated electrochemical nano-writing on thin ceria films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Water-mediated electrochemical nano-writing on thin ceria films Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Water-mediated ...

  11. Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Finite-element analysis of the deformation of thin Mylar films due to measurement forces. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Finite-element analysis of the deformation of ...

  12. Pseudo capacitive performance of copper oxide thin films grown by RF sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, B. Purusottam; Ganesh, K. Sivajee; Hussain, O. M.

    2015-06-24

    Thin films of Copper Oxide were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on steel substrates maintained at 250°C under different RF powers ranging from 150W to 250W by keeping the sputtering pressure at 5.7×10{sup −3} mbar and O{sub 2}:Ar ratio of 1:7. The influence of RF power on the pseudo capacitive performance of thin films was studied. The X-ray diffraction studies and Raman studies indicates that all the thin films exhibits CuO phase. The electrochemical studies was done by using three electrode configuration with platinum as reference electrode. From the cyclic voltammetry studies a high rate pseudocapacitance of 227 mFcm{sup −2} at 0.5 mVs{sup −1} and 77% of capacity retention after 1000 cycles was obtained for the CuO thin films prepared at an RF power of 220W.

  13. Electrodynamic Properties of Single-Crystal and Thin-Film Strontium Titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Findikoglu, A.T.; Jia, Q.; Reagor, D.W.; Kwon, C.; Rasmussen, K.O.

    1999-05-13

    The authors present a comparative study of broadband electrodynamic properties of coplanar waveguides made from nonlinear dielectric single-crystal and thin-film SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) with high-temperature superconducting thin-film YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} electrodes. The waveguides that use single-crystal STO exhibit a monotonic increase in refractive index, dielectric nonlinearity, and dissipation with decreasing temperature (from 80 K to 20 K), whereas those based on thin-film STO show similar but weaker effects with increasing temperature. Under dc bias, both types of waveguides show reduced refractive index, but dissipation increases in the case of single-crystal STO, while it decreases in the case of STO thin-films.

  14. Cell culture arrays using micron-sized ferromagnetic ring-shaped thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Wei, Zung-Hang; Lai, Mei-Feng; Ger, Tzong-Rong

    2015-05-07

    Cell patterning has become an important technology for tissue engineering. In this research, domain walls are formed at the two ends of a ferromagnetic ring thin film after applying a strong external magnetic field, which can effectively attract magnetically labeled cells and control the position for biological cell. Magnetophoresis experiment was conducted to quantify the magnetic nanoparticle inside the cells. A ring-shaped magnetic thin films array was fabricated through photolithography. It is observed that magnetically labeled cells can be successfully attracted to the two ends of the ring-shaped magnetic thin film structure and more cells were attracted and further attached to the structures. The cells are co-cultured with the structure and kept proliferating; therefore, such ring thin film can be an important candidate for in-vitro biomedical chips or tissue engineering.

  15. Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Record Makes Thin-Film Solar Cell Competitive with Silicon Efficiency March 24, 2008 Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory have moved ...

  16. NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL and Company Researchers Team Up on Thin-Film Solar Cells November 12, 2003 Golden, Colo. - An Austin, Tex.-based company is moving toward commercial production of advanced ...

  17. Efficiency calculations of thin-film GaAs solar cells on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, M.; Amano, C.

    1985-11-01

    Dislocation effect upon the efficiency of single-crystal thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells on Si substrates is analyzed. Solar-cell properties are calculated based on a simple model; in the model, dislocations act as recombination centers to reduce the minority-carrier diffusion length in each layer and increase the space-charge layer recombination current. Numerical analysis is also carried out to optimize thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar-cell structures. The fabrication of thin-film AlGaAs-GaAs heteroface solar cells with a practical efficiency larger than 18% on Si substrates appears possible if the dislocation density in the thin-film GaAs layer is less than 10/sup 6/ cm/sup -2/.

  18. Stability Issues of Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) for Thin-Film Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, J.

    2008-12-01

    Study of stability issues of TCOs for thin-film PV, including degradation of optical, electrical, and structural properties of TCOs in damp heat and required encapsulation to prevent moisture egress.

  19. Electron-beam-evaporated thin films of hafnium dioxide for fabricating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ... In this paper, the authors report the growth of thin films ... Report Number(s): BNL--108477-2015-JA Journal ID: ISSN ...

  20. Thin polymer film collectors as a contribution to the solar industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilhelm, W.G.

    1984-06-01

    Achievements made in research on thin polymer film solar flat-plate collectors using monocoque construction techniques are briefly discussed. The significance of these achievements for cost reduction of flat-plate collectors without compromising performance is briefly discussed.