Sample records for thin film deposition

  1. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  2. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E. (Pleasanton, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  3. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  4. LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION OF ELECTROCHROMIC THIN FILMS T. J. Richardson and M. D. Rubin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and readily scalable to larger substrates. Keywords: liquid phase deposition; electrochromic films; thin film

  5. Glow discharge plasma deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weakliem, Herbert A. (Pennington, NJ); Vossen, Jr., John L. (Bridgewater, NJ)

    1984-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A glow discharge plasma reactor for deposition of thin films from a reactive RF glow discharge is provided with a screen positioned between the walls of the chamber and the cathode to confine the glow discharge region to within the region defined by the screen and the cathode. A substrate for receiving deposition material from a reactive gas is positioned outside the screened region. The screen is electrically connected to the system ground to thereby serve as the anode of the system. The energy of the reactive gas species is reduced as they diffuse through the screen to the substrate. Reactive gas is conducted directly into the glow discharge region through a centrally positioned distribution head to reduce contamination effects otherwise caused by secondary reaction products and impurities deposited on the reactor walls.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  7. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of functional polyacrylic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Yu, 1975-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) was explored as a novel method for synthesis of functional polyacrylic thin films. The process introduces a peroxide initiator, which can be decomposed at low temperatures (<200?C) ...

  8. Enabling integration of vapor-deposited polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petruczok, Christy D. (Christy Danielle)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated Chemical Vapor Deposition (iCVD) is a versatile, one-step process for synthesizing conformal and functional polymer thin films on a variety of substrates. This thesis emphasizes the development of tools to further ...

  9. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymeric thin films : mechanism and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Kelvin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a novel technique for depositing polymeric thin films. It is able to deposit thin films of application-specific polymers in one step without using any solvents. Its uniqueness ...

  11. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction Process. ZnS Thin Films Deposited by a Spin Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction...

  12. Experimental thin film deposition and surface analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collins, W.E.; Rambabu, B.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt has been made to present some of the thin-film deposition and surface analysis techniques which may be useful in growing superionic conducting materials. Emphasis is made on the importance of being careful in selecting process parameters and materials in order to produce films with properties outlined in this article. Also, special care should be given to proper consideration of grain boundary effects.

  13. Substrates suitable for deposition of superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Roeland (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconducting system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  14. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures.

  15. Low Temperature Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Thin Film Magnets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Joel S. (Salt Lake City, UT); Pokhodnya, Kostyantyn I. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film magnet formed from a gas-phase reaction of tetracyanoetheylene (TCNE) OR (TCNQ), 7,7,8,8-tetracyano-P-quinodimethane, and a vanadium-containing compound such as vanadium hexcarbonyl (V(CO).sub.6) and bis(benzene)vanalium (V(C.sub.6 H.sub.6).sub.2) and a process of forming a magnetic thin film upon at least one substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at a process temperature not exceeding approximately 90.degree. C. and in the absence of a solvent. The magnetic thin film is particularly suitable for being disposed upon rigid or flexible substrates at temperatures in the range of 40.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The present invention exhibits air-stable characteristics and qualities and is particularly suitable for providing being disposed upon a wide variety of substrates.

  16. Liquid phase deposition synthesis of hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deki, Shigehito; Beleke, Alexis Bienvenu; Kotani, Yuki [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokko, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Mizuhata, Minoru, E-mail: mizuhata@kobe-u.ac.j [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokko, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide thin films with good crystallinity and high purity have been fabricated by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) technique using molybdic acid (H{sub 2}MoO{sub 4}) dissolved in 2.82% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} as precursors. The crystal was found to belong to a hexagonal hydrate system MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O (napprox0.56). The unit cell lattice parameters are a=10.651 A, c=3.725 A and V=365.997 A{sup 3}. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the as-deposited samples showed well-shaped hexagonal rods nuclei that grew and where the amount increased with increase in reaction time. X-ray photon electron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed a Gaussian shape of the doublet of Mo 3d core level, indicating the presence of Mo{sup 6+} oxidation state in the deposited films. The deposited films exhibited an electrochromic behavior by lithium intercalation and deintercalation, which resulted in coloration and bleaching of the film. Upon dehydration at about 450 deg. C, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O was transformed into the thermodynamically stable orthorhombic phase. - Abstract: SEM photograph of typical h-MoO{sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O thin film nuclei obtained after 36 h at 40 deg. C by the LPD method. Display Omitted

  17. Remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO for thin film electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Remote plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of ZnO for thin film electronic applications S: Available online 28 May 2012 Keywords: Remote plasma Atomic layer deposition (ALD) ZnO Thin film transistor of various reactant plasma parameters of remote plasma enhanced ALD (PEALD) on the ZnO thin film properties

  18. Characterization of LiNi?.?Mn?.?O? Thin Film Cathode Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Hui

    LiNi?.?Mn?.?O? thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on stainless steel (SS) substrates. The crystallinity and structure of thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructure and ...

  19. Chemical vapor deposition thin films as biopassivation coatings and directly patternable dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryce Lewis, Hilton G. (Hilton Gavin), 1973-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organosilicon thin films deposited by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PPECVD) and hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) were investigated as potential biopassivation coatings for neural probes. ...

  20. Microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1993-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for fabricating thin film materials utilizing high speed gas dynamics relies on supersonic free jets of carrier gas to transport depositing vapor species generated in a microwave discharge to the surface of a prepared substrate where the vapor deposits to form a thin film. The present invention generates high rates of deposition and thin films of unforeseen high quality at low temperatures. 5 figures.

  1. Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robbie, Kevin

    Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications K. Robbiea thin films with three dimensional microstructure controlled on the 10 nm scale were fabricated'' columnar thin film microstructure into desired forms ranging from zigzag shaped to helical to four

  2. Phase Transformations in Pulsed Laser Deposited Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Phase Transformations in Pulsed Laser Deposited Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Films Haiyan Fan August 20, 2002. Revised Manuscript Received November 11, 2002 Thin SnOx films have been synthesized of reducing gases,1-3 and thin films have been synthesized by various means including evapora- tion,4

  3. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon composite thin films for porous low-k dielectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, April Denise, 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition has produced organosilicon thin films with the potential use as low dielectric constant interconnect materials in microelectronic circuits. Both diethylsilane and ...

  4. Study of plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of boron-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films and the application to p-channel thin film transistor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nominanda, Helinda

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material and process characteristics of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique (PECVD) have been studied. The goal is to apply the high quality films...

  5. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films grown by flash evaporation and pulsed laser deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy Subramanian, Santhana

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    -phase 2212 films were grown on a MgO substrate using the pulsed laser deposition technique from commercially available 2212 powder. The effect of annealing on the thin films was also studied....

  6. Optical Properties of Zn(O,S) Thin Films Deposited by RF Sputtering, Atomic Layer Deposition, and Chemical Bath Deposition: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Mann, J.; To, B.; Ramanathan, K.; Noufi, R.; Furtak, T. E.; Levi, D.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Zn(O,S) thin films 27 - 100 nm thick were deposited on glass or Cu(InxGa1-x)Se2/Molybdenum/glass with RF sputtering, atomic layer deposition, and chemical bath deposition.

  7. Ion Beam Deposition of Thin Films: Growth Processes and Nanostructure Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofsaess, Hans C. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion beam deposition is a process far from thermodynamic equilibrium and is in particular suited to grow metastable thin films with diamond-like properties, such as tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and cubic boron nitride (c-BN). In this contribution the atomistic description of the deposition and growth processes are reviewed and compared to experimental results, obtained from mass selected ion beam deposition. The focus will be set to the nucleation and growth processes of boron nitride as a model system for ion based thin film formation. Furthermore, recent examples for nanostructure formation in ion deposited compound thin films will be presented. Ion beam deposited metal-carbon nano-composite thin films exhibit a variety of different morphologies such as rather homogeneous nanocluster distributions embedded in an a-C matrix, but also the self-organized formation of nanoscale multilayer structures.

  8. Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O thin films grown by flash evaporation and pulsed laser deposition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy Subramanian, Santhana

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    . Thin films were grown by flash evaporation at Texas A&M University, and by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at the University of Wollongong, Australia. The latter of these techniques is widely used for growing thin films of various compounds. Single...

  9. Hall mobility of cuprous oxide thin films deposited by reactive direct-current magnetron sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Yun Seog

    Cuprous oxide (Cu[subscript 2]O) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for photovoltaic applications. We report Hall mobilities of polycrystalline Cu[subscript 2]O thin films deposited by reactive dc magnetron ...

  10. An ultrahigh vacuum facility for the co-deposition of amorphous transition metal alloy thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicoli, Victor Michael

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN ULTRAHIGH VACUUM FACILITY FOR THE CO-DEPOSITION OF AMORPHOUS TRANSITION METAL ALLOY THIN FILMS A Thesis by VICTOR MICHAEL NICOLI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1984 Major Subject: Physics AN ULTRAHIGH VACUUM FACILITY FOR THE CO-DEPOSITION OF AMORPHOUS TRANSITION METAL ALLOY THIN FILMS A Thes1s by VICTOR MICHAEL NICOLI Approved as to style and content by: ona . aug (Cha...

  11. Growth of novel micro-structured carbon thin films by using ultrashort-pulse laser deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;! ! )! 1.1 pulsed-laser deposition PLD PLD ultra-short pulse laser deposition uPLD PLD [1] figure 1 seed electron PLD PLD nano-second ns Lab 325 femto-second fs ultra-short pulse laser deposition uPLD) u! ! "! Growth of novel micro-structured carbon thin films by using ultrashort-pulse laser

  12. Effect of deposition pressure on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nongjai, R.; Khan, S.; Ahmad, H.; Khan, I. [Department of Applied Physics, Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology, A.M.U., Aligarh (India); Asokan, K. [Material Science Division, Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi (India)

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the influence of deposition pressure on the structural and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite thin films. Thin films of Co ferrite were deposited by rf sputtering on Si (100) substrate and characterized by X - Ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns showed the formation of crystalline single phase of the films. The particle size and surface roughness of the films were strongly influence by gas pressure. Hysteresis loops measured at room temperature showed the enhancement of magnetic properties with the increase of gas pressure which is attributed to the decrease of particle size.

  13. Process for thin film deposition of cadmium sulfide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muruska, H. Paul (East Windsor, NJ); Sansregret, Joseph L. (Scotch Plains, NJ); Young, Archie R. (Montclair, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention teaches a process for depositing layers of cadmium sulfide. The process includes depositing a layer of cadmium oxide by spray pyrolysis of a cadmium salt in an aqueous or organic solvent. The oxide film is then converted into cadmium sulfide by thermal ion exchange of the O.sup.-2 for S.sup.-2 by annealing the oxide layer in gaseous sulfur at elevated temperatures.

  14. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases.

  15. A simple chemical method for deposition of electrochromic Prussian blue thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demiri, Sani [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Najdoski, Metodija, E-mail: metonajd@iunona.pmf.ukim.edu.mk [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Velevska, Julijana [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prussian blue thin films were prepared by a simple chemical deposition method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films can be easily prepared from aqueous solution of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films show good electrochromic properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change from deep blue color into green, and then back to blue and colorless. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PB thin films exhibit stability and excellent reversibility. -- Abstract: This paper is about a recently developed new chemical method for deposition of Prussian blue thin films. The films are easily prepared by successive immersion of the substrates into an acidic aqueous solution of Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and K{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]. It is calculated of the results from AFM analysis that the growth in the film thickness by one immersion cycle corresponds to an average increase of 6 nm. The characterization of the films with X-ray diffraction, SEM-EDS analysis and FTIR spectroscopy shows that the deposited material is amorphous hydrated Fe{sub 4}[Fe(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}. The electrochromic properties are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and VIS spectrophotometry. The PB thin films exhibit stability and excellent reversibility, which make these films favorable for electrochromic devices.

  16. Chemical deposition of thin films of lead selenide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skovlin, Dean Oliver

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY A A IN COLLEGE OF TEXAS CHEMICAL DEPOSITIOH OF THIN FILMS OF LEAD SELEHIDE A THESIS DEAN OLIVER SEOVLIH Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements..., the author is indebted for her encouragenent and understanding which wade this study possible. iv I INTRODUCTIOW . I I LITERATURE SURVEY. I II EXP ERIMEHTAL Page 1. Choice of Reagents. 2. The Reaction of DMS and Lead Ritrate in Aqueous Solution. 3...

  17. The role of inert gas in MW-enhanced plasmas for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bristol, University of

    in polycrystalline diamond film CVD [3,4]. While the mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties of MCD films haveThe role of inert gas in MW-enhanced plasmas for the deposition of nanocrystalline diamond thin diamond Nanocrystalline Inert gas Growth Nanocrystalline diamond thin films have been deposited using

  18. Pulsed laser deposition of AlMgB14 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Alan; Bastawros, Ashraf; Tan, Xiaoli

    2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Hard, wear-resistant coatings of thin film borides based on AlMgB{sub 14} have the potential to be applied industrially to improve the tool life of cutting tools and pump vanes and may account for several million dollars in savings as a result of reduced wear on these parts. Past work with this material has shown that it can have a hardness of up to 45GPa and be fabricated into thin films with a similar hardness using pulsed laser deposition. These films have already been shown to be promising for industrial applications. Cutting tools coated with AlMgB{sub 14} used to mill titanium alloys have been shown to substantially reduce the wear on the cutting tool and extend its cutting life. However, little research into the thin film fabrication process using pulsed laser deposition to make AlMgB{sub 14} has been conducted. In this work, research was conducted into methods to optimize the deposition parameters for the AlMgB{sub 14} films. Processing methods to eliminate large particles on the surface of the AlMgB{sub 14} films, produce films that were at least 1m thick, reduce the surface roughness of the films, and improve the adhesion of the thin films were investigated. Use of a femtosecond laser source rather than a nanosecond laser source was found to be effective in eliminating large particles considered detrimental to wear reduction properties from the films. Films produced with the femtosecond laser were also found to be deposited at a rate 100 times faster than those produced with the nanosecond laser. However, films produced with the femtosecond laser developed a relatively high RMS surface roughness around 55nm. Attempts to decrease the surface roughness were largely unsuccessful. Neither increasing the surface temperature of the substrate during deposition nor using a double pulse to ablate the material was found to be extremely successful to reduce the surface roughness. Finally, the adhesion of the thin films to M2 tool steel substrates, assessed using the Rockwell C indentation adhesion test, was found to be substantially improved by the deposition of a titanium interlayer, but unaffected by increasing the temperature of the substrates. The titanium was found to improve the adhesion strength of the films because it reacted with both the steel and the AlMgB{sub 14} compound to form new compounds. Ultimately, it was concluded that the films with the best properties were produced with a femtosecond pulsed laser and were deposited on top of a titanium interlayer to improve the thin film adhesion.

  19. Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Low temperature chemical vapor deposition of Co thin films from Co2(CO)8 D.-X. Yea,*, S. Pimanpanga chemical vapor deposition with a metallorganic Co2(CO)8 precursor. After Ar sputtering of the surface, Co2(CO)8, has been extensively used in cobalt CVD and is attractive, since Co is in its elemental

  20. Low pressure and atmospheric pressure plasma-jet systems and their application for deposition of thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of thin films Z. Hubicka1 , M. Cada1 , O. Churpita1 , P. Virostko1,2 , P. Adámek3 , H. Síchová2 , M. Sícha. The target was to deposit such kind of thin films with crystalline structure at low temperature in order) perovskite thin films on kapton (polymer) foil with Pt electrode layer. The RF hollow cathode nozzle

  1. Thin Film Deposition Method for Sensor Manufacturing - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in theTheoreticalEnergy InnovationThin Film CIGS

  2. Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Hot-Wire Deposition of Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline SiGe Films for Thin-Film Si Based Solar Cells bandgap absorber in an a-Si/a-SiGe/nc-SiGe(nc- Si) triple-junction solar cell due to its higher optical in an a-Si based multiple- junction solar cell. 1. INTRODUCTION Narrow bandgap amorphous SiGe (a

  3. Niobium thin film deposition studies on copper surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. M. Roach, D. B. Beringer, J. R. Skuza, W. A. Oliver, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film coatings have the potential to increase both the thermal efficiency and accelerating gradient in superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. However, before this potential can be realized, systematic studies on structure-property correlations in these thin films need to be carried out since the reduced geometry, combined with specific growth parameters, can modify the physical properties of the materials when compared to their bulk form. Here, we present our systematic studies of Nb thin films deposited onto Cu surfaces to clarify possible reasons for the limited success that this process exhibited in previous attempts. We compare these films with Nb grown on other surfaces. In particular, we study the crystal structure and surface morphology and their effect on superconducting properties, such as critical temperature and lower critical field. We found that higher deposition temperature leads to a sharper critical temperature transition, but also to increased roughness indicating that there are competing mechanisms that must be considered for further optimization.

  4. Electrochromic properties of tungsten trioxide thin films prepared by photochemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maruyama, Toshiro; Kanagawa, Tetsuya (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrochromic tungsten trioxide thin films were prepared by a photochemical vapor deposition. The source material was tungsten carbonyl. A 6 W low pressure mercury lamp was used as a light source. Amorphous tungsten trioxide thin films were obtained at a substrate temperature of 200 C. The UV radiation enhances the oxidation of tungsten, in addition to the acceleration of the deposition of the films. Reduction and oxidation of the films in a 0.3M LiClO[sub 4] propylene carbonate solution resulted in desirable changes in optimal absorption. The bleaching time was short compared to the amorphous CVD film. Coulometry indicated that the coloration efficiency was 222 cm[sup 2]/C.

  5. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, Michael E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell, E-mail: r.binions@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  6. Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy J.

    Deposition of WNxCy thin films for diffusion barrier application using the dimethylhydrazido (2 nitride carbide Diffusion barrier X-ray diffraction Auger electron spectroscopy Tungsten nitride carbide, composition, atomic bonding, and electrical resistivity, respectively. The lowest temperature at which growth

  7. Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films on sapphire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Epitaxial graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition on single crystal thin iridium films Cedex 9, France (Dated: 15 March 2011) Uniform single layer graphene was grown on single-crystal Ir. These graphene layers have a single crystallographic orientation and a very low density of defects, as shown

  8. Homogeneous, dual layer, solid state, thin film deposition for structural and/or electrochemical characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Li, Wenming

    2014-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state, thin film, electrochemical devices (10) and methods of making the same are disclosed. An exemplary device 10 includes at least one electrode (14) and an electrolyte (16) deposited on the electrode (14). The electrolyte (16) includes at least two homogenous layers of discrete physical properties. The two homogenous layers comprise a first dense layer (15) and a second porous layer (16).

  9. Chemical bath deposition and characterization of electrochromic thin films of sodium vanadium bronzes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najdoski, Metodija, E-mail: metonajd@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Koleva, Violeta [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)] [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Demiri, Sani [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)] [Institute of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Sts. Cyril and Methodius University, POB 162, Arhimedova 5, 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a new chemical bath method for the deposition of vanadium bronze thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films are phase mixture of NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with 10.58% lattice water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The as-deposited vanadium bronze films exhibit two-step electrochromism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer They change their yellow-orange color to green and then from green to blue color. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allows the preparation of films on substrates with low melting point. -- Abstract: Thin yellow-orange films of sodium vanadium oxide bronzes have been prepared from a sodium-vanadium solution (1:1) at 75 Degree-Sign C and pH = 3. The composition, structure and morphology of the films have been studied by XRD, IR spectroscopy, TG and SEM-EDX analyses. It has been established that the prepared films are a phase mixture of hydrated NaV{sub 6}O{sub 15} (predominant component) and Na{sub 1.1}V{sub 3}O{sub 7.9} with total water content of 10.58%. The sodium vanadium bronze thin films exhibit two-step electrochromism followed by color change from yellow-orange to green, and then from green to blue. The cyclic voltammetry measurements on the as-deposited and annealed vanadium bronze films reveal the existence of different oxidation/reduction vanadium sites which make these films suitable for electrochromic devices. The annealing of the films at 400 Degree-Sign C changes the composition, optical and electrochemical properties.

  10. Method and apparatus for fabricating a thin-film solar cell utilizing a hot wire chemical vapor deposition technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Qi; Iwaniczko, Eugene

    2006-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell is provided. The thin-film solar cell comprises an a-SiGe:H (1.6 eV) n-i-p solar cell having a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer by hot wire chemical vapor deposition. A method for fabricating a thin film solar cell is also provided. The method comprises depositing a n-i-p layer at a deposition rate of at least ten (10) .ANG./second for the a-SiGe:H intrinsic layer.

  11. Evaporation system and method for gas jet deposition of thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J.; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for depositing thin films of materials such as metals, oxides and nitrides at low temperature relies on a supersonic free jet of inert carrier gas to transport vapor species generated from an evaporation source to the surface of a substrate. Film deposition vapors are generated from solid film precursor materials, including those in the form of wires or powders. The vapor from these sources is carried downstream in a low pressure supersonic jet of inert gas to the surface of a substrate where the vapors deposit to form a thin film. A reactant gas can be introduced into the gas jet to form a reaction product with the evaporated material. The substrate can be moved from the gas jet past a gas jet containing a reactant gas in which a discharge has been generated, the speed of movement being sufficient to form a thin film which is chemically composed of the evaporated material and reactant gases. 8 figs.

  12. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, Rong, E-mail: rlongmech@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Dunn, Martin L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 138682 (Singapore)

    2014-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  13. Effect of deposition times on structure of Ga-doped ZnO thin films as humidity sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalid, Faridzatul Shahira; Awang, Rozidawati [School of Applied Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium doped zinc oxide (GZO) has good electrical property. It is widely used as transparent electrode in photovoltaic devices, and sensing element in gas and pressure sensors. GZO thin film was prepared using magnetron sputtering. Film deposition times were set at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes to get samples of different thickness. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the structure of GZO thin films. Structure for GZO thin film is hexagonal wurtzite structure. Morphology and thickness of GZO thin films was observed from FESEM micrographs. Grain size and thickness of thin films improved with increasing deposition times. However, increasing the thickness of thin films occur below 25 minutes only. Electrical properties of GZO thin films were studied using a four-point probe technique. The changes in the structure of the thin films lead to the changed of their electrical properties resulting in the reduction of the film resistance. These thin films properties significantly implying the potential application of the sample as a humidity sensor.

  14. Characterization of sputter deposited thin film scandate cathodes for miniaturized thermionic converter applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zavadil, K.R.; Ruffner, J.H.; King, D.B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Materials Processing Sciences Center, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0340 (United States)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully developed a method for fabricating scandate-based thermionic emitters in thin film form. The primary goal of our effort is to develop thin film emitters that exhibit low work function, high intrinsic electron emissivity, minimum thermal activation properties and that can be readily incorporated into a microgap converter. Our approach has been to incorporate BaSrO into a Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} matrix using rf sputtering to produce thin films. Diode testing has shown the resulting films to be electron emissive at temperatures as low as 900 K with current densities of 0.1 mA{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} at 1100 K and saturation voltages. We calculate an approximate maximum work function of 1.8 eV and an apparent emission constant (Richardson{close_quote}s constant, A{sup {asterisk}}) of 36 mA{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2}{center_dot}K{sup {minus}2}. Film compositional and structural analysis shows that a significant surface and subsurface alkaline earth hydroxide phase can form and probably explains the limited utilization and stability of Ba and its surface complexes. The flexibility inherent in sputter deposition suggests alternate strategies for eliminating undesirable phases and optimizing thin film emitter properties. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Characterization of Sputter Deposited Thin Film Scandate Cathodes for Miniaturized Thermionic Converter Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, D.B.; Ruffner, J.H.; Zavadil, K.R.

    1998-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We have successfully developed a method for fabricating scandate-based thermionic emitters in thin film form. The primary goal of our effort is to develop thin film emitters that exhibit low work fimction, high intrinsic electron emissivity, minimum thermal activation properties and that can be readily incorporated into a microgap converter. Our approach has been to incorporate BaSrO into a SqOq matrix using rf sputtering to produce thin films. Diode testing has shown the resulting films to be electron emissive at temperatures as low as 900 K with current densities of 0.1 mA.cm-2 at 1100 K and saturation voltages. We calculate an approximate maximum work function of 1.8 eV and an apparent emission constant (Richardson's constant, A*) of 36 mA.cm-2.K-2. Film compositional and structural analysis shows that a significant surface and subsurface alkaline earth hydroxide phase can form and probably explains the limited utilization and stability of Ba and its surface complexes. The flexibility inherent in sputter deposition suggests alternate strategies for eliminating undesirable phases and optimizing thin film emitter properties.

  16. Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films and their multilayered structures for photonic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Pulsed laser deposited amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films, 35042 Rennes Cedex, France Abstract Amorphous chalcogenide and alumino-silicate thin films were (As40Se60/Ge25Sb5S70) and mixed chalcogenide-oxide layers (As40Se60/alumino-silicate and Ga10Ge15Te75

  17. Nanoindentation study of niobium nitride thin films on niobium fabricated by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah; Farha, Ashraf Hassan; Ufuktepe, Y??ksel; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNX films deposited on single crystal Nb using pulsed laser deposition for different substrate temperature were previously investigated as a function of film/substrate crystal structure [Mamun et al., 2012]. In this study we focus on the effect of laser fluences and background nitrogen pressure on the nanomechanical and structural properties of NbNX films. The crystal structure and surface morphology of the thin films were tested by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Using nanoindentation, the investigation of the nanomechanical properties revealed that the hardness of the NbNX films was directly influenced by the laser fluence for low background nitrogen pressure, whereas the nanomechanical hardness showed no apparent correlation with laser fluence at high background nitrogen pressure. The NbNX film hardness measured at 30% film thickness increased from 14.0 ± 1.3 to 18.9 ± 2.4 GPa when the laser fluence was increased from 15 to 25 J/cm2 at 10.7 Pa N2 pressure. X-ray diffraction showed NbNX films with peaks that correspond to ?-NbN cubic and ?-Nb2N hexagonal phases in addition to the ??-NbN hexagonal phase. Increasing the laser fluence resulted in NbNX films with larger grain sizes.

  18. Method for controlling energy density for reliable pulsed laser deposition of thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowden, P. C., E-mail: dowden@lanl.gov, E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov; Bi, Z.; Jia, Q. X., E-mail: dowden@lanl.gov, E-mail: qxjia@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Division of Materials Physics and Applications, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have established a methodology to stabilize the laser energy density on a target surface in pulsed laser deposition of thin films. To control the focused laser spot on a target, we have imaged a defined aperture in the beamline (so called image-focus) instead of focusing the beam on a target based on a simple “lens-focus.” To control the laser energy density on a target, we have introduced a continuously variable attenuator between the output of the laser and the imaged aperture to manipulate the energy to a desired level by running the laser in a “constant voltage” mode to eliminate changes in the lasers’ beam dimensions. This methodology leads to much better controllability/reproducibility for reliable pulsed laser deposition of high performance electronic thin films.

  19. Radio frequency magnetron sputtering deposition of hetero-epitaxial strontium barium niobate thin films ,,SrxBa1xNb2O6...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    to control the deposition of high ordered SBN thin films with the aim of optical waveguiding and processing integration. We have examined the ability of sputtering techniques to deposit stoichiometric SBN thin films and to define an experimental strategy for stoichiometry control. Epitaxial 001 SBN thin films have been

  20. Unexpected behaviour of one Pb monolayer deposited on aluminum oxide thin film grown on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vizzini, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien.vizzini@im2np.fr; Bertoglio, M. [IM2NP CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13397 Marseille (France)] [IM2NP CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13397 Marseille (France); Oughaddou, Hamid [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay, ISMO CNRS, Université de Paris, F-91405 Orsay, France and Deptartamento de Physique, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France)] [Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d'Orsay, ISMO CNRS, Université de Paris, F-91405 Orsay, France and Deptartamento de Physique, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, F-95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Hoarau, J. Y.; Biberian, J. P.; Aufray, B. [CINaM CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13288 Marseille (France)] [CINaM CNRS, Aix Marseille Université, F-13288 Marseille (France)

    2013-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), Auger electron spectroscopy, and low energy electron diffraction, we have observed a surprising complete dissolution at room temperature of one lead monolayer deposited by evaporation on an aluminum oxide thin film (?0.8?nm thick) previously grown on Ag (111). We have observed the quasi-instantaneous diffusion of the lead deposit through the oxide layer to the silver/oxide interface. After the diffusion process, lead atoms form a Moiré superstructure, which is characterized by STM through the oxide layer. This unexpected behavior puts in light the very weak interaction between the aluminum oxide and the silver substrate.

  1. Characterization of diamond-like nanocomposite thin films grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santra, T. S.; Liu, C. H. [Institute of Nanoengineering and Microsystems (NEMS), National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan 30043 (China); Bhattacharyya, T. K. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302, West Bengal (India); Patel, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Barik, T. K. [School of Applied Sciences, Haldia Institute of Technology, Haldia 721657, Purba Medinipur, West Bengal (India)

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diamond-like nanocomposite (DLN) thin films, comprising the networks of a-C:H and a-Si:O were deposited on pyrex glass or silicon substrate using gas precursors (e.g., hexamethyldisilane, hexamethyldisiloxane, hexamethyldisilazane, or their different combinations) mixed with argon gas, by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. Surface morphology of DLN films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic result shows that the films contain nanoparticles within the amorphous structure. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to determine the structural change within the DLN films. The hardness and friction coefficient of the films were measured by nanoindentation and scratch test techniques, respectively. FTIR and XPS studies show the presence of C-C, C-H, Si-C, and Si-H bonds in the a-C:H and a-Si:O networks. Using Raman spectroscopy, we also found that the hardness of the DLN films varies with the intensity ratio I{sub D}/I{sub G}. Finally, we observed that the DLN films has a better performance compared to DLC, when it comes to properties like high hardness, high modulus of elasticity, low surface roughness and low friction coefficient. These characteristics are the critical components in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and emerging nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).

  2. Electrochemical and electrochromic properties of niobium oxide thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Z.W.; Kong, J.J.; Qin, Q.Z.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Niobium oxide thin films have been successfully fabricated on the indium-tin oxide coated glasses by pulsed laser deposition in an O{sub 3}/O{sub 2} gas mixture. Films are characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectrometry. Electrochemical and electrochromic properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are examined by cyclic voltammogram and potential step coupled with an in situ charge-coupled device spectrophotometer. The unique characteristics of absorption spectra of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films are observed for the first time, and the optical absorption from the trapped electrons in the surface states plays an important role in the electrochromic phenomenon.

  3. Pulsed laser deposition of high-quality thin films of the insulating ferromagnet EuS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Qi I., E-mail: qiyang@stanford.edu [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Zhao, Jinfeng; Risbud, Subhash H. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Zhang, Li; Dolev, Merav [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Fried, Alexander D. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Marshall, Ann F. [Stanford Nanocharacterization Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, Aharon [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    High-quality thin films of the ferromagnetic insulator europium(II) sulfide (EuS) were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) and Si (100) substrates. A single orientation was obtained with the [100] planes parallel to the substrates, with atomic-scale smoothness indicates a near-ideal surface topography. The films exhibit uniform ferromagnetism below 15.9?K, with a substantial component of the magnetization perpendicular to the plane of the films. Optimization of the growth condition also yielded truly insulating films with immeasurably large resistance. This combination of magnetic and electric properties opens the gate for future devices that require a true ferromagnetic insulator.

  4. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, A.F.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Rambach, G.D.; Randich, E.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated. 8 figs.

  5. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  6. Hybrid deposition of thin film solid oxide fuel cells and electrolyzers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Rambach, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Randich, Erik (Endinboro, PA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of vapor deposition techniques enables synthesis of the basic components of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC); namely, the electrolyte layer, the two electrodes, and the electrolyte-electrode interfaces. Such vapor deposition techniques provide solutions to each of the three critical steps of material synthesis to produce a thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TFSOFC). The electrolyte is formed by reactive deposition of essentially any ion conducting oxide, such as defect free, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by planar magnetron sputtering. The electrodes are formed from ceramic powders sputter coated with an appropriate metal and sintered to a porous compact. The electrolyte-electrode interface is formed by chemical vapor deposition of zirconia compounds onto the porous electrodes to provide a dense, smooth surface on which to continue the growth of the defect-free electrolyte, whereby a single fuel cell or multiple cells may be fabricated.

  7. Evolution of morphology and structure of Pb thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition at different substrate temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorusso, Antonella, E-mail: antonella.lorusso@le.infn.it; Maiolo, Berlinda; Perrone, Alessio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi,” Università del Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Gontad, Francisco [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare e Università del Salento, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Maruccio, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi,” Università del Salento, 73100 Lecce, Italy and National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Arnesano I-73100 (Italy); Tasco, Vittorianna [National Nanotechnology Laboratory, Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Arnesano I-73100 (Italy)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Pb thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition on a Si (100) substrate at different growth temperatures to investigate their morphology and structure. The morphological analysis of the thin metal films showed the formation of spherical submicrometer grains whose average size decreased with temperature. X-ray diffraction measurements confirmed that growth temperature influences the Pb polycrystalline film structure. A preferred orientation of Pb (111) normal to the substrate was achieved at 30?°C and became increasingly pronounced along the Pb (200) plane as the substrate temperature increased. These thin films could be used to synthesize innovative materials, such as metallic photocathodes, with improved photoemission performances.

  8. Deposition and characterization of TiZrV-Pd thin films by dc magnetron sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Yan-Hui; Wei, Wei; Fan, Le; Pei, Xiang-Tao; Hong, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TiZrV film is mainly applied in the ultra-high vacuum pipe of storage ring. Thin film coatings of palladium which was added onto the TiZrV film to increase the service life of nonevaporable getters and enhance pumping speed for H2, was deposited on the inner face of stainless steel pipes by dc magnetron sputtering using argon gas as the sputtering gas. The TiZrV-Pd film properties were investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The grain size of TiZrV and Pd film were about 0.42~1.3 nm and 8.5~18.25 nm respectively. It was found that the roughness of TiZrV films was small, about 2~4 nm, for Pd film it is large, about 17~19 nm. PP At. % of Pd in TiZrV/Pd films varied from 86.84 to 87.56 according to the XPS test results.

  9. Uncooled thin film infrared imaging device with aerogel thermal isolation: Deposition and planarization techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A.; Brinker, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sriram, C.S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Bullington, J.A. [AMMPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors have successfully integrated a thermally insulating silica aerogel thin film into a new uncooled monolithic thin film infrared (IR) imaging device. Compared to other technologies (bulk ceramic and microbridge), use of an aerogel layer provides superior thermal isolation of the pyroelectric imaging element from the relatively massive heat sinking integrated circuit. This results in significantly higher thermal and temporal resolutions. They have calculated noise equivalent temperature differences of 0.04--0.10 C from a variety of Pb{sub x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PZT) and Pb{sub x}La{sub 1{minus}x}Zr{sub y}Ti{sub 1{minus}y}O{sub 3} (PLZT) pyroelectric imaging elements in monolithic structures. In addition, use of aerogels results in an easier, less expensive fabrication process and a more robust device. Fabrication of these monolithic devices entails sol-gel deposition of the aerogel, sputter deposition of the electrodes, and solution chemistry deposition of the pyroelectric imaging elements. Uniform pyroelectric response is achieved across the device by use of appropriate planarization techniques. These deposition and planarization techniques are described. Characterization of the individual layers and monolithic structure using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Byer-Roundy techniques also is discussed.

  10. Nanoporosity induced by ion implantation in deposited amorphous Ge thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romano, L.; Impellizzeri, G.; Ruffino, F.; Miritello, M.; Grimaldi, M. G. [IMM-CNR MATIS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Bosco, L. [Scuola Superiore di Catania, Via Valdisavoia 9, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a nano-porous structure in amorphous Ge thin film (sputter-deposited on SiO{sub 2}) during ion irradiation at room temperature with 300 keV Ge{sup +} has been observed. The porous film showed a sponge-like structure substantially different from the columnar structure reported for ion implanted bulk Ge. The voids size and structure resulted to be strongly affected by the material preparation, while the volume expansion turned out to be determined only by the nuclear deposition energy. In SiGe alloys, the swelling occurs only if the Ge concentration is above 90%. These findings rely on peculiar characteristics related to the mechanism of voids nucleation and growth, but they are crucial for future applications of active nanostructured layers such as low cost chemical and biochemical sensing devices or electrodes in batteries.

  11. Enhanced electrochromic property of nickel hydroxide thin films prepared by anodic deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chigane, Masaya; Ishikawa, Masami (Osaka Municipal Technical Research Inst. (Japan). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel hydroxide and nickel oxide thin films have received much attention as electrochromic (EC) materials, particularly as the materials for a complementary counterlayer against an EC tungsten oxide layer in smart window systems. Nickel hydroxide thin films were prepared onto transparent conductive tin oxide (NESA) substrates by potentiostatic electrolysis of a nickel amine complex solution at various potentials (0.6 to 1.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl). Nickel hydroxide thin film (F0.7) obtained at relatively lower anodic potential (0.7 V) showed enhanced electrochromism between colorless and dark brown in a sodium borate buffer solution at pH 12; the absorption spectrum in the colored (oxidized) state was broadened in the visible and near-infrared region compared with the nickel hydroxide films prepared at the higher anodic potential (1.1 V). characterization of the films revealed that crystal structure of F0.7 is assigned to [alpha]-Ni(OH)[sub 2], and that its electrochromism is based on the reversible oxidation to hexagonal [gamma][sub 2]-2NiO[sub 2] [center dot] NiOOH structure. Composite nickel hydroxide film, i.e., by the electrolytic deposition at 1.1 V followed by that at 0.7 V, showed electrochromic property similar to F0.7 and its durability in repeated redox cycles were much improved in comparison with that of F0.7. Electrochromic properties in switching performance of this composite nickel hydroxide film were investigated.

  12. Damage mechanisms in thin film solar cells during sputtering deposition of transparent conductive coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Qihua; Liao Xianbo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Deng, Michael [Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States); Deng Xunming [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606 (United States); Xunlight Corporation, 3145 Nebraska Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43607 (United States)

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) based thin film solar cell grown on flexible stainless steel substrate is one of the most promising energy conversion devices in the future. This type of solar cell uses a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film as top electrode. It has been a widely accepted opinion that the radio frequency sputtering deposition of the TCO film produces a higher yield than direct current sputtering, and the reason is not clear. Here we show that the damage to the solar cell during the sputtering process is caused by a reverse bias applied to the n-i-p junction. This reverse bias is related to the characteristics of plasma discharge. The mechanism we reveal may significantly affect the solar cell process.

  13. Oriented Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buršík, J., E-mail: bursik@iic.cas.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i., 250 68 Husinec-?ež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kužel, R. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Knížek, K.; Drbohlav, I. [Institute of Physics of the AS CR, v.v.i., Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (Y) hexaferrite were prepared through the chemical solution deposition method on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) (ST) single crystal substrates using epitaxial SrFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (M) hexaferrite thin layer as a seed template layer. The process of crystallization was mainly investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. A detailed inspection revealed that growth of seed layer starts through the break-up of initially continuous film into isolated grains with expressive shape anisotropy and hexagonal habit. The vital parameters of the seed layer, i.e. thickness, substrate coverage, crystallization conditions and temperature ramp were optimized with the aim to obtain epitaxially crystallized Y phase. X-ray diffraction Pole figure measurements and ? scans reveal perfect parallel in-plane alignment of SrTiO{sub 3} substrate and both hexaferrite phases. - Graphical abstract: XRD pole figure and AFM patterns of Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} thin film epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) single crystal using seeding layer templating. - Highlights: • Single phase Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films were prepared by CSD method. • Seed M layer breaks into isolated single crystal islands and serves as a template. • Large seed grains grow by consuming the grains within the bulk of recoated film. • We explained the observed orientation relation of epitaxial domains. • Epitaxial growth on SrTiO{sub 3}(1 1 1) with relation (0 0 1){sub M,Y}//(1 1 1){sub ST}+[1 0 0]{sub M,Y}//[2 ?1 ?1]{sub ST}.

  14. Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn and Zn ferrite thin films obtained by laser ablation deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    Structural and magnetic properties of NiZn and Zn ferrite thin films obtained by laser ablation ferrite structures. Our investigations were performed on NiZn and Zn ferrite films deposited on silicon of the blocking temperature in both NiZn and Zn ferrite systems. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10

  15. Surface spectroscopic studies of the deposition of TiN thin films from tetrakis-(dimethylamido)-titanium and ammonia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    Surface spectroscopic studies of the deposition of TiN thin films from tetrakis-(dimethylamido)-titanium 1995 The adsorption and pyrolysis of tetrakis- dimethylamido -titanium TDMAT , Ti NMe2 4, on several , the growth of low-carbon-content 8 at. % titanium nitride films proceeds readily, via surface mediated

  16. Electronic passivation of silicon surfaces by thin films of atomic layer deposited gallium oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, T. G., E-mail: thomas.allen@anu.edu.au; Cuevas, A. [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes the application of gallium oxide (Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films to crystalline silicon solar cells. Effective passivation of n- and p-type crystalline silicon surfaces has been achieved by the application of very thin Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} films prepared by atomic layer deposition using trimethylgallium (TMGa) and ozone (O{sub 3}) as the reactants. Surface recombination velocities as low as 6.1?cm/s have been recorded with films less than 4.5?nm thick. A range of deposition parameters has been explored, with growth rates of approximately 0.2?Å/cycle providing optimum passivation. The thermal activation energy for passivation of the Si-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface has been found to be approximately 0.5?eV. Depassivation of the interface was observed for prolonged annealing at increased temperatures. The activation energy for depassivation was measured to be 1.9?eV.

  17. Note: Large area deposition of Rh single and Rh/W/Cu multilayer thin films on stainless steel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika, E-mail: alika@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)] [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mirror like thin films of single layer Rh and multilayer Rh/W/Cu are deposited on highly polished 50 mm diameter stainless steel substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique for first mirror application in fusion reactors. For this, the conventional PLD technique has been modified by incorporating substrate rastering stage for large area deposition via PLD. Process optimization to achieve uniformity of deposition as estimated from fringe visibility and thickness is also discussed.

  18. Maskless deposition technique for the physical vapor deposition of thin film and multilayer coatings with subnanometer precision and accuracy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vernon, Stephen P. (Pleasanton, CA); Ceglio, Natale M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a method for the production of axially symmetric, graded and ungraded thickness thin film and multilayer coatings that avoids the use of apertures or masks to tailor the deposition profile. A motional averaging scheme permits the deposition of uniform thickness coatings independent of the substrate radius. Coating uniformity results from an exact cancellation of substrate radius dependent terms, which occurs when the substrate moves at constant velocity. If the substrate is allowed to accelerate over the source, arbitrary coating profiles can be generated through appropriate selection and control of the substrate center of mass equation of motion. The radial symmetry of the coating profile is an artifact produced by orbiting the substrate about its center of mass; other distributions are obtained by selecting another rotation axis. Consequently there is a direct mapping between the coating thickness and substrate equation of motion which can be used to tailor the coating profile without the use of masks and apertures.

  19. Synthesis of multiferroic Er-Fe-O thin films by atomic layer and chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mantovan, R., E-mail: roberto.mantovan@mdm.imm.cnr.it; Vangelista, S.; Wiemer, C.; Lamperti, A.; Tallarida, G. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Chikoidze, E.; Dumont, Y. [GEMaC, Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines-CNRS, Versailles (France); Fanciulli, M. [Laboratorio MDM IMM-CNR, I-20864 Agrate Brianza (MB) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    R-Fe-O (R?=?rare earth) compounds have recently attracted high interest as potential new multiferroic materials. Here, we report a method based on the solid-state reaction between Er{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe layers, respectively grown by atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition, to synthesize Er-Fe-O thin films. The reaction is induced by thermal annealing and evolution of the formed phases is followed by in situ grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Dominant ErFeO{sub 3} and ErFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} phases develop following subsequent thermal annealing processes at 850?°C in air and N{sub 2}. Structural, chemical, and morphological characterization of the layers are conducted through X-ray diffraction and reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry, and atomic force microscopy. Magnetic properties are evaluated by magnetic force microscopy, conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer, being consistent with the presence of the phases identified by X-ray diffraction. Our results constitute a first step toward the use of cost-effective chemical methods for the synthesis of this class of multiferroic thin films.

  20. Effect of deposition temperature on electron-beam evaporated polycrystalline silicon thin-film and crystallized by diode laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, J., E-mail: j.yun@unsw.edu.au; Varalmov, S.; Huang, J.; Green, M. A. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Kim, K. [School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Suntech R and D Australia, Botany, New South Wales 2019 (Australia)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of the deposition temperature on the microstructure, crystallographic orientation, and electrical properties of a 10-?m thick evaporated Si thin-film deposited on glass and crystallized using a diode laser, are investigated. The crystallization of the Si thin-film is initiated at a deposition temperature between 450 and 550?°C, and the predominant (110) orientation in the normal direction is found. Pole figure maps confirm that all films have a fiber texture and that it becomes stronger with increasing deposition temperature. Diode laser crystallization is performed, resulting in the formation of lateral grains along the laser scan direction. The laser power required to form lateral grains is higher in case of films deposited below 450?°C for all scan speeds. Pole figure maps show 75% occupancies of the (110) orientation in the normal direction when the laser crystallized film is deposited above 550?°C. A higher density of grain boundaries is obtained when the laser crystallized film is deposited below 450?°C, which limits the solar cell performance by n?=?2 recombination, and a performance degradation is expected due to severe shunting.

  1. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  2. Low temperature atomic layer deposited ZnO photo thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oruc, Feyza B.; Aygun, Levent E.; Donmez, Inci; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali K., E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); UNAM—National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Yu, Hyun Yong [The School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) are fabricated on Si substrates using atomic layer deposition technique. The growth temperature of ZnO channel layers are selected as 80, 100, 120, 130, and 250?°C. Material characteristics of ZnO films are examined using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction methods. Stoichiometry analyses showed that the amount of both oxygen vacancies and interstitial zinc decrease with decreasing growth temperature. Electrical characteristics improve with decreasing growth temperature. Best results are obtained with ZnO channels deposited at 80?°C; I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratio is extracted as 7.8 × 10{sup 9} and subthreshold slope is extracted as 0.116 V/dec. Flexible ZnO TFT devices are also fabricated using films grown at 80?°C. I{sub D}–V{sub GS} characterization results showed that devices fabricated on different substrates (Si and polyethylene terephthalate) show similar electrical characteristics. Sub-bandgap photo sensing properties of ZnO based TFTs are investigated; it is shown that visible light absorption of ZnO based TFTs can be actively controlled by external gate bias.

  3. Cathodoluminescence Study of GadoliniumDoped Yttrium Oxide Thin Films Deposited By RadioFrequency Magnetron Sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitz-Gerald, James M.

    Cathodoluminescence Study of Gadolinium­Doped Yttrium Oxide Thin Films Deposited By Radio­Frequency (001) substrate using radio­frequency magnetron sputtering. Alternating layers of Y2O3 and Gd wereA/cm2 . Non- radiative decay via thermal pathways is suspected for the observed activator saturation

  4. Characterization of CdS thin films grown by chemical bath deposition using four different cadmium sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    efficiency thin film solar cells based on CdTe and Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) [3,4]. It has also been used in other used in solar cell applications [6,7]. Deposition of CdS using CBD is based on the slow release of Cd2

  5. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, R.A.; Haynes, T.E.; Golanski, A.

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repels the ionized particles. 3 figs.

  6. Apparatus and method for selective area deposition of thin films on electrically biased substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zuhr, Raymond A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Haynes, Tony E. (Knoxville, TN); Golanski, Andrzej (Le Cheylas, FR)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An ion beam deposition process for selective area deposition on a polarized substrate uses a potential applied to the substrate which allows the ionized particles to reach into selected areas for film deposition. Areas of the substrate to be left uncoated are held at a potential that repells the ionized particles.

  7. A dual-laser interferometry system for thin film measurements in thermal vapor deposition applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Allen Shiping

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lithography processes harnessing the phase change of the chemically inert carbon dioxide as a resist have been shown as a possible alternative to patterning thin film organic semiconductors and metals. The ability to control ...

  8. Chemical vapor deposition of conjugated polymeric thin films for photonic and electronic applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lock, John P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Conjugated polymers have delocalized electrons along the backbone, facilitating electrical conductivity. As thin films, they are integral to organic semiconductor devices emerging in the marketplace, such as flexible ...

  9. alloy films deposited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    memory alloy Elastic modulus Wrinkling Thermoelastic strain in a polycrystalline Fe-Pd thin film 50 High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition...

  10. Low temperature thin film transistors with hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolat, S., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr; Tekcan, B. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, C.; Biyikli, N. [UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Okyay, A. K., E-mail: bolat@ee.bilkent.edu.tr, E-mail: aokyay@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); UNAM, National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report GaN thin film transistors (TFT) with a thermal budget below 250?°C. GaN thin films are grown at 200?°C by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD). HCPA-ALD-based GaN thin films are found to have a polycrystalline wurtzite structure with an average crystallite size of 9.3?nm. TFTs with bottom gate configuration are fabricated with HCPA-ALD grown GaN channel layers. Fabricated TFTs exhibit n-type field effect characteristics. N-channel GaN TFTs demonstrated on-to-off ratios (I{sub ON}/I{sub OFF}) of 10{sup 3} and sub-threshold swing of 3.3?V/decade. The entire TFT device fabrication process temperature is below 250?°C, which is the lowest process temperature reported for GaN based transistors, so far.

  11. Pulsed laser deposition of epitaxial BeO thin films on sapphire and SrTiO{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peltier, Thomas; Takahashi, Ryota; Lippmaa, Mikk, E-mail: mlippmaa@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial beryllia thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(001) and SrTiO{sub 3}(111) substrates. Nearly relaxed epitaxial films were obtained on both substrates at growth temperatures of up to about 600?°C. Crystalline films with expanded lattice parameters were obtained even at room temperature. The maximum growth temperature was limited by a loss of beryllium from the film surface. The volatility of beryllium appeared to be caused by the slow oxidation kinetics at the film surface and the re-sputtering effect of high-energy Be and BeO species in the ablation plume. Time-of-flight plume composition analysis suggested that the target surface became Be metal rich at low oxygen pressures, reducing the growth rate of beryllia films.

  12. Optical, ferroelectric, and piezoresponse force microscopy studies of pulsed laser deposited Aurivillius Bi?FeTi?O?? thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooriyattil, Sudheendran [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Physics, Sree Kerala Varma College, Thrissur-680011, Kerala (India); Pavunny, Shojan P., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu, E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com; Barrionuevo, Danilo; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu, E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States)

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Bi?FeTi?O?? (BFTO) based Aurivillius ferroelectric thin films were fabricated on strontium ruthanate coated amorphous fused silica substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. Optical, ferroelectric, and piezoresponse properties of these thin films were investigated. The estimated refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) for these films were in the range from 2.40 to 2.59 and 0.012 to 0.19, respectively. The bandgap of the BFTO thin layers was estimated to be 2.88 eV. Domain switching and hysteresis loops of BFTO films were studied utilizing piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The measured apparent polarization (P{sub r}) and coercive field (E{sub c}) for the samples were 20 ?C/cm² and 250 kV/cm, respectively. The amplitude and phase hysteresis curves obtained from PFM characterization reveal that these films can be switched below 5 V. These results suggest that BFTO in thin film form is a promising material for photo ferroelectric and optoelectronic devices applications.

  13. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  14. Photoresponse in thin films of WO{sub 3} grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy Moulik, Samik [Unit for Nanoscience, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); ICON Analytical Equipment Pvt. Ltd., Kolkata (India); Samanta, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Barnali, E-mail: barnali@bose.res.in [Unit for Nanoscience, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India)

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We report, the photoresponse behaviour of Tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) films of different surface morphology, grown by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Growth parameters for PLD were changed for two substrates SiO{sub 2}/Si (SO) and SrTiO{sub 3} (STO), such a way which, result nanocrystalline film on SO and needle like structured film on STO. The photoresponse is greatly modified in these two films because of two different surface morphologies. The nanocrystalline film (film on SO) shows distinct photocurrent (PC) ON/OFF states when light was turned on/off, the enhancement of PC is ?27%. Whereas, the film with needle like structure (film on STO) exhibits significantly enhanced persistent photocurrent even in light off condition, in this case, the enhancement of PC???50% at room temperature at lowest wavelength (??=?360?nm) at a nominal bias voltage of 0.1 V.

  15. Sputter deposition of thin film MIM capacitors on LTCC substrates for RF bypass and filtering applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, Jack [Missouri University of Science and Technology; O'Keefe, Matthew J. [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Wilder, Kristina [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Eatinger, Ryan [Kansas State University; Kuhn, William [Kansas State University; Krueger, Daniel S. [Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies; Wolf, J. Ambrose [Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film capacitors for RF bypass and filtering applications were sputter deposited onto low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates. The capacitors were configured in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) design featuring 200 nm thick Al electrodes and a 300 nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric layer, with dimensions varied between ~150x150 ?m and ~750x750 ?m. DC current-voltage measurements (E ? 5 MV/cm) coupled with impedance analysis (?15 MHz) was used to characterize the resulting devices. More than 90% of the devices functioned as capacitors with high DC resistance (>20 M?) and low loss (tan ? <0.1). A second set of capacitors were made under the same experimental conditions with device geometries optimized for high frequency (?200 MHz) applications. These capacitors featured temperature coefficient of capacitance (TCC) values between 500 and 1000 ppm/°C as well as low loss and high self-resonant frequency performance (ESR <0.6 Ohms at self-resonance of 5.7 GHz for 82 pF). Capacitance and loss values were comparable between the capacitor structures of similar areas at the different frequency regimes.

  16. Optical characteristics of nanocrystalline Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N thin films deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldenberg, Eda, E-mail: goldenberg@unam.bilkent.edu.tr [UNAM – National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi [Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Kemal Okyay, Ali [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Gallium nitride (GaN), aluminum nitride (AlN), and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films have been deposited by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition at 200?°C on c-plane sapphire and Si substrates. The dependence of film structure, absorption edge, and refractive index on postdeposition annealing were examined by x-ray diffraction, spectrophotometry, and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, respectively. Well-adhered, uniform, and polycrystalline wurtzite (hexagonal) GaN, AlN, and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films were prepared at low deposition temperature. As revealed by the x-ray diffraction analyses, crystallite sizes of the films were between 11.7 and 25.2?nm. The crystallite size of as-deposited GaN film increased from 11.7 to 12.1 and 14.4?nm when the annealing duration increased from 30?min to 2?h (800?°C). For all films, the average optical transmission was ?85% in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectrum. The refractive indices of AlN and Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N were lower compared to GaN thin films. The refractive index of as-deposited films decreased from 2.33 to 2.02 (??=?550?nm) with the increased Al content x (0???x???1), while the extinction coefficients (k) were approximately zero in the VIS spectrum (>400?nm). Postdeposition annealing at 900?°C for 2?h considerably lowered the refractive index value of GaN films (2.33–1.92), indicating a significant phase change. The optical bandgap of as-deposited GaN film was found to be 3.95?eV, and it decreased to 3.90?eV for films annealed at 800?°C for 30?min and 2?h. On the other hand, this value increased to 4.1?eV for GaN films annealed at 900?°C for 2?h. This might be caused by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} formation and following phase change. The optical bandgap value of as-deposited Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N films decreased from 5.75 to 5.25?eV when the x values decreased from 1 to 0.68. Furthermore, postdeposition annealing did not affect the bandgap of Al-rich films.

  17. Growth direction of oblique angle electron beam deposited silicon monoxide thin films identified by optical second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vejling Andersen, Søren; Lund Trolle, Mads; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)] [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, Skjernvej 4A, DK-9220 Aalborg Øst (Denmark)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Oblique angle deposited (OAD) silicon monoxide (SiO) thin films forming tilted columnar structures have been characterized by second-harmonic generation. It was found that OAD SiO leads to a rotationally anisotropic second-harmonic response, depending on the optical angle of incidence. A model for the observed dependence of the second-harmonic signal on optical angle of incidence allows extraction of the growth direction of OAD films. The optically determined growth directions show convincing agreement with cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images. In addition to a powerful characterization tool, these results demonstrate the possibilities for designing nonlinear optical devices through SiO OAD.

  18. CRADA Final Report: Properties of Vacuum Deposited Thin Films of Lithium Phosphorous Oxynitride (Lipon) with an Expanded Composition Range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudney, N.J.

    2003-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of an amorphous, solid-state, lithium electrolyte, referred to as ''Lipon'', were first synthesized and characterized at ORNL in 1991. This material is typically prepared by magnetron sputtering in a nitrogen plasma, which allows nitrogen atoms to substitute for part of the oxygen ions of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Lipon is the key component in the successful fabrication of ORNL's rechargeable thin film microbatteries. Cymbet and several other US Companies have licensed this technology for commercialization. Optimizing the properties of the Lipon material, particularly the lithium ion conductivity, is extremely important, yet only a limited range of compositions had been explored prior to this program. The goal of this CRADA was to develop new methods to prepare Lipon over an extended composition range and to determine if the film properties might be significantly improved beyond those previously reported by incorporating a larger N component into the film. Cymbet and ORNL investigated different deposition processes for the Lipon thin films. Cymbet's advanced deposition process not only achieved a higher deposition rate, but also permitted independent control the O and N flux to the surface of the growing film. ORNL experimented with several modified sputtering techniques and found that by using sectored sputter targets, composed of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}N ceramic disks, thin Lipon films could be produced over an expanded composition range. The resulting Lipon films were characterized by electrical impedance, infrared spectroscopy, and several complementary analytical techniques to determine the composition. When additional N plus Li are incorporated into the Lipon film, the lithium conductivity was generally degraded. However, the addition of N accompanied by a slight loss of Li gave an increase in the conductivity. Although the improvement in the conductivity was only very modest and was a disappointing conclusion of this study, forcing a higher N content in the Lipon may alleviate some of the run-to-run variations in the Lipon quality that have been problematical for years.

  19. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies of electrochemically deposited thin oxide films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balasubramanian, M.

    1998-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We have utilized ''in situ'' X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy to investigate the structure and composition of thin oxide films of nickel and iron that have been prepared by electrodeposition on a graphite substrate from aqueous solutions. The films are generally disordered. Structural information has been obtained from the analysis of the data. We also present initial findings on the local structure of heavy metal ions, e.g. Sr and Ce, incorporated into the electrodeposited nickel oxide films. Our results are of importance in a number of technological applications, among them, batteries, fuel cells, electrochromic and ferroelectric materials, corrosion protection, as well as environmental speciation and remediation.

  20. Laser damage properties of TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Yaowei; Liu Hao; Sheng Ouyang; Liu Zhichao; Chen Songlin; Yang Liming

    2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) for laser damage resistance is rare. In this paper, it has been used to deposit TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films at 110 deg. C and 280 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates. Microstructure of the thin films was investigated by x-ray diffraction. The laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of samples was measured by a damage test system. Damage morphology was studied under a Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope and further checked under an atomic force microscope. Multilayers deposited at different temperatures were compared. The results show that the films deposited by ALD had better uniformity and transmission; in this paper, the uniformity is better than 99% over 100 mm {Phi} samples, and the transmission is more than 99.8% at 1064 nm. Deposition temperature affects the deposition rate and the thin film microstructure and further influences the LIDT of the thin films. As to the TiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, the LIDTs were 6.73{+-}0.47 J/cm{sup 2} and 6.5{+-}0.46 J/cm{sup 2} at 110 deg. C on fused silica and BK7 substrates, respectively. The LIDTs at 110 deg. C are notably better than 280 deg. C.

  1. Hydrogen removal from e-beam deposited alumina thin films by oxygen ion beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Arijeet, E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Mukharjee, C., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Rajiv, K., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Bose, Aniruddha, E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Singh, S. D., E-mail: arijeet@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, S. K.; Ganguli, Tapas; Joshi, S. C.; Deb, S. K. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Phase, D. M. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Indore-452017 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrogen interstitials and oxygen vacancies defects create energy levels in the band gap of alumina. This limits the application of alumina as a high-k dielectric. A low thermal budget method for removal of hydrogen from alumina is discussed. It is shown that bombardment of alumina films with low energy oxygen ion beam during electron beam evaporation deposition decreases the hydrogen concentration in the film significantly.

  2. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  3. Electrochemical behavior of potentiodynamically deposited cobalt oxyhydroxide (CoOOH) thin films for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jagadale, A.D., E-mail: jagadaleajay99@gmail.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Dubal, D.P. [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)] [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India); Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com [Thin Film Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004 (M.S.) (India)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) images of cobalt oxyhydroxide thin film at (a) 2000 Multiplication-Sign and (b) 10,000 Multiplication-Sign magnifications. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple method for the synthesis of CoOOH thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Supercapacitor with maximum specific capacitance of 449 F g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High charge/discharge efficiency. -- Abstract: In the present study, we report, for the first time, the synthesis of cobalt oxyhydroxide thin films on inexpensive stainless steel substrate using potentiodynamic electrodeposition method. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The orthorhombic crystal structure was revealed by the X-ray diffraction study. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the formation of cobalt oxyhydroxide. The SEM studies showed the nanoflakes-like morphology with an average thickness of 100 nm. The cyclic voltammetry study of the cobalt oxyhydroxide films in 1 M KOH showed maximum specific capacitance of 449 F g{sup -1} at scan rate of 5 mV s{sup -1}.

  4. Preparation and characterization of spray deposited n-type WO{sub 3} thin films for electrochromic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivakumar, R.; Moses Ezhil Raj, A.; Subramanian, B.; Jayachandran, M.; Trivedi, D.C.; Sanjeeviraja, C

    2004-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The n-type tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) polycrystalline thin films have been prepared at an optimized substrate temperature of 250 deg. C by spray pyrolysis technique. Precursor solution of ammonium tungstate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}WO{sub 4}) was sprayed onto the well cleaned, pre-heated fluorine doped tin oxide coated (FTO) and glass substrates with a spray rate of 15 ml/min. The structural, surface morphological and optical properties of the as-deposited WO{sub 3} thin films were studied. Mott-Schottky (M-S) studies of WO{sub 3}/FTO electrodes were conducted in Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution to identify their nature and extract semiconductor parameters. The electrochromic properties of the as-deposited and lithiated WO{sub 3}/FTO thin films were analyzed by employing them as working electrodes in three electrode electrochemical cell using an electrolyte containing LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate (PC) solution.

  5. Composition and chemical bonding of pulsed laser deposited carbon nitride thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brune, Harald

    properties such as extreme hardness, infrared transparency, chemical inertness, and excellent tribological with existing lubricants.7 DLC and CNx films can be grown with different meth- ods such as sputter deposition.11 There are still several open questions regarding how the growth conditions influence the resulting

  6. Z .Thin Solid Films 392 2001 231 235 Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of electrochromic tungsten oxide films Roy G. Gordona,U , Sean Barryb , Jeffrey T. Bartona , Randy N.R. Broomhall oxide, WO , is a coloring layer commonly used in electrochromic windows and displays. Successful: Chemical vapor deposition; Tungsten; Oxides; Electrochromism 1. Introduction Tungsten oxide is a key

  7. Characteristics of Hf-silicate thin films synthesized by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Jiurong; Martin, Ryan M.; Chang, Jane P. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Hafnium silicate films were grown by alternating the deposition cycles of hafnium oxide and silicon oxide using a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process. The as-deposited and 900 deg. C annealed hafnium silicate films were determined to be amorphous using grazing incidence x-ray diffraction. This suggested that the formation of hafnium silicate suppressed the crystallization of HfO{sub 2} at high temperatures. The dielectric constants increased from {approx}5 to {approx}17 as the hafnium content increased from 9 to 17 at. % in the hafnium silicate films. The leakage currents through the Hf-rich Hf-silicate films were two to three orders of magnitude lower than that of SiO{sub 2} with the same equivalent oxide thickness in the range of 1.6-2.3 nm. The estimated band gap of Hf-silicate films from the O 1s plasma loss spectra increased with the increasing Si content due to the higher band gap of SiO{sub 2} than that of HfO{sub 2}.

  8. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun; Mendelsberg, Rueben J.; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Anders, Andre

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). It is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 10-5 cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80percent from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate).more »These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.« less

  9. Transparent and conductive indium doped cadmium oxide thin films prepared by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhu, Yuankun [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Center for Composite Materials and Structures; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Plasma Applications Group; Mendelsberg, Rueben J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Plasma Applications Group and Molecular Foundry; Zhu, Jiaqi [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Center for Composite Materials and Structures; Han, Jiecai [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). Center for Composite Materials and Structures; Anders, Andre [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Plasma Applications Group

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium doped cadmium oxide (CdO:In) films with different In concentrations were prepared on low-cost glass substrates by pulsed filtered cathodic arc deposition (PFCAD). It is shown that polycrystalline CdO:In films with smooth surface and dense structure are obtained. In-doping introduces extra electrons leading to remarkable improvements of electron mobility and conductivity, as well as improvement in the optical transmittance due to the Burstein Moss effect. CdO:In films on glass substrates with thickness near 230 nm show low resistivity of 7.23 10-5 cm, high electron mobility of 142 cm2/Vs, and mean transmittance over 80percent from 500-1250 nm (including the glass substrate). These high quality pulsed arc-grown CdO:In films are potentially suitable for high efficiency multi-junction solar cells that harvest a broad range of the solar spectrum.

  10. Effect of deposition pressure on the microstructure and thermoelectric properties of epitaxial ScN(001) thin films sputtered onto MgO(001) substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Burmistrova, Polina V.; Zakharov, Dmitri N.; Favaloro, Tela; Mohammed, Amr; Stach, Eric A.; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.

    2015-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Four epitaxial ScN(001) thin films were successfully deposited on MgO(001) substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering at 2, 5, 10, and 20 mTorr in an Ar/N2 ambient atmosphere at 650 °C. The microstructure of the resultant films was analyzed by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Electrical resistivity, electron mobility and concentration were measured using the room temperature Hall technique, and temperature dependent in-plain measurements of the thermoelectric properties of the ScN thin films were performed. The surface morphology and film crystallinity significantly degrade with increasing deposition pressure. The ScN thin film deposited at 20 mTorr exhibitsmore »the presence of oriented secondary grains resulting in decreased electric properties and a low thermoelectric power factor of 0.5 W/m-K² at 800 K. ScN thin films grown at 5 and 10 mTorr are single crystalline, yielding the power factor of approximately 2.5 W/m-K² at 800 K. The deposition performed at 2 mTorr produces the highest quality ScN thin film with the electron mobility of 98 cm² V?¹ s?¹ and the power factor of 3.3 W/m-K² at 800 K.« less

  11. Method for microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, III, Jerome J. (New Haven, CT); Halpern, Bret L. (Bethany, CT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film is formed on a substrate positioned in a vacuum chamber by use of a gas jet apparatus affixed to a vacuum chamber port and having an outer nozzle with an interior cavity into which carrier gas is fed, an inner nozzle located within the outer nozzle interior cavity into which reactant gas is introduced, a tip of the inner nozzle being recessed from the vacuum chamber port within the outer nozzle interior cavity, and a microwave discharge device configured about the apparatus for generating a discharge in the carrier gas and reactant gas only in a portion of the outer nozzle interior cavity extending from approximately the inner nozzle tip towards the vacuum chamber. A supersonic free jet of carrier gas transports vapor species generated in the microwave discharge to the surface of the substrate to form a thin film on the substrate. The substrate can be translated from the supersonic jet to a second supersonic jet in less time than needed to complete film formation so that the film is chemically composed of chemical reaction products of vapor species in the jets.

  12. Method for microwave plasma assisted supersonic gas jet deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.J. III; Halpern, B.L.

    1994-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film is formed on a substrate positioned in a vacuum chamber by use of a gas jet apparatus affixed to a vacuum chamber port and having an outer nozzle with an interior cavity into which carrier gas is fed, an inner nozzle located within the outer nozzle interior cavity into which reactant gas is introduced, a tip of the inner nozzle being recessed from the vacuum chamber port within the outer nozzle interior cavity, and a microwave discharge device configured about the apparatus for generating a discharge in the carrier gas and reactant gas only in a portion of the outer nozzle interior cavity extending from approximately the inner nozzle tip towards the vacuum chamber. A supersonic free jet of carrier gas transports vapor species generated in the microwave discharge to the surface of the substrate to form a thin film on the substrate. The substrate can be translated from the supersonic jet to a second supersonic jet in less time than needed to complete film formation so that the film is chemically composed of chemical reaction products of vapor species in the jets. 5 figs.

  13. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO3)x:(Sm2O3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)x:(Mn3O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

  14. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P., E-mail: pdutta2@central.uh.edu; Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P. [Department of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 (United States); Martinez, J. [Materials Evaluation Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77085 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  15. A thin film transistor driven microchannel device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    .1. Principle of Electrophoresis?????????????? 1.2. Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis????????... 1.3. Electrophoresis of DNA???????????????.. 2. Plasma Thin Film Deposition Process???????????... 2.1. Fundamentals of Plasma?????????????.?? 2.2. Plasma... Phase Chemical Reactions???????????.. 2.3. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition??????.. 2.4. PECVD Thin Film?????????????????.. 3. Thin Film Transistor??????????????????.. 7 7 12 17 20 20 23 24 25 29 III...

  16. Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.

    Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

  17. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  18. Boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon germanium alloy nanocrystals—Nonthermal plasma synthesis and gas-phase thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rowe, David J., E-mail: rowex108@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu; Kortshagen, Uwe R., E-mail: rowex108@umn.edu, E-mail: kortshagen@umn.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alloyed silicon-germanium (SiGe) nanostructures are the topic of renewed research due to applications in modern optoelectronics and high-temperature thermoelectric materials. However, common techniques for producing nanostructured SiGe focus on bulk processing; therefore little is known of the physical properties of SiGe nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from molecular precursors. In this letter, we synthesize and deposit thin films of doped SiGe NCs using a single, flow-through nonthermal plasma reactor and inertial impaction. Using x-ray and vibrational analysis, we show that the SiGe NC structure appears truly alloyed for Si{sub 1?x}Ge{sub x} for 0.16 < x < 0.24, and quantify the atomic dopant incorporation within the SiGe NC films.

  19. aln film deposited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deposited by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique at room, amorphous and polycrystalline GaN thin films have been deposited using the magnetron sputtering...

  20. aln films deposited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deposited by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique at room, amorphous and polycrystalline GaN thin films have been deposited using the magnetron sputtering...

  1. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Silica SiO2-TiO2 Antireflective Thin Films for Glass Based Solar Panels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klobukowski, Erik R [ORNL; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E [ORNL; McCamy, James [PPG; Harris, Caroline [PPG; Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of SiO2-TiO2 thin films employing [[(tBuO)3Si]2O-Ti(OiPr)2], which can be prepared from commercially available materials, results in antireflective thin films on float glass under industrially relevant manufacturing conditions. It was found that while the deposition temperature had an effect on the SiO2:TiO2 ratio, the thickness was dependent on the time of deposition. This study shows that it is possible to use APCVD employing a single source precursor containing titanium and silicon to produce thin films on float glass with high SiO2:TiO2 ratios.

  2. Enhanced stability against bias-stress of metal-oxide thin film transistors deposited at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakhri, M.; Goerrn, P.; Riedl, T. [Institute of Electronic Devices, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-St. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. Compared to reference devices with a channel deposited at room temperature and subsequently annealing at 400 deg. C, a substantially enhanced stability against bias stress is evidenced for devices with in-situ substrate heating during deposition (400 deg. C). A reduced density of sub-gap defect states in TFT channels prepared with in-situ substrate heating is found. Concomitantly, a reduced sensitivity to the adsorption of ambient gases is evidenced for the in-situ heated devices. This finding is of particular importance for an application as driver electronics for organic light emitting diode displays.

  3. Ultra-narrow ferromagnetic resonance in organic-based thin films grown via low temperature chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, H.; Harberts, M.; Adur, R.; Hammel, P. Chris; Johnston-Halperin, E., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Lu, Y. [Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States); Epstein, A. J., E-mail: ejh@physics.osu.edu, E-mail: epstein@physics.osu.edu [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1117 (United States); Department of Chemistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1173 (United States)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the growth of thin films of the organic-based ferrimagnetic semiconductor V[TCNE]{sub x} (x???2, TCNE: tetracyanoethylene) via chemical vapor deposition. Under optimized growth conditions, we observe a significant increase in magnetic homogeneity, as evidenced by a Curie temperature above 600?K and sharp magnetization switching. Further, ferromagnetic resonance studies reveal a single resonance with full width at half maximum linewidth of 1.4?G, comparable to the narrowest lines measured in inorganic magnetic materials and in contrast to previous studies that showed multiple resonance features. These characteristics are promising for the development of high frequency electronic devices that take advantage of the unique properties of this organic-based material, such as the potential for low cost synthesis combined with low temperature and conformal deposition on a wide variety of substrates.

  4. Epitaxial Stabilization of a Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Lead-Free Ferroelectric Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeches, Robert James

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1376 (2005). D. L. Smith, Thin-Film Deposition PrinciplesMaterials Science of Thin Films, (Academic Press: San Diego,Laser Deposition of Thin Films, (John Wiley & Sons, Inc. :

  5. Solution deposited NiO thin-films as hole transport layers in organic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Chesin, Jordan P. [Division of Engineering, Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Widjonarko, N. Edwin [University of Colorado, Dept of Physics, Boulder, CO (United States); Berry, Joseph J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miedaner, Alexander [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ginley, David S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olson, Dana C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic solar cells require suitable anode surface modifiers in order to selectively collect positive charge carriers and improve device performance. We employ a nickel metal organic ink precursor to fabricate NiO hole transport layers on indium tin oxide anodes. This solution deposited NiO annealed at 250 °C and plasma treated, achieves similar OPV device results reported with NiO films from PLD as well as PEDOT:PSS. We demonstrate a tunable work function by post-processing the NiO with an O{sub 2}-plasma surface treatment of varied power and time. We find that plasma treatment is necessary for optimal device performance. Optimal devices utilizing a solution deposited NiO hole transport layer show lower series resistance and increased fill factor when compared to solar cells with PEDOT:PSS.

  6. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A. [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10?nm and 20?nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100?±?10?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

  7. aln thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    deposited by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering technique at room, amorphous and polycrystalline GaN thin films have been deposited using the magnetron sputtering...

  8. Epitaxial Ba{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} thin-films grown on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, J., E-mail: john.nichols@uky.edu; Korneta, O. B.; Terzic, J.; Cao, G.; Brill, J. W.; Seo, S. S. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2014-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have synthesized epitaxial Ba{sub 2}IrO{sub 4} (BIO) thin-films on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition and studied their electronic structure by dc-transport and optical spectroscopic experiments. We have observed that BIO thin-films are insulating but close to the metal-insulator transition boundary with significantly smaller transport and optical gap energies than its sister compound, Sr{sub 2}IrO{sub 4}. Moreover, BIO thin-films have both an enhanced electronic bandwidth and electronic-correlation energy. Our results suggest that BIO thin-films have great potential for realizing the interesting physical properties predicted in layered iridates.

  9. Modeling the Early Stages of Thin Film Formation by Energetic Atom Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghoniem, Nasr M.

    system to condense superthermal free particles on a host material. Ion-beam deposition systems deposit

  10. Electrochemical deposition and characterization of Ni-P alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahalingam, T. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003 (India) and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Information Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: maha51@rediffmail.com; Raja, M. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003 (India); Thanikaikarasan, S. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, 630 003 (India); Velumani, S. [Departamento de Fisica, ITESM-Campus Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, C.P. 64849 (Mexico); Moon, Hosun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Information Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Deak [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Information Technology, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nickel phosphorus (Ni-P) alloy thin films were prepared by electrodeposition on pre-cleaned copper substrates using a potentiostatic cathodic electrodeposition method from sulfate electrolyte baths at various sodium hypophosphite (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}) concentrations. X-ray diffraction studies reveal polycrystalline cubic alloys at low concentrations of phosphorus (< 13.5 at.%) and these transformed into amorphous alloys at higher concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectra show the presence of Ni{sub 2}p and P{sub 2}p lines corresponding to their binding energies. Scanning electron microscopic studies reveal spherical shaped grains at low phosphorus contents and modules of cauliflower type morphology at higher phosphorus concentrations. The effects of phosphorus concentration on the crystal structure, composition and morphology are studied and discussed.

  11. Thin film deposition by electric and magnetic crossed-field diode sputtering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, Kimo M. (Mountain View, CA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying a thin film coating to the surface of a workpiece, in particular, applying a coating of titanium nitride to a klystron window by means of a crossed-field diode sputtering array. The array is comprised of a cohesive group of numerous small hollow electrically conducting cylinders and is mounted so that the open ends of the cylinders on one side of the group are adjacent a titanium cathode plate. The workpiece is mounted so as to face the open ends of the other side of the group. A magnetic field is applied to the array so as to be coaxial with the cylinders and a potential is applied across the cylinders and the cathode plate, the cylinders as an anode being positive with respect to the cathode plate. The cylinders, the cathode plate and the workpiece are situated in an atmosphere of nitrogen which becomes ionized such as by field emission because of the electric field between the cylinders and cathode plate, thereby establishing an anode-cathode discharge that results in sputtering of the titanium plate. The sputtered titanium coats the workpiece and chemically combines with the nitrogen to form a titanium nitride coating on the workpiece. Gas pressure, gas mixtures, cathode material composition, voltages applied to the cathode and anode, the magnetic field, cathode, anode and workpiece spacing, and the aspect ratio (ratio of length to inner diameter) of the anode cylinders, all may be controlled to provide consistent optimum thin film coatings of various compositions and thicknesses. Another facet of the disclosure is the coating of microwave components per se with titanium nitride to reduce multipactoring under operating conditions of the components.

  12. Rapid Deposition Technology Holds the Key for the World's Largest Manufacturer of Thin-Film Solar Modules (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    First Solar, Inc. has been collaborating with NREL since 1991, advancing its thin-film cadmium telluride solar technology to grow from a startup company to become one of the world's largest manufacturers of solar modules, and the world's largest manufacturer of thin-film solar modules.

  13. CRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION ASSISTED CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . An industrial exploitation of these properties for solar cell production currently lacks of a cost effectiveCRYSTALLINE SILICON THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS FROM THE POROUS SILICON PROCESS APPLYING CONVECTION for the first time to monocrystalline Si thin-film solar cells from the porous silicon (PSI) layer transfer

  14. Development of electron reflection suppression materials for improved thermionic energy converter performance using thin film deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.; Luke, James R. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications (IERA) , 901 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106-4339 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonideal electrode surfaces cause significant degree of electron reflection from collector during thermionic converter operation. The effect of the collector surface structure on the converter performance was assessed through the development of several electron reflection suppression materials using various thin film deposition techniques. The double-diode probe method was used to compare the J-V characteristics of converters with polished and modified collector surfaces for emitter temperature and cesium vapor pressure in the ranges of 900-2000 K and 0.02-1.5 torr, respectively. The coadsorption of cesium and oxygen with respective partial vapor pressures of {approx}1.27 torr and a few microtorrs reduced the emitter work function to a minimum value of 0.99 eV. It was found that the collector surfaces with matte black appearance such as platinum black, voided nickel from radio-frequency plasma sputtering, and etched electroless Ni-P with craterlike pore morphology exhibited much better performance compared with polished collector surface. For these thin films, the increase in the maximum output voltage was up to 2.0 eV. For optimum performance with minimum work function and maximum saturation emission current density, the emitter temperature was in the range of 1100-1500 K, depending on the collector surface structure. The use of these materials in cylindrical converter design and/or in combination with hybrid mode triode configuration holds great potential in low and medium scale power generators for commercial use.

  15. Chemical solution deposition derived (001)-oriented epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} thin films with robust ferroelectric properties using stoichiometric precursors (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qi; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Standard, Owen, E-mail: o.standard@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase pure bismuth ferrite (BiFeO{sub 3}) thin films with (001)-oriented epitaxial structure are realized on lanthanum strontium manganite (La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}) buffered (001)-SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by chemical solution deposition. The annealing process is optimized such that a stoichiometric precursor can be used to accurately control the Bi:Fe ratio. Ferroelectric, dielectric, and resistive switching behaviours are investigated for 40?nm, 70?nm, and 150?nm BFO thin films. While the thinnest film (40?nm) shows very leaky loops, square and fully saturated polarization hysteresis loops are shown for the thicker films. The highest remanent polarization (2P{sub r}?=?100??C/cm{sup 2}) and relative dielectric constant (?{sub r}?=?613) are obtained in the 150?nm BFO thin film. High cycle fatigue tests show that the thick films are resistant to polarization fatigue. Piezoresponse force microscopy results show that the domain structure varies with thickness. Resistive switching and polarization mediated diode effects are also observed. These robust properties suggest that chemical solution deposition derived BiFeO{sub 3} thin films can offer a viable low cost alternative.

  16. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  17. Non-equilibrium deposition of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films at reduced growth temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramaniyan, Archana, E-mail: asubrama@mymail.mines.edu [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Perkins, John D.; Lany, Stephan; Stevanovic, Vladan; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); O’Hayre, Ryan P. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) is actively studied as a prototypical material for energy conversion and electronic applications. Here we reduce the growth temperature of phase pure Cu{sub 2}O thin films to 300?°C by intentionally controlling solely the kinetic parameter (total chamber pressure, P{sub tot}) at fixed thermodynamic condition (0.25 mTorr pO{sub 2}). A strong non-monotonic effect of P{sub tot} on Cu-O phase formation is found using high-throughput combinatorial-pulsed laser deposition. This discovery creates new opportunities for the growth of Cu{sub 2}O devices with low thermal budget and illustrates the importance of kinetic effects for the synthesis of metastable materials with useful properties.

  18. The interplay between spatially separated ferromagnetic and superconducting thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Isaac John

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferromagnetic thin films have been grown via physical vapor deposition utilizing the technique of flash evaporation and characterized by measuring magnetization as a function of magnetic field. An Al thin film was evaporated atop the ferromagnetic...

  19. Thin Films for Microelectronics and Photonics: Physics, Mechanics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    4 Thin Films for Microelectronics and Photonics: Physics, Mechanics, Characterization, USA bUniversity of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA 4.1. TERMINOLOGY AND SCOPE 4.1.1. Thin Films Thin practice. The term thin films as used here refers to material layers deposited by vapor

  20. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  1. Synthesis of reactive and stimuli-responsive polymer thin films by initiated chemical vapor deposition and their sensor applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tenhaeff, Wyatt E

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stimuli-responsive polymer thin films provide the ability to control the interaction of a surface with its environment. Synthetic techniques with fine compositional control are required to engineer specific responses to ...

  2. Effect of post-deposition treatment on energy conversion efficiency of nanostructured CdS/Cu{sub 2}S thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taur, Vidya S.; Joshi, Rajesh A. [Department of Physics, S. B. E. S. College of Science, Aurangabad 431002 MS (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004 (India)

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present manuscript we report about synthesis of nanostructured CdS/Cu{sub 2}S thin films by economically viable soft chemical route and effect of post deposition treatments such as annealing in air and swift heavy ion irradiation on solar energy conversion efficiency of the heterojunction device. These as grown, annealed and irradiated thin films are characterized for structural, morphological, optical and I-V properties. X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD) represents structural as well as crystallite modifications, atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows improvement in surface appearance of the materials. The solar energy conversion efficiency calculated from I-V exhibited increase in conversion efficiency i. e. 0.09, 0.24 and 0.48 % for as grown, annealed and SHI irradiated thin films.

  3. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited byDual magnetron sputtering; tungsten oxide films; Er ionoptical waveguides [3,5]. Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films

  4. Laser studies of the SiH radical/surface interaction during deposition of a thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.; Buss, R.J.; Breiland, W.G.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a new method for studying the interaction of radicals with the surface of a depositing film using a combination of laser spectroscopy and molecular beam techniques. The reactivity of SiH molecules with the surface of a depositing a-Si:H film is measured to be at least 0.95, with no significant dependence on rotational state. 9 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electrochemical Society (Batteries and Energy ConversionDeposition for Lithium Batteries Seung-Wan Song, a, * Ronaldrechargeable lithium batteries. Introduction Sb-containing

  6. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laser Deposition for Lithium Batteries Seung-Wan Song, a, *in rechargeable lithium batteries. Introduction Sb-in rechargeable lithium batteries. Two advantages of

  7. Structural, magnetic, and optical properties of orthoferrite thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplee, William Wagner

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed laser deposition was used to create thin films of Ce-Fe-O and Y-Fe-O systems. Deposition temperature and ambient oxygen pressure were varied systematically between samples to determine which deposition conditions ...

  8. CFN | Thin Films Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility Thin-Film Processing Facility Online Manager (FOM) website FOM manual ESR for lab 1L32 (High-Resolution SEM and x-ray...

  9. Thin Film Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development of four thin-film technologies on the path to achieving cost-competitive solar energy, including:

  10. Infrared spectroscopic study of atomic layer deposition mechanism for hafnium silicate thin films using HfCl2N,,SiMe3...22 and H2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Steven M.

    Infrared spectroscopic study of atomic layer deposition mechanism for hafnium silicate thin films was used to study the atomic layer deposition mechanism of hafnium silicate films with dichlorobis EOT.2 Among many other high-k materials, hafnium silicate is considered to be the most promising

  11. Low-temperature synthesis of gallium nitride thin films using electron cyclotron resonance plasma assisted pulsed laser deposition from a GaAs target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J.; Wu, A.M.; Xu, N.; Ying, Z.F.; Shen, X.K.; Dong, Z.B.; Wu, J.D.; Shi, L.Q. [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Photonic Materials and Devices, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using reactive pulsed laser deposition assisted by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma, we have synthesized GaN thin films from a polycrystalline GaAs target at low temperatures. This was achieved by ablating the GaAs target in the reactive environment of a nitrogen plasma generated from ECR microwave discharge in pure nitrogen gas and depositing the films with concurrent bombardment by the low-energy nitrogen plasma stream. High-energy ion backscattering spectroscopy analysis shows that the synthesized films are gallium rich. Characterizations by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the presence of GaN bonds in the films. The recorded absorption spectrum also reveals GaN stretching mode characteristic of the hexagonal GaN phase. The synthesized GaN films are transparent in the visible region and have a band gap of 3.38 eV. Optical emission from the plume during film deposition reveals that the plume created by pulsed laser ablation of the GaAs target consists mainly of monoatomic atoms and ions of gallium and arsenic. Mechanisms responsible for the formation of GaN molecules and the growth of GaN films are also discussed.

  12. Growth of nano-and microcrystalline silicon thin films at low temperature by pulsed electron deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zexian, Cao

    crystallites (heating-film silicon solar cells take a larger market share than the single- and polycrystalline silicon solar cells industry. In all the efforts, substrate heating or post-annealing at a temperature higher than 300 1C

  13. al films deposited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sputtering. Highly oriented, crack-free, stoichiometric polycrystalline rutile TiO2 thin film; RF magnetron sputtering; Phase transition; Deposition parameter effects 1....

  14. Deposition and characterization of Cd{sub 1?x}Mg{sub x}Te thin films grown by a novel cosublimation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobyakov, Pavel S., E-mail: pskobyak@rams.colostate.edu; Swanson, Drew E.; Sampath, Walajabad S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Colorado State University, 1374 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States); Moore, Andrew; Raguse, John M. [Department of Physics, Colorado State University, 1875 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic cells utilizing the CdS/CdTe structure have improved substantially in the past few years. Despite the recent advances, the efficiency of CdS/CdTe cells is still significantly below their Shockley–Queisser limit. CdTe based ternary alloy thin films, such as Cd{sub 1?x}Mg{sub x}Te (CMT), could be used to improve efficiency of CdS/CdTe photovoltaic cells. Higher band gap Cd{sub 1?x}Mg{sub x}Te films can be the absorber in top cells of a tandem structure or an electron reflector layer in CdS/CdTe cells. A novel cosublimation method to deposit CMT thin films has been developed. This method can deposit CMT films of band gaps ranging from 1.5 to 2.3?eV. The cosublimation method is fast, repeatable, and scalable for large areas, making it suitable for implementing into large-scale manufacturing. Characterization of as-deposited CMT films, with x varying from 0 to 0.35, reveals a linear relationship between Mg content measured by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and the optical band gap. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD) measurements of Cd{sub 1?x}Mg{sub x}Te films show a zinc-blende structure similar to CdTe. Furthermore, increasing Mg content decreases the lattice parameter and the grain size. GAXRD shows the films are under mild tension after deposition.

  15. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, Cynthia; Marcinek, M.; Hardwick, L.J.; Richardson, T.J.; Song, X.; Kostecki, R.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we report results of a novel synthesis method of thin-film composite Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic carbon decorated with uniformly distributed Sn nanoparticles were synthesized from a solid organic precursor Sn(IV) tert-butoxide by a one step microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD). The thin-film Sn/C electrodes were electrochemically tested in lithium half cells and produced a reversible capacity of 440 and 297 mAhg{sup -1} at C/25 and 5C discharge rates, respectively. A long term cycling of the Sn/C nanocomposite anodes showed 40% capacity loss after 500 cycles at 1C rate.

  16. Organic polymer thin films deposited on silicon and copper by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Chun-Dong, Jangan- Gu, Suwon 440-746, South Korea J. H. Boo Center for Advanced Plasma Surface Technology be grown under various deposition conditions. © 2005 American Vacuum Society. DOI: 10.1116/1.1946714 I as a dielectric and optical coating to inhibit corrosion.1,2 More- over, with increasing integration density

  17. Annealing effects on structural, electrical and optical properties of antimony-tinoxide thin films deposited by sol gel dip coating technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lekshmy, S. Sujatha, E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com; Anitha, V. S., E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com; Berlin, I. John, E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com; Joy, K., E-mail: jolly2jolly@gmail.com [Thin film Laboratory, Post Graduate and Research Department of Physics, Mar Ivanios College, Thiruvananthapuram 695 015 (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Antimony-doped tin dioxide possess interesting physical and chemical properties. These properties have a wide range of applications such as catalysis and optoelectronic devices. In the present study, antimony-doped tin oxide (SnO2:Sb) thin films were deposited on the quartz substrates by sol-gel dip coating technique. The films were annealed at temperatures 350°C, 550°C and 850°C in air for 2 hours. The structure and surface morphologies were observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns shows tetragonal structure for the SnO2:Sb films annealed at different temperatures. Crystallite size increased from 6 to 14 nm as annealing temperature increased from 350°C to 850°C. SEM studies reveals crack free and smooth surface for all the films. The grains are found to be homogenously distributed for films annealed at higher temperature. The electrical conductivity of the films annealed at 350°C and 550°C decreased and increased for the films annealed at 850°C. The optical properties of the films were investigated in the UV-visible-NIR region (200-900 nm) using UV spectra. The transmittance of the films decreased for films annealed at higher temperature. The optical energy band gap values (4.13 eV-4.83 eV) increased with the increase in annealing temperature.

  18. Deposition, Characterization, and Thin-Film-Based Chemical Sensing of Ultra-Long Chemically Synthesized Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    Synthesized Graphene Nanoribbons Ahmad N. Abbas ,, , Gang Liu , , Akimitsu Narita , Manuel Orosco¶ , Xinliang dispersion is prepared by sonicating GNR powder in 1- cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) for 30 min to 1 h with a nitrogen gun. GNR dispersion preparation (films): The dispersion is prepared by sonic

  19. Indium-Vanadium Oxides Deposited by Radio Frequency Sputtering: New Thin Film Transparent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artuso, Florinda

    in order to determine their possible applications in electrochromic devices as optically passive ion-vis-NIR transmittance and reflectance modes, have demonstrated that films are electrochromic, but the presence in electrochromic devices (ECD) with variable light transmission ("smart windows").2,3 As has been demonstrated

  20. Atmospheric Pressure Deposition of Fluorinedoped SnO2 Thin Films from Organotin Fluorocarboxylate Precursors. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahon, Mary F; Molloy, Kieran C; Stanley, Joanne E; Rankin, David W H; Robertson, Heather E; Johnston, Blair F

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine organotin fluorocarboxylates RnSnO2CRf (n = 3, R = Bu, Rf = CF3, C2F5, C3F7, C7F15; R = Et, Rf = CF3, C2F5; R = Me, Rf = C2F5; n = 2, R =Me, Rf = CF3) have been synthesised; key examples have been used to deposit ...

  1. In situ pulsed laser deposition of superconducting Ba sub 1 minus x K sub x BiO sub 3 thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, B.M.; Platt, C.E.; Schweinfurth, R.A.; Van Harlingen, D.J. (Science and Technology Center for Superconductivity Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois (USA))

    1991-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown superconducting thin films of Ba{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}K{sub {ital x}}BiO{sub 3} by {ital in} {ital situ} pulsed laser deposition from a stoichiometric ({ital x}=0.4) target. The best films exhibit an onset transition temperature of 28 K and have zero resistance as high as 26 K. Films are single phase and highly oriented in the (100) or (110) direction on MgO, SrTiO{sub 3}, LaAlO{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. We have observed high-quality normal-insulator-superconductor and superconductor-insulator-superconductor quasiparticle tunneling characteristics with the films.

  2. Optimization of chemical bath deposited CdS thin films using nitrilotriacetic acid as a complexing agent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, Lee

    thin film solar cells based on CdTe or CIGS [1,2]. CdS has also been used in other applications. The highest efficiencies reported for both CdTe and CIGS solar cells were obtained when chemical bath is known to greatly enhance the performance of CdS windows used in the above mentioned solar cells

  3. On the sub-band gap optical absorption in heat treated cadmium sulphide thin film deposited on glass by chemical bath deposition technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Karim, B.; Guha Roy, S. [Department of Electronic Science, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700009 (India)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The sub-band gap optical absorption in chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films annealed at different temperatures has been critically analyzed with special reference to Urbach relation. It has been found that the absorption co-efficient of the material in the sub-band gap region is nearly constant up to a certain critical value of the photon energy. However, as the photon energy exceeds the critical value, the absorption coefficient increases exponentially indicating the dominance of Urbach rule. The absorption coefficients in the constant absorption region and the Urbach region have been found to be sensitive to annealing temperature. A critical examination of the temperature dependence of the absorption coefficient indicates two different kinds of optical transitions to be operative in the sub-band gap region. After a careful analyses of SEM images, energy dispersive x-ray spectra, and the dc current-voltage characteristics, we conclude that the absorption spectra in the sub-band gap domain is possibly associated with optical transition processes involving deep levels and the grain boundary states of the material.

  4. ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF TITANIUM OXIDE THIN FILMS ONNANOPOROUS ALUMINA TEMPLATES FOR MEDICAL APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brigmon, R.

    2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of the nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Both the 20 nm and 100 nm titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes did not exhibit statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. In addition, 20 nm pore size titanium oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exposed to ultraviolet light demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for 'smart' drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  7. On the room-temperature ferromagnetism of Zn1-xCrxO thin films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On the room-temperature ferromagnetism of Zn1-xCrxO thin films deposited by reactive co-sputtering. On the room-temperature ferromagnetism of Zn1-xCrxO thin films deposited by...

  8. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  9. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  10. INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films Lecture notes La Rosa Portland State University PH-213 through, a sheet of glass #12;Out of phase #12;In phase #12;#12;Interference from thin films Key reasoning for analyzing interference in a thin film: Waves undergo phase shift due to i) reflections at a interface

  11. Cross-sectional observations by HRTEM of the structure of nickel oxide electrochromic thin films in the as-deposited state and the bleached state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, Kazuki; Miki, Takeshi; Tanemura, Sakae [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan). Multifunctional Material Science Dept.] [National Industrial Research Inst. of Nagoya (Japan). Multifunctional Material Science Dept.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the microstructure of nickel oxide electrochromic thin films prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering, cross-sectional observations of sputtered nickel oxide films have been performed using a high resolution electron microscope. High resolution images were observed for as-deposited and bleached samples. These images show that the surface morphology of these samples is quite different. The bleached sample consists of needle-like microcrystallites, while the as-deposited sample consists of columnar crystals and has a smooth surface. Diffraction patterns indicate that crystallized NiO is the dominant structure in both samples. The fact that no trace of Ni(OH){sub 2} was observed implies that the boundary and the surface of NiO microcrystallites play important roles in the electrochromic reaction.

  12. Structural, magnetic, and electronic properties of GdTiO{sub 3} Mott insulator thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grisolia, M. N.; Bruno, F. Y.; Sando, D.; Jacquet, E.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M., E-mail: manuel.bibes@thalesgroup.com [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS-Thales, 1 Av. Augustin Fresnel, Campus de l'Ecole Polytechnique, 91120 Palaiseau, France and Université Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Zhao, H. J. [Physics Department and Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States); Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, X. M. [Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Bellaiche, L. [Physics Department and Institute for Nanoscience and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the optimization process to synthesize epitaxial thin films of GdTiO{sub 3} on SrLaGaO{sub 4} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Optimized films are free of impurity phases and are fully strained. They possess a magnetic Curie temperature T{sub C}?=?31.8?K with a saturation magnetization of 4.2??{sub B} per formula unit at 10?K. Transport measurements reveal an insulating response, as expected. Optical spectroscopy indicates a band gap of ?0.7?eV, comparable to the bulk value. Our work adds ferrimagnetic orthotitanates to the palette of perovskite materials for the design of emergent strongly correlated states at oxide interfaces using a versatile growth technique such as pulsed laser deposition.

  13. formation of the main deposit. At lower current densities, it is possible to deposit only this extremely thin tin film: it is 5 nm thick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stocker, Thomas

    . Whereas the 200-nm copper and 300-nm tin films in Fig. 4 have a thickness close to that predicted. We propose the following mechan- istic explanation of this effect. First, in thin cells problems of Li rechargeable batteries. Indeed, cycling efficiency of Li batteries is drastically reduced

  14. Enhanced Superconducting Properties of Iron Chalcogenide Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li

    2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    . In this thesis, we first optimized pure FeSe thin films by different growth conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and post-annealing procedures. The microstructure properties of the films including the epitaxial quality, interface structure and secondary...

  15. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  16. Influence of plasma density on the chemical composition and structural properties of pulsed laser deposited TiAlN thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quiñones-Galván, J. G.; Camps, Enrique [Departamento de Física, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Apartado Postal 18-1027, México D.F. C.P. 11801 (Mexico); Muhl, S. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM, México D.F. C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Flores, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería de Proyectos, CUCEI, Universidad de Guadalajara, Apdo. Postal 307, C.P. 45101 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Campos-González, E. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, Apdo. Postal 14-740, México D.F. 07360 (Mexico)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Incorporation of substitutional Al into the TiN lattice of the ternary alloy TiAlN results in a material with improved properties compared to TiN. In this work, TiAlN thin films were grown by the simultaneous ablation of Ti and Al targets in a nitrogen containing reactive atmosphere. The deposit was formed on silicon substrates at low deposition temperature (200?°C). The dependence of the Al content of the films was studied as a function of the ion density of the plasma produced by the laser ablation of the Al target. The plasma parameters were measured by means of a planar Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The chemical composition of the films was measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results showed a strong dependence of the amount of aluminum incorporated in the films with the plasma density. The structural characterization of the deposits was carried out by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, where the substitutional incorporation of the Al into the TiN was demonstrated.

  17. Microtensile Testing of Free-standing and Supported Metallic Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microtensile Testing of Free-standing and Supported Metallic Thin Films A thesis presented by Denis Films Abstract Mechanical properties of free-standing and supported Cu thin films were investi- gated observed experimentally on thin films. As-deposited Cu films with different film thicknesses on compliant

  18. Structural characterisation of BaTiO{sub 3} thin films deposited on SrRuO{sub 3}/YSZ buffered silicon substrates and silicon microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colder, H.; Jorel, C., E-mail: corentin.jorel@unicaen.fr; Méchin, L. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Domengès, B. [LAMIPS, CRISMAT-NXP Semiconductors-Presto Engineering laboratory, CNRS-UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 2 rue de la Girafe, 14 000 Caen (France); Marie, P.; Boisserie, M. [CIMAP, UMR 6252, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, CEA, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Guillon, S.; Nicu, L. [LAAS, CNRS, Univ de Toulouse, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse (France); Galdi, A. [GREYC, UMR 6072, CNRS, ENSICAEN, UCBN, 6 bd du Maréchal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Department of Industrial Engineering, CNR-SPIN Salerno, Università di Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the progress towards an all epitaxial oxide layer technology on silicon substrates for epitaxial piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems. (101)-oriented epitaxial tetragonal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) thin films were deposited at two different oxygen pressures, 5.10{sup ?2} mbar and 5.10{sup ?3} mbar, on SrRuO{sub 3}/Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) buffered silicon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The YSZ layer full (001) orientation allowed the further growth of a fully (110)-oriented conductive SrRuO{sub 3} electrode as shown by X-ray diffraction. The tetragonal structure of the BTO films, which is a prerequisite for the piezoelectric effect, was identified by Raman spectroscopy. In the BTO film deposited at 5.10{sup ?2} mbar strain was mostly localized inside the BTO grains whereas at 5.10{sup ?3} mbar, it was localized at the grain boundaries. The BTO/SRO/YSZ layers were finally deposited on Si microcantilevers at an O{sub 2} pressure of 5.10{sup ?3} mbar. The strain level was low enough to evaluate the BTO Young modulus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the epitaxial quality of the layers and their epitaxial relationship on plain silicon wafers as well as on released microcantilevers, thanks to Focused-Ion-Beam TEM lamella preparation.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of Zn(O,S) thin films with tunable electrical properties by oxygen annealing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CIGS-based solar cells use CdS,1,2 a toxic material, as an n-type buffer layer between the p-type CIGS(O,S) buffer layers in CIGS-based solar cells, much research has also been motivated to replace the expensive) is one of the most reliable materials used in thin-film solar cells, but currently the most efficient

  20. Electrochromic properties of manganese oxide (MnO{sub x}) thin films made by electron beam deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erlandsson, O.; Lindvall, J.; Nguyen Ngoc Toan; Nguyen Van Hung; Vu Thi Bich; Nguyen Nang Dinh [National Inst. of Physics of Vietnam, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to both the theoretical and the experimental investigation of the physical and physico-chemical properties of the chromogenics materials due their favorable and promising applications such as electrochromic devices, energy-efficient smart windows, automobile mirrors and building glazings. Electrochromic MnO{sub x} thin films were prepared by using an electron beam technique followed by annealing post-treatment. Electrochromic properties of the films were studied in three different solutions: 1M LiClO{sub 4} in propylene carbonate, KOH (pH = 10.5) and natrium borate (pH = 9.2). The transmittance spectra of the colored films combined with their cyclic voltammograms have showed that the enhancement of the electrochromic behavior of these films can be attributed to the insertion (or extraction) of the OH{sup {minus}} anions into (or from) the MnO{sub x} films. The best electrochromic efficiency of the films was obtained in the borate electrolyte.

  1. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  2. Thin films and uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  3. Study of optical properties of asymmetric bipolar pulse DC magnetron sputtered Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin film as a function of oxygen content in deposition ambient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haque, S. Maidul, E-mail: skmaidulhaque@gmail.com; Shinde, D. D., E-mail: skmaidulhaque@gmail.com; Misal, J. S., E-mail: skmaidulhaque@gmail.com [Photonics and Nano-technology Section, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC, Visakhapatnam-530012 (India); Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai - 400085 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Tantalum penta-oxide thin films have been deposited by reactive sputtering technique using asymmetric bipolar pulsed DC source at various oxygen percentage viz. 0 to 50 %. The optical properties of the films have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. It has been observed that compact films with low void fraction, high refractive index and band gap can be obtained by the above technique with oxygen percentage in the range of 30–40%. The films deposited with zero or very low oxygen content have high deposition rate and yield metal rich films with large voids, defects, low band gap and high refractive index. Similarly films deposited with >40% oxygen content again contain voids and defects due to the presence of large amount of gas molecules in the sputtering ambient.

  4. Nanostructured europium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed laser ablation of a metallic target in a He buffer atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luna, H.; Franceschini, D. F.; Prioli, R.; Guimaraes, R. B.; Sanchez, C. M.; Canal, G. P.; Barbosa, M. D. L.; Galvao, R. M. O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ 24210-346 (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Plasmas Aplicados, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66328, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Laboratorio de Plasmas Aplicados, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostrucured europium oxide and hydroxide films were obtained by pulsed Nd:YAG (532 nm) laser ablation of a europium metallic target, in the presence of a 1 mbar helium buffer atmosphere. Both the produced film and the ambient plasma were characterized. The plasma was monitored by an electrostatic probe, for plume expansion in vacuum or in the presence of the buffer atmosphere. The time evolution of the ion saturation current was obtained for several probe to substrate distances. The results show the splitting of the plume into two velocity groups, being the lower velocity profile associated with metal cluster formation within the plume. The films were obtained in the presence of helium atmosphere, for several target-to-substrate distances. They were analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy, for as-deposited and 600 deg. C treated-in-air samples. The results show that the as-deposited samples are amorphous and have chemical composition compatible with europium hydroxide. The thermally treated samples show x-ray diffraction peaks of Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}, with chemical composition showing excess oxygen. Film nanostructuring was shown to be strongly correlated with cluster formation, as shown by velocity splitting in probe current versus time plots.

  5. Properties of tungsten oxide thin films formed by ion-plasma and laser deposition methods for MOSiC-based hydrogen sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fominski, V. Y., E-mail: vyfominskij@mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation); Grigoriev, S. N. [Moscow State Technological University 'Stankin' (Russian Federation); Romanov, R. I.; Zuev, V. V.; Grigoriev, V. V. [National Research Nuclear University 'MEPhI' (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film structures based on gas-sensitive tungsten oxide and catalytic platinum are fabricated by room-temperature deposition on a silicon carbide wafer using pulsed laser and ion-plasma methods. Oxide layer annealing in air to 600 Degree-Sign C caused the formation of microstructured and nanostructured crystalline states depending on the deposition conditions. Structural differences affect the electrical parameters and the stability of characteristics. The maximum response to hydrogen is detected in the structure fabricated by depositing a low-energy laser-induced flow of tungsten atoms in oxygen. The voltage shift of the currentvoltage curves for 2% H{sub 2} in air at 350 Degree-Sign C was 4.6 V at a current of {approx}10 {mu}A. The grown structures' metastability caused a significant decrease in the shift after long-term cyclic testing. The most stable shifts of {approx}2 V at positive bias on the Pt contact were detected for oxide films deposited by ion-plasma sputtering.

  6. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  7. Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of NiTi Shape Memory Alloy Thin Films Alloy Thin Films Abstract The microstructure evolution and shape memory properties of near-equiatomic Ni-Ti thin films were investigated. Ni-Ti thin films sputter-deposited at room tem- perature are usually

  8. Raman Spectroscopy of the Reaction of Thin Films of Solid-State Benzene with Vapor-Deposited Ag, Mg, and Al

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schalnat, Matthew C. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Hawkridge, Adam M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Pemberton, Jeanne E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry

    2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of solid-state benzene at 30 K were reacted with small quantities of vapor-deposited Ag, Mg, and Al under ultrahigh vacuum, and products were monitored using surface Raman spectroscopy. Although Ag and Mg produce small amounts of metal–benzene adduct products, the resulting Raman spectra are dominated by surface enhancement of the normal benzene modes from metallic nanoparticles suggesting rapid Ag or Mg metallization of the film. In contrast, large quantities of Al adduct products are observed. Vibrational modes of the products in all three systems suggest adducts that are formed through a pathway initiated by an electron transfer reaction. The difference in reactivity between these metals is ascribed to differences in ionization potential of the metal atoms; ionization potential values for Ag and Mg are similar but larger than that for Al. These studies demonstrate the importance of atomic parameters, such as ionization potential, in solid-state metal–organic reaction chemistry.

  9. Comparison of precursor infiltration into polymer thin films via atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padbury, Richard P.; Jur, Jesse S., E-mail: jsjur@ncsu.edu [Department of Textile Engineering, Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous research exploring inorganic materials nucleation behavior on polymers via atomic layer deposition indicates the formation of hybrid organic–inorganic materials that form within the subsurface of the polymer. This has inspired adaptations to the process, such as sequential vapor infiltration, which enhances the diffusion of organometallic precursors into the subsurface of the polymer to promote the formation of a hybrid organic–inorganic coating. This work highlights the fundamental difference in mass uptake behavior between atomic layer deposition and sequential vapor infiltration using in-situ methods. In particular, in-situ quartz crystal microgravimetry is used to compare the mass uptake behavior of trimethyl aluminum in poly(butylene terephthalate) and polyamide-6 polymer thin films. The importance of trimethyl aluminum diffusion into the polymer subsurface and the subsequent chemical reactions with polymer functional groups are discussed.

  10. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries M. Marcinek, L. J.Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphitic

  11. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    microstructure is a brand new architecture in thin films and an exciting approach that promises tunable material functionalities as well as novel nanostructures....

  12. Morphology and structure evolution of tin-doped indium oxide thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering: The role of the sputtering atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nie, Man, E-mail: man.nie@helmholtz-berlin.de; Mete, Tayfun; Ellmer, Klaus [Department of Solar Fuels and Energy Storage Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The microstructure and morphology evolution of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in different sputtering atmospheres were investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, and atomic force microscopy. The surface roughness w increases with increasing film thickness d{sub f}, and exhibits a power law behavior w???d{sub f}{sup ?}. The roughness decreases with increasing O{sub 2} flow, while it increases with increasing H{sub 2} flow. The growth exponent ? is found to be 0.35, 0.75, and 0.98 for depositions in Ar/10%O{sub 2}, pure Ar, and Ar/10%H{sub 2} atmospheres, respectively. The correlation length ? increases with film thickness also with a power law according to ????d{sub f}{sup z} with exponents z?=?0.36, 0.44, and 0.57 for these three different gas atmospheres, respectively. A combination of local and non-local growth modes in 2?+?1 dimensions is discussed for the ITO growth in this work.

  13. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  14. Metallophthalocyanine thin films : structure and physical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colesniuc, Corneliu Nicolai

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in copper phthalocyanine thin film transistors”, J. Park, J.free phthalocyanine thin films”, F. I. Bohrer, A. Sharoni,copper phthalocyanine thin-film transistors”, R. D. Yang, J.

  15. Doping in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zheng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of ZnO:Mn thin films were comprehensivelyd exchange in ZnO:Mn DMS thin films. Both the ordinary andspin-obital ferromagnetism in ZnO:Mn DMS thin films.

  16. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2003-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  17. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2011-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  18. Photovoltaic properties of Aurivillius phase Bi{sub 5}FeTi{sub 3}O{sub 15} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooriyattil, Sudheendran [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States); Department of Physics, Sree Kerala Varma College, Thrissur 680011, Kerala (India); Katiyar, Rajesh K.; Pavunny, Shojan P., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu, E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com; Morell, Gerardo; Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu, E-mail: shojanpp@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, P.O. Box 70377, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00936-8377 (United States)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a remarkable photovoltaic effect in pulsed laser deposited multiferroic aurivillius phase Bi{sub 5}FeTi{sub 3}O{sub 15} (BFTO) thin films sandwiched between ZnO:Al transparent conductive oxide top electrode and SrRuO{sub 3} bottom electrode fabricated on amorphous fused silica substrates. The structural and micro structural properties of these films were analysed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques. The films were showing a photo sensitive ferroelectric behaviour with a notable apparent polarization in the range of 10–15??C/cm{sup 2}. These films also exhibited a switchable photo-response and this parameter was observed to be sensitive to polarisation field and the polarization direction. The device shows a large ON/OFF photo current ratio with an open circuit voltage of 0.14?V. The photo response at zero bias of this BFTO based heterostructures showed rapid increase to a saturation value of 6??A at zero bias.

  19. Photosensitivity of pulsed laser deposited Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} and Ge{sub 10}As{sub 30}Se{sub 60} amorphous thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawlová, P.; Olivier, M.; Verger, F. [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Nazabal, V. [Chemical Sciences Institute of Rennes (ISCR), Glasses and Ceramics Team, UMR-CNRS 6226, University of Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic); N?mec, P., E-mail: petr.nemec@upce.cz [Department of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentská 573, 53210 Pardubice (Czech Republic)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Amorphous Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60}/Ge{sub 10}As{sub 30}Se{sub 60} films are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. • Photosensitivity of the layers is studied by employing spectroscopic ellipsometry. • As-deposited/relaxed thin films were irradiated by 593, 635, and 660 nm lasers. • Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} layers present almost zero photorefraction in relaxed state. - Abstract: Amorphous Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} and Ge{sub 10}As{sub 30}Se{sub 60} thin films are fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. Prepared films are characterized in terms of their morphology, chemical composition, and optical properties. Special attention is given to the photosensitivity of the layers, which was studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry with as-deposited, annealed and exposed films by three different laser sources (593, 635, and 660 nm). The results show better photostability for Ge{sub 20}As{sub 20}Se{sub 60} thin films, where photoinduced change of optical band gap was found to be equal or less than 0.04 eV and these layers present almost zero photorefraction.

  20. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ingersoll, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  1. On the 1/f noise of atomic-layer-deposition metal films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xiawa

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the measurement techniques and results of low-frequency noise for atomic-layer-deposition Pt films. Atomic-layer-deposition has been developed as an approach to make ultra-thin and conformal films. It ...

  2. Growth of single crystalline GaN thin films on Si,,111... substrates by high vacuum metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using a single

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    Growth of single crystalline GaN thin films on Si,,111... substrates by high vacuum metalorganic; published 20 August 2004 Hexagonal GaN thin films were grown on Si 111 substrates using single molecular precursor of diethylazidogallium methylhydrazine adduct, (Et)2Ga N3)HzMe], with the objectives of reducing

  3. Chemical vapour deposition of crystalline thin films of tantalum phosphide C. Blackman, C. J. Carmalt, I. P. Parkin* and S. A. O'Neill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    for Al/W-metallization [2]. A number of transition metal phosphides, including tungsten (WP bulk transition metal phosphides are well known [5, 6] the production of thin films of these materials of the production of TaP thin films using a CVD process. Stimulated by this lack of a low-cost route to a material

  4. Continuous ultra-thin MoS{sub 2} films grown by low-temperature physical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muratore, C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Hu, J. J.; Bultman, J. E.; Jespersen, M. L. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (United States); Wang, B.; Haque, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, College Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Shamberger, P. J.; McConney, M. E.; Naguy, R. D.; Voevodin, A. A. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform growth of pristine two dimensional (2D) materials over large areas at lower temperatures without sacrifice of their unique physical properties is a critical pre-requisite for seamless integration of next-generation van der Waals heterostructures into functional devices. This Letter describes a vapor phase growth technique for precisely controlled synthesis of continuous, uniform molecular layers of MoS{sub 2} on silicon dioxide and highly oriented pyrolitic graphite substrates of over several square centimeters at 350?°C. Synthesis of few-layer MoS{sub 2} in this ultra-high vacuum physical vapor deposition process yields materials with key optical and electronic properties identical to exfoliated layers. The films are composed of nano-scale domains with strong chemical binding between domain boundaries, allowing lift-off from the substrate and electronic transport measurements from contacts with separation on the order of centimeters.

  5. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  6. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  7. Microwave Planar Capacitors Employing Low Loss, High-K, and Tunable BZN Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    Microwave Planar Capacitors Employing Low Loss, High-K, and Tunable BZN Thin Films Jaehoon Park) thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. Device Q factors (QDUT) and capacitances (CDUT) were films can be the alternative to conventional BST thin films. Index Terms -- Dielectric properties

  8. High-frequency electromagnetic properties of epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High-frequency electromagnetic properties of epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 thin films grown by pulsed laser on the electromagnetic (EM) properties in high-frequency domain (HF) of multiferroic Bi2FeCrO6 (BFCO) thin films. The films were epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 substrates by pulsed laser ablation. Typical 50 nm-thick BFCO

  9. ag sn thin-film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by x-ray diffractogram. The deposition parameters were optimized to obtain good quality thin films. The film deposited with 10.0ml TEA showed good uniformity, good surface...

  10. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith A. (Albuquerque, NM); Bullington, Jeff A. (Albuquerque, NM); Clem, Paul G. (Albuquerque, NM); Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Tuttle, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert W. (Seneca, SC)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  11. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  12. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  13. Chemical surface deposition of ultra-thin semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCandless, Brian E. (243 W. Main St., Elkton, MD 21921); Shafarman, William N. (1905 N. Van Buren St., Wilmington, DE 19802)

    2003-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical surface deposition process for forming an ultra-thin semiconducting film of Group IIB-VIA compounds onto a substrate. This process eliminates particulates formed by homogeneous reactions in bath, dramatically increases the utilization of Group IIB species, and results in the formation of a dense, adherent film for thin film solar cells. The process involves applying a pre-mixed liquid coating composition containing Group IIB and Group VIA ionic species onto a preheated substrate. Heat from the substrate causes a heterogeneous reaction between the Group IIB and VIA ionic species of the liquid coating composition, thus forming a solid reaction product film on the substrate surface.

  14. Nanostructured thin films for solid oxide fuel cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Jongsik

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The goals of this work were to synthesize high performance perovskite based thin film solid oxide fuel cell (TF-SOFC) cathodes by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), to study the structural, electrical and electrochemical properties of these cathodes...

  15. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  16. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  17. Lithium intercalation in sputter deposited antimony-doped tin oxide thin films: Evidence from electrochemical and optical measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montero, J., E-mail: jose.montero@angstrom.uu.se; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The A°ngström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Guillén, C.; Herrero, J. [Department of Energy, Ciemat, Avda. Complutense 40, Ed. 42, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conducting oxides are used as transparent electrical contacts in a variety of applications, including in electrochromic smart windows. In the present work, we performed a study of transparent conducting antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) thin films by chronopotentiometry in a Li{sup +}-containing electrolyte. The open circuit potential vs. Li was used to investigate ATO band lineups, such as those of the Fermi level and the ionization potential, as well as the dependence of these lineups on the preparation conditions for ATO. Evidence was found for Li{sup +} intercalation when a current pulse was set in a way so as to drive ions from the electrolyte into the ATO lattice. Galvanostatic intermittent titration was then applied to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient within the ATO lattice. The electrochemical density of states of the conducting oxide was studied by means of the transient voltage recorded during the chronopotentiometry experiments. These measurements were possible because, as Li{sup +} intercalation took place, charge compensating electrons filled the lowest part of the conduction band in ATO. Furthermore, the charge insertion modified the optical properties of ATO according to the Drude model.

  18. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  19. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  20. Anomalous Chemical Expansion Behavior of Pr[subscript 0.2]Ce[subscript 0.8]O[subscript 2-?] Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuru, Y.

    The chemomechanical and electrical properties of (Pr,Ce)O[subscript 2-?] thin films were studied between 30 and 875°C in air by in situ X-ray diffraction and complex impedance spectroscopy measurements. Reduction/oxidation ...

  1. Journal of Power Sources 159 (2006) 14221427 Li diffusion in LiCoO2 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to be in the range of 10-11 to 10-13 cm2 s-1 depending on Li concentration and on the characterization method used. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Thin-film battery; LiCoO2; Lithium diffusion; Pulsed-ion batteries. Without the presence of a polymer binder and carbonaceous powders, the dense and flat thin films

  2. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-for thin-film a-si:h solar cells. Progress in Photovoltaics,in thin-film silicon solar cells. Optics Communications,

  3. Growth of c-axis oriented gallium nitride thin films on an amorphous substrate by the liquid-target pulsed laser deposition technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, Hoi S.

    nitride GaN thin films with a wurtzite structure were grown on fused silica FS substrates by pulsed laser of the current directions in GaN research is to find other alter- native substrates that not only have good as a substrate for GaN film are its excellent optical transparency, low refractive index, and good mechanical

  4. Effects of thickness on the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sottos, Nancy R.

    Lead zirconate titanate PZT thin films with a Zr/Ti ratio of 52/48 were deposited on platinized silicon. Both the piezoelectric properties and the dielectric constants of the PZT thin films were found thin films. The measured changes in properties with thickness were correlated with the residual stress

  5. Impact of thermal strain on the dielectric constant of sputtered barium strontium titanate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    York, Robert A.

    thin films were deposited by sputtering on Pt/SiO2 structures using five different host substrates.1063/1.1459482 Oxide thin films remain very attractive to researchers due to their wide range of useful physical properties. Most groups have focused on the fabrication of thin films for op- tical and dielectric

  6. DETERMINING OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF URANIUM NITRIDE THIN FILMS IN THE EXTREME

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    DETERMINING OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF URANIUM NITRIDE THIN FILMS IN THE EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET (1.6-35 NM deposition and characterization of reactively-sputtered uranium nitride thin films. I also report optical.1 Application 1 1.2 Optical Constants 2 1.3 Project Focus 7 2 Uranium Nitride Thin Films 8 2.1 Sputtering 8 2

  7. Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peale, Robert E.

    Metal-black scattering centers to enhance light harvesting by thin-film solar cells Deep Panjwania as scattering centers to increase the effective optical thickness of thin-film solar cells. The particular type. Gold-black was deposited on commercial thin-film solar cells using a thermal evaporator in nitrogen

  8. Fabrication and Characterization of Titanium-doped Hydroxyapatite Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desai, Amit Y

    . Thin films of titanium-doped hydroxyapatite (HA-Ti) have been deposited onto silicon substrates at three different compositions. With direct current (dc) power to the Ti target of 5, 10, and 15W films with compositions of 0.7, 1.7 and 2.0 at.% titanium...

  9. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  10. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jae Hyeok

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

  11. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  12. Deposition of TiO2 thin films using RF magnetron sputtering method and study of their surface characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    , Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746, South Korea Available online 27 October 2004 Abstract Titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has many excellent physical pro- perties such as a high dielectric constant films such as TiO2 and TiN. Generally, high flows of the reactive gases such as oxygen and nitrogen

  13. Epitaxial growth of BaTiO3 thin films at 600 C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    with an a-axis perpendicular to the substrate plane. Nanoscale energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry processes include deposition over large areas, high throughput, and uniform coverage of nonplanar shapes by a plasma-enhanced MOCVD pro- cess. It is not known if the added energy from the plasma generates structural

  14. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, J.A.

    1999-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet (DUV) and Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10 [micro]m for the shortest wavelength (13.4 nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R[sup 2] factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates. 15 figs.

  15. Method for high-precision multi-layered thin film deposition for deep and extreme ultraviolet mirrors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruffner, Judith Alison (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for coating (flat or non-flat) optical substrates with high-reflectivity multi-layer coatings for use at Deep Ultra-Violet ("DUV") and Extreme Ultra-Violet ("EUV") wavelengths. The method results in a product with minimum feature sizes of less than 0.10-.mu.m for the shortest wavelength (13.4-nm). The present invention employs a computer-based modeling and deposition method to enable lateral and vertical thickness control by scanning the position of the substrate with respect to the sputter target during deposition. The thickness profile of the sputter targets is modeled before deposition and then an appropriate scanning algorithm is implemented to produce any desired, radially-symmetric thickness profile. The present invention offers the ability to predict and achieve a wide range of thickness profiles on flat or figured substrates, i.e., account for 1/R.sup.2 factor in a model, and the ability to predict and accommodate changes in deposition rate as a result of plasma geometry, i.e., over figured substrates.

  16. Amine functionalization by initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) for interfacial adhesion and film cohesion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingjing, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Amine functional polymer thin films provide a versatile platform for subsequent functionalization because of their diverse reactivity. Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a polymer chemical vapor deposition ...

  17. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  18. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  19. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  20. Flexible cadmium telluride thin films grown on electron-beam-irradiated graphene/thin glass substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seo, Won-Oh; Kim, Jihyun, E-mail: hyunhyun7@korea.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Yong Hwan; Kim, Byungnam; Lee, Byung Cheol [Radiation Integrated System Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donghwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate the close-spaced sublimation growth of polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films on a flexible graphene electrode/thin glass substrate structure. Prior to the growth of CdTe films, chemical-vapor-deposited graphene was transferred onto a flexible glass substrate and subjected to electron-beam irradiation at an energy of 0.2?MeV in order to intentionally introduce the defects into it in a controlled manner. Micro-Raman spectroscopy and sheet resistance measurements were employed to monitor the damage and disorder in the electron-beam irradiated graphene layers. The morphology and optical properties of the CdTe thin films deposited on a graphene/flexible glass substrate were systematically characterized. The integration of the defective graphene layers with a flexible glass substrate can be a useful platform to grow various thin-film structures for flexible electronic and optoelectronic devices.

  1. Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  2. The effect of deposition power on the electrical properties of Al-doped zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chun, B. S.; Choi, Daniel S. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844-3024 (United States); Wu, H. C.; Shvets, I. V. [CRANN, School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Abid, M. [IPMC, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 3, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Chu, I. C. [Data and Storage R and D Laboratory, Seocho R and D Campus, LG Electronics, Seoul 137-130 (Korea, Republic of); Serrano-Guisan, S. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the effect on the electronic properties of aluminum (Al)-zinc oxide (ZnO) films by modulating the radio frequency sputtering power. Our experimental results show that increasing the sputtering power increases the Al doping concentration, decreases the resistivity, and also shifts the Zn 2p and O 1s to higher binding energy states. Our local-density approximation (LDA) and LDA+U calculations show that the shift in higher binding energy and resistivity decrease are due to an enhancement of the O 2p-Zn 3d coupling and the modification of the Zn 4s-O 2p interaction in ZnO induced by Al doping.

  3. Influence of Ba content on grain size and dynamics of crystallization in barium ferrite thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Influence of Ba content on grain size and dynamics of crystallization in barium ferrite thin films of the crystallization process, which ultimately determines the grain size, were studied in barium ferrite thin films. Rapid thermal annealing was used to crystallize the amorphous as-deposited barium ferrite films

  4. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells. 13 figs.

  5. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  6. Thin film photovoltaic device and process of manufacture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (Lakewood, CO); Chamberlin, Rhodes (El Paso, TX)

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided is a thin film photovoltaic device and a method of manufacturing the device. The thin film photovoltaic device comprises a film layer having particles which are smaller than about 30 microns in size held in an electrically insulating matrix material to reduce the potential for electrical shorting through the film layer. The film layer may be provided by depositing preformed particles onto a surrogate substrate and binding the particles in a film-forming matrix material to form a flexible sheet with the film layer. The flexible sheet may be separated from the surrogate substrate and cut into flexible strips. A plurality of the flexible strips may be located adjacent to and supported by a common supporting substrate to form a photovoltaic module having a plurality of electrically interconnected photovoltaic cells.

  7. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Rahul [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Riley, Michael [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Lee, Sabrina [US Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Benet Labs, Watervliet, New York 12189 (United States); Lu, Toh-Ming [Department of Physics, Applied Physics and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  8. Effects of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities and its influence on the topography of the Fe thin film grown in pulsed laser deposition facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Department of Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Rawat, R. S.; Wang, Y.; Lee, S.; Tan, T. L.; Springham, S. V.; Lee, P. [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Zakaullah, M. [Department of Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University, 45320 Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of laser energy fluence on the onset and growth of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities in laser induced Fe plasma is investigated using time-resolved fast gated imaging. The snow plow and shock wave models are fitted to the experimental results and used to estimate the ablation parameters and the density of gas atoms that interact with the ablated species. It is observed that RT instability develops during the interface deceleration stage and grows for a considerable time for higher laser energy fluence. The effects of RT instabilities formation on the surface topography of the Fe thin films grown in pulsed laser deposition system are investigated (i) using different laser energy fluences for the same wavelength of laser radiation and (ii) using different laser wavelengths keeping the energy fluence fixed. It is concluded that the deposition achieved under turbulent condition leads to less smooth deposition surfaces with bigger sized particle agglomerates or network.

  9. Control of magnetization reversal in oriented strontium ferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Debangsu, E-mail: debangsu@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Anil Kumar, P. S. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2014-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Oriented Strontium Ferrite films with the c axis orientation were deposited with varying oxygen partial pressure on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrate using Pulsed Laser Deposition technique. The angle dependent magnetic hysteresis, remanent coercivity, and temperature dependent coercivity had been employed to understand the magnetization reversal of these films. It was found that the Strontium Ferrite thin film grown at lower (higher) oxygen partial pressure shows Stoner-Wohlfarth type (Kondorsky like) reversal. The relative importance of pinning and nucleation processes during magnetization reversal is used to explain the type of the magnetization reversal with different oxygen partial pressure during growth.

  10. Thermal chemistry of Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10} during deposition of thin manganese films on silicon oxide and on copper surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qin Xiangdong; Sun Huaxing; Zaera, Francisco [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The surface chemistry of dimanganese decacarbonyl on the native oxide of Si(100) wafers was characterized with the aid of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Initial experiments in a small stainless-steel reactor identified a narrow range of temperatures, between approximately 445 and 465 K, in which the deposition of manganese could be achieved in a self-limiting fashion, as is desirable for atomic layer deposition. Deposition at higher temperatures leads to multilayer growth, but the extent of this Mn deposition reverses at even higher temperatures (about 625 K), and also ifhydrogen is added to the reaction mixture. Extensive decarbonylation takes place below room temperature, but limited C-O bond dissociation and carbon deposition are still seen after high exposures at 625 K. The films deposited at low ({approx}450 K) temperatures are mostly in the form of MnO, but at 625 K that converts to a manganese silicate, and upon higher doses a manganese silicide forms at the SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) interface as well. No metallic manganese could be deposited with this precursor on either silicon dioxide or copper surfaces.

  11. Combined synchrotron X-rays and image correlation analyses of biaxially deformed W/Cu nanocomposite thin films on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thin films on Kapton Soundes Djaziri,a* Pierre-Olivier Renault,a François Hild,b Eric Le Bourhis domain were conducted with W/Cu nanocomposite thin films deposited on a polyimide cruciform substrate; Nanostructured thin films 1. Introduction Over the recent years, great attention has been paid to miniaturized

  12. Effects of Ag underlayers on the microstructure and magnetic properties of epitaxial FePt thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    in the in situ ordering of the FePt thin film at reduced temperatures. The microstructural and magneticPt thin films have drawn considerable attention as a potential high-density magnetic recording material.1. Because the 111 plane is the FePt close-packed plane, the FePt thin film deposited directly onto

  13. Functional Materials Letters (FML) Metal-to-dielectric transition induced by annealing of oriented titanium thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    titanium thin films --Manuscript Draft-- Manuscript Number: Full Title: Metal-to-dielectric transition induced by annealing of oriented titanium thin films Article Type: Research Paper Section/Category: Prof. Order of Authors Secondary Information: Abstract: Titanium thin films were deposited by dc magnetron

  14. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-

  15. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  16. Electrical properties of quench-condensed thin film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoungjin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    cryopump is used for high vacuum pumping. Materials to be evaporated (evaporant) are held by evaporation sources, like a crucible, boat or wire coil. Tungsten wire is commonly used as an evaporation source for materials like aluminum, nickel, chromium... films were evaporated at room temperature with NRC 3114 commercial thermal evaporator. We deposited aluminum and nickel thin films in a form of bar with shadow mask. A commercial tungsten basket was used for the evaporation source. The evaporation...

  17. Geometric shape control of thin film ferroelectrics and resulting structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKee, Rodney A. (Kingston, TN); Walker, Frederick J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic crystalline structure and a method of making involves a semiconductor substrate, such as silicon, and a ferroelectric film, such as BaTiO.sub.3, overlying the surface of the substrate wherein the atomic layers of the ferroelectric film directly overlie the surface of the substrate. By controlling the geometry of the ferroelectric thin film, either during build-up of the thin film or through appropriate treatment of the thin film adjacent the boundary thereof, the in-plane tensile strain within the ferroelectric film is relieved to the extent necessary to permit the ferroelectric film to be poled out-of-plane, thereby effecting in-plane switching of the polarization of the underlying substrate material. The method of the invention includes the steps involved in effecting a discontinuity of the mechanical restraint at the boundary of the ferroelectric film atop the semiconductor substrate by, for example, either removing material from a ferroelectric film which has already been built upon the substrate, building up a ferroelectric film upon the substrate in a mesa-shaped geometry or inducing the discontinuity at the boundary by ion beam deposition techniques.

  18. Thin Film Encapsulation Methods for Large Area MEMS Packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajerin, Armon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. J. French, “Robust Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulation ofThe Elastic Properties of Thin- Film Silicon Nitride,” IEEELPCVD Silicon Nitride Thin Films at Cryogenic Temperatures,”

  19. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS plate models, periodic pr* *o- files, and within the context of optimal design for thin films 5. Third application - Optimal design of a thin film 19 6. Final Remarks

  20. Mechanisms for fatigue and wear of polysilicon structural thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsem, Daniel Henricus

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of single-crystal silicon thin films from 1991 to 2006. Thefor polycrystalline silicon thin films After the initialThis mechanism is specific to thin-film silicon where cracks

  1. Formation of thin-film resistors on silicon substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schnable, George L. (Montgomery County, PA); Wu, Chung P. (Hamilton Township, Mercer County, NJ)

    1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of thin-film resistors by the ion implantation of a metallic conductive layer in the surface of a layer of phosphosilicate glass or borophosphosilicate glass which is deposited on a silicon substrate. The metallic conductive layer materials comprise one of the group consisting of tantalum, ruthenium, rhodium, platinum and chromium silicide. The resistor is formed and annealed prior to deposition of metal, e.g. aluminum, on the substrate.

  2. Method for making dense crack free thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P. (Lafayette, CA); Visco, Steven J. (Berkeley, CA); De Jonghe, Lutgard C. (Lafayette, CA)

    2007-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  3. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffner, J.A.; Clem, P.G.; Tuttle, B.A. [and others

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such as night vision goggles, offer important strategic advantages in battlefield scenarios and reconnaissance surveys. Until now, the current technology for fabricating these devices has been limited by low throughput and high cost which ultimately limit the availability of these sensor devices. We have developed and fabricated an alternative design for pyroelectric IR imaging sensors that utilizes a multilayered thin film deposition scheme to create a monolithic thin film imaging element on an active silicon substrate for the first time. This approach combines a thin film pyroelectric imaging element with a thermally insulating SiO{sub 2} aerogel thin film to produce a new type of uncooled IR sensor that offers significantly higher thermal, spatial, and temporal resolutions at a substantially lower cost per unit. This report describes the deposition, characterization and optimization of the aerogel thermal isolation layer and an appropriate pyroelectric imaging element. It also describes the overall integration of these components along with the appropriate planarization, etch stop, adhesion, electrode, and blacking agent thin film layers into a monolithic structure. 19 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  5. B{sub 4}C thin films for neutron detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeglund, Carina [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Birch, Jens; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Andersen, Ken; Hall-Wilton, Richard [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bigault, Thierry; Buffet, Jean-Claude; Correa, Jonathan; Esch, Patrick van; Guerard, Bruno; Piscitelli, Francesco [Institute Laue Langevin, Rue Jules Horowitz, FR-380 00 Grenoble (France); Khaplanov, Anton [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Institute Laue Langevin, Rue Jules Horowitz, FR-380 00 Grenoble (France); Vettier, Christian [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, FR-380 43 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Vollenberg, Wilhelmus [Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group (TE/VSC), CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the very limited availability of {sup 3}He, new kinds of neutron detectors, not based on {sup 3}He, are urgently needed. Here, we present a method to produce thin films of {sup 10}B{sub 4}C, with maximized detection efficiency, intended to be part of a new generation of large area neutron detectors. B{sub 4}C thin films have been deposited onto Al-blade and Si wafer substrates by dc magnetron sputtering from {sup nat}B{sub 4}C and {sup 10}B{sub 4}C targets in an Ar discharge, using an industrial deposition system. The films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray reflectivity, and neutron radiography. We show that the film-substrate adhesion and film purity are improved by increased substrate temperature and deposition rate. A deposition rate of 3.8 A/s and substrate temperature of 400 deg. C result in films with a density close to bulk values and good adhesion to film thickness above 3 {mu}m. Boron-10 contents of almost 80 at. % are obtained in 6.3 m{sup 2} of 1 {mu}m thick {sup 10}B{sub 4}C thin films coated on Al-blades. Initial neutron absorption measurements agree with Monte Carlo simulations and show that the layer thickness, number of layers, neutron wavelength, and amount of impurities are determining factors. The study also shows the importance of having uniform layer thicknesses over large areas, which for a full-scale detector could be in total {approx}1000 m{sup 2} of two-side coated Al-blades with {approx}1 {mu}m thick {sup 10}B{sub 4}C films.

  6. Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozuka, H.; Yamano, A.; Uchiyama, H.; Takahashi, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan); Fukui, T.; Yoki, M.; Akase, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

  7. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  8. Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using the Thermal Degradation of Cellulose Nitrate. Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using the Thermal...

  9. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

  10. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular Passivation. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular...

  11. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power...

  12. Engineering of the band gap and optical properties of thin films of yttrium hydride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Chang Chuan; Mongstad, Trygve; Maehlen, Jan Petter; Karazhanov, Smagul, E-mail: smagulk@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of oxygen-containing yttrium hydride show photochromic effect at room temperature. In this work, we have studied structural and optical properties of the films deposited at different deposition pressures, discovering the possibility of engineering the optical band gap by variation of the oxygen content. In sum, the transparency of the films and the wavelength range of photons triggering the photochromic effect can be controlled by variation of the deposition pressure.

  13. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  14. Epitaxial properties of Al-doped ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrTiO{sub 3}(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karger, M.; Schilling, M. [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institut fuer Elektrische Messtechnik und Grundlagen der Elektrotechnik, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2005-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Undoped and Al-doped ZnO films with dopant concentrations of nominally 1% and 10% and a thickness of 100 nm have been grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) by pulsed laser deposition at substrate temperatures between 650 deg. C and 820 deg. C. The epitaxial conditions were examined with high pressure in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and ex-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements in different geometries. The films are highly (1120)-oriented with a lattice mismatch between the SrTiO{sub 3}[110] direction and the c-axis of about 3%. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed smooth surfaces with a roughness of d{sub rms}<5 nm and different sized islands.

  15. Focused ion beam specimen preparation for electron holography of electrically biased thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    solar cells M. Duchamp1 , M. den Hertog2 , R. Imlau1 , C. B. Boothroyd1 , A. Kovács1 , A. H. Tavabi1, biased TEM specimen, thin film solar cell, FIB Thin films of hydrogenated Si (Si:H) can be used as active absorber layers in solar cells deposited on low cost substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour

  16. Thin Solid Films, 189 (1990) 359-367 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION 359

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demouchy, Sylvie

    Thin Solid Films, 189 (1990) 359-367 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION 359 STRUCTURE OF THIN IRON film which is monocrystalline in depth: the grains have an average lateral size of about 50 nm. The (1 February 21, 1990) Polycrystalline texturized Au/Fe/Au "sandwiches" are prepared by vacuum deposition

  17. Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films grown by PLD S. Christoulakis a,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films grown by PLD S. Christoulakis a,c , M Suchea Abstract Europium and samarium doped calcium sulfide thin films (CaS:Eu,Sm) with different thickness were and crystallinity. In this work we present preliminary results related to the deposition of europium and samarium

  18. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  19. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin, Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  20. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell; Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia; Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin; Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  1. Layer-by-layer assembly of electrically conductive polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan, Chien Sy Jason

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly was used to produce highly conductive thin films with carbon black (CB) and polyelectrolytes. The effects of sonication and pHadjustment of the deposition mixtures on the conductivity and transparency of deposited films...

  2. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickelsen, R.A.; Chen, W.S.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a thin film heterojunction solar cell, said heterojunction comprising a p-type I-III-IV[sub 2] chalcopyrite substrate and an overlying layer of an n-type ternary mixed metal compound wherein said ternary mixed metal compound is applied to said substrate by introducing the vapor of a first metal compound to a vessel containing said substrate from a first vapor source while simultaneously introducing a vapor of a second metal compound from a second vapor source of said vessel, said first and second metals comprising the metal components of said mixed metal compound; independently controlling the vaporization rate of said first and second vapor sources; reducing the mean free path between vapor particles in said vessel, said gas being present in an amount sufficient to induce homogeneity of said vapor mixture; and depositing said mixed metal compound on said substrate in the form of a uniform composition polycrystalline mixed metal compound. 5 figs.

  3. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Girault, B. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche en Genie Civil et Mecanique (UMR CNRS 6183), LUNAM Universite, Universite de Nantes, Centrale Nantes, CRTT, 37 Bd de l'Universite, BP 406, 44602 Saint-Nazaire Cedex (France); Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O. [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Universite de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Sauvage, T. [CEMHTI/CNRS (UPR 3079 CNRS), Universite d'Orleans, 3A rue de la Ferollerie, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  4. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  5. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Congchun [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro-fabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology (China)], E-mail: zhcc@mail.sjtu.edu.cn; Yang Chunsheng; Ding Guifu [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Micro-fabrication Technology of Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Micro/Nanometer Science and Technology (China); Wu Jiansheng [School of Material Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, 200030, Shanghai (China)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  6. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W. (Wilmette, IL); Nystrom, Michael J. (Chicago, IL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or cyrstalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  7. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  8. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  9. Polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films with antimicrobial, antifouling and drug releasing properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Sze Yinn (Sze Yinn Jessie)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis work focuses on designing thin polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films via layer-bylayer (LbL) deposition technique with the ability to kill pathogenic bacteria and inactivate human viruses, especially the ...

  10. Design and modeling of a PZT thin film based piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and modelling framework for a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (PMUT) based on the piezoelectric thin film deposition of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is defined. Through high frequency vibration ...

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Cationic Antiseptics in Layer-by-Layer Thin Film Assemblies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has proven to be a powerful technique for assembling thin films with a variety of properties including electrochromic, molecular sensing, oxygen barrier, and antimicrobial. LbL involves the deposition of alternating...

  12. The Electrical and Band-Gap Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    MRSEC The Electrical and Band-Gap Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Indium-Tin Oxide Thin Films D Science & Engineering Center For zinc-indium-tin oxide (ZITO) films, grown by pulsed-laser deposition was replaced by substitution with zinc and tin in equal molar proportions (co-substitution). All ZITO films

  13. Aluminum recycling from reactor walls: A source of contamination in a-Si:H thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longeaud, C.; Ray, P. P.; Bhaduri, A.; Daineka, D.; Johnson, E. V.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Genie Electrique de Paris (UMR 8507 CNRS), Supelec, Universites Paris VI and XI, 11 Rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91190 Gif sur Yvette (France); Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces (UMR 7647 CNRS), Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the authors investigate the contamination of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films with aluminum recycled from the walls and electrodes of the deposition reactor. Thin films of hydrogenated amorphous silicon were prepared under various conditions by a standard radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in two reactors, the chambers of which were constructed of either aluminum or stainless steel. The authors have studied the electronic properties of these thin films and have found that when using an aluminum reactor chamber, the layers are contaminated with aluminum recycled from the chamber walls and electrode. This phenomenon is observed almost independently of the deposition conditions. The authors show that this contamination results in slightly p-doped films and could be detrimental to the deposition of device grade films. The authors also propose a simple way to control and eventually suppress this contamination.

  14. Characterization on RF magnetron sputtered niobium pentoxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Usha, N. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India); Sivakumar, R., E-mail: krsivakumar1979@yahoo.com [Directorate of Distance Education, Alagappa University, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa Chettiar College of Engineering and Technology, Karaikudi - 630 004 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Niobium pentoxide (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}) thin films with amorphous nature were deposited on microscopic glass substrates at 100°C by rf magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of rf power on the structural, morphological, optical, and vibrational properties of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films have been investigated. Optical study shows the maximum average transmittance of about 87% and the optical energy band gap (indirect allowed) changes between 3.70 eV and 3.47 eV. AFM result indicates the smooth surface nature of the samples. Photoluminescence measurement showed the better optical quality of the deposited films. Raman spectra show the LO-TO splitting of Nb-O stretching of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films.

  15. Improvement in electrochromic stability of electrodeposited nickel hydroxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Nogami, G. [Kyushu Inst. of Tech., Kitakyushu (Japan). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochromic nickel hydroxide thin film was anodically deposited from an aqueous solution. The effect of solution temperature, postheat-treatment temperature, and addition of cadmium on the electrochromic behavior (color/bleach durability cycle, response time, and coloration efficiency of the nickel hydroxide films in NaOH) were investigated. A significant increase in the color/bleach durability cycle from 500 (for the as-deposited film) to more than 5000 cycles (for the heat-treated film) was observed. The addition of cadmium increased the utilization of the active materials. It was found that the coloration efficiency was 40 cm{sup 2}/C and coloration and bleaching response time were 20 to 30 s and 8 to 10 s, respectively. The change in the electrochromic properties with heat-treatment temperature is discussed based on the physical and electrochemical analysis.

  16. Aging phenomena in polystyrene thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koji Fukao; Hiroki Koizumi

    2008-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The aging behavior is investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene through measurements of complex electric capacitance. During isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increases with aging time, while the imaginary part decreases with aging time. This result suggests that the aging time dependence of the real and imaginary parts are mainly associated with change in thickness and dielectric permittivity, respectively. In thin films, the thickness depends on thermal history of aging even above the glass transition. Memory and `rejuvenation' effects are also observed in the thin films.

  17. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  18. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert (Palo Alto, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Pleasanton, CA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael (Tracy, CA); Rainer, Frank (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  19. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey,Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell,Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia,Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin,Yuan (Chandler, AZ)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  20. Polycrystalline thin-film technology: Recent progress in photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, R.L.; Zweibel, K.; Ullal, H.S.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycrystalline thin films have made significant technical progress in the past year. Three of these materials that have been studied extensively for photovoltaic (PV) power applications are copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and thin-film polycrystalline silicon (x-Si) deposited on ceramic substrates. The first of these materials, polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2}, has made some rapid advances in terms of high efficiency and long-term reliability. For CuInSe{sub 2} power modules, a world record has been reported on a 0.4-m{sup 2} module with an aperture-area efficiency of 10.4% and a power output of 40.4 W. Additionally, outdoor reliability testing of CuInSe{sub 2} modules, under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, has resulted in only minor changes in module performance after more than 1000 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. CdTe module research has also resulted in several recent improvements. Module performance has been increased with device areas reaching nearly 900 cm{sup 2}. Deposition has been demonstrated by several different techniques, including electrodeposition, spraying, and screen printing. Outdoor reliability testing of CdTe modules was also carried out under both loaded and open-circuit conditions, with more than 600 days of continuous exposure to natural sunlight. These tests were also encouraging and indicated that the modules were stable within measurement error. The highest reported aperture-area module efficiency for CdTe modules is 10%; the semiconductor material was deposited by electrodeposition. A thin-film CdTe photovoltaic system with a power output of 54 W has been deployed in Saudi Arabia for water pumping. The Module Development Initiative has made significant progress in support of the Polycrystalline Thin-Film Program in the past year, and results are presented in this paper.

  1. Method for bonding thin film thermocouples to ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kreider, Kenneth G. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for adhering a thin film metal thermocouple to a ceramic substrate used in an environment up to 700 degrees Centigrade, such as at a cylinder of an internal combustion engine. The method includes the steps of: depositing a thin layer of a reactive metal on a clean ceramic substrate; and depositing thin layers of platinum and a platinum-10% rhodium alloy forming the respective legs of the thermocouple on the reactive metal layer. The reactive metal layer serves as a bond coat between the thin noble metal thermocouple layers and the ceramic substrate. The thin layers of noble metal are in the range of 1-4 micrometers thick. Preferably, the ceramic substrate is selected from the group consisting of alumina and partially stabilized zirconia. Preferably, the thin layer of reactive metal is in the range of 0.015-0.030 micrometers (15-30 nanometers) thick. The preferred reactive metal is chromium. Other reactive metals may be titanium or zirconium. The thin layer of reactive metal may be deposited by sputtering in ultra high purity argon in a vacuum of approximately 2 milliTorr (0.3 Pascals).

  2. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  3. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    film solar cells. CIGS solar cell efficiencies have beenCIGS, making it a favorable choice for thin-film solar cells.thin film solar cell [3]. However, use of CIGS has a number

  4. Method of preparing high-temperature-stable thin-film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, Leonard S. (Tucson, AZ)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical vapor deposition method for manufacturing tungsten-silicide thin-film resistors of predetermined bulk resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Gaseous compounds of tungsten and silicon are decomposed on a hot substrate to deposit a thin-film of tungsten-silicide. The TCR of the film is determined by the crystallinity of the grain structure, which is controlled by the temperature of deposition and the tungsten to silicon ratio. The bulk resistivity is determined by the tungsten to silicon ratio. Manipulation of the fabrication parameters allows for sensitive control of the properties of the resistor.

  5. Method of preparing high-temperature-stable thin-film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raymond, L.S.

    1980-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical vapor deposition method for manufacturing tungsten-silicide thin-film resistors of predetermined bulk resistivity and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is disclosed. Gaseous compounds of tungsten and silicon are decomposed on a hot substrate to deposit a thin-film of tungsten-silicide. The TCR of the film is determined by the crystallinity of the grain structure, which is controlled by the temperature of deposition and the tungsten to silicon ratio. The bulk resistivity is determined by the tungsten to silicon ratio. Manipulation of the fabrication parameters allows for sensitive control of the properties of the resistor.

  6. A comparative study of physico-chemical properties of CBD and SILAR grown ZnO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jambure, S.B.; Patil, S.J.; Deshpande, A.R.; Lokhande, C.D., E-mail: l_chandrakant@yahoo.com

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphical abstract: Schematic model indicating ZnO nanorods by CBD (Z{sub 1}) and nanograins by SILAR (Z{sub 2}). - Highlights: • Simple methods for the synthesis of ZnO thin films. • Comparative study of physico-chemical properties of ZnO thin films prepared by CBD and SILAR methods. • CBD outperforms SILAR method. - Abstract: In the present work, nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited onto glass substrates by simple and economical chemical bath deposition (CBD) and successive ionic layer adsorption reaction (SILAR) methods. These films were further characterized for their structural, optical, surface morphological and wettability properties. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for both CBD and SILAR deposited ZnO thin films reveal the highly crystalline hexagonal wurtzite structure. From optical studies, band gaps obtained are 2.9 and 3.0 eV for CBD and SILAR deposited thin films, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) patterns show growth of well defined randomly oriented nanorods and nanograins on the CBD and SILAR deposited samples, respectively. The resistivity of CBD deposited films (10{sup 2} ? cm) is lower than that of SILAR deposited films (10{sup 5} ? cm). Surface wettability studies show hydrophobic nature for both films. From the above results it can be concluded that CBD grown ZnO thin films show better properties as compared to SILAR method.

  7. Thermal Characterizationof Thin Film Superlattice Micro Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a microscopic scale. Semiconductor lasers or other high power devices could also benefit from monolithic. Low contact resistance is essential for thin film coolers [3]. A 100 nm titanium metal layer was first

  8. Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

  9. Picoseconds-Laser Modification of Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gakovic, Biljana; Trtica, Milan [Institute of Nuclear Sciences 'VINCA' 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Batani, Dimitri; Desai, Tara; Redaelli, Renato [Dipartimento di Fisica 'G. Occhialini', Universita' degli Studi Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, Milan 20126 (Italy)

    2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of a Nd:YAG laser, pulse duration of 40 ps, with a titanium nitride (TiN) and tungsten-titanium (W-Ti) thin films deposited at silicon was studied. The peak intensity on targets was up to 1012 W/cm2. Results have shown that the TiN surface was modified, by the laser beam, with energy density of {>=}0.18 J/cm2 ({lambda}laser= 532 nm) as well as of 30.0 J/cm2 ({lambda}laser= 1064 nm). The W-Ti was surface modified with energy density of 5.0 J/cm2 ({lambda}laser= 532 nm). The energy absorbed from the Nd:YAG laser beam is partially converted to thermal energy, which generates a series of effects such as melting, vaporization of molten materials, dissociation and ionization of the vaporized material, appearance of plasma, etc. The following morphological changes of both targets were observed: (i) The appearance of periodic microstructures, in the central zone of the irradiated area, for laser irradiation at 532 nm. Accumulation of great number of laser pulses caused film ablation and silicon modification. (ii) Hole formation on the titanium nitride/silicon target was registered at 1064 nm. The process of the Nd:YAG laser interaction with both targets was accompanied by plasma formation above the target.

  10. Modulated IR radiometry for determining thermal properties and basic characteristics of titanium thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apreutesei, Mihai [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and MATEIS Laboratory-INSA de Lyon, Bât. B. Pascal, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lopes, Claudia; Vaz, Filipe; Macedo, Francisco, E-mail: fmacedo@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Borges, Joel [Centro de Física, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal and SEG-CEMUC Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Titanium thin films of different thicknesses were prepared by direct current magnetron sputtering to study modulated infrared (IR) radiometry as a tool for analyzing film thickness. Thickness was varied by regularly increasing the deposition time, keeping all the other deposition parameters constant. The influence of film thickness on morphological, structural, and electrical properties of the titanium coatings also was investigated. The experimental results revealed a systematic grain growth with increasing film thickness, along with enhanced film crystallinity, which led to increased electrical conductivity. Using the results obtained by modulated IR radiometry, the thickness of each thin film was calculated. These thickness values were then compared with the coating thickness measurements obtained by scanning electron microscopy. The values confirmed the reliability of modulated IR radiometry as an analysis tool for thin films and coatings, and for determining thicknesses in the micrometer range, in particular.

  11. Thin-film interference Aditya Joshi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packard, Richard E.

    , y, z, t) = Eo sin(kx - t)^y (1) It is worth noting what all the symbols stand for. · Eo is the peak of two important effects that will be explained presently. Figure 1: A thin film of oil floating on water that is incident upon the interface between air (na = 1) and a thin film of oil of thickness `t'(for this oil

  12. Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the 'Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products' project is to demonstrate thin film packaging solutions based on SiC hermetic coatings that, when applied to glass and plastic substrates, support OLED lighting devices by providing longer life with greater efficiency at lower cost than is currently available. Phase I Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on optical glass with lifetime of 1,000 hour life, CRI greater than 75, and 15 lm/W. Phase II Objective: Demonstrate thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED devices on plastic or glass composite with 25 lm/W, 5,000 hours life, and CRI greater than 80. Phase III Objective: Demonstrate 2 x 2 ft{sup 2} thin film encapsulated working phosphorescent OLED with 40 lm/W, 10,000 hour life, and CRI greater than 85. This report details the efforts of Phase III (Budget Period Three), a fourteen month collaborative effort that focused on optimization of high-efficiency phosphorescent OLED devices and thin-film encapsulation of said devices. The report further details the conclusions and recommendations of the project team that have foundation in all three budget periods for the program. During the conduct of the Thin Film Packaging Solutions for High Efficiency OLED Lighting Products program, including budget period three, the project team completed and delivered the following achievements: (1) a three-year marketing effort that characterized the near-term and longer-term OLED market, identified customer and consumer lighting needs, and suggested prototype product concepts and niche OLED applications lighting that will give rise to broader market acceptance as a source for wide area illumination and energy conservation; (2) a thin film encapsulation technology with a lifetime of nearly 15,000 hours, tested by calcium coupons, while stored at 16 C and 40% relative humidity ('RH'). This encapsulation technology was characterized as having less than 10% change in transmission during the 15,000 hour test period; (3) demonstrated thin film encapsulation of a phosphorescent OLED device with 1,500 hours of lifetime at 60 C and 80% RH; (4) demonstrated that a thin film laminate encapsulation, in addition to the direct thin film deposition process, of a polymer OLED device was another feasible packaging strategy for OLED lighting. The thin film laminate strategy was developed to mitigate defects, demonstrate roll-to-roll process capability for high volume throughput (reduce costs) and to support a potential commercial pathway that is less dependent upon integrated manufacturing since the laminate could be sold as a rolled good; (5) demonstrated that low cost 'blue' glass substrates could be coated with a siloxane barrier layer for planarization and ion-protection and used in the fabrication of a polymer OLED lighting device. This study further demonstrated that the substrate cost has potential for huge cost reductions from the white borosilicate glass substrate currently used by the OLED lighting industry; (6) delivered four-square feet of white phosphorescent OLED technology, including novel high efficiency devices with 82 CRI, greater than 50 lm/W efficiency, and more than 1,000 hours lifetime in a product concept model shelf; (7) presented and or published more than twenty internal studies (for private use), three external presentations (OLED workshop-for public use), and five technology-related external presentations (industry conferences-for public use); and (8) issued five patent applications, which are in various maturity stages at time of publication. Delivery of thin film encapsulated white phosphorescent OLED lighting technology remains a challenging technical achievement, and it seems that commercial availability of thin, bright, white OLED light that meets market requirements will continue to require research and development effort. However, there will be glass encapsulated white OLED lighting products commercialized in niche markets during the 2008 calendar year. This commercializ

  13. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, Fred (Livermore, CA); Hoard, Ronald W. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field.

  14. High-field magnets using high-critical-temperature superconducting thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlitsky, F.; Hoard, R.W.

    1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    High-field magnets fabricated from high-critical-temperature superconducting ceramic (HTSC) thin films which can generate fields greater than 4 Tesla are disclosed. The high-field magnets are made of stackable disk-shaped substrates coated with HTSC thin films, and involves maximizing the critical current density, superconducting film thickness, number of superconducting layers per substrate, substrate diameter, and number of substrates while minimizing substrate thickness. The HTSC thin films are deposited on one or both sides of the substrates in a spiral configuration with variable line widths to increase the field. 4 figures.

  15. Aspects of the SrO-CuO-TiO2 Ternary System Related to the Deposition of SrTiO3 and Copper-Doped SrTiO3 Thin-Film Buffer Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Ayala

    2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors are promising materials for large-scale superconductivity applications. One version of a YBCO coated conductor is based on ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) of magnesium oxide (MgO) onto polycrystalline metal substrates. SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) is often deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods as a buffer layer between the YBCO and IBAD MgO due to its chemical stability and lattice mismatch of only {approx}1.5% with YBCO. In this work, some aspects of the stability of STO with respect to copper (Cu) and chemical solution deposition of STO on IBAD MgO templates were examined. Solubility limits of Cu in STO were established by processing Cu-doped STO powders by conventional bulk preparation techniques. The maximum solubility of Cu in STO was {approx}1% as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Rietveld refinements of x-ray diffraction (XRD) data. XRD analysis, performed in collaboration with NIST, on powder compositions on the STO/SrCuO{sub 2} tie line did not identify any ternary phases. SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layers were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and CSD on IBAD MgO flexible metallic textured tapes. TEM analysis of a {approx}100 nm thick SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer layer deposited by PLD showed a smooth Cu-doped STO/MgO interface. A {approx}600 nm thick YBCO film, deposited onto the SrCu{sub 0.10}Ti{sub 0.90}O{sub y} buffer by PLD, exhibited a T{sub c} of 87 K and critical current density (J{sub c}) of {approx}1 MA/cm{sup 2}. STO and Cu-doped STO thin films by CSD were {approx}30 nm thick. The in plane alignment (FWHM) after deposition of the STO improved by {approx}1{sup o} while it degraded by {approx}2{sup o} with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer. YBCO was deposited by PLD on the STO and SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffers. The in plane alignment (FWHM) of the YBCO with the STO buffer layer slightly improved while that of the YBCO with the SrCu{sub 0.05}TiO{sub y} buffer layer remained constant. A goal of the CSD approach to fabrication of coated conductors is process simplicity. In this study, single layer textured films were obtained without a nucleating seed layer that has been deemed necessary by several investigators. These results indicate that Cu-doped STO buffer layers deposited by PLD or CSD are compatible with IBAD MgO and YBCO and that CSD is a viable approach to coated conductor fabrication.

  16. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jessica L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    elastic  properties of Au thin films by X?ray diffraction interface in  polythiophene thin?film transistors.  Nat copper  phthalocyanine thin films evaporated on amorphous 

  17. Low-Temperature Crystallization of SolGel Processed Pb0.5Ba0.5TiO3: Powders and Oriented Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for depositing thin-film lead barium titanate has been developed. X-ray diffraction analysis showed perovskite. Deposition of the sol by spin coating on single-crystal and thin-film MgO on silicon resulted in highlyO, whereas entirely (100) films were obtained on thin-film MgO. I. Introduction TO USE Pb0.5Ba0.5TiO3 (PBT

  18. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, B.W.; Nystrom, M.J.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface are disclosed. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components. 8 figs.

  19. Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessels, Bruce W. (Wilmette, IL); Nystrom, Michael J. (Germantown, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sr.sub.x Ba.sub.1-x Nb.sub.2 O.sub.6, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO.sub.3 ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of visible emission from rare-earth doped aluminum nitride, gallium nitride and gallium aluminum nitride powders and thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tao, Jonathan Huai-Tse

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from GaN:Tb 3+ Powders and Thin Films Deposited by MOVPE andHirata, "Eu 3+ Activated GaN Thin Films Grown on Sapphire byTb 3+ in GaN Powders and Thin Films," ECS Trans. , J. Laski,

  1. Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin FilmsDelta--Beta Scatter Plot at 220 eVBeta Scatter Plot at 220 eV #12;Why Uranium Nitride?Why Uranium Nitride? UraniumUranium, uranium,Bombard target, uranium, with argon ionswith argon ions Uranium atoms leaveUranium atoms leave

  2. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran (Minneapolis, MN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  3. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  4. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  5. Durable silver thin film coating for diffraction gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Discovery Bay, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Oakley, CA); Komashko, Aleksey M. (San Diego, CA)

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A durable silver film thin film coated non-planar optical element has been developed to replace Gold as a material for fabricating such devices. Such a coating and resultant optical element has an increased efficiency and is resistant to tarnishing, can be easily stripped and re-deposited without modifying underlying grating structure, improves the throughput and power loading of short pulse compressor designs for ultra-fast laser systems, and can be utilized in variety of optical and spectrophotometric systems, particularly high-end spectrometers that require maximized efficiency.

  6. SAND2003-8146C Symposium on Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    SAND2003-8146C Symposium on Thin Films ICM-9 9th International Conference on the Mechanical FRACTURE OF THIN GOLD FILMS N. R. Moody, D. P. Adams*, M. J. Cordill**, D. F. Bahr**, A. A. Volinsky of interfacial fracture energies of thin gold films as a function of film thickness is presented in this paper

  7. A comparison of thick film and thin film traffic stripes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keese, Charles J

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Striys. . . Pigmented Bitusmn Stripes . Asphalt %uilt-Upa Striye vith Pigmented Portland Cement Mortar Cover Course 38 . ~ 41 Thin Film Stripes Used for Comparison Results of Comparing Thick Film Stripes and Thin Film Paint Stripes . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 43... was aspbaltio oonorets. The pavement in Test Areas 2y 3p and 4 vas portland cesmnh ooncrete, Two test areas (3 and 4) vere located in such manner as to provide uninterrupted flow of traffic over tbs entire length of the test area. The other two test areas (1...

  8. Comparative study of the mechanical properties of nanostructured thin films on stretchable substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djaziri, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Renault, P.-O.; Le Bourhis, E.; Goudeau, Ph., E-mail: Philippe.goudeau@univ-poitiers.fr [Institut P' (UPR 3346 CNRS), Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, Bd Pierre et Marie Curie, 86962 Futuroscope Cedex (France); Faurie, D. [LSPM, (UPR 3407 CNRS), Université Paris 13, Institut Galilée, 99 avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Geandier, G. [Institut Jean Lamour (UMR 3079 CNRS), Université de Lorraine, Parc de Saurupt, CS 50840, 54011 NANCY Cedex (France); Mocuta, C.; Thiaudière, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Comparative studies of the mechanical behavior between copper, tungsten, and W/Cu nanocomposite based on copper dispersoïd thin films were performed under in-situ controlled tensile equi-biaxial loadings using both synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation techniques. The films first deform elastically with the lattice strain equal to the true strain given by digital image correlation measurements. The Cu single thin film intrinsic elastic limit of 0.27% is determined below the apparent elastic limit of W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films, 0.30% and 0.49%, respectively. This difference is found to be driven by the existence of as-deposited residual stresses. Above the elastic limit on the lattice strain-true strain curves, we discriminate two different behaviors presumably footprints of plasticity and fracture. The Cu thin film shows a large transition domain (0.60% true strain range) to a plateau with a smooth evolution of the curve which is associated to peak broadening. In contrast, W and W/Cu nanocomposite thin films show a less smooth and reduced transition domain (0.30% true strain range) to a plateau with no peak broadening. These observations indicate that copper thin film shows some ductility while tungsten/copper nanocomposites thin films are brittle. Fracture resistance of W/Cu nanocomposite thin film is improved thanks to the high compressive residual stress and the elimination of the metastable ?-W phase.

  9. Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: Tianjin Municipality, China Zip: 300071 Sector: Solar Product: A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References: Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin...

  10. Effects of low temperature annealing on the adhesion of electroless plated copper thin films in TiN deposited silicon integrated circuit substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Adam Timothy

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    present on modern IC substrates. Electroless deposition, which plates a seed layer of copper onto a substrate in a liquid bath without the use of a power source, is a reliable method of depositing copper. Effects of low temperature annealing...

  11. Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TABLE I. Measured thermoelectric power S for samples ofThermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouplesthickness dependence of the thermoelectric power of Pt films

  12. alumina thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  13. acid thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  14. ablation thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  15. anatase thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  16. arsenide thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  17. Flat panel display using Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Schmid, Anthony P. (Solan Beach, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of Ti--Cr--Al--O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti--Cr--Al--O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti--Cr--Al--O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti--Cr--Al--O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  18. Process for producing Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Schmid, Anthony P. (Solana Beach, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are used as a resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O.sub.2. Resistivity values from 10.sup.4 to 10.sup.10 Ohm-cm have been measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O film <1 .mu.m thick. The film resistivity can be discretely selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The application of Ti-Cr-Al-O as a thin film resistor has been found to be thermodynamically stable, unlike other metal-oxide films. The Ti-Cr-Al-O film can be used as a vertical or lateral resistor, for example, as a layer beneath a field emission cathode in a flat panel display; or used to control surface emissivity, for example, as a coating on an insulating material such as vertical wall supports in flat panel displays.

  19. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  20. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  1. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  2. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM); Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  3. SAW determination of surface area of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

  4. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical,...

  5. Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications A. Bruno Frazier) In this work, graphite/polyimide composite thin films are introduced and characterized for micromachining tetracarboxylic dianhydride+xydianiline/metaphenylene diamine polyimide matrix. The resultant material represents

  6. au thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    micro-machine (see S. S. Irudayaraj and A. Emadi 15). In general, magnetic thin-film elements are used in many applications Hadiji, Rejeb 29 Thin Films of Chiral Motors...

  7. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by Oxygen-plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by...

  8. aluminium thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Thin-Film Metamaterials called Sculptured Thin Films CERN Preprints Summary: Morphology...

  9. Fully Integrated Applications of Thin Films on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose Wolf; Ken Peterson; Matt O'Keefe; Wayne Huebner; Bill Kuhn

    2012-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film multilayers have previously been introduced on multilayer low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC), as well as initial thin film capacitors on LTCC. The ruggedness of a multipurpose Ti-Cu-Pt-Au stack for connectivity and RF conductivity has continued to benefit fabrication and reliability in state of-the-art modules, while the capacitors have followed the traditional Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) style. The full integration of thin film passives with thin film connectivity traces is presented. Certain passives, such as capacitors, require specifically tailored and separately patterned thin film (multi-)layers, including a dielectric. Different capacitance values are achieved by variation of both the insulator layer thickness and the active area of the capacitor. Other passives, such as filters, require only the conductor - a single thin film multilayer. This can be patterned from the same connectivity thin film material (Ti-Cu-Pt-Au), or a specially tailored thin film material (e.g. Ti-Cu-Au) can be deposited. Both versions are described, including process and integration details. Examples are discussed, ranging from patterning for maximum tolerances, to space and performance-optimized designs. Cross-sectional issues associated with integration are also highlighted in the discussion.

  10. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Sigmon, T.W.; Aceves, R.C.

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics. 5 figs.

  11. Eddy Current Testing for Detecting Small Defects in Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obeid, Simon; Tranjan, Farid M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, UNCC (United States); Dogaru, Teodor [Albany Instruments, 426-O Barton Creek, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States)

    2007-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented here is a technique of using Eddy Current based Giant Magneto-Resistance sensor (GMR) to detect surface and sub-layered minute defects in thin films. For surface crack detection, a measurement was performed on a copper metallization of 5-10 microns thick. It was done by scanning the GMR sensor on the surface of the wafer that had two scratches of 0.2 mm, and 2.5 mm in length respectively. In another experiment, metal coatings were deposited over the layers containing five defects with known lengths such that the defects were invisible from the surface. The limit of detection (resolution), in terms of defect size, of the GMR high-resolution Eddy Current probe was studied using this sample. Applications of Eddy Current testing include detecting defects in thin film metallic layers, and quality control of metallization layers on silicon wafers for integrated circuits manufacturing.

  12. Method for formation of thin film transistors on plastic substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The process relies on techniques for depositing semiconductors, dielectrics, and metals at low temperatures; crystallizing and doping semiconductor layers in the TFT with a pulsed energy source; and creating top-gate self-aligned as well as back-gate TFT structures. The process enables the fabrication of amorphous and polycrystalline channel silicon TFTs at temperatures sufficiently low to prevent damage to plastic substrates. The process has use in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics.

  13. Viscous fingering in volatile thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oded Agam

    2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin water film on a cleaved mica substrate undergoes a first order phase transition between two values of film thickness. By inducing a finite evaporation rate of the water, the interface between the two phases develops a fingering instability similar to that observed in the Saffman-Taylor problem. We draw the connection between the two problems, and construct solutions describing the dynamics of evaporation in this system.

  14. High sensitive formaldehyde graphene gas sensor modified by atomic layer deposition zinc oxide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Haichuan; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Keke; Xie, Haifen, E-mail: hfxie@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Zhao, Xiaojing; Liu, Feng [Department of Physics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234 (China)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films with various thicknesses were fabricated by Atomic Layer Deposition on Chemical Vapor Deposition grown graphene films and their response to formaldehyde has been investigated. It was found that 0.5?nm ZnO films modified graphene sensors showed high response to formaldehyde with the resistance change up to 52% at the concentration of 9 parts-per-million (ppm) at room temperature. Meanwhile, the detection limit could reach 180 parts-per-billion (ppb) and fast response of 36?s was also obtained. The high sensitivity could be attributed to the combining effect from the highly reactive, top mounted ZnO thin films, and high conductive graphene base network. The dependence of ZnO films surface morphology and its sensitivity on the ZnO films thickness was also investigated.

  15. Understanding the deposition mechanism of pulsed laser deposited B-C films using dual-targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Louyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China); He, Zhiqiang; Wang, Chuanbin; Shen, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Material Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Ji, Xiaoli, E-mail: kobe@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, 122 Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070 (China); Lu, Wenzhong [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Louyu Road, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron carbide thin films with stoichiometry (boron-carbon atomic ratio) range of 0.1???8.9 were fabricated via pulsed laser deposition by using boron-carbon dual-targets. However, this experimental data on stoichiometry were smaller than the computer simulation values. The discrepancy was investigated by studies on composition and microstructure of the thin films and targets by scanning electron microscopy, excitation laser Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the boron liquid droplets were formed by phase explosion after laser irradiation on boron sector. Part of the boron droplets would be lost via ejection in the direction of laser beam, which is tilted 45° to the surface of substrate.

  16. Vibrational spectra of CO adsorbed on oxide thin films: A tool to probe the surface defects and phase changes of oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savara, Aditya, E-mail: savaraa@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of iron oxide were grown on Pt(111) single crystals using cycles of physical vapor deposition of iron followed by oxidative annealing in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Two procedures were utilized for film growth of ?15–30 ML thick films, where both procedures involved sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. In procedure 1, the iron oxide film was fully grown via sequential deposition+oxidation cycles, and then the fully grown film was exposed to a CO flux equivalent to 8 × 10{sup ?7} millibars, and a vibrational spectrum of adsorbed CO was obtained using infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO from multiple preparations using procedure 1 show changes in the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects—some of which are correlated with another phase that forms (“phase B”), even before enough of phase B has formed to be easily detected using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). During procedure 2, CO vibrational spectra were obtained between deposition+oxidation cycles, and these spectra show that the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects changed as a function of sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. The authors conclude that measurement of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on oxide thin films provides a sensitive tool to probe chemical changes of defects on the surface and can thus complement LEED techniques by probing changes not visible by LEED. Increased use of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on thin films would enable better comparisons between films grown with different procedures and by different groups.

  17. Thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cells and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basol, Bulent M. (Los Angeles, CA); Tseng, Eric S. (Los Angeles, CA); Rod, Robert L. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1983-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of fabricating a thin film heterojunction photovoltaic cell which comprises depositing a film of a near intrinsic or n-type semiconductor compound formed of at least one of the metal elements of Class II B of the Periodic Table of Elements and at least tellurium and then heating said film at a temperature between about 250.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. for a time sufficient to convert said film to a suitably low resistivity p-type semiconductor compound. Such film may be deposited initially on the surface of an n-type semiconductor substrate. Alternatively, there may be deposited on the converted film a layer of n-type semiconductor compound different from the film semiconductor compound. The resulting photovoltaic cell exhibits a substantially increased power output over similar cells not subjected to the method of the present invention.

  18. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR MICROMAGNETIC THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR MICROMAGNETIC THIN FILMS Classification: 35E99, 35M10, 49J45, 74K35. Keywords: -limit, thin films, micromagnetics, relaxation; 1 1. Introduction In recent years the understanding of thin film behavior has been helped

  19. THIN FILM MECHANICS BULGING AND Ph.D Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huston, Dryver R.

    THIN FILM MECHANICS ­BULGING AND STRETCHING Ph.D Dissertation Mechanical Engineering University of Vermont Wolfgang Sauter October 2000 #12;ii Abstract Thin films have experienced revolutionary development for the intensive effort in research in materials and processing techniques. Thin film windows are window

  20. Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions C. Imbert and A. Mellet February 6, 2012 Abstract We consider an equation modeling the evolution of a viscous liquid thin film equation, Non-local equation, Thin film equation, Non-negative solutions MSC: 35G25, 35K25, 35A01, 35B09 1

  1. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ELECTROPLATED Cu THIN FILMS A.A. Volinsky* , J. Vella size, thin film microstructure and mechanical properties have become critical parameters-K dielectric materials and novel interconnects (Cu). For most reliability tests, knowledge of the thin film

  2. Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions C. Imbert and A. Mellet August 31, 2011 Abstract We consider an equation modeling the evolution of a viscous liquid thin film equation, Non-local equation, Thin film equation, Non-negative solutions MSC: 35G25, 35K25, 35A01, 35B09 1

  3. Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electrified thin films: Global existence of non-negative solutions C. Imbert and A. Mellet February 4, 2011 Abstract We consider an equation modeling the evolution of a viscous liquid thin film equation, Non-local equation, Thin film equation, Non-negative solutions MSC: 35G25, 35K25, 35A01, 35B09 1

  4. SEECOMMENTARYAPPLIEDPHYSICAL The macroscopic delamination of thin films from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    SEECOMMENTARYAPPLIEDPHYSICAL SCIENCES The macroscopic delamination of thin films from elastic toughness, our analysis suggests a number of design guidelines for the thin films used in flexible fatigue damage, the thin film thickness must be greater than a critical value, which we determine

  5. RisR980(EN) Epitaxy, Thin films and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø­R­980(EN) Epitaxy, Thin films and Superlattices Morten Jagd Christensen Risø National of substrates as well as growth of thin films and Fe/V superlattices by molecular beam epitaxy, including in structures were investigated. This thesis, "Epitaxy, Thin films and Superlattices", is written in partial

  6. Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyamasundar, R.K.

    Polymer-Metal Nanocomposites via Polymer Thin Film T. P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad Polymer-metal nanocomposite thin films are versatile materials that not only Chemistry Inside a Polymer Thin Film P. Radhakrishnan School of Chemistry, University of Hyderabad metal

  7. Thin-film solar cell fabricated on a flexible metallic substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, John R.; Noufi, Rommel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  8. Thin-Film Solar Cell Fabricated on a Flexible Metallic Substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuttle, J. R.; Noufi, R.; Hasoon, F. S.

    2006-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film solar cell (10) is provided. The thin-film solar cell (10) comprises a flexible metallic substrate (12) having a first surface and a second surface. A back metal contact layer (16) is deposited on the first surface of the flexible metallic substrate (12). A semiconductor absorber layer (14) is deposited on the back metal contact. A photoactive film deposited on the semiconductor absorber layer (14) forms a heterojunction structure and a grid contact (24) deposited on the heterjunction structure. The flexible metal substrate (12) can be constructed of either aluminium or stainless steel. Furthermore, a method of constructing a solar cell is provided. The method comprises providing an aluminum substrate (12), depositing a semiconductor absorber layer (14) on the aluminum substrate (12), and insulating the aluminum substrate (12) from the semiconductor absorber layer (14) to inhibit reaction between the aluminum substrate (12) and the semiconductor absorber layer (14).

  9. Influence of sputtering power on the optical properties of ITO thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K, Aijo John; M, Deepak, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com; T, Manju, E-mail: manju.thankamoni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sree Sankara College, Kalady P. O., Ernakulam Dist., Kerala (India); Kumar, Vineetha V. [Dept. of Physics, K. E. College, Mannanam, Kottayam Dist., Kerala (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tin doped indium oxide films are widely used in transparent conducting coatings such as flat panel displays, crystal displays and in optical devices such as solar cells and organic light emitting diodes due to the high electrical resistivity and optical transparency in the visible region of solar spectrum. The deposition parameters have a commendable influence on the optical and electrical properties of the thin films. In this study, ITO thin films were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering. The properties of the films prepared under varying sputtering power were compared using UV- visible spectrophotometry. Effect of sputtering power on the energy band gap, absorption coefficient and refractive index are investigated.

  10. Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition of Nano-Structured Sn/C Composite Thin-Film Anodes for Li-ion Batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcinek, M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Meeting on Lithium Batteries, Biarritz, France, June 18–23,Sn/C anodes for lithium batteries. Thin layers of graphiticKeywords: Sn/C; Lithium Batteries; Anode; Plasma; Microwave

  11. New techniques for producing thin boron films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review will be presented of methods for producing thin boron films using an electron gun. Previous papers have had the problem of spattering of the boron source during the evaporation. Methods for reducing this problem will also be presented. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  12. US polycrystalline thin film solar cells program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)) [Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (USA)

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells and modules that meet the US Department of Energy's long-term goals by achieving high efficiencies (15%-20%), low-cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and long-time reliability (30 years). The importance of work in this area is due to the fact that the polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules have made rapid advances. They have become the leading thin films for PV in terms of efficiency and stability. The US Department of Energy has increased its funding through an initiative through the Solar Energy Research Institute in CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe with subcontracts to start in Spring 1990. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Magnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Robert Michael

    examples. During the past decade applications of nano-scale magnetic devices to data storage have hadMagnetic/metallic thin films and nanostructures The College of William and MarY;'l Virginia http://www.as.wm.cdu/Faculty/Lukaszcw.html It is widely believed that revolutionary progress can be made as materials and devices are developed to operate

  14. A thin film transistor driven microchannel device 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    perturbation, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor (TFT) was connected to the microchannel device. The self-aligned a-Si:H TFT was fabricated with a two-photomask process. The result shows that the attachment of the TFT successfully suppressed...

  15. Long-laser-pulse method of producing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Olander, Donald K. (Berkeley, CA); Russo, Richard E. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing thin films by means of laser vaporization employs a long-pulse laser (Nd-glass of about one millisecond duration) with a peak power density typically in the range 10.sup.5 -10.sup.6 W/cm.sup.2. The method may be used to produce high T.sub.c superconducting films of perovskite material. In one embodiment, a few hundred nanometers thick film of YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x is produced on a SrTiO.sub.3 crystal substrate in one or two pulses. In situ-recrystallization and post-annealing, both at elevated temperature and in the presence of an oxidizing agen The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-C03-76SF0098 between the United States Department of Energy and the University of California.

  16. Tensile and fatigue behaviors of printed Ag thin films on flexible substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sim, Gi-Dong; Won, Sejeong; Lee, Soon-Bok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible electronics using nanoparticle (NP) printing has been highlighted as a key technology enabling eco-friendly, low-cost, and large-area fabrication. For NP-based printing to be used as a successive alternative to photolithography and vacuum deposition, stretchability and long term reliability must be considered. This paper reports the stretchability and fatigue behavior of 100 nm thick NP-based silver thin films printed on polyethylene-terephthalate substrate and compares it to films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. NP-based films show stretchability and fatigue life comparable to evaporated films with intergranular fracture as the dominant failure mechanism.

  17. Effects of low temperature annealing on the adhesion of electroless plated copper thin films in TiN deposited silicon integrated circuit substrates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tate, Adam Timothy

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    current density several orders of magnitude greater than aluminum [1]. Reliability failures caused by electromigration-induced interconnect failures in aluminum-based ICs have motivated circuit manufacturers to choose copper over aluminum... as an interconnect materiaL A bonus effect of the choice of copper over aluminum is copper's lower resistivity (for thin Sm Cu, p = 2. 0 le-cm; for thin Em Al, p = 2. 7-3, 0 ltI2-cm [2, 3]). The change to copper allows manufacturers to take advantage of copper...

  18. Silicon Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Glick, S. H.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2006-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric, adhesion-promoting, moisture barriers comprised of silicon oxynitride thin film materials (SiOxNy with various material stoichiometric compositions x,y) were applied to: 1) bare and pre-coated soda-lime silicate glass (coated with transparent conductive oxide SnO2:F and/or aluminum), and polymer substrates (polyethylene terephthalate, PET, or polyethylene napthalate, PEN); plus 2) pre- deposited photovoltaic (PV) cells and mini-modules consisting of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) thin-film PV technologies. We used plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process with dilute silane, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide/oxygen gas mixtures in a low-power (< or = 10 milliW per cm2) RF discharge at ~ 0.2 Torr pressure, and low substrate temperatures < or = 100(degrees)C, over deposition areas ~ 1000 cm2. Barrier properties of the resulting PV cells and coated-glass packaging structures were studied with subsequent stressing in damp-heat exposure at 85(degrees)C/85% RH. Preliminary results on PV cells and coated glass indicate the palpable benefits of the barriers in mitigating moisture intrusion and degradation of the underlying structures using SiOxNy coatings with thicknesses in the range of 100-200 nm.

  19. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh, E-mail: rajphyind@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517 502, A.P, India and Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur - 515 003, A.P (India); Hymavathi, B.; Rao, T. Subba [Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur - 515 003, A.P (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium telluride continues to be a leading candidate for the development of cost effective photovoltaics for terrestrial applications. In the present work two individual metallic targets of Cd and Te were used for the deposition of CdTe thin films on mica substrates from room temperature to 300 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. XRD patterns of CdTe thin films deposited on mica substrates exhibit peaks at 2? = 27.7°, 46.1° and 54.6°, which corresponds to reflection on (1 1 1), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes of CdTe cubic structure. The intensities of XRD patterns increases with the increase of substrate temperature upto 150 °C and then it decreases at higher substrate temperatures. The conductivity of CdTe thin films measured from four probe method increases with the increase of substrate temperature. The activation energies (?E) are found to be decrease with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance spectra of CdTe thin films deposited on mica have a clear interference pattern in the longer wavelength region. The films have good transparency (T > 85 %) exhibiting interference pattern in the spectral region between 1200 – 2500 nm. The optical band gap of CdTe thin films are found to be in the range of 1.48 – 1.57. The refractive index, n decreases with the increase of wavelength, ?. The value of n and k increases with the increase of substrate temperature.

  20. MEMS-based thin-film fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of HfO2 Thin Films on Si and GaAs Substrates Justin C Hackley1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gougousi, Theodosia

    that have shown efficient growth of HfO2 films on Si-H at 100°C using amide precursors and heavy water.4 Hf and Materials Research Directorate, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 21005-5069 ABSTRACT dielectrics in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFET).5 However, one of the major issues

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion sources for thin film processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, L.A.; Gorbatkin, S.M.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasmas created by microwave absorption at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) are increasingly used for a variety of plasma processes, including both etching and deposition. ECR sources efficiently couple energy to electrons and use magnetic confinement to maximize the probability of an electron creating an ion or free radical in pressure regimes where the mean free path for ionization is comparable to the ECR source dimensions. The general operating principles of ECR sources are discussed with special emphasis on their use for thin film etching. Data on source performance during Cl base etching of Si using an ECR system are presented. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Microstructure and properties of copper thin films on silicon substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Vibhor Vinodkumar

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    representation of four point probe .................................................... 45 20. X-Ray results of Cu film deposited on Si (100) substrate at 100W, 200W, 600W deposition power... ........................................................................................ 46 21. X-Ray results of Cu film deposited on Si (110) substrate at 100W, 200W, 600W deposition power ........................................................................................ 47 22. X-Ray results of Cu film deposited on SiO 2...

  4. Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahriar, Selim

    MRSEC Quasi-Reversible Oxygen Exchange of Amorphous IGZO Thin Films NSF Grant # 1121262 A. U. Adler Center In situ electrical properties of a-IGZO thin films were carried out at 200ºC as a function/"defect" structure of amorphous oxide films. In situ conductivity of 70 nm a-IGZO thin film at 200oC measured in van

  5. Room temperature ferromagnetism in Co defused CdTe nanocrystalline thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, N. Madhusudhana; Kaleemulla, S.; Begam, M. Rigana [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore - 632 014 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocrystalline Co defused CdTe thin films were prepared using electron beam evaporation technique by depositing CdTe/Co/CdTe stacked layers with different Co thickness onto glass substrate at 373 K followed by annealing at 573K for 2 hrs. Structural, morphological and magnetic properties of of all the Co defused CdTe thin films has been investigated. XRD pattern of all the films exhibited zinc blende structure with <111> preferential orientation without changing the crystal structure of the films. The grain size of the films increased from 31.5 nm to 48.1 nm with the increase of Co layer thickness from 25nm to 100nm. The morphological studies showed that uniform texture of the films and the presence of Co was confirmed by EDAX. Room temperature magnetization curves indicated an improved ferromagnetic behavior in the films with increase of the Co thickness.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, Satish [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey et al. [Langmuir, 22, 4315 (2006)] and Leach et al. [Chaos, 15, 047506 (2005)] show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study [J. Fluid Mech., 631, 255 (2009)] which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  7. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore »field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  8. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  9. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  10. Nanoscale compositional analysis of NiTi shape memory alloy films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, S. K.; Mohan, S. [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India)] [Centre for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560012 (India); Bysakh, S. [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India)] [Central Glass and Ceramics Research Institute, Kolkata-700032 (India); Kumar, A.; Kamat, S. V. [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)] [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad-500058 (India)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of surface oxide layer as well as compositional changes along the thickness for NiTi shape memory alloy thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering at substrate temperature of 300 °C in the as-deposited condition as well as in the postannealed (at 600 °C) condition have been thoroughly studied by using secondary ion mass spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Formation of titanium oxide (predominantly titanium dioxide) layer was observed in both as-deposited and postannealed NiTi films, although the oxide layer was much thinner (8 nm) in as-deposited condition. The depletion of Ti and enrichment of Ni below the oxide layer in postannealed films also resulted in the formation of a graded microstructure consisting of titanium oxide, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and B2 NiTi. A uniform composition of B2 NiTi was obtained in the postannealed film only below a depth of 200–250 nm from the surface. Postannealed film also exhibited formation of a ternary silicide (Ni{sub x}Ti{sub y}Si) at the film–substrate interface, whereas no silicide was seen in the as-deposited film. The formation of silicide also caused a depletion of Ni in the film in a region ?250–300 nm just above the film substrate interface.

  11. Scaling law analysis of paraffin thin films on different surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dotto, M. E. R.; Camargo, S. S. Jr. [Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materials, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cx. Postal 68505, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 21945-970 (Brazil)

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of paraffin deposit formation on different surfaces was analyzed based on scaling laws. Carbon-based films were deposited onto silicon (Si) and stainless steel substrates from methane (CH{sub 4}) gas using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The different substrates were characterized with respect to their surface energy by contact angle measurements, surface roughness, and morphology. Paraffin thin films were obtained by the casting technique and were subsequently characterized by an atomic force microscope in noncontact mode. The results indicate that the morphology of paraffin deposits is strongly influenced by substrates used. Scaling laws analysis for coated substrates present two distinct dynamics: a local roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub local}) associated to short-range surface correlations and a global roughness exponent ({alpha}{sub global}) associated to long-range surface correlations. The local dynamics is described by the Wolf-Villain model, and a global dynamics is described by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang model. A local correlation length (L{sub local}) defines the transition between the local and global dynamics with L{sub local} approximately 700 nm in accordance with the spacing of planes measured from atomic force micrographs. For uncoated substrates, the growth dynamics is related to Edwards-Wilkinson model.

  12. X-Ray Studies of GaN Film Grown on Si Using Electrochemical Deposition Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Heuseen, K.; Hashim, M. R. [Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), 11800 Minden, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the X-ray studies of GaN thin films deposited on Si (111) substrate at different current density using electrochemical deposition technique. The structural properties of GaN films were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD analysis showed that hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende GaN phases were both deposited on Si (111). The lattice constants, the average size of h-GaN crystals and the in-plane (along a-axis) and out of plane (along c-axis) strains were calculated from XRD analysis.

  13. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zweibel, K. [ed.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting ``next-generation`` options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called ``government/industry partnerships``) that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  14. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ackerman, Bruce (El Paso, TX); Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Jordan, John F. (El Paso, TX)

    1991-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  15. Influence of process parameters on properties of reactively sputtered tungsten nitride thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addonizio, Maria L.; Castaldo, Anna; Antonaia, Alessandro; Gambale, Emilia; Iemmo, Laura [ENEA, Portici Research Centre, Piazzale E. Fermi 1, I-80055, Portici (Italy)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Tungsten nitride (WN{sub x}) thin films were produced by reactive dc magnetron sputtering of tungsten in an Ar-N{sub 2} gas mixture. The influence of the deposition power on the properties of tungsten nitride has been analyzed and compared with that induced by nitrogen content variation in the sputtering gas. A combined analysis of structural, electrical and optical properties on thin WN{sub x} films obtained at different deposition conditions has been performed. It was found that at an N{sub 2} content of 14% a single phase structure of W{sub 2}N films was formed with the highest crystalline content. This sputtering gas composition was subsequently used for fabricating films at different deposition powers. Optical analysis showed that increasing the deposition power created tungsten nitride films with a more metallic character, which is confirmed with resistivity measurements. At low sputtering powers the resulting films were crystalline whereas, with an increase of power, an amorphous phase was also present. The incorporation of an excess of nitrogen atoms resulted in an expansion of the W{sub 2}N lattice and this effect was more pronounced at low deposition powers. Infrared analysis revealed that in WN{sub x} films deposited at low power, chemisorbed N{sub 2} molecules did not behave as ligands whereas at high deposition power they clearly appeared as ligands around metallic tungsten. In this study, the influence of the most meaningful deposition parameters on the phase transformation reaction path was established and deposition conditions suitable for producing thermally stable and highly crystalline W{sub 2}N films were found.

  16. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bates, John B. (116 Baltimore Dr., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Dudney, Nancy J. (11634 S. Monticello Rd., Knoxville, TN 37922); Weatherspoon, Kim A. (223 Wadsworth Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  17. DOE/SERI polycrystalline thin-film photovoltaic research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hermann, A.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents recent results, status, and future prospects for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Polycrystalline Thin Film Photovoltaic program, managed by the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The devices being studied most intensively are heterojunctions based on CuInSe/sub 2/ and on CdTe. Both materials have attained over 10% efficiency in polycrystalline form. The main emphasis is on CuInSe/sub 2/, for which Boeing has reported an 11%-efficient device (AMl ELH simulation). Important work is being done on studies of the composition/electronic properties of CuInSe/sub 2/ and its response to post-deposition annealing. In the CdTe research, ohmic, stable back-contacting and control of p-type doping are being investigated. New efforts to study polycrystalline two-junction stacked cells are underway with two-terminal cells (at IEC) and with four-terminal cells (at SMU). This preliminary work is expected to be expanded, with emphasis on CdTe and other top-cell (high-bandgap) materials. These efforts introduce a number of new research areas (e.g., transparent ohmic contacts to p-CdTe and sub-bandgap light-losses in polycrystalline materials). The aim of the program is to produce stable, high-efficiency (15%), thin-film cells that can be deposited inexpensively by techniques that are scalable to large areas.

  18. Modeling of Substrate-Induced Anisotropy in Through-Plane Thermal Behavior of Polymeric Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeong-Bong

    Modeling of Substrate-Induced Anisotropy in Through-Plane Thermal Behavior of Polymeric Thin Films, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0269 SYNOPSIS Polymeric thin films are widely used in microelectronic applications properties of isotropic thin films for single layer (thin film rigidly clamped) and bilayer (thin film

  19. The effects of layering in ferroelectric Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomenzo, Patrick D.; Nishida, Toshikazu, E-mail: nishida@ufl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Takmeel, Qanit; Moghaddam, Saeed [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Zhou, Chuanzhen; Liu, Yang; Fancher, Chris M.; Jones, Jacob L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27696-7907 (United States)

    2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposited Si-doped HfO{sub 2} thin films approximately 10?nm thick are deposited with various Si-dopant concentrations and distributions. The ferroelectric behavior of the HfO{sub 2} thin films are shown to be dependent on both the Si mol. % and the distribution of Si-dopants. Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor capacitors are shown to exhibit a tunable remanent polarization through the adjustment of the Si-dopant distribution at a constant Si concentration. Inhomogeneous layering of Si-dopants within the thin films effectively lowers the remanent polarization. A pinched hysteresis loop is observed for higher Si-dopant concentrations and found to be dependent on the Si layering distribution.

  20. Fluorescent of C-dot composite thin films and its properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahen, Ea Cahya Septia, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Nuryadin, Bebeh W., E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Iskandar, Ferry, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id; Khairurrijal, E-mail: ferry@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10 Bandung, 40132 (Indonesia)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we report the preparation of a fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) epoxy composite thin films on a glass substrate. C-dots were prepared directly by a simple hydrothermal method using citric acid as a carbon source. The C-dots solutions were mixed with a transparent epoxy resin to form C-dot epoxy composite. Furthermore, the composite precursor was deposited on the glass substrate using a spin coating method in order to fabricate C-dot epoxy composite thin film. The transmittance intensity of C-dot composite film reached up to 90% in the visible light spectra. Using Swanopoel method, the film thickness of fabricated C-dot composite film was determined at about 1.45 ?m, a value lies in a typical range needed for a wide range application. Thus, the C-dot composite film is promising in broadening applications in various fields such as energy conversion, optoelectronics, and display technology.

  1. Double-sided reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-?} thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Fei; Xiong, Jie, E-mail: jiexiong@uestc.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Ruipeng; Zhao, Xiaohui; Tao, Bowan; Li, Yanrong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-micrometer thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-?} (YBCO) films have been successfully deposited on both sides of LaAlO{sub 3} single crystalline substrates by using a home-made reel-to-reel metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system, which has two opposite symmetrical shower heads and a special-designed heater. This technique can simultaneously fabricate double-sided films with high deposition rate up to 500?nm/min, and lead to doubling current carrying capability of YBCO, especially for coated conductors (CCs). X-ray diffraction analysis showed that YBCO films were well crystallized and highly epitaxial with the full width at half maximum values of 0.2°???0.3° for the rocking curves of (005) YBCO and 1.0° for ?-scans of (103) YBCO. Scanning electron microscope revealed dense, crack-free, slightly rough surface with Ba-Cu-O precipitates. The films showed critical current density (J{sub c}, 77?K, 0?T) of about 1 MA/cm{sup 2}, and overall critical current of 400?A/cm, ascribed to the double-sided structure. Our results also demonstrated that the temperature and composition in the deposition zone were uniform, which made MOCVD preparation of low cost and high performance double-sided YBCO CCs more promising for industrialization.

  2. Optical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, X.X.; Eklund, P.C.; Zhang, J.G.; Rao, A.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)); Perry, T.A.; Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Physics Department, General Motors Research Laboratory, Warren, MI (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of room-temperature optical studies on {similar to}10 micron thick, free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a methane/hydrogen mixture. The as-grown, free surface of the films exhibited a surface roughness of scale {sigma}{similar to}0.2 to 5 microns, depending on the methane/hydrogen mixture, which introduces significant optical scattering loss for frequencies greater than 0.5 eV. Specular reflection and transmission spectra in the range 0.01--10 eV were collected. Below the threshold for interband adsorption near {similar to}5 eV, the films studied behaved approximately as thin parallel plates of refractive index 2.4, with the rough free surface leading to increasingly larger loss of specular transmission/reflection with decreasing wavelength. Structure in the mid-infrared transmission spectra was observed and attributed to disorder-induced one-phonon absorption, intrinsic multi-phonon absorption, and infrared active --C--H{sub 2} stretching modes. The strength of the C--H band was observed to increase with increasing methane pressure in the growth chamber. At 5.3 eV, the onset of interband absorption was observed, in good agreement with the value of the indirect bandgap in type IIa (intrinsic) diamond.

  3. alloys thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Thin liquid films on surfaces are part of our everyday life, they serve e.g. as coatings or lubricants. The stability of a thin layer is governed by interfacial forces,...

  4. alloy thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Thin liquid films on surfaces are part of our everyday life, they serve e.g. as coatings or lubricants. The stability of a thin layer is governed by interfacial forces,...

  5. alloy thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Summary: Thin liquid films on surfaces are part of our everyday life, they serve e.g. as coatings or lubricants. The stability of a thin layer is governed by interfacial forces,...

  6. applications thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nikolay 27 Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application Engineering Websites Summary: Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in...

  7. Inexpensive Production of High Density Thin Ceramic Films on...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inexpensive Production of High Density Thin Ceramic Films on Rigid or Porous Substrates Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing...

  8. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) thin film photovoltaics is an increasinglyfor Large-Scale Photovoltaics Deployment Environ. Sci.

  9. active thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    behavior Biotechnology Websites Summary: on elastic polymeric membranes. Further development of such muscular thin films for building actuators). The development of such...

  10. antibacterial thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Skovlin, Dean Oliver 2012-06-07 138 Uncooled Thin Film Pyroelectric IR Detector with Aerogel Thermal Isolation CiteSeer Summary: Uncooled pyroelectric IR imaging systems, such...

  11. Tax Credits Give Thin-Film Solar a Big Boost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    California company will expand its capacity to make its thin-film solar panels by more than ten times, thanks to two Recovery Act tax credits.

  12. almgb14 thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  13. aggase2 thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  14. area thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  15. aluminide thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  16. antiferroelectric thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  17. ain thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  18. advanced thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Access Theses and Dissertations Summary: ??Performance of polycrystalline silicon thin film solar cells is limited by high defect density solid-phase crystallised material....

  19. Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria...

  20. Electro-deposition of superconductor oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for preparing high quality superconducting oxide precursors which are well suited for further oxidation and annealing to form superconducting oxide films. The method comprises forming a multilayered superconducting precursor on a substrate by providing an electrodeposition bath comprising an electrolyte medium and a substrate electrode, and providing to the bath a plurality of precursor metal salts which are capable of exhibiting superconducting properties upon subsequent treatment. The superconducting precursor is then formed by electrodepositing a first electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the substrate electrode, followed by depositing a layer of silver onto the first electrodeposited (ED) layer, and then electrodepositing a second electrodeposited (ED) layer onto the Ag layer. The multilayered superconducting precursor is suitable for oxidation at a sufficient annealing temperature in air or an oxygen-containing atmosphere to form a crystalline superconducting oxide film.

  1. MELT-MEDIATED LASER CRYSTALLIZATION OF THIN FILM NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Y. Lawrence

    1 MELT-MEDIATED LASER CRYSTALLIZATION OF THIN FILM NITI SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS Paper (M406) Andrew J zones within an as sputter- deposited amorphous matrix. Since shape memory responses stem from not only spatial control over the shape memory response, but potentially, through proper use of operational

  2. Development of Materials for Future Energy Systems using Combinatorial Synthesis of Thin Film Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Materials Libraries and High-Throughput Characterization The directed and efficient discovery and optimization of materials is a key challenge in materials science: e.g. new materials for the sustainable and processing of thin film materials libraries by combinatorial sputter deposition processes (40 elements

  3. Reduced Order Based Compensator Control of Thin Film Growth in a CVD Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduced Order Based Compensator Control of Thin Film Growth in a CVD Reactor H.T. Banks and H chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. An in­ tegral component of this research program is the design of the reactor so that control and sensing are a basic component of the optimal design e#orts for the reactor. We

  4. Reduced Order Based Compensator Control of Thin Film Growth in a CVD Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reduced Order Based Compensator Control of Thin Film Growth in a CVD Reactor H.T. Banks and H chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. An in- tegral component of this research program is the design of the reactor so that control and sensing are a basic component of the optimal design efforts for the reactor

  5. Electrophoretically-deposited solid film lubricants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, M.T.; Panitz, J.K.J.; Vanecek, C.W.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous-based process that uses electrophoresis to attract powdered lubricant in suspension to a charged target was developed. The deposition process yields coatings with low friction, complies with environmental safety regulations, requires minimal equipment, and has several advantages over processes involving organic binders or vacuum techniques. This work focuses on development of the deposition process, includes an analysis of the friction coefficient of the material in sliding contact with stainless steel under a range of conditions, and a functional evaluation of coating performance in a precision mechanical device application. Results show that solid lubricant films with friction coefficients as low as 0.03 can be produced. A 0.03 friction coefficient is superior to solid lubricants with binder systems and is comparable to friction coefficients generated with more costly vacuum techniques.

  6. A Film Depositional Model of Permeability for Mineral Reactions...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to solid-aqueous phase reactions. Citation: Freedman VL, P Saripalli, DH Bacon, and PD Meyer.2004."A Film Depositional Model of Permeability for Mineral Reactions in Unsaturated...

  7. Energetic condensation growth of Nb thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.; James, C.; Zhao, X.; Spradlin, J.; Feliciano, A-M Valente; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, K.; Sung, Z. H.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes energetic condensation growth of Nb films using a cathodic arc plasma, whose 60–120 eV ions penetrate a few monolayers into the substrate and enable sufficient surface mobility to ensure that the lowest energy state (crystalline structure with minimal defects) is accessible to the film. Heteroepitaxial films of Nb were grown on ?-plane sapphire and MgO crystals with good superconducting properties and crystal size (10??mm × 20??mm ) limited only by substrate size. The substrates were heated to temperatures of up to 700°C and coated at 125°C, 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C . Film thickness was varied from ?0.25???m to >3???m . Residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values (up to a record (RRR)=587 on MgO and (RRR)=328 on ?-sapphire) depend strongly on substrate annealing and deposition temperatures. X-ray diffraction spectra and pole figures reveal that RRR increases as the crystal structure of the Nb film becomes more ordered, consistent with fewer defects and, hence, longer electron mean-free path. A transition from Nb(110) to Nb(100) orientation on the MgO(100) lattice occurs at higher temperatures. This transition is discussed in light of substrate heating and energetic condensation physics. Electron backscattered diffraction and scanning electron microscope images complement the XRD data.

  8. Effect of Polarization and Morphology on the Optical Properties of Absorbing Nanoporous Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navid, Ashcon; Pilon, Laurent

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TE and TM waves incident on thin films with n c = 4.0, k c =hexagonal mesoporous silica thin films with pore diameter Dabsorbing nanocomposite thin film, graphically depicting the

  9. Charge transport and chemical sensing properties of organic thin-films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Dengliang

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    low Drift in Organic Thin-film Transistor Chemical Sensors”,emitting diodes and thin-film transistors. The electricalLOW DRIFT IN ORGANIC THIN-FILM TRANSISTOR CHEMICAL SENSORS

  10. Distributed Phase Shifter with PyrochloreBismuth Zinc Niobate Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Jaehoon; Lu, Jiwei; Boesch, Damien; Stemmer, Susanne; York, Robert A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bandpass Filter Using Thin-Film Barium-Strontium-Titanate (using Ba x Sr 1 - x TiO 3 thin films," IEEE Microwave GuidedBismuth Zinc Niobate Thin Films," J. Appl. Phys. 97,

  11. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  12. Conductivity behavior of very thin gold films ruptured by mass transport in photosensitive polymer film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linde, Felix; Sekhar Yadavalli, Nataraja; Santer, Svetlana [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)] [Department of Experimental Physics, Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on conductivity behavior of very thin gold layer deposited on a photosensitive polymer film. Under irradiation with light interference pattern, the azobenzene containing photosensitive polymer film undergoes deformation at which topography follows a distribution of intensity, resulting in the formation of a surface relief grating. This process is accompanied by a change in the shape of the polymer surface from flat to sinusoidal together with a corresponding increase in surface area. The gold layer placed above deforms along with the polymer and ruptures at a strain of 4%. The rupturing is spatially well defined, occurring at the topographic maxima and minima resulting in periodic cracks across the whole irradiated area. We have shown that this periodic micro-rupturing of a thin metal film has no significant impact on the electrical conductivity of the films. We suggest a model to explain this phenomenon and support this by additional experiments where the conductivity is measured in a process when a single nanoscopic scratch is formed with an AFM tip. Our results indicate that in flexible electronic materials consisting of a polymer support and an integrated metal circuit, nano- and micro cracks do not alter significantly the behavior of the conductivity unless the metal is disrupted completely.

  13. Topological transitions in evaporating thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avraham Klein; Oded Agam

    2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin water film evaporating from a cleaved mica substrate undergoes a first-order phase transition between two values of film thickness. During evaporation, the interface between the two phases develops a fingering instability similar to that observed in the Saffman-Taylor problem. The dynamics of the droplet interface is dictated by an infinite number of conserved quantities: all harmonic moments decay exponentially at the same rate. A typical scenario is the nucleation of a dry patch within the droplet domain. We construct solutions of this problem and analyze the toplogical transition occuring when the boundary of the dry patch meets the outer boundary. We show a duality between Laplacian growth and evaporation, and utilize it to explain the behaviour near the transition. We construct a family of problems for which evaporation and Laplacian growth are limiting cases and show that a necessary condition for a smooth topological transition, in this family, is that all boundaries share the same pressure.

  14. Process for making dense thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for firing of device substrate to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  15. 99.996 %{sup 12}C films isotopically enriched and deposited in situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dwyer, K. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States); National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8423 (United States); Pomeroy, J. M.; Simons, D. S. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8423 (United States)] [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8423 (United States)

    2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionizing natural abundance carbon dioxide gas, we extract and mass select the ions, depositing thin films isotopically enriched to 99.9961(4) %{sup 12}C as measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In solid state quantum information, coherence times of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in {sup 12}C enriched diamond exceeding milliseconds demonstrate the viability of NV centers as qubits, motivating improved isotopic enrichment. NV centers in diamond are particularly attractive qubit candidates due to the optical accessibility of the spin states. We present SIMS analysis and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy of {sup 12}C enriched thin film samples grown with this method.

  16. Effect of H2 and O2 plasma etching treatment on the surface of diamond-like carbon thin film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Byungyou

    characteristics such as extremely high hardness, low friction coefficients, chemical inertness, wear resistance-modified DLC thin films improved biocompatibility, lubricity, stability and cell adhesion [8 of approximately 100 nm and were compared with an as-deposited DLC film. We obtained the optimum condition through

  17. Investigation of the magnetic properties of insulating thin films using the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kehlberger, A., E-mail: kehlberg@uni-mainz.de; Jakob, G.; Kläui, M. [Institute of Physics, University of Mainz, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Onbasli, M. C.; Kim, D. H.; Ross, C. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect is used as a detector for the magnetic properties and switching characteristics of magnetic thin insulating films. We use a 300 nm and a 20?nm thick Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG, Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}) film prepared by pulsed laser deposition and afterwards coated by platinum for the detection of the thermally excited magnons by the inverse spin Hall effect. The inverse spin Hall signals reveal a magnetic uniaxial anisotropy along the direction of the platinum stripe in the thicker film. For the thin film we find a more isotropic behavior, which is complementarily observed using the magnetoresistance occurring at the platinum/YIG interface. We explain our results on the basis of x-ray diffraction data, which reveal a miscut of the substrate and film surface and an expansion of the YIG lattice. Both findings favor a growth-induced magnetic anisotropy that we observe.

  18. Red, Green and Blue Silicate Phosphor Thin Films by Pulsed Laser X. W. Sun and H. S. Kwok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Red, Green and Blue Silicate Phosphor Thin Films by Pulsed Laser Deposition X. W. Sun and H. S University of Science and Technology Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract Three kinds of silicate deposition: manganese and lead doped calcium silicate (CaSiO3:MnPb) for red color, manganese doped zinc

  19. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis in a Microwave Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirkva, Vladimir

    The Electrodeless Discharge Lamps Coated with the Titania Thin Film for Photocatalysis assisted photocatalysis using TiO2 thin films has been examined. Several factors influencing

  20. Fabrication and characterization of lithium manganese nickel oxide sputtered thin film cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baggetto, Loic [ORNL] [ORNL; Unocic, Raymond R [ORNL] [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL] [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li-rich and stoichiometric Li1Mn1.5Ni0.5O4 (LMNO) cathode films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering. Sputtering from a Li stoichiometric target yields Li-rich films composed of spinel, layered and monoclinic phases. Films obtained from a Li deficient target are mostly made of a spinel phase and little layered material. The resulting cathode thin films have good capacity retention and very high rate capability. The reaction mechanism has been investigated by XRD and HRTEM and evidences the reversible formation of a spinel phase, as is also found for the powder samples. The film geometry enables to understand the effect of coatings (ZnO or LiPON). Coating high voltage cathodes reduces the coulombic losses but at the price of rate performance. Nonetheless, these coated sputtered electrode thin films offer a higher rate capability than other LMNO thin films obtained by other physical vapor deposition techniques.

  1. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

  2. A survey of thin-film solar photovoltaic industry & technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grama, Sorin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of solar cell technology using so-called thin-film solar photovoltaic material has the potential to make a great impact on our lives. Because it uses very little or no silicon at all, thin- film (TF) solar ...

  3. Wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous thin films: exactly solvable models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous thin films: exactly solvable models Guillaume Petite(1 of wave propagation in some inhomogeneous thin films with highly space- dependent dielectric constant will show that depending on the type of space dependence, an incident wave can either propagate or tunnel

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS by David T. Oliphant. Woolley Dean, College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences #12;ABSTRACT CHARACTERIZATION OF URANIUM, URANIUM OXIDE AND SILICON MULTILAYER THIN FILMS David T. Oliphant Department of Physics and Astronomy

  5. Electrical properties of quench-condensed thin film 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyoungjin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . The apparatus was shown to operate well for the fabrication of thin films while monitoring the growth in-situ. As a part of the preliminary research, we measured the electrical properties of aluminum thin films at liquid nitrogen temperature by using...

  6. VACUUM PUMPING STUDY OF TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-VANADIUM THIN FILMS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ERL 03-8 VACUUM PUMPING STUDY OF TITANIUM-ZIRCONIUM-VANADIUM THIN FILMS* Yulin Li# and Simon Ho high vacuum. As part of R&D efforts for the proposed Energy Recovery Linac at Cornell, the pumping performance of Titanium- Zirconium-Vanadium (TiZrV) NEG thin films was investigated to provide `engineering

  7. Microstructure factor and mechanical and electronic properties of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films for microelectromechanical systems applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mouro, J.; Gualdino, A.; Chu, V. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Conde, J. P. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores – Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias (INESC-MN) and IN – Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin-film silicon allows the fabrication of MEMS devices at low processing temperatures, compatible with monolithic integration in advanced electronic circuits, on large-area, low-cost, and flexible substrates. The most relevant thin-film properties for applications as MEMS structural layers are the deposition rate, electrical conductivity, and mechanical stress. In this work, n{sup +}-type doped hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon thin-films were deposited by RF-PECVD, and the influence of the hydrogen dilution in the reactive mixture, the RF-power coupled to the plasma, the substrate temperature, and the deposition pressure on the structural, electrical, and mechanical properties of the films was studied. Three different types of silicon films were identified, corresponding to three internal structures: (i) porous amorphous silicon, deposited at high rates and presenting tensile mechanical stress and low electrical conductivity, (ii) dense amorphous silicon, deposited at intermediate rates and presenting compressive mechanical stress and higher values of electrical conductivity, and (iii) nanocrystalline silicon, deposited at very low rates and presenting the highest compressive mechanical stress and electrical conductivity. These results show the combinations of electromechanical material properties available in silicon thin-films and thus allow the optimized selection of a thin silicon film for a given MEMS application. Four representative silicon thin-films were chosen to be used as structural material of electrostatically actuated MEMS microresonators fabricated by surface micromachining. The effect of the mechanical stress of the structural layer was observed to have a great impact on the device resonance frequency, quality factor, and actuation force.

  8. Rechargeable thin-film lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, J.B.; Gruzalski, G.R.; Dudney, N.J.; Luck, C.F.; Yu, X.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rechargeable thin-film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. These include Li-TiS{sub 2}, Li-V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li-Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cells with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The realization of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46}and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The thin-film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 5 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. Over most of the charge-discharge range, the internal resistance appears to be dominated by the cathode, and the major source of the resistance is the diffusion of Li{sup +} ions from the electrolyte into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients were determined from ac impedance measurements.

  9. Investigations of CuInSe sub 2 thin films and contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolet, M.A. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research into electrical contacts for copper indium diselenide (CuInSe{sub 2}) polycrystalline thin films used for solar cell applications. Molybdenum contacts have historically been the most promising for heterojunction solar cells. This program studied contact stability by investigating thermally induced bilayer reactions between molybdenum and copper, indium, and selenium. Because selenization is widely used to fabricate CuInSe{sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic cells, a second part of the program investigated how the morphologies, phases, and reactions of pre-selenization Cu-In structures are affected by the deposition process and heat treatments. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Process for obtaining multiple sheet resistances for thin film hybrid microcircuit resistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norwood, David P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A standard thin film circuit containing Ta.sub.2 N (100 ohms/square) resirs is fabricated by depositing on a dielectric substrate successive layers of Ta.sub.2 N, Ti and Pd, with a gold layer to provide conductors. The addition of a few simple photoprocessing steps to the standeard TFN manufacturing process enables the formation of Ta.sub.2 N+Ti (10 ohms/square) and Ta.sub.2 N+Ti+Pd (1 ohm/square) resistors in the same otherwise standard thin film circuit structure.

  11. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Miedaner, Alexander (Boulder, CO); van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO); Leisch, Jennifer (Denver, CO); Taylor, Matthew (West Simsbury, CT); Stanbery, Billy J. (Austin, TX)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  12. In situ electro-mechanical experiments and mechanics modeling of tensile cracking in indium tin oxide thin films on polyimide substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Teng

    oxide thin films on polyimide substrates Cheng Peng,1 Zheng Jia,2 Dan Bianculli,1 Teng Li,2,a) and Jun thicknesses (200 and 80 nm) deposited on polyimide substrates inside a scanning electron microscope. The crack model, the cohesive toughness and fracture strength of ITO thin films and the ITO/polyimide interfacial

  13. Aluminum Nitride Thin Films on Titanium for Piezoelectric MEMS Applications Seth Boeshore, Emily Parker, Vanni Lughi, Noel C. MacDonald

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Noel C.

    Aluminum Nitride Thin Films on Titanium for Piezoelectric MEMS Applications Seth Boeshore, Emily nitride thin films have been deposited onto titanium substrates for the purpose of fabricating piezoelectric MEMS. Titanium is a new and attractive platform for MEMS because of its corrosion resistance

  14. 1282 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Top-Gate GaN Thin-Film Transistors Based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is to deposit high-quality GaN thin films using inexpensive substrate under low temper- ature. Recently1282 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 33, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2012 Top-Gate GaN Thin-Film Transistors Based on AlN/GaN Heterostructures Rongsheng Chen, Wei Zhou, Meng Zhang, and Hoi Sing Kwok Abstract

  15. Hybrid Thin Film Deposition System | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GE's CimplicityHuman Machine Interaction software Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control - PID-controlled chamber pressure and substrate heating for attaining precise...

  16. Deposition of nanostructured photocatalytic zinc ferrite films using solution precursor plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dom, Rekha; Sivakumar, G.; Hebalkar, Neha Y.; Joshi, Shrikant V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India)] [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India); Borse, Pramod H., E-mail: phborse@arci.res.in [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Balapur PO, Hyderabad 500 005, AP (India)

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly economic solution precursor route capable of producing films/coating even for mass scale production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure spinel phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} porous, immobilized films deposited in single step. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parameter optimization yields access to nanostructuring in SPPS method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ecofriendly immobilized ferrite films were active under solar radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such magnetic system display advantage w.r.t. recyclability after photocatalyst extraction. -- Abstract: Deposition of pure spinel phase, photocatalytic zinc ferrite films on SS-304 substrates by solution precursor plasma spraying (SPPS) has been demonstrated for the first time. Deposition parameters such as precursor solution pH, concentration, film thickness, plasma power and gun-substrate distance were found to control physico-chemical properties of the film, with respect to their crystallinity, phase purity, and morphology. Alkaline precursor conditions (7 < pH {<=} 10) were found to favor oxide film formation. The nanostructured films produced under optimized conditions, with 500 mM solution at pH {approx} 8.0, yielded pure cubic phase ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} film. Very high/low precursor concentrations yielded mixed phase, less adherent, and highly inhomogeneous thin films. Desired spinel phase was achieved in as-deposited condition under appropriately controlled spray conditions and exhibited a band gap of {approx}1.9 eV. The highly porous nature of the films favored its photocatalytic performance as indicated by methylene blue de-coloration under solar radiation. These immobilized films display good potential for visible light photocatalytic applications.

  17. Flexible Ultra Moisture Barrier Film for Thin-Film Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David M. Dean

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Flexible Thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) is a low cost alternative to incumbent c-Si PV products as it requires less volume of costly semiconductor materials and it can potentially reduce installation cost. Among the TFPV options, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) has the highest efficiency and is believed to be one of the most attractive candidates to achieve PV cost reduction. However, CIGS cells are very moisture sensitive and require module water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of less than 1x10-4 gram of water per square meter per day (g-H2O/m2/day). Successful development and commercialization of flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film is the key to enable flexible CIGS TFPV products, and thus enable ultimate PV cost reduction. At DuPont, we have demonstrated at lab scale that we can successfully make polymer-based flexible transparent ultra moisture barrier film by depositing alumina on polymer films using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology. The layer by layer ALD approach results in uniform and amorphous structure which effectively reduces pinhole density of the inorganic coating on the polymer, and thus allow the fabrication of flexible barrier film with WVTR of 10-5 g-H2O/m2/day. Currently ALD is a time-consuming process suitable only for high-value, relatively small substrates. To successfully commercialize the ALD-on-plastic technology for the PV industry, there is the need to scale up this technology and improve throughput. The goal of this contract work was to build a prototype demonstrating that the ALD technology could be scaled-up for commercial use. Unfortunately, the prototype failed to produce an ultra-barrier film by the close of the project.

  18. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1988-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

  19. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  20. Laser studies of the interaction of SiO with the surface of a thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, P.; Buss, R.J. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Weber, M.E. (Texas Instruments, Inc., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The interaction of SiO radicals from a SiCl{sub 4}/O{sub 2} plasma with the surface of a depositing thin film is studied with the IRIS (Imaging of Radicals Interacting with Surfaces) technique, which combines spatially-resolved laser-induced fluorescence with molecular beam methods. In contrast to previous results for SiH, SiO appears not to react at the surface of the depositing film, but desorbs with a cosine spatial distribution for a wide range of substrate temperatures. No evidence is observed for specular scattering of the molecules. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  1. High-efficiency thin-film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells. Annual technical report, January 20, 1996--January 19, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compaan, A.D.; Bohn, R.G.; Contreras-Puente, G. [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)] [Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of Toledo photovoltaics group has been instrumental in developing rf sputtering for CDs/CdTe thin-film solar cells. During the third phase of the present contract our work focussed on efforts to determine factors which limit the efficiency in our {open_quotes}all-sputtered{close_quotes} thin-film CdTe solar cells on soda-lime glass. We find that our all-sputtered cells, which are deposited at substantially lower temperature than those by sublimation or vapor deposition, require less aggressive CdCl{sub 2} treatments than do other deposition techniques and this is presumably related to CDs/CdTe interdiffusion. The CDs/CdTe interdiffusion process has been studied by several methods, including photoluminescence and capacitance-voltage measurements. Furthermore, we have deposited special thin bilayer films on quartz and borosilicate glass. Interdiffusion in these thin bilayers have been probed by Rutherford backscattering, with collaborators at Case Western Reserve University, and grazing incidence x-ray scattering (GIXS), with collaborators at the University at Buffalo and Brookhaven National Lab. Also, in order better to understand the properties of the ternary alloy material, we used laser physical vapor deposition to prepare a series of CdS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} films on borosilicate glass. The composition of the alloy films was determined by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy at NREL. These films are currently being investigated by us and other groups at NREL and IEC.

  2. Origin of superstructures in (double) perovskite thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shabadi, V., E-mail: shabadi@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Major, M.; Komissinskiy, P.; Vafaee, M.; Radetinac, A.; Baghaie Yazdi, M.; Donner, W.; Alff, L., E-mail: alff@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the origin of superstructure peaks as observed by X-ray diffraction of multiferroic Bi(Fe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates. The photon energy dependence of the contrast between the atomic scattering factors of Fe and Cr is used to rule out a chemically ordered double perovskite Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6} (BFCO). Structural calculations suggest that the experimentally observed superstructure occurs due to unequal cation displacements along the pseudo-cubic [111] direction that mimic the unit cell of the chemically ordered compound. This result helps to clarify discrepancies in the correlations of structural and magnetic order reported for Bi{sub 2}FeCrO{sub 6}. The observation of a superstructure in itself is not a sufficient proof of chemical order in double perovskites.

  3. Precursors for the polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Jia, Quanxi; Lin, Yuan

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  4. Fundamentals of polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (USA). Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a one-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. The research was conducted to better understand the limitations and potential of solar cells using CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe by systematically investigating the fundamental relationships linking material processing, material properties, and device behavior. By selenizing Cu and In layers, we fabricated device-quality CuInSe{sub 2} thin films and demonstrated a CuInSe{sub 2} solar cell with 7% efficiency. We added Ga, to increase the band gap of CuInSe{sub 2} devices to increase the open-circuit voltage to 0.55 V. We fabricated and analyzed Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2}/CuInSe{sub 2} devices to demonstrate the potential for combining the benefits of higher V{sub oc} while retaining the current-generating capacity of CuInSe{sub 2}. We fabricated an innovative superstrate device design with more than 5% efficiency, as well as a bifacial spectral-response technique for determining the electron diffusion length and optical absorption coefficient of CuInSe{sub 2} in an operational cell. The diffusion length was found to be greater than 1 {mu}m. We qualitatively modeled the effect of reducing heat treatments in hydrogen and oxidizing treatments in air on the I-V behavior of CuInSe{sub 2} devices. We also investigated post-deposition heat treatments and chemical processing and used them to fabricate a 9.6%-efficient CdTe/CdS solar cell using physical vapor deposition.

  5. Enhancement in the photocatalytic nature of nitrogen-doped PVD-grown titanium dioxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tavares, C. J.; Marques, S. M.; Viseu, T.; Teixeira, V.; Carneiro, J. O. [Centre of Physics-GRF, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Alves, E.; Barradas, N. P. [Ion Beam Laboratory (ITN), EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Munnik, F. [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Girardeau, T.; Riviere, J.-P. [PhyMat, University of Poitiers, 86962 Futuroscope-Chasseneuil (France)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide semiconductor photocatalytic thin films have been deposited by unbalanced reactive magnetron physical vapor deposition on glass substrates for self-cleaning applications. In order to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the titania coatings, it is important to enhance the catalysts absorption of light from the solar spectra. Bearing this fact in mind, a reduction in the titania semiconductor band-gap has been attempted by using nitrogen doping from a coreactive gas mixture of N{sub 2}:O{sub 2} during the titanium sputtering process. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy was used in order to assess the composition of the titania thin films, whereas heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis granted the evaluation of the doping level of nitrogen. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provided valuable information about the cation-anion binding within the semiconductor lattice. The as-deposited thin films were mostly amorphous, however, after a thermal annealing in vacuum at 500 deg. C the crystalline polymorph anatase and rutile phases have been developed, yielding an enhancement in the crystallinity. Spectroscopic ellipsometry experiments enabled the determination the refractive index of the thin films as a function of the wavelength, while from the optical transmittance it was possible to estimate the semiconductor indirect band-gap of these coatings, which has been proven to decrease as the N-doping increases. The photocatalytic performance of the titania films has been characterized by the degradation rate of an organic reactive dye under UV/visible irradiation. It has been found that for a certain critical limit of 1.19 at. % of nitrogen doping in the titania anatase crystalline lattice enhances the photocatalytic behavior of the thin films and it is in accordance with the observed semiconductor band-gap narrowing to 3.18 eV. By doping the titania lattice with nitrogen, the photocatalytic activity is enhanced under both UV and visible light.

  6. A study of structural transition in nanocrystalline titania thin films by X-ray diffraction Rietveld method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murugesan, S. [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterisation Section, Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)] [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterisation Section, Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Padhy, N. [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)] [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Kuppusami, P., E-mail: pk@igcar.gov.in [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterisation Section, Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Mudali, U. Kamachi [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)] [Corrosion Science and Technology Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Mohandas, E. [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterisation Section, Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)] [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterisation Section, Physical Metallurgy Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Structural and microstructural analyses of nanocrystalline titania thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition have been carried out. At lower oxygen partial pressures ({<=}10{sup -4} mbar), rutile films were formed, whereas at 1.2 x 10{sup -3} mbar of oxygen partial pressure, the thin films contained both rutile and anatase phases. At 0.04 and 0.05 mbar of oxygen partial pressure, the film was purely anatase. Addition of oxygen has also shown a profound influence on the surface morphology of the as deposited titania films. Modified Rietveld method has been used to determine crystallite size, root mean square strain and fractional coordinates of oxygen of the anatase films. The influence of crystallite size and strain on the rutile to anatase phase transition is investigated.

  7. Thin film preparation and interfacial reaction study of solid oxide fuel cell materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Chiehcheng.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) operate at 1000 C and their components are processed at even higher temperatures. It is generally desirable to reduce the operating and processing temperatures of SOFC's to make them competitive with other types of fuel cells and to avoid the interactions and interdiffusion between cell components. This can be achieved by either developing a technology to produce thin film electrolytes, or by developing new electrolyte and electrode materials with reduced interaction, lower interfacial resistance. The synthesis and characterization of (Ce-O2)0.8(Sm01.5)0.2 thin films from polymeric precursors is discussed. The reaction mechanism of the precursors and important parameters for making dense, crack-free films were investigated. The cathode/electrolyte interactions and their expected impact on SOFC performance are addressed. The cathode characteristics and cathode/electrolyte interaction of various perovskites are studied. The impact of interfacial reactions on cell performance is investigated. The electrode characteristics of dense La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) thin film produced by polymeric precursors are presented. The electrode resistance and characteristics of the electrode (dense)/electrolyte interface are studied. The effect of reactions and interdiffusion on interfacial resistance are discussed. A potential method for making dense ZrO2 films at relatively low temperatures by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition is presented. The deposition parameters and characterization of ZrO2 film are reported.

  8. Optimal composition of europium gallium oxide thin films for device applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellenius, P.; Muth, J. F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Smith, E. R. [Kratos Defense and Security Solutions, Inc., 5030 Bradford Drive, Huntsville, Alabama 35805 (United States); LeBoeuf, S. M. [Valencell, Inc., 920 Main Campus Drive, Raleigh, North Carolina 27615 (United States); Everitt, H. O. [Army Aviation and Missile RD and E Center, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama 35898 (United States) and Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Europium gallium oxide (Eu{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films were deposited on sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition with varying Eu content from x=2.4 to 20 mol %. The optical and physical effects of high europium concentration on these thin films were studied using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. PL spectra demonstrate that emission due to the {sup 5}D{sub 0} to {sup 7}F{sub J} transitions in Eu{sup 3+} grows linearly with Eu content up to 10 mol %. Time-resolved PL indicates decay parameters remain similar for films with up to 10 mol % Eu. At 20 mol %, however, PL intensity decreases substantially and PL decay accelerates, indicative of parasitic energy transfer processes. XRD shows films to be polycrystalline and beta-phase for low Eu compositions. Increasing Eu content beyond 5 mol % does not continue to modify the film structure and thus, changes in PL spectra and decay cannot be attributed to structural changes in the host. These data indicate the optimal doping for optoelectronic devices based on (Eu{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films is between 5 and 10 mol %.

  9. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Lu, Yunfeng (New Orleans, LA); Fan, Hong You (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  10. Method for making surfactant-templated thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Lu, Yunfeng (San Jose, CA); Fan, Hongyou (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaporation-induced self-assembly method to prepare a porous, surfactant-templated, thin film by mixing a silica sol, a solvent, a surfactant, and an interstitial compound, evaporating a portion of the solvent to form a liquid, crystalline thin film mesophase material, and then removal of the surfactant template. Coating onto a substrate produces a thin film with the interstitial compound either covalently bonded to the internal surfaces of the ordered or disordered mesostructure framework or physically entrapped within the ordered or disordered mesostructured framework. Particles can be formed by aerosol processing or spray drying rather than coating onto a substrate. The selection of the interstitial compound provides a means for developing thin films for applications including membranes, sensors, low dielectric constant films, photonic materials and optical hosts.

  11. Singular Limits for Thin Film Superconductors in Strong Magnetic Fields - Maan Field Model for Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stan Alama; Lia Bronsard; Bernardo Galvão-Sousa

    2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider singular limits of the three-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional for a superconductor with thin-film geometry, in a constant external magnetic field. The superconducting domain has characteristic thickness on the scale $\\eps>0$, and we consider the simultaneous limit as the thickness $\\eps\\rightarrow 0$ and the Ginzburg-Landau parameter $\\kappa\\rightarrow\\infty$. We assume that the applied field is strong (on the order of $\\eps^{-1}$ in magnitude) in its components tangential to the film domain, and of order $\\log\\kappa$ in its dependence on $\\kappa$. We prove that the Ginzburg-Landau energy $\\Gamma$-converges to an energy associated with a two-obstacle problem, posed on the planar domain which supports the thin film. The same limit is obtained regardless of the relationship between $\\eps$ and $\\kappa$ in the limit. Two illustrative examples are presented, each of which demonstrating how the curvature of the film can induce the presence of both (positively oriented) vortices and (negatively oriented) antivortices coexisting in a global minimizer of the energy.

  12. Highly oriented polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O film formation using RF magnetron sputtering deposition for solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noda, S.; Shima, H.; Akinaga, H. [Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Central 2, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Room temperature sputtering deposition and re-crystallization of the deposited thin films by rapid thermal annealing have been evaluating in detail as a formation method of Cu{sub 2}O active layer for solar cells, which minimize thermal budget in fabrication processes. Single phase polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O films were obtained by a magnetron rf sputtering deposition and its crystallinity and electrical characteristics were controlled by the annealing. Hall mobility was improved up to 17 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1} by the annealing at 600°C for 30s. Since this value was smaller than 47 cm{sup 2}V{sup ?1}s{sup ?1} of the film deposited under thermal equilibrium state using pulsed laser deposition at 600°C, some contrivances were necessary to compensate the deficiency. It was understood that the sputter-deposited Cu{sub 2}O films on (111)-oriented Pt films were strongly oriented to (111) face also by the self-assembly and the crystallinity was improved by the annealing preserving its orientation. The sputter-deposited film quality was expected to become equivalent to the pulsed laser deposition film from the results of X-ray diffractometry and photoluminescence.

  13. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of PrMnO{sub 3} Bulk and Thin Film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, K. P.; Halim, S. A.; Chen, S. K.; Ng, S. W.; Wong, J. K.; Gan, H. M. Albert [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, H. S. [College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Perovskite PrMnO{sub 3}(PMO) had been prepared in bulk by solid state reaction and thin films on corning glass, fused silica and MgO (100) glass substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique. SEM micrographs show that grains with size 2{approx}3 {mu}m is observed in bulk PMO while thin films PMO show strongly connected grain structure with particle size that not larger than 100 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that all samples are in single phase with orthorhombic crystal structure. Bulk PMO sample had lattice strain of 0.134% which is the lowest value among others. However, larger lattice strain was observed in thin film samples due to lattice mismatch between film-substrate and caused the MnO{sub 6} to deform. All samples shown paramagnetic or antiferromagnetic behavior, enhancement in magnetization value occurred for all PMO grew as film. We believe that larger lattice strain favor the grain growth of PMO towards more order phase. In summary, formation of structure and microstructure of thin film PMO depends on type of substrate used and it affect the magnetic property.

  14. Transparent conducting thin films for spacecraft applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Malave-Sanabria, T.; Hambourger, P.; Rutledge, S.K.; Roig, D.; Degroh, K.K.; Hung, C.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent conductive thin films are required for a variety of optoelectronic applications: automotive and aircraft windows, and solar cells for space applications. Transparent conductive coatings of indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-magnesium fluoride (MgF2) and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) at several dopant levels are investigated for electrical resistivity (sheet resistance), carrier concentration, optical properties, and atomic oxygen durability. The sheet resistance values of ITO-MgF2 range from 10[sup 2] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square, with transmittance of 75 to 86 percent. The AZO films sheet resistances range from 10[sup 7] to 10[sup 11] ohms/square with transmittances from 84 to 91 percent. It was found that in general, with respect to the optical properties, the zinc oxide (ZnO), AZO, and the high MgF2 content ITO-MgF2 samples, were all durable to atomic oxygen plasma, while the low MgF2 content of ITO-MgF2 samples were not durable to atomic oxygen plasma exposure.

  15. Thin film with oriented cracks on a flexible substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feng, Bao; McGilvray, Andrew; Shi, Bo

    2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric film is disclosed. The thermoelectric film includes a substrate that is substantially electrically non-conductive and flexible and a thermoelectric material that is deposited on at least one surface of the substrate. The thermoelectric film also includes multiple cracks oriented in a predetermined direction.

  16. A Free Energy Model for Thin-film Shape Memory Alloys Jordan E. Massad*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Dept., UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 ABSTRACT Thin-film shape memory alloysA Free Energy Model for Thin-film Shape Memory Alloys Jordan E. Massad*1 , Ralph C. Smith1 and Greg comparison with thin-film NiTi superelastic hysteresis data. Keywords: Shape memory alloy model; thin film

  17. Effects of stretching and cycling on the fatigue behavior of polymer-supported Ag thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of stretching and cycling on the fatigue behavior of polymer-supported Ag thin films Gi March 2013 Keywords: Fatigue Thin films Fatigue crack initiation Intergranular failure Ductile fracture on characterizing the mechanical behavior of thin metal films and have observed that metals in thin-film form can

  18. DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sites, James R.

    DISSERTATION DEVICE PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Markus Gloeckler PHYSICS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS OF Cu(In,Ga)Se2 THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Thin-film solar cells have the potential to be an important

  19. Strain Relaxation and Vacancy Creation in Thin Platinum Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, W.; Chakravarty, S.; Schmidt, H. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Institut fuer Metallurgie, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Baehtz, C. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany); Leitenberger, W. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, Potsdam (Germany); Bruns, M. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruher Micro Nano Facility, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kobler, A.; Kuebel, C. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institute of Nanotechnology, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruher Micro Nano Facility, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Synchrotron based combined in situ x-ray diffractometry and reflectometry is used to investigate the role of vacancies for the relaxation of residual stress in thin metallic Pt films. From the experimentally determined relative changes of the lattice parameter a and of the film thickness L the modification of vacancy concentration and residual strain was derived as a function of annealing time at 130 deg. C. The results indicate that relaxation of strain resulting from compressive stress is accompanied by the creation of vacancies at the free film surface. This proves experimentally the postulated dominant role of vacancies for stress relaxation in thin metal films close to room temperature.

  20. Annealing effect for SnS thin films prepared by high-vacuum evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revathi, Naidu, E-mail: revathi.naidu@ttu.ee; Bereznev, Sergei; Loorits, Mihkel; Raudoja, Jaan; Lehner, Julia; Gurevits, Jelena; Traksmaa, Rainer; Mikli, Valdek; Mellikov, Enn; Volobujeva, Olga [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of SnS are deposited onto molybdenum-coated soda lime glass substrates using the high-vacuum evaporation technique at a substrate temperature of 300?°C. The as-deposited SnS layers are then annealed in three different media: (1) H{sub 2}S, (2) argon, and (3) vacuum, for different periods and temperatures to study the changes in the microstructural properties of the layers and to prepare single-phase SnS photoabsorber films. It is found that annealing the layers in H{sub 2}S at 400?°C changes the stoichiometry of the as-deposited SnS films and leads to the formation of a dominant SnS{sub 2} phase. Annealing in an argon atmosphere for 1?h, however, causes no deviations in the composition of the SnS films, though the surface morphology of the annealed SnS layers changes significantly as a result of a 2?h annealing process. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, and photosensitivity of the as-deposited SnS films improves significantly as the result of annealing in vacuum, and the vacuum-annealed films are found to exhibit promising properties for fabricating complete solar cells based on these single-phase SnS photoabsorber layers.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL PRECURSOR FOR THE PREPARATION BY SELENIZATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY CuInGaSe2/CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romeo, Alessandro

    /CdS THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS N. Romeo1 , A. Bosio1 , V. Canevari2 , R. Tedeschi1 , S. Sivelli1 , A. Solar cells prepared by depositing in sequence on top of the CuInGaSe2 film 60 nm of CdS, 100 nm of pure(InGa)Se2, Thin Films, Selenization 1 INTRODUCTION CuInGaSe2 based solar cells exhibit the highest

  2. Processing and Gas Barrier Behavior of Multilayer Thin Nanocomposite Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, You-Hao

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films with the ability to impart oxygen and other types of gas barrier are crucial to commercial packaging applications. Commodity polymers, such as polyethylene (PE), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), have insufficient...

  3. Effective Optical Properties of Highly Ordered Mesoporous Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Neal J.; Coquil, Thomas; Navid, Ashcon; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells”, Thin Solid Films,tions include dye-sensitized solar cells [8– 10], low-ke?ciency solar cell based on dye- a sensitized colloidal

  4. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Applications Toward Thin Film Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Travis Nathan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on the surface. Ultrafast laser pulses are shorter than thethe advantages of ultrafast laser pulses for thin film LIBS,each time. While ultrafast laser pulses are effective in

  5. Modeling of thin-film solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinstein, Lee Adragon

    Recent advances in solar thermoelectric generator (STEG) performance have raised their prospect as a potential technology to convert solar energy into electricity. This paper presents an analysis of thin-film STEGs. ...

  6. Scanned pulsed laser annealing of Cu thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verma, Harsh Anand, 1980-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the microelectronics industry has moved to Cu as the conductor material, there has been much research into microstructure control in Cu thin films, primarily because grain sizes affect resistivity. Also with Cu-based ...

  7. Direct printing of lead zirconate titanate thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bathurst, Stephen, 1980-

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thus far, use of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) in MEMS has been limited due to the lack of process compatibility with existing MEMS manufacturing techniques. Direct printing of thin films eliminates the need for photolithographic ...

  8. Functionality Tuning in Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Aiping

    2013-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) oxide thin films are unique nanostructures with two-phase self-assembled, heteroepitaxially grown on single-crystal substrates. Both phases tend to grow vertically and simultaneously on a given substrate...

  9. Structure of Molecular Thin Films for Organic Electronics | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Organic Electronics Friday, April 6, 2012 - 1:00pm SSRL Conference Room 137-322 Bert Nickel, Physics Faculty and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Mnchen Thin films made out...

  10. Properties and sensor performance of zinc oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, Yongki, 1965-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reactively sputtered ZnO thin film gas sensors were fabricated onto Si wafers. The atmosphere dependent electrical response of the ZnO micro arrays was examined. The effects of processing conditions on the properties and ...

  11. The macroscopic delamination of thin films from elastic substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Pedro Miguel

    The wrinkling and delamination of stiff thin films adhered to a polymer substrate have important applications in “flexible electronics.” The resulting periodic structures, when used for circuitry, have remarkable mechanical ...

  12. Flexible, transparent thin film transistors raise hopes for flexible...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the thin-film transistor, fabricated using single-atom-thick layers of graphene and tungsten diselenide, among other materials. The white scale bar shows 5 microns, which is...

  13. Steering and Separating Excitons in Organic Thin Films and Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steering and Separating Excitons in Organic Thin Films and Devices October 26, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Mark Thompson University of Southern California (USC) thompson abstract: We have...

  14. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical, electrical, and mechanical properties-have become key components in many fields of...

  15. Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films | Stanford...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Orientational Analysis of Molecules in Thin Films Monday, September 17, 2012 - 10:00am SSRL Bldg. 137, room 226 Daniel Kaefer The synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy is...

  16. Antimony-Doped Tin(II) Sulfide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Rupak

    Thin-film solar cells made from earth-abundant, inexpensive, and nontoxic materials are needed to replace the current technologies whose widespread use is limited by their use of scarce, costly, and toxic elements. Tin ...

  17. Homogenization studies for optical sensors based on sculptured thin films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jamaian, Siti Suhana

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis we investigate theoretically various types of sculptured thin film (STF) envisioned as platforms for optical sensing. A STF consists of an array of parallel nanowires which can be grown on a substrate using ...

  18. Multimonth controlled small molecule release from biodegradable thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammond, Paula T.

    Long-term, localized delivery of small molecules from a biodegradable thin film is challenging owing to their low molecular weight and poor charge density. Accomplishing highly extended controlled release can facilitate ...

  19. amorphous thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor Pixel.S.A. 1 LG Philips LCD Research and Development Center, An-Yang, 431-080, Korea (Received July 23, 2006; accepted October 31, 2006;...

  20. amorphous thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Amorphous Silicon Thin-Film Transistor Pixel.S.A. 1 LG Philips LCD Research and Development Center, An-Yang, 431-080, Korea (Received July 23, 2006; accepted October 31, 2006;...