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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Calorific and porosity development in carbonized wood  

SciTech Connect

Wood of four species (red oak, southern yellow pine, black cherry, and hybrid poplar) were carbonized in a flowing nitrogen atmosphere at an average heating rate of 3 degrees Centigrade/minute to selected final temperatures up to 700 degrees Centigrade. The effects of final carbonization temperature on selected properties of the char were obtained using an adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter to investigate heat of combustion and a mercury porosimeter to investigate total porosity, real density, apparent density, and pore size distribution. Pore characteristics of carbonized wood developed before 300 degrees Centigrade in southern yellow pine and before 400 degrees Centigrade in red oak, black cherry, and hybrid poplar. Statistical analysis established linear relationships between heat of combustion versus final carbonization temperature in the carbonization temperature ranges investigated. The results of this study will aid in understanding optimum pryrolysis conditions for the development of calorific and porosity values. (Refs. 22).

Baileys, R.T.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

Dai, Sheng; Guiohon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

3

Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity  

SciTech Connect

A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

Dai, Sheng; Guiochon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

4

Carbon composition with hierarchical porosity, and methods of preparation  

SciTech Connect

A method for fabricating a porous carbon material possessing a hierarchical porosity, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic component, (iii) a dione component in which carbonyl groups are adjacent, and (iv) an acidic component, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a carbon material possessing a hierarchical porosity comprised of mesopores and macropores. Also described are the resulting hierarchical porous carbon material, a capacitive deionization device in which the porous carbon material is incorporated, as well as methods for desalinating water by use of said capacitive deionization device.

Mayes, Richard T; Dai, Sheng

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

Carbon Aerogels and Monoliths: Control of Porosity and Nanoarchitecture via Sol–Gel routes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Aerogels and Monoliths: Control of Porosity and Nanoarchitecture via Sol–Gel routes ... The synthesis of carbon aerogels by sol–gel like processes, i.e., hard templating, phase demixing, hydrothermal carbonization techniques, as well as by ionothermal syntheses are reviewed. ... carbon aerogels; sol?gel chemistry of carbon; hydrothermal carbonization; salt templating ...

Markus Antonietti; Nina Fechler; Tim-Patrick Fellinger

2013-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

6

Modification of the porosity of pillared clays by carbon deposition. I. Polymer carbonization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to use pillared clays (PILC) for selective adsorption, further modifications of ... on the porosity of Ti- and Al-PILC is discussed in terms of pore-blocking, ... resulted in a complete pore-blocking for...

N. Maes; E. F. Vansant

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading Daniel in composites with thickness tapering has been a concern in applications of carbon fibers. This study explored the resistance to delamination under fatigue loading of carbon and glass fiber prepreg laminates with the same

8

Secondary porosity in sandstones  

SciTech Connect

Secondary porosity in sandstones is caused by dissolution and fracturing, and is common in the sedimentary record. Secondary porosity commonly develops in the deep subsurface and thus provides an opportunity to extend exploration to depths traditionally considered unsuitable for exploration. Two contrasting routes of diagenesis exist in nature: porosity reduction and porosity enhancement. Porosity reduction is commonly caused by compaction and cementation, whereas porosity enhancement is primarily caused by dissolution of carbonate minerals. Two basic types of primary pores (intergranular and intragranular) and four basic types of secondary pores (grain fractures, rock fractures, intergranular, and intragranular) can be differentiated on the basis of (1) position of pores, (2) timing of origin, and (3) processes of origin. The proposed classification system is useful in inferring reservoir quality. Various types of secondary porosity are recognized using a comprehensive set of 20 criteria. The various criteria are based on manner of breakage, pore geometry, grain geometry, products of dissolution, and sediment packing. New evidence suggests that silicate minerals, including quartz, dissolve more commonly than have been reported. The abundant occurrence of secondary porosity in reservoir sandstones emphasizes the importance of secondary porosity in evaluating deep reservoirs.

Shanmugam, G.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Diagenetic controls on porosity and permeability in Miocene carbonates, La Molata, Spain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and oxygen isotopes, Sr concentration and 87Sr/86Sr. The carbonate platform was extensively dolomitized at the end of the Miocene but before Pliocene deposition. Amount of dolomite increases basinward and down section; limestone is restricted to the most...

Li, Zhaoqi

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Modification of the Porosity of Pillared Clays by Carbon Deposition II. Hydrocarbon Cracking  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon deposition results in a decrease in pore volume due to pore-filling (Ti-PILC) and pore-blocking (Al-PILC) without achieving a controlled pore-narrowing but...

N. Maes; E.F. Vansant

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Growth valley dividing single-and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: combinatorial study of nominal thickness of Co catalyst  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thickness of Co catalyst Kazunori Kakehi1 , Suguru Noda1* , Shigeo Maruyama2 , and Yukio Yamaguchi1 1 thickness of Co catalyst, the structure of the catalyst particles, and the structure of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) growing from the catalysts was investigated. A gradient thickness profile of Co was prepared

Maruyama, Shigeo

12

Depositional environments, diagenesis, and porosity development of Mississippian Chappel carbonates at Thrash and Quanah SE Fields, Hardeman County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Formation at Thrash and Quanah SE Fields is characterized by deep-water limestones with local skeletal buildups on a low-energy, distally-steepened ramp. Three depositional environments have been recognized from these lv rocks: 1) the deep ? water... of the permeability was correlated with fractures. Walters (1984) and Ahr and Walters (1985) studied Chappel carbonates at Conley Field. Their work revealed that a skeletal sand-shoal buildup makes up the Conley bank rather than a mudmound. They found...

He, Shiliang T.

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

13

Porosity and cementation in upper Cretaceous Mooreville and Demopolis Chalks, central Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Cyclically arranged chalky marl, marl, limestone, and sand facies comprise the Upper Cretaceous Mooreville and Demopolis Chalks, the lower two formation in the Selma Group, inner Coastal Plain of Alabama. In the central Alabama study area (Dallas, Lowndes, and Montgomery Counties), the Mooreville-Demopolis section is 305 m thick and the two main facies are chalky marl and marl. Chalky marl consists of 50-70% carbonate (nannofossil component plus isopachous cement) and is relatively impermeable (average permeability is 0.9 md). The marl has 30-50% carbonate (mainly nannofossil component) and has an average permeability of 0.13 md. Helium-calibrated porosity values range from 31 to 35% in chalky marl and 36 to 41% in the marl. Scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) of chalky marl and marl shows a relatively poor alignment of phyllosilicate grains in both facies. Under SEM, the calcareous nannofossil component, mainly coccoliths and rhabdoliths, shows pristine to cement-coated exterior surfaces. The cement coating is most common in the chalky marl. Sampling throughout the Mooreville-Demopolis section shows no apparent vertical (stratigraphic) trends in facies-specific petrologic characteristics such as permeability, helium-calibrated porosity, phyllosilicate grain alignment, nannofossil content, and extent of cementation. The most parsimonious explanation of the development and evolution of porosity and cementation in the study area is as follows. First, simple mechanical compaction from burial under a few hundred meters of sediment can readily explain the reduction in porosity to less than 40% in most samples from the Mooreville-Demopolis section. Secondary (facies-selective) cementation is a further cause for porosity reduction in chalky marl. Cementation is likely the result of calcareous nannofossil dissolution during compaction and carbonate solution-transfer via groundwater movement.

Holston, I.; King, D.T. Jr.; Bittner, E. (Auburn Univ., AL (USA))

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Surface and Porosity of Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The validity of adsorption methods of measuring specific surface areas of solids (and, in particular, of adsorbents) is limited by the characteristics of the porosity. Methods based on the concept of multilayer adsorption, like the BET method and de Boer's t-method, are applicable only to non-porous or coarsely porous (including mesoporous) adsorbents. There is no general method of calculating the surface area of microporous adsorbents from adsorption data. For the "crack" model of the micropores in carbon adsorbents we can calculate the size and the geometrical area of the micropores from the parameters of the adsorption equation given by the theory of the volume filling of micropores, using a standard vapour (benzene). Almost identical results are obtained by using the adsorption of water vapour, which forms continuous monolayers in the micropores because of the dominant role of the hydrogen bond in adsorption. The geometric surface of micropores in carbon adsorbents is not a measure of the adsorption capacity of the sample, which is determined by dispersion forces, but it is relevant in kinetics and catalysis. The presence of micropores in non-porous or coarsely porous adsorbents makes the measurement of surface area by the BET or the de Boer method physically meaningless. In this case we can use the t/F method of Dubinin and Kadlets, which gives a measure of the volume of micropores and of the specific surface of mesopores. Kistler and Kiselev's capillary condensation method gives similar values for the specific area of the mesopores. 23 references.

M M Dubinin

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Porosity in polysilsesquioxane xerogels  

SciTech Connect

Polysilsesquioxanes, [RSiO{sub 1.5}]{sub n} are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic materials in which silicon atoms are linked with up to three siloxane bonds to other monomer units in the polymer and the organic group is a pendent functionality. Polysilsesquioxanes are prepared by the hydrolysis and condensation of organotrialkoxysilanes (Scheme l). Organotrialkoxysilanes RSi(OR{prime}){sub 3}, have been extensively used as coupling agents for composites or surface treatments for materials. Polysilsesquioxanes have become increasingly popular for generating specialty coatings such as low k dielectric materials for microelectronic applications. While there is extensive information on the formation of polysilsesquioxanes, there has not been a survey of the ability of organotrialkoxysilanes to form gels until recently. The formation of polysilsesquioxanes gels has been shown to be very sensitive to the nature of the organic group. Many monomers will only form soluble oligomers or polymers upon hydrolysis and condensation, even when the reaction is conducted solvent-free with neat monomer and aqueous catalyst. Furthermore, there is little information concerning the influence of the organic group, R, on the porosity of the polysilsesquioxanes gels that are formed. In this paper the authors describe the preparation of polysilsesquioxane gels where R = H, methyl, ethyl, cyanoethyl, vinyl, dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, chloromethyl, and chloromethylphenyl, and the characterization of the porosity of the respective xerogels. Gels were prepared from the hydrolysis and condensation of organotrimethoxysilanes, RSi(OEt){sub 3}, and organotriethoxy-silanes, RSi(OEt){sub 3}.

LOY,DOUGLAS A.; SCHNEIDER,DUANE A.; BAUGHER,BRIGITTA M.; RAHIMIAN,KAMYAR

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

16

Porosity in Polysilsesquioxane Xerolgels  

SciTech Connect

Polymerization of organotrialkoxysilanes is a convenient method for introducing organic functionality into hybrid organic-inorganic materials. However, not much is known about the effects of the organic substituent on the porosity of the resulting xerogels. In this study, we prepared a series of polysilsesquioxane xerogels from organotrialkoxysilanes, RSi(OR{sup 1}){sub 3}, with different organic groups (R = H, Me, Et dodecyl, hexadecyl, octadecyl, vinyl, chloromethyl, (p-chloromethyl) phenyl, cyanoethyl). Polymerizations of the monomers were carried out under a variety of conditions, varying monomer concentration, type of catalyst, and alkoxide substituent. The effect of the organic substituent on the sol-gel process was often dramatic. In many cases, gels were formed only at very high monomer concentration and/or with only one type of catalyst. All of the gels were processed as xerogels and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen sorption porosimetry to evaluate their pore structure.

Baugher, B.M.; Loy, D.A.; Rahimian, K.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

17

Analyzing Porosity using Petrographic Imaging Methods: Key for Petrophysics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

5, “depositional porosity represents space that remains between grains, such as the ooids in the scanning electron micrograph (top), skeletal fragments or other particles. Diagenetic porosity, filled with blue epoxy in a thin section... these rock types and these classifications quickly display how much mud or grain content there is versus the skeletal grain content. 15 Figure 8. F. Jerry Lucia’s classification of carbonate interparticle pore space based on size and sorting...

Mcdaniel, Kathleen

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

18

Thermoelectric materials having porosity  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

2014-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

19

Electrochemical techniques for the evaluation of porosity and corrosion rate for electroless nickel deposits on steel  

SciTech Connect

The use of electrochemical techniques in assessing the porosity of electroless nickel deposits (1--24 {micro}m) on steel substrates from hypophosphite baths is considered. The corrosion rate of the coated samples immersed in 0.125M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 22 C was determined using Tafel extrapolation and was found to decrease with decreasing porosity. Analysis of anodic polarization curves and current-time data at fixed potentials gave a good indication of the extent of deposit porosity. The use of galvanic coupling experiments between a non-porous coating and test samples of varying deposit thickness was also examined. The shape of the porosity vs. coating thickness curve was similar for all the methods investigated, the porosity decreasing for thicker deposits.

Kerr, C.; Barker, D.; Walsh, F. [Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). School of Chemistry, Physics and Radiography

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Porosity gradients in marine sediments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The objectives of this study are: 1. To use selected Hydraulic Piston Core, porosity versus depth data (collected by shipboard sciennsts from DSDP Leg 64 to ODP Leg 120) and group it according to the major sediment type (Fig. 1) and to develop a data base... sites from DSDP Leg 64 to ODP Leg 120 were studied in an effort to determine the primary factors controlling the change in pomsity with depth. Each porosity vs. depth profile was divided into "compositional slices" which were grouped into seven...

Mahmood, Khalid

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Core image analysis of matrix porosity in The Geysers reservoir  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption is potentially an important consideration when calculating reserves at The Geysers. Our investigations of the mineralogical relationships in core samples have shown matrix pore spaces to be largely associated with fractures. Dissolution of calcite from hydrothermal veins increases porosity in the graywacke reservoir. The high relative surface area of secondary alteration phases could promote adsorption. In order to quantify porosity distribution and surface area, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images were analyzed using software developed for the interpretation of satellite imagery, This software classifies the images as either crystal or pore and then accumulates data on pore size, total porosity and surface area of the mineral-pore interface. Review of literature shows that data on thickness of adsorbed water layer does not exist for many of the mineral phases of interest in The Geysers. We have assumed thicknesses of 10, 100, and 5300 Angstroms for the adsorbed layer and calculated the relative proportions of adsorbed water. These calculations show 0.005%, 0.05%, and 2.5% of total water would be adsorbed using the above thicknesses.

Nielson, Dennis L.; Nash, Greg; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Tripp, Alan C.

1993-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

22

The effect of porosity on the mechanical properties of cordierite diesel particulate filter substrates  

SciTech Connect

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology depends on porous ceramic structures that trap the particulate matter in the diesel engine exhaust gas stream. The design of DPFs requires balancing the functional requirement of soot filtration with the mechanical properties and both are influenced by the porosity of the substrate. In addition, increasing the porosity of the substrate can assist with the catalytic washcoating, engine back pressure and engine efficiency. The effect of porosity on the elastic and fracture mechanical properties of cordierite based ceramic particulate filters was examined and will be described. Elastic modulus of DPF substrates was determined using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy while fracture toughness was characterized using the double-torsion test method. The interrelationships among specimen thickness, wall orientation, porosity and mechanical properties of the filter substrates will be discussed. A materials selection procedure to obtain filters with high thermal shock resistance and optimal mechanical properties will be described.

Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Porous Polymer Networks: Synthesis, Porosity, and Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and exhibit high thermal and chemical stability. Their porosity was confirmed by N2 sorption isotherms at 77 K. One of these materials, PPN-3, has a Langmuir surface area of 5323...

24

Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers.

Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Kucera, Eugenia H. (Downers Grove, IL)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Fabrication of dual porosity electrode structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A substantially entirely fibrous ceramic is described which may have dual porosity of both micro and macro pores. Total porosity may be 60-75% by volume. A method of spraying a slurry perpendicularly to an ambient stream of air is disclosed along with a method of removing binders without altering the fiber morphology. Adding fine ceramic particulates to the green ceramic fibers enhances the sintering characteristics of the fibers. 3 figures.

Smith, J.L.; Kucera, E.H.

1991-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

26

Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities  

SciTech Connect

Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by the heavy rainfall, soil zones, lush vegetation, and accompanying voluminous production of organic and inorganic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution, causing a net gain in porosity near unconformities. Thus, porosity in sandstones tends to increase toward overlying unconformities. Such porosity trends have been observed in hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, Norwegian North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas. A common attribute of these reservoirs is that they were all subaerially exposed under heavy rainfall conditions. An empirical model has been developed for the Triassic and Jurassic sandstone reservoirs in the Norwegian North Sea on the basis of the observed relationship that shows an increase in porosity in these reservoirs with increasing proximity to the overlying base of Cretaceous unconformity. An important practical attribute of this model is that it allows for the prediction of porosity in the neighboring undrilled areas by recognizing the base of Cretaceous unconformity in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps.

Shanmugam, G.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Authigenic Carbonate and the History of the Global Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Earth's surface reservoirs ({delta} 13 C...of carbonate rocks. In either case, this...history when the porosity and permeability of...track the bulk rock {delta} 13...of carbonate rocks...sedimentary reservoirs does...

Daniel P. Schrag; John. A. Higgins; Francis A. Macdonald; David T. Johnston

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes during dissolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray microtomography characterization of porosity, permeability and reactive surface changes from X-ray microtomography data obtained before and after a set of dissolution experiments of pure.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Reactive transport Carbon storage Permeability X-ray microtomography 1

Luquot, Linda

29

Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities  

SciTech Connect

Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by heavy rainfall, lush vegetation, soil zones, and the voluminous production of inorganic and organic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution. Thus, porosity in sandstones commonly increases toward overlying unconformities. Empirical models have been developed on the basis of the observed relationship between erosional unconformities and porosity in the underlying sandstones in the North Sea (Middle Jurassic Brent Group) and in the Alaskan North Slope (Triassic Ivishak Formation). An important practical attribute of these models is that they allow for the prediction of porosity in frontier areas by recognizing erosional unconformities in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps for underlying sandstones. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas occur immediately beneath major erosional unconformities.

Shanmugam, G.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Porosity prediction in sandstones using erosional unconformities  

SciTech Connect

Erosional unconformities of subaerial origin are created by tectonic uplifts and eustatic sea level fall. Most erosional unconformities developed on sandstones are planes of increased porosity because uplifted sandstones are exposed to undersaturated CO/sub 2/-charged meteoric waters that result in dissolution of unstable framework grains and cements. The chemical weathering of sandstones is intensified in humid regions by heavy rainfall, lush vegetation, soil zones, and the voluminous production of inorganic and organic acids. Erosional unconformities are considered hydrologically open systems because of abundant supply of fresh meteoric water and relatively unrestricted transport of dissolved constituents away from the site of dissolution. Thus, porosity in sandstones commonly increases toward overlying unconformities. Empirical models have been developed on the basis of the observed relationship between erosional unconformities and porosity in the underlying sandstones in the North Sea (Middle Jurassic Brent Group) and in the Alaskan North Slope (Triassic Ivishak Formation). An important practical attribute of these models is that they allow for the prediction of porosity in frontier areas by recognizing erosional unconformities in seismic reflection profiles and by constructing subcrop maps for underlying sandstones. Hydrocarbon-bearing sandstone reservoirs in Alaska, Algeria, Australia, China, Libya, Netherlands, North Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Texas occur immediately beneath major erosional unconformities.

Shanmugam, G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Secondary porosity in sandstones: basic contributions of Chepikov and Savkevich  

SciTech Connect

The concept of secondary porosity in sandstones - porosity caused primarly by dissolution - has gained considerable attention recently. The basic contributions made by Chepikov and Savkevich, however, have been ignored completely in North American publications. Chepikov et al not only developed the first set of criteria for recognizing secondary porosity, but also attributed the dissolution of cements to the arrival of oil. Savkevich was the first to illustrate the trend of increasing porosity at considerable depths. 1 figure, 1 table.

Shanmugam, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Secondary porosity in sandstones: basic contributions of Chepikov and Savkevich  

SciTech Connect

The concept of secondary porosity in sandstones-porosity caused primarily by dissolution--has gained considerable attention recently. The basic contributions made by Chepikov and Savkevich, however, have been ignored completely in North American publications. Chepikov et al not only developed the first set of criteria for recognizing secondary porosity, but also attributed the dissolution of cements to the arrival of oil. Savkevich was the first to illustrate the trend of increasing porosity at considerable depths.

Shanmugam, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A TRIPLE-POROSITY MODEL FOR FRACTURED HORIZONTAL WELLS A Thesis by HASAN ALI H ALAHMADI Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2010 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering A Triple-Porosity Model for Fractured Horizontal Wells Copyright 2010 Hasan Ali H Alahmadi A TRIPLE-POROSITY MODEL FOR FRACTURED...

Alahmadi, Hasan Ali H.

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

34

Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Sediments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...year into a sandstone reservoir that lies 1000 m below...formation requires a good reservoir with adequate porosity and permeability and thick, impermeable cap rocks that will prevent the...storage sites require reservoirs with high permeability...

Daniel P. Schrag

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

35

Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy and power density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Copper nanocrystal modified activated carbon for supercapacitors with enhanced volumetric energy of copper nanocrystals in AC has little effect on the surface area and porosity of activated carbon. copper nanocrystals improves the electrical conductivity of the carbon network.

Cao, Guozhong

36

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso geothermal area, California Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: High-resolution, three-dimensional, compressional and shear wave velocity models, derived from microearthquake traveltimes, are used to map the distribution of Poisson's ratio and porosity at Coso Geothermal Area, Inyo County, California. Spatial resolution of the three-dimensional Poisson's ratio and porosity distributions is estimated to be 0.5 km horizontally and 0.8 km vertically. Model uncertainties, + or -1% in the interior and + or -2.3% around the edge of the model, are estimated by a jackknife method. We use perturbations of r = V p /V s ratio and Psi = V p

37

Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal System, Wyoming Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal System, Wyoming Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Cores from two of 13 U.S. Geological Survey research holes at Yellowstone National Park (Y-5 and Y-8) were evaluated to characterize lithology, texture, alteration, and the degree and nature of fracturing and veining. Porosity and matrix permeability measurements and petrographic examination of the cores were used to evaluate the effects of lithology and hydrothermal alteration on porosity and permeability. The intervals studied in these two core holes span the conductive zone and the upper portion of

38

Gassmann's fluid substitution paradox on carbonates: seismic and ultrasonic frequencies Ludmila Adam 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

response of carbonate rocks to porosity, permeability, texture, fluids and pressure. Velocities, in general of carbonate plugs of different porosity, permeability, mineralogy and texture are measured at seismic data on carbonate reservoir rocks have not been as thoroughly studied as clastic sedimentary reservoir

39

Significance of Secondary Porosity in Interpreting Sandstone Composition  

SciTech Connect

Secondary porosity resulting from dissolution of unstable framework grains such as feldspar and rock fragments (including chert) is common in sandstones. Extensive dissolution of framework grains may result in misinterpreting the original composition of a sandstone and, hence, in misinterpreting its provenance. To avoid these problems, secondary porosity caused by grain dissolution must be recognized. Sandstone composition may be properly evaluated by including the dissolved portion of a framework grain as a grain, rather than as porosity, while point counting. This should be useful in interpreting original composition of sandstones and in paleogeographic reconstruction of prospect areas.

Shanmugam, G.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

1995-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Properties of Bulk Sintered Silver As a Function of Porosity  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a study where various properties of bulk-sintered silver were investigated over a range of porosity. This work was conducted within the National Transportation Research Center's Power Device Packaging project that is part of the DOE Vehicle Technologies Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Motors Program. Sintered silver, as an interconnect material in power electronics, inherently has porosity in its produced structure because of the way it is made. Therefore, interest existed in this study to examine if that porosity affected electrical properties, thermal properties, and mechanical properties because any dependencies could affect the intended function (e.g., thermal transfer, mechanical stress relief, etc.) or reliability of that interconnect layer and alter how its performance is modeled. Disks of bulk-sintered silver were fabricated using different starting silver pastes and different sintering conditions to promote different amounts of porosity. Test coupons were harvested out of the disks to measure electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. The authors fully recognize that the microstructure of processed bulk silver coupons may indeed not be identical to the microstructure produced in thin (20-50 microns) layers of sintered silver. However, measuring these same properties with such a thin actual structure is very difficult, requires very specialized specimen preparation and unique testing instrumentation, is expensive, and has experimental shortfalls of its own, so the authors concluded that the herein measured responses using processed bulk sintered silver coupons would be sufficient to determine acceptable values of those properties. Almost all the investigated properties of bulk sintered silver changed with porosity content within a range of 3-38% porosity. Electrical resistivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress all depended on the porosity content in bulk-sintered silver. The only investigated property that was independent of porosity in that range was coefficient of thermal expansion.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Ferber, Mattison K [ORNL; Liang, Zhenxian [ORNL

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Modeling Mud-Filtrate Invasion Effects on Resistivity Logs to Estimate Permeability of Vuggy and Fractured Carbonate Formations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to diagnose and estimate secondary porosity and absolute permeability of fractured and vuggy carbonate in the Barinas-Apure Basin in southwest Venezuela. The latter reservoir behaves as a triple-porosity-connected) and fractured porosity, all embedded in a tight matrix. Rock-core data and wellbore resistivity images indicate

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

43

Usage of infinitesimals in the Menger's Sponge model of porosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present work concerns the calculation of the infinitesimal porosity by using the Menger's Sponge model. This computation is based on the grossone theory considering the pore volume estimation for the Menger's Sponge and afterwards the classical definition of the porosity, given by the ratio between the volume of voids and the total volume (voids plus solid phase). The aim is to investigate the different solutions given by the standard characterization of the porosity and the grossone theory without the direct estimation of the fractal dimension. Once the utility of this procedure had been clarified, the focus moves to possible practical applications in which infinitesimal parts can play a fundamental role. The discussion on this matter still remains open.

M. C. Vita; S. De Bartolo; C. Fallico; M. Veltri

2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

44

Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures  

SciTech Connect

Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

2009-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

45

from the project evaluation indicated that the porosity, void space  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the project evaluation indicated that the porosity, void space, the project evaluation indicated that the porosity, void space, and permeability of the target formations were lower than expected, and that the pressure in the formations increased with low injection rates. These results confirm the complex nature of the formations and demonstrate the importance of extensive drilling, formation evaluation, and testing to characterize and identify appropriate formations for CO 2 storage within the Appalachian Basin prior to injection. In addition to providing a significant geologic understanding of the formation, the project also provided several "lessons learned," ranging from practices

46

Scale dependence of intragranular porosity, tortuosity, and diffusivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may be in the ground for years or decades before they are discovered and targeted for remediation [e pores and flowing water is a recognized but poorly understood contributor to dispersion. Intragranular porosity, tortuosity, and diffusivity, Water Resour. Res., 46, W06513, doi:10.1029/2009WR008183. 1

Hu, Qinhong "Max"

47

Characterization of porosity via secondary reactions. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 April 1995--30 June 1995  

SciTech Connect

In the previous quarterly report (DE-FG22-91PC91305-14), we presented an analysis of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data obtained for Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal char. These samples exhibited considerable scattering. However, when the voids between the particles were filled with a liquid that had the same neutron scattering density as the carbon, the amount of scattering was reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. Analysis of the scattering invariant in terms of surface area showed that the char had very little porosity. To date this has been the only contrast matching SANS study of carbon and the first recognition that interparticle scattering effects are important. In this report, we focus on SANS data obtained for a very different char--a phenolic resin char (PRC). The following was accomplished during the reporting period: contrast matching, SANS data obtained for resin char has been analyzed in detail. Conclusions derived from this analysis include: contrast matching SANS has been demonstrated to be a useful technique for monitoring the activation/gasification process. It is demonstrated how this technique can be used to address such important issues as the role of ``closed`` vs ``open`` porosity, and interparticle scattering. It has been used here to establish that the development of porosity in phenolic resin char upon gasification in air proceeds primarily by ``opening `` or originally ``closed`` porosity. This is quite different than the behavior of Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal char. for example, as presented in the previous quarterly report.

Calo, J.M.; Hall, P.J.; Antxustegi, M.M.; Zhang, L.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Modeling of Seismic Signatures of Carbonate Rock Types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbonate reservoirs of different rock types have wide ranges of porosity and permeability, creating zones with different reservoir quality and flow properties. This research addresses how seismic technology can be used to identify different...

Jan, Badr H.

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

49

Effect of electrode porosity on the electrospark deposition of recovery coatings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper examines how the porosity of electrode materials used to restore parts influences the electrospark deposition process. A higher porosity decreases the heat ... of heat remains for melting. Erosion and deposition

S. M. Kirilenko; O. V. Paustovskii; M. V. Karpets

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy Wednesday, August 21, 2013 - 1:30pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-226 Presented by Darius Morris, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a refining process for converting large and/or heavy molecules of oil feedstock into smaller and lighter hydrocarbons such as gasoline. During the cracking process, metal contaminants from the oil feedstock deactivate and restrict access into the catalyst particle, thus reducing the yield of gasoline byproducts. Full-field transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) has been used to determine the 3D composition and structure of an equilibrated (spent) FCC particle in

51

The development of MRI for the determination of porosity distribution in reservoir core samples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scale porosity distributions. The existence of similarities between the different scales may indicate that porosity follows a fractal geometry. A key feature of fractals is their resemblance at various scales. I If evidence could be found... that the porosity does indeed follow a fractal geometry, this knowledge could be used to improve reservoir estimation procedures. & 2 Foot by foot porosity data was obtained using a Helium porosimeter for a three hundred foot vertical section of whole core...

Shivers, Jon Blake

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

52

Geophysical Prospecting, 2006, 54, 565573 Influence of pore pressure on velocity in low-porosity sandstone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

than unity for low-porosity rocks and that it varies with porosity, rock texture and wave type. We Pressure strongly influences the mechanical and transport properties of rocks, such as porosity, velocity, permeability and resistivity. In a fluid-saturated rock, both pore pressure and confining pressure control

53

SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SIMULATION OF POROSITY AND HOT TEARS IN A SQUEEZE CAST MAGNESIUM CONTROL ARM K.D. Carlson1 , C: Magnesium Alloys, Casting, Shrinkage Porosity, Hot Tears, Modeling Abstract Simulations are performed and hot tears in squeeze casting of magnesium alloys. Introduction Both shrinkage porosity and hot tears

Beckermann, Christoph

54

Laser Detection Of Material Thickness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detection Of Material Thickness Detection Of Material Thickness Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of

55

Measurement of Porosity in Dilute Acid Pretreated Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The conclusions of this report are: (1) pretreated corn stover appeared to have more accessible pore volume than raw corn stover; (2) solute exclusion method--differences in the pore volume were not detectable due to the high variability of the measurements; (3) thermoporosimetry--differences in pore volume between pretreated samples were not observed despite the low variability of the measurement and a good correction was found between unfrozen water at 240K and xylan content; and (4) porosity measurements showed no correlation between ethanol yields and the volume accessible to an enzyme size probe, for this sample set.

Ishizawa, C.; Davis, M. F.; Johnson, D. K.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

A dual-porosity reservoir model with a nonlinear coupling term  

SciTech Connect

Since their introduction by Barenblatt et al. (1960), double-porosity models have been widely used for simulating flow in fractured reservoirs, such as geothermal reservoirs. In a dual-porosity system, the matrix blocks provide most of the storage of the reservoir, whereas the fractures provide the global transmissivity. Initially, most work on dual-porosity models emphasized the development of analytical solutions to idealized reservoir problems. Increasingly, the dual-porosity approach is being implemented by numerical reservoir simulators. Accurate numerical simulation of a dual-porosity problem often requires a prohibitively large number of computational cells in order to resolve the transient pressure gradients in the matrix blocks. We discuss a new dual-porosity model that utilizes a nonlinear differential equation to approximate the fracture/matrix interactions, When implemented into a numerical simulator, it eliminates the need to discretize the matrix blocks, and thereby allows more efficient simulation of reservoir problems.

Zimmerman, R.W.; Chen, G.; Hadgu, T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Discrimination of porosity and fluid saturation using seismic velocity analysis  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of the invention is employed for determining the state of saturation in a subterranean formation using only seismic velocity measurements (e.g., shear and compressional wave velocity data). Seismic velocity data collected from a region of the formation of like solid material properties can provide relatively accurate partial saturation data derived from a well-defined triangle plotted in a (.rho./.mu., .lambda./.mu.)-plane. When the seismic velocity data are collected over a large region of a formation having both like and unlike materials, the method first distinguishes the like materials by initially plotting the seismic velocity data in a (.rho./.lambda., .mu./.lambda.)-plane to determine regions of the formation having like solid material properties and porosity.

Berryman, James G. (Danville, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Influence of depositional sand quality and diagenesis on porosity and permeability: Examples from Brent Group reservoirs, northern North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to examine correlations between reservoir quality and petrology in two data sets from the Middle Jurassic Brent Group. One of the data sets is from relatively shallow depth and has been little affected by chemical diagenesis (Statfjord Nord and Ost Fields; 2.3--2.6 km below the sea floor), while the second data set is from a more deeply buried reservoir having an advanced degree of diagenesis (Huldra Field; 3.6--3.9 km). Much of the total variation in porosity and permeability within each data set (0.02 mD to > 7 D in both sets) can be accounted for by laboratory measurements of parameters mainly related to depositional sand quality, including shaliness (represented by bulk-rock alumina/silica ratio), early carbonate cement, feldspar content, and grain size. Despite major differences in the proportions of different sedimentary facies in the two data sets, they have similar ranges of depositional sand quality and therefore probably had similar reservoir quality early in their burial history. Deeper burial diagenesis at Huldra Field has shifted the average of both porosity and permeability to lower values and produced a bimodal permeability distribution, apparently reflecting preferential preservation of permeability in the cleaner sandstones. On the basis of these examples, the author outlines an approach for unmixing the diagenetic and lithologic components of variation in regional compilations of sandstone porosity-permeability data. The procedure and its consequences are illustrated using a regional compilation of core data from the Brent Group of the northern North Sea.

Ehrenberg, S.N. [Statoil, Harstad (Norway)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Influence of depositional sand quality of porosity and permeability: Examples from Brent Group Reservoirs in the northern North Sea  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate statistical analysis was applied to examine correlation between reservoir quality and petrology in two data sets from the Middle Jurassic Brent Group. One of the data sets is from relatively shallow depth an has been little affected by chemical diagenesis (Staffjord Nord & Ost Fields 2.3-2.6 km below the sea floor), while the second data set is from a more deeply buried reservoir having an advanced degree of diagenesis (Huldra Field 3.6-3.9 km). Much of the total variation in porosity and permeability (0.02 mD to >7 D in both sets) can be accounted for by laboratory measurements of parameters mainly related to depositional sand quality, including {open_quotes}shaliness{close_quotes} (represented by bulk-rock alumina content), earl carbonate cement, feldspar content, and grain size. Despite major differences in the proportions of different sedimentary facies in the two data sets, they have similar ranges of depositional sand quality and therefore probably had similar reservoir quality early in their burial history. Deeper burial diagenesis at Huldra Field has shifted the average porosity and permeability lower and produced a bimodal permeability distribution, apparently reflecting preferential preservation of permeability in the cleaner sandstones. Based on these examples, a method is outlined for {open_quotes}unmixing{close_quotes} the diagenetic and lithologic components of variation in regional compilations of sandstone porosity-permeability data. The procedure and its consequences are illustrated using a regional compilation of core data from the Brent Group of northern North Sea.

Ehrenberg, S.N.; Bjorkum, P.A.; Naddeau, P.H. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

60

Petroleum reservoir porosity versus depth: Influence of geological age  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in late Carboniferous sandstone reservoirs, Bothamsall oilfield, E. Midlands: Journal of the Geological Society of...carbonate reservoir quality: Examples from Abu Dhabi and the Amu Darya Basin: Marine and Petroleum Geology, v.-15, p...

S. N. Ehrenberg; P. H. Nadeau; Ø. Steen

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Prediction of the Fatigue Life of Cast Steel Containing Shrinkage Porosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of porosity becomes especially critical. An integrated design process is emerging in which a casting process] It is anticipated that such a design process will also help guide and improve casting inspection procedures INHOMOGENEITIES due to porosity are currently not considered in the design of structural components made from

Beckermann, Christoph

62

Borehole Stability Analysis in a Thermo-Poro-Elastic Dual Porosity Medium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and focus mainly on reservoirs represented by saturated rocks with a single porosity [2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 reservoirs, management of nuclear waste disposal in a clay buffer, and geothermal hot dry rock energy (2012) 65-76" #12;of saturated porous rocks with a single porosity, highlighting the importance

Boyer, Edmond

63

Modeling the Effect of Finite-Rate Hydrogen Diffusion on Porosity Formation in Aluminum Alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling the Effect of Finite-Rate Hydrogen Diffusion on Porosity Formation in Aluminum Alloys KENT of hydrogen in the melt is developed to predict pore formation during the solidification of aluminum alloys by Lee et al.[3] Recent examples of porosity models for aluminum alloy castings, including the effect

Beckermann, Christoph

64

Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Georgia Institute of Technology–Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the aerosol optical thickness ? for major types of tropospheric aerosols including sulfate, dust, organic carbon ...

Mian Chin; Paul Ginoux; Stefan Kinne; Omar Torres; Brent N. Holben; Bryan N. Duncan; Randall V. Martin; Jennifer A. Logan; Akiko Higurashi; Teruyuki Nakajima

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Shrinkage and porosity effects on heat and mass transfer during potato drying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fruits and vegetables are porous in nature and undergo pronounced shrinkage during convective drying process. Therefore, shrinkage and porosity should be taken into consideration while predicting heat and mass transfer. This work was conducted to study shrinkage and porosity changes along with simultaneous heat and mass transport during the process. Potato slices were subjected to drying for 7 h at 62 °C. It was observed that shrinkage varies linearly with respect to moisture content and reduction in radial dimension of potato slices was around 35%. Porosity undergoes rapid increase after attaining certain moisture content in final stages of drying. The work was extended to study the influence of shrinkage and porosity on heat and mass transfer. Simulated results were validated with experimental values. This model can be employed to predict temperature, moisture, density profiles and to study shrinkage and porosity of various fruits and vegetables.

J. Aprajeeta; R. Gopirajah; C. Anandharamakrishnan

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Evolution of porosity and diffusivity associated with chemical weathering of a basalt clast  

SciTech Connect

Weathering of rocks as a result of exposure to water and the atmosphere can cause significant changes in their chemistry and porosity. In low-porosity rocks, such as basalts, changes in porosity, resulting from chemical weathering, are likely to modify the rock's effective diffusivity and permeability, affecting the rate of solute transport and thus potentially the rate of overall weathering to the extent that transport is the rate limiting step. Changes in total porosity as a result of mineral dissolution and precipitation have typically been used to calculate effective diffusion coefficients through Archie's law for reactive transport simulations of chemical weathering, but this approach fails to account for unconnected porosity that does not contribute to transport. In this study, we combine synchrotron X-ray microcomputed tomography ({mu}CT) and laboratory and numerical diffusion experiments to examine changes in both total and effective porosity and effective diffusion coefficients across a weathering interface in a weathered basalt clast from Costa Rica. The {mu}CT data indicate that below a critical value of {approx}9%, the porosity is largely unconnected in the basalt clast. The {mu}CT data were further used to construct a numerical pore network model to determine upscaled, effective diffusivities as a function of total porosity (ranging from 3 to 30%) for comparison with diffusivities determined in laboratory tracer experiments. By using effective porosity as the scaling parameter and accounting for critical porosity, a model is developed that accurately predicts continuum-scale effective diffusivities across the weathering interface of the basalt clast.

Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Steefel, C.I.; Yang, L.; Tomutsa, L.; Brantley, S.L.

2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Stress anisotropy and velocity anisotropy in low porosity shale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shales are known for often marked intrinsic anisotropy of many of their properties, including strength, permeability and velocity for example. In addition, it is well known that anisotropic stress fields can also have a significant impact on anisotropy of velocity, even in an isotropic medium. This paper sets out to investigate the ultrasonic velocity response of well-characterised low porosity shales from the Officer Basin in Western Australia to both isotropic and anisotropic stress fields and to evaluate the velocity response to the changing stress field. During consolidated undrained multi-stage triaxial tests on core plugs cut normal to bedding, Vpv increases monotonically with increasing effective stress and Vs1 behaves similarly although with some scatter. Vph and Vsh remain constant initially but then decrease within each stage of the multi-stage test, although velocity from stage to stage at any given differential stress increases. This has the impact of decreasing both P-wave (?) and S-wave anisotropy (?) through application of differential stress within each loading stage. However, increasing the magnitude of an isotropic stress field has little effect on the velocity anisotropies. The intrinsic anisotropy of the shale remains reasonably high at the highest confining pressures. The results indicate the magnitude and orientation of the stress anisotropy with respect to the shale microfabric has a significant impact on the velocity response to changing stress fields.

U. Kuila; D.N. Dewhurst; A.F. Siggins; M.D. Raven

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bryan Pivovar (PI) Bryan Pivovar (PI) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sept 30, 2009 Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability, and performance targets in the areas of Electrocatalysts and MEAs. Approach: Novel Synthesis and Electrode Studies Pt nanotubes (UC-R) Pt coated carbon nanotubes Synthesis of novel catalysts based on extended surfaces due to 3M's demonstrated improvements in specific activity and durability using similar systems. Electrode architecture design, based on novel catalyst structures that allow thick (~10 µm), dispersed electrodes to

69

Effects Of Porosity And Mineral Composition On Cement Alteration During Geological Carbon Sequestration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases such as CO2, it is likely that major climate change will occur by the end of the century if… (more)

Brunet, Jean-patrick

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

System for measuring film thickness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

R tuart Haszeldine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom Oil Charge Preserves Deep-Burial Porosity in Sandstones and Limestones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fluvial, shallow marine and deepwater reservoirs with unusually large porosity at the field crest permeability and 10% extra porosity. Prevention of cementation is not due, in these cases, due to clay coating chalk reservoirs do not have these problems. Cementation normally destroys porosity by 3km, however many

Haszeldine, Stuart

72

A Novel Approach For the Simulation of Multiple Flow Mechanisms and Porosities in Shale Gas Reservoirs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The state of the art of modeling fluid flow in shale gas reservoirs is dominated by dual porosity models that divide the reservoirs into matrix blocks that significantly contribute to fluid storage and fracture networks which principally control...

Yan, Bicheng

2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

The stability and porosity of FE-PILCs in an acid and basic environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fe-PILCs were treated in a mild acid and basic environment (low concentrated acids and bases at ambient temperatures) for two days to evaluate their influence on the structure and porosity. All modified Fe-PIL...

I. Heylen; E. F. Vansant

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Porosity development in selected Jurassic sandstones from the Norwegian and North Seas, Norway — an overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petrographic analyses of selected Jurassic sandstone core specimens from wells in the Norwegian and North Seas, Norway, indicate that porosity development has been influenced significantly by provenance and se...

Richard E. Larese; Norman L. Haskell…

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers for use in lithium-ion battery anodes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this report, we introduce electrospun silicon nanoparticle and carbon nanotube loaded carbon nanofibers (SCNFs) as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The one-dimensional structure of electrospun nanofibers provides porosity for the anode material. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the electrospun fibers reduce the volume expansion of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) and improve mechanical stability of the electrode. Both \\{CNTs\\} and carbon nanofibers enhance electronic conduction by connecting SiNPs in \\{SCNFs\\} for electrode reactions. These contribute to improved electrochemical performance of SCNF anode-based \\{LIBs\\} resulting in the enhancement of capacity and cycling ability.

Nguyen Trung Hieu; Jungdon Suk; Dong Wook Kim; Ok Hee Chung; Jun Seo Park; Yongku Kang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, and permeability of saturated soils at various porosities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Ottawa Sand . 4. Thermal Conductivity Data Analysis 5. Thermal Conductivity of Reference Materials 6. DC Resistivity Data with Plate Electrode System for Kaolinite at Porosity of 49% PAGE 48 52 54 66 71 AC Resistivity Data for Kaolinite... THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY, AND PERMEABILITY OF SATURATED SOILS AT VARIOUS POROSITIES A Thesis by JAMES KEITH ENDERBY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement...

Enderby, James Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

Secondary porosity and permeability of coal vs. gas composition and pressure  

SciTech Connect

We have been investigating the sequestration of atmospheric pollutants by injection into coal seams while at the same time enhancing hydrocarbon productivity by displacement of methane with pollutants. We found that changing the composition of the gas sorbed into the coal changes the porosity and permeability of the coal natural-fracture system owing to gas-content changes, which cause matrix swelling or shrinkage due to relative adsorption of different gases. We collected sufficient information to develop a method for predicting the permeability and porosity of a coalbed as a function of the secondary porosity system (SPS) pressure and the gas content and composition of the primary porosity system (PPS). The method uses data from injection/falloff tests with water and/or a weaker adsorbing gas (WAG) than CH{sub 4} and a stronger adsorbing gas (SAG) than CH{sub 4}. Estimates of effective permeability to gas and water obtained from these tests are used with an iterative computation procedure subject to constraints to solve for equivalent SPS porosity and absolute permeability at atmospheric pressure. Once calibrated, the model can be used to predict a coalbed's permeability and porosity as a function of injection pressure and injected-fluid composition, which in turn are used to predict injection performance. The model is applicable to production forecasts to account for SPS permeability and porosity changes as reservoir pressure declines with changes in gas composition. This paper describes the new model and discusses well-test procedures to obtain the data required for model calibration. Also included are coal property estimates resulting from Alberta Medicine River (Manville) coal core and test data and an example model calibration.

Mavor, M.J,; Gunter, W.D. [Tesseract Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Quantification and Prediction of the 3D Pore Network Evolution in Carbonate Reservoir Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantification and Prediction of the 3D Pore Network Evolution in Carbonate Reservoir Rocks E. DeD Pore Network Evolution in Carbonate Reservoir Rocks -- This study presents an integrated approach that allows the reconstruction and prediction of 3D pore structure modifications and porosity/permeability

Boyer, Edmond

79

Oxidation resistant carbon-carbon composites: the effect of temperature dependent matrix material properties on laminate response  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the thermomechanical response of oxidation resistan two dimensional, externally coated, 8 harness satin weave carbon-carbon laminatcs. This research focuses on developing a through-the-thickness or out-of-plane finite element representation of an oxidation resistant... on the thermomechanical response of oxidation resistan two dimensional, externally coated, 8 harness satin weave carbon-carbon laminatcs. This research focuses on developing a through-the-thickness or out-of-plane finite element representation of an oxidation resistant...

Romine, Paul Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

80

Porosity enhancement from chert dissolution beneath Neocomian unconformity: Ivishak Formation, North Slope, Alaska: Discussion  

SciTech Connect

Shanmugam and Higgins (1988) concluded that chert dissolution was the dominant control of porosity and permeability trends in the fluvial facies of the Ivishak Formation in the Prudhoe Bay field. Chert dissolution, in turn, was interpreted to be a function of proximity to the Lower Cretaceous unconformity. In their opinion, the data presented by Shanmugam and Higgins are not sufficient to justify their conclusions. The authors apparently neglected to consider the effects of fundamental geological parameters (grain size and sorting) and processes (burial history) on porosity and permeability. In this discussion, the authors specifically address the effects of grain size, sorting, and burial history on porosity and permeability, to provide an alternative explanation of reservoir quality trends in the Ivishak reservoir. 3 figs.

Bloch, S.; McGowen, J.H. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (USA)); Duncan, J.R. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Midland, TX (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Causal Factors of Weld Porosity in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding of Powder Metallurgy Produced Titanium Alloys  

SciTech Connect

ORNL undertook an investigation using gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding on consolidated powder metallurgy (PM) titanium (Ti) plate, to identify the causal factors behind observed porosity in fusion welding. Tramp element compounds of sodium and magnesium, residual from the metallothermic reduction of titanium chloride used to produce the titanium, were remnant in the starting powder and were identified as gas forming species. PM-titanium made from revert scrap where sodium and magnesium were absent, showed fusion weld porosity, although to a lesser degree. We show that porosity was attributable to hydrogen from adsorbed water on the surface of the powders prior to consolidation. The removal / minimization of both adsorbed water on the surface of titanium powder and the residues from the reduction process prior to consolidation of titanium powders, are critical to achieve equivalent fusion welding success similar to that seen in wrought titanium produced via the Kroll process.

Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Frederick, David Alan [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL; Chen, Wei [ORNL; Lim, Yong Chae [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Feng, Zhili [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C-C composite containing continuous PAN T300 fibers · SWB: Chopped Fiber Composite containing SWB fibers Crush strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

Rollins, Andrew M.

83

Knudsen-to-Hydrodynamic Crossover in Liquid He3 in a High-Porosity Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the drag force acting on a high porosity aerogel immersed in liquid He3 and its effect on sound propagation. The drag force is characterized by the Knudsen number, which is defined as the ratio of the quasiparticle mean free path to the radius of an aerogel strand. Evidence of the Knudsen-hydrodynamic crossover is clearly demonstrated by a drastic change in the temperature dependence of ultrasound attenuation in 98% porosity aerogel. Our theoretical analysis shows that the frictional sound damping caused by the drag force is governed by distinct laws in the two regimes, providing excellent agreement with the experimental observation.

H. Takeuchi; S. Higashitani; K. Nagai; H. C. Choi; B. H. Moon; N. Masuhara; M. W. Meisel; Y. Lee; N. Mulders

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Clean Cast Steel Technology: Effect of Micro-porosity on Tensile and Charpy Properties of Four Cast Steels  

SciTech Connect

The effect of these large shrink cavities on mechanical properties could be easily calculated using well established engineering formulas. Over the years, increases in computational and metallurgical resources have allowed the modeler to improve accuracy and increase the complexity of numerical predictors. An accurate prediction of micro-porosity, not observable using conventional radiographic techniques, and an engineering understanding of the effect on mechanical properties would give a designer confidence in using a more efficient casting design and a lower safety factor. This will give castings an additional design advantage. The goal of this project is to provide current and future modelers/designers with a tensile and Charpy property dataset for validation of micro-porosity predictors. The response of ultimate strength, elongation, and reduction in area to micro-porosity was very similar in all four alloys. Ultimate strength was largely unaffected by tensile fracture surface porosity until values of about 25% were reached and decreased linearly with increasing values. Elongation and reduction in area decreased sharply after less than 5% fracture surface porosity. Niyama values of about 0.7 were produced sound material and acceptable tensile properties. Ultrasonic velocities of 0.233 in/usec and higher produced acceptable tensile properties. Metallographic examination revealed a ratio of 4-6 to 1 in fracture surface porosity to metallographic porosity. Charpy impact properties were largely unaffected by the microporosity concentrations examined in this study and did not correlate to either Niyama values, fracture surface porosity, or metallographic porosity.

Griffin, John, A.; Bates, Charles, E.

2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

85

An investigation on the effect of porosity on the transport properties of porous silicon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microelectronics technology today is dominated exclusively by Silicon (Si). The inefficiency of Si to emit light even at cryogenic temperatures has been overcome with the discovery of porous silicon (PS) and its visible luminescence at room temperature. The present investigation aims at analysing the effect of increasing porosity on the transport properties of porous silicon with reference to field and temperature-dependent dark and photo conductivity and further substantiating the results with modulation techniques. Pure silicon wafer of n-type was made porous by immersion in an appropriate etchant for a few minutes. The conductivity was found to increase as porosity increased and this effect could be attributed to the increase in the trap levels, with increasing porosity. Temperature-dependent studies reveal a decrease in activation energy with increase in porosity indicating an increase in conductivity. Reflectance and electroreflectance measurements were used to calculate the band gap of porous silicon. It was found to lie closer to the direct band gap of silicon. A reduction in the band gap of porous silicon has been observed.

J. Merline Shyla; Francis P. Xavier; P. Sagayaraj

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Anthony G. Evans* Materials Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 Thermal barrier and generating new thermal resistance solutions, as appropri- ate. A continuum heat flow analysis is usedDistributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor

Wadley, Haydn

87

The mechanism of porosity formation during solvent-mediated phase transformations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...importance of porosity generation by solvent-mediated phase transformation...used for most imaging, and green light (lambda g=547nm...insights into the mechanisms of solvent-mediated phase transformation...reprecipitation processes in solvent-mediated phase transformation...

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Effect of Porosity on the Stiffness of Cast Steel RICHARD A. HARDIN and CHRISTOPH BECKERMANN  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the location, amount, and size characteristics of micro- and macroporosity, an integrated design process service perfor- mance.[2] It is anticipated that such a design process will guide and improve inspection in cast metal due to porosity or inclusions are not considered directly in part design. Instead, ad

Beckermann, Christoph

89

Dual-Porosity Hollow Nanoparticles for the Immunoprotection and Delivery of Nonhuman Enzymes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dual-Porosity Hollow Nanoparticles for the Immunoprotection and Delivery of Nonhuman Enzymes Inanc 80045, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Although enzymes of nonhuman origin have been attack on nonhuman enzymes paving the way to in vivo applications including enzyme-prodrug therapies

Tsien, Roger Y.

90

Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics. O. Rozenbaum1 for the comprehension of the ceramics thermal properties. Keywords: ceramics, texture, emissivity spectra, infrared (2009) 580-590" DOI : 10.1007/s10765-008-0510-1 #12;2 Abstract Thermal and optical properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

91

Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid breeder material  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 455­460 Breeder foam: an innovative low porosity solid@ucla.edu (S. Sharafat). breeder pebble beds remains a field of intense R&D for fusion power reactor B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.fusengdes.2005.06.374 #12;456 S. Sharafat et al. / Fusion

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

92

Optimal Porosity Distribution for Minimized Ohmic Drop across a Porous Electrode  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA This paper considers the design of spatially varying porosity profiles-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA c Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology material, and additive loading; iii manufacturing convenience and cost; iv ideal expected thermal behavior

Subramanian, Venkat

93

Integration of Geology, Rock-Physics, Logs, and Pre-stack Seismic for Reservoir Porosity Estimation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to obtain reservoir properties, such as porosity, both at the well locations and in the inter-well regions from seismic data and well logs. The seismic and well-log datasets are from an ...

Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Estimation of axisymmetric spatial distributions of permeability and porosity from pressure-transient data acquired with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to quantify the spatial resolution and reliability of in situ permanent pressure data to detecting hydrocarbonEstimation of axisymmetric spatial distributions of permeability and porosity from pressure-transient data acquired with in situ permanent sensors Faruk O. Alpak*, Carlos Torres-Verdi´n, Kamy Sepehrnoori

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

95

Characterization of granite matrix porosity and pore-space geometry by in situ and laboratory methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the conclusion that a large part of the microscopic...porosity is substantially larger than the one measured...Rasilainen (1996) compared a large number of laboratory-based...sample relaxation after drilling of the impregnated and...conditions from a set of borehole intervals, subsequent......

M. Schild; S. Siegesmund; A. Vollbrecht; M. Mazurek

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Critical insulation thickness for maximum entropy generation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Critical insulation thickness is known to refer to the insulation thickness that maximises the rate of heat transfer in cylindrical and spherical systems. The same analogy is extended to the rate of entropy generation in the present study. The possible critical insulation thickness that yields a maximum rate of entropy generation is investigated. Entropy generation is related to heat transfer through and temperature distribution within the insulation material. It is found that there exists a critical insulation thickness for maximising the rate of entropy generation that is a function of the Bi number and the surface to ambient temperature ratio. The solution of such critical thickness is formulated analytically for both cylindrical and spherical geometries. It is also found that the critical insulation thickness for the rate of entropy generation does not coincide with that for the rate of heat transfer.

Ahmet Z. Sahin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

One Nanometer Thickness Specimen Supporting Film  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......carbon ultra thin film coated on the micro-grid is developed for the electron microscopy...carbon ultra thin film coated on the micro-grid is developed for the electron microscopy...specimen supporting film, which is a micro-grid coated with carbon thin film of......

Shigeo Sakata; Shinsuke Hotsumi; Hiroyuki Watanabe

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Evaluating the presence of porosity in Brazilian archaeological pottery associating x-radiography and PIXE  

SciTech Connect

X-Radiography technique has been used effectively for decades to evaluate and identify differences in homogeneities in samples. It is a simple, fast and non-destructive technique that provides a view of internal structure helping investigating manufacturing details of archaeological ceramics. Characteristics of the paste used in the matrix composition can be derived using PIXE technique through the determination of the major elemental composition allowing the calculation of its expected density. Combining this information with x-ray images is possible to check for differences in the average density of material indicating the presence of homogeneously distributed porosity or temper. The present work evaluates the porosity in a set of native Brazilian pottery sherds that were collected in the Aldeia Lalima archaeological site, located at Mato Grosso do Sul State.

Curado, J. F.; Added, N.; Rizzutto, M. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Postal 66318, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

100

Porosity enhancement from chert dissolution beneath Neocomian unconformity: Ivishak Formation, North Slope, Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Secondary porosity caused by chert dissolution is common in the hydrocarbon-producing fluvial facies of the Ivishak Formation (Triassic), North Slope, Alaska. Petrographic observations suggest that macroporosity caused by chert dissolution tends to increase toward the Neocomian unconformity. In the Prudhoe Bay field, a lateral increase in core porosity (from 15% at about 30 km from the unconformity to 30% near the unconformity) and in permeability (from 50 md at about 30 km from the unconformity to 800 md near the unconformity) is evident toward the unconformity. This increase occurs within the fluvial facies (zone 4) of nearly uniform grain size and framework composition (chert litharenite). Major chert dissolution probably took place during the Neocomian uplift when the Ivishak Formation was exposed to acidic meteoric waters in the near-surface environment. 16 figures, 3 tables.

Shanmugam, G.; Higgins, J.B.

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The effect of GASAR processing parameters on porosity and properties in aluminum alloy  

SciTech Connect

The GASAR process involves the dissolution of hydrogen in a molten metal or alloy by controlling the hydrogen pressure and the temperature in a high pressure chamber. The difference between the hydrogen solubility in the melt and the solid is used to control the growth of hydrogen pores within the solidifying structure. Designed experiments have been performed to determine the relative effects of the saturation pressure, temperature, casting pressure, mold temperature and cooling rate on the total porosity, pore size, distribution and shape in pure nickel and aluminum alloys. The shape and distribution of pores was found to depend upon the structure of the primary solid pore nucleation and growth. Reducing the casting pressure had the strongest effect on increasing the total porosity and pore size.

Paradies, C.J.; Tobin, A. [Northrop Grumman Corp., Bethpage, NY (United States); Wolla, J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

The effect of velocity and porosity profiles on the performance of fixed bed reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reactors. The reaction systems chosen offered a variety of reaction situations, including highly exothermic reactions, multiple and complex reaction schemes. A comparison of the calculated results by the two dimensional plug flow mcdel and the results... to be independent of axial direction in a bed packed with uniform size cylindrical or spherical particles. Martin(1978), using this data proposed a model for the porosity profile. Catalytic reactors are usually packed by uniform size spherical or cylindrical...

Amin, Kaushik

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

Role of halite in the evolution of sandstone porosity, upper Jurassic Norphlet Formation, Mississippi salt basin  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of petrographic point-count data, cement paragenesis, and scanning electron microscopy examination of pores has shown that poikilitic halite cement in sandstones of the Norphlet Formation in a core from Wayne County, Mississippi, formed following cementation by quartz, feldspar, dolomite, and anhydrite. Intergranular volume ranges from 26 to 42%, averaging 35%, indicating that an average of 10% of the rock volume was lost to compaction, and a further 10-15%, was lost to cementation prior to halite cementation, assuming a depositional porosity of about 45%. Most halite occurs as intergranular cement, but some halite is present as intragranular cement within framework feldspars and lithic fragments. Halite is easily removed from a sandstone during coring, slabbing, and thin-section preparation techniques that do not use oil-based fluids and muds, so the amount of porosity in these samples that is a product of artificial removal of halite is unknown. Although the present and former distribution of halite is poorly known, natural halite dissolution could have produced about 20% secondary porosity in the Norphlet Formation at depth in this part of the Mississippi Salt basin.

Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Carbon sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Leaver and Howard Dalton Carbon sequestration Rattan Lal * * ( lal.1...and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric...and biomass burning. 3. Carbon sequestration Emission rates from fossil...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

“Carbon sequestration” refers to a portfolio of activities for ... capture, separation and storage or reuse of carbon or CO2. Carbon sequestration technologies encompass both the prevention of CO2 emissions into ...

Robert L. Kane MS; Daniel E. Klein MBA

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

STUDY OF PROPANE ADSORPTION ISOTHERM ON PURIFIED HIPCO SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Isotherms of one atom thick film of adsorption for propane on purified Hipco single-walled carbon nanotube were experimentally studied at 6 different temperatures ranging from… (more)

Furuhashi, Toyohisa

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous

108

MonolayerThickness of Block Copolymer Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.47 · Index of ref. for PS-PEHMA 1.51 #12;Annealing the films · Tg 22nm 24nm Height Images #12;AFM 12-33 26nm 28nm 30nm Bi-continuous #12;12-33Area% 13.08 31.55 41 Area % Thickness (nm) Monolayer: 18.86nm Bilayer: 37.72nm #12;Monolayer thickness 12

Petta, Jason

109

Effective porosity and pore-throat sizes of Conasauga Group mudrock: Application, test and evaluation of petrophysical techniques  

SciTech Connect

Effective porosity (specifically referring to the interconnected pore space) was recently recognized as being essential in determining the effectiveness and extent of matrix diffusion as a transport mechanism within fractured low-permeability rock formations. The research presented in this report was performed to test the applicability of several petrophysical techniques for the determination of effective porosity of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. In addition, the aim was to gather quantitative data on the effective porosity of Conasauga Group mudrock from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The quantitative data reported here include not only effective porosities based on diverse measurement techniques, but also data on the sizes of pore throats and their distribution, and specimen bulk and grain densities. The petrophysical techniques employed include the immersion-saturation method, mercury and helium porosimetry, and the radial diffusion-cell method.

Dorsch, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Katsube, T.J. [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Mineral Resources Div.; Sanford, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Dugan, B.E. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Civil and Mineral Engineering; Tourkow, L.M. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States). Dept. of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Carbon Layers Lead the Way towards a New Generation of Metamaterials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Layers Lead the Way towards a New Generation of Metamaterials Graphene - a one layer thick sheet of carbon atoms - has special properties that make it a desirable material...

111

Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

Jeffrey Long

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

112

Cement distribution in a carbonate reservoir: recognition of a palaeo oil–water contact and its relationship to reservoir quality in the Humbly Grove field, onshore, UK  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution of mineral cements, total porosity, microporosity and permeability have been determined for the Humbly Grove oolitic carbonate reservoir (Middle Jurassic Great Oolite Formation, Weald Basin, onshore UK) using a combination of optical petrography, electron microscopy, fluid inclusion analysis, quantitative XRD, wireline data analysis and core analysis data. Grainstone reservoir facies have porosities ranging between 5 and 24%, but are mostly between 11 and 24%. Permeabilities vary from Jurassic reservoirs of the Weald Basin.

Emma C Heasley; Richard H Worden; James P Hendry

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Automatic history matching of dual porosity system with wellbore storage and skin constant rate case  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vector notation Greek svmbols Interporosity flow shape factor, ft Viscosity, cp Porosity, fraction , ~mP 4 ~ ~ Oimensionless transfer coefficient kf (m~)f Oimensionless storativity ratio (mcf) $ me) Itl n Unit normal vector 66 REFERENCES 1... to the system of equations, the equations become d pod dS d'o 2 v'w- "of ? Sf['"'I' ? A 0 (A23) and Dm Dm( o 0) ( where 73 (, m'f jf ('m'fjf f (m'f) (A25) kf From the initial condition PD(rD, 0) = 0 PDF ( 0, 0) - 0 (rD. 0) = 0 Rearranging equation...

Olarewaju, Joseph Shola

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

DE-SC0004118 (Wong & Lindquist). Final Report: Changes of Porosity, Permeability and Mechanical Strength Induced by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.  

SciTech Connect

In the context of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the overall objective of this project is to conduct a systematic investigation of how the flow of the acidic, CO{sub 2} saturated, single phase component of the injected/sequestered fluid changes the microstructure, permeability and strength of sedimentary rocks, specifically limestone and sandstone samples. Hydromechanical experiments, microstructural observations and theoretical modeling on multiple scales were conducted.

WONG, TENG-FONG; Lindquist, Brent

2014-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

115

Fabrication and electrical properties of La8.33Sb(SiO4)6O2 thick films for solid oxide fuel cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study Sb-substituted La8.33Sb(SiO4)6O2 apatite thick films were fabricated by using a screen printing method and the structural and electrical properties of these materials with variation in sintering temperature for solid oxide fuel cells were investigated. With increased sintering temperatures the second phase La2SiO5 phase decreased and the specimens sintered at over 1350?°C showed typical X-ray diffraction patterns of apatite polycrystalline structure. The grain size increased and porosity decreased with increasing sintering temperatures. The thickness of all films was approximately 25–30??m. La8.33Sb(SiO4)6O2 thick films sintered at 1350?°C showed good conductivity and activation energy characteristics at 9.87?×?10?5 S cm?1and 1.24?eV respectively.

Dae-Young Kim; Sung-Gap Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Oxidative enzymatic response of white-rot fungi to single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Oxidative enzymatic response of white-rot fungi to single-walled carbon nanotubes Timothy D. Berry-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are becoming increasingly prevalent in manufacturing, there is little knowledge. Introduction Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), formed from single- atom thick sheets of carbon wound

Blanchette, Robert A.

117

Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

118

Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Magnetism in nanometer-thick magnetite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The oldest known magnetic material, magnetite, is of current interest for use in spintronics as a thin film. An open question is how thin can magnetite films be and still retain the robust ferrimagnetism required for many applications. We have grown 1-nm-thick magnetite crystals and characterized them in situ by electron and photoelectron microscopies including selected-area x-ray circular dichroism. Well-defined magnetic patterns are observed in individual nanocrystals up to at least 520 K, establishing the retention of ferrimagnetism in magnetite two unit cells thick.

Matteo Monti; Benito Santos; Arantzazu Mascaraque; Oscar Rodríguez de la Fuente; Miguel Angel Niño; Tevfik Onur Mente?; Andrea Locatelli; Kevin F. McCarty; José F. Marco; Juan de la Figuera

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

120

Fracture-enhanced porosity and permeability trends in Bakken Formation, Williston basin, western North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Fractures play a critical role in oil production from the Bakken Formation (Devonian and Mississippian) in the North Dakota portion of the Williston basin. The Bakken Formation in the study area is known for its low matrix porosity and permeability, high organic content, thermal maturity, and relative lateral homogeneity. Core analysis has shown the effective porosity and permeability development within the Bakken Formation to be related primarily to fracturing. In theory, lineaments mapped on the surface reflect the geometry of basement blocks and the zones of fracturing propagated upward from them. Fracturing in the Williston basin is thought to have occurred along reactivated basement-block boundaries in response to varying tectonic stresses and crustal flexure throughout the Phanerozoic. Landsat-derived lineament maps were examined for the area between 47/degrees/ and 48/degrees/ north lat. and 103/degrees/ and 104/degrees/ west long. (northern Billings and Golden Valley Counties, and western McKenzie County, North Dakota) in an attempt to identify large-scale fracture trends. In the absence of major tectonic deformation in the craton, a subtle pattern of fracturing has propagated upward through the sedimentary cover and emerged as linear topographic features visible on these large-scale, remote-sensed images.

Freisatz, W.B.

1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Porosity of coal and shale: Insights from gas adsorption and SANS/USANS techniques  

SciTech Connect

Two Pennsylvanian coal samples (Spr326 and Spr879-IN1) and two Upper Devonian-Mississippian shale samples (MM1 and MM3) from the Illinois Basin were studied with regard to their porosity and pore accessibility. Shale samples are early mature stage as indicated by vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}) values of 0.55% for MM1 and 0.62% for MM3. The coal samples studied are of comparable maturity to the shale samples, having vitrinite reflectance of 0.52% (Spr326) and 0.62% (Spr879-IN1). Gas (N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}) adsorption and small-angle and ultrasmall-angle neutron scattering techniques (SANS/USANS) were used to understand differences in the porosity characteristics of the samples. The results demonstrate that there is a major difference in mesopore (2-50 nm) size distribution between the coal and shale samples, while there was a close similarity in micropore (<2 nm) size distribution. Micropore and mesopore volumes correlate with organic matter content in the samples. Accessibility of pores in coal is pore-size specific and can vary significantly between coal samples; also, higher accessibility corresponds to higher adsorption capacity. Accessibility of pores in shale samples is low.

Mastalerz, Maria [Indiana Geological Survey; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Rupp, John A [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties of Titanium Nitride Nano-Coatings. Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties of Titanium...

123

Thickness and drainage of perfluoropolyethers under compression  

SciTech Connect

The Surface Forces Apparatus was used to study the compression and drainage of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) between two flat parallel mica surfaces. In the case of Zdols and Demnum-SA, the PFPE can be squeezed out during slow compression to a final residual film one gyration diameter in thickness. This thickness remained constant up to the highest applied pressure of (is similar to)10 MPa. The residual thickness for Demnum-SA, with one active end group, was found to be approximately 40% larger than that for Zdol of the same molecular weight, with two active end groups. In contrast, Z03, with no active end groups, could be displaced completely from the contact. The dynamics of expulsion were studied by monitoring the variation of the gap width as a function of time after fast (a few milliseconds) step increase in the compressive load. It was found that Zdol behaves as the bulk liquid down to gap widths of 4 equivalent gyration diameters. A viscosity increase of more than 10 times was observed when the gap width was between 4 and 2 gyration diameters. Finally, slow compression to the maximum achievable pressure (approximately 10 MPa) led to a residual layer one gyration diameter in thickness trapped between the mica surfaces.

Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Huan; Gui, Jing

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Carbon Conference  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon Conference ... The Fourth Hienninl Conference on Carbon will be held at the University of Buffalo, June 15 to 19. ... The Pittsburgh Section's coal technology group will meet in the conference room at Mellon Institute, Pittsburgh, June ... ...

1959-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

LATERAL HEAT FLOW INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY FOR THICKNESS INDEPENDENT DETERMINATION OF THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY IN CFRP  

SciTech Connect

In conventional infrared thermography, determination of thermal diffusivity requires thickness information. Recently GE has been experimenting with the use of lateral heat flow to determine thermal diffusivity without thickness information. This work builds on previous work at NASA Langley and Wayne State University but we incorporate thermal time of flight (tof) analysis rather than curve fitting to obtain quantitative information. We have developed appropriate theoretical models and a tof based data analysis framework to experimentally determine all components of thermal diffusivity from the time-temperature measurements. Initial validation was carried out using finite difference simulations. Experimental validation was done using anisotropic carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. We found that in the CFRP samples used, the in-plane component of diffusivity is about eight times larger than the through-thickness component.

Tralshawala, Nilesh; Howard, Don; Knight, Bryon; Plotnikov, Yuri; Ringermacher, Harry [Nondestructive Technologies Laboratory, GE--Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY 12309 (United States)

2008-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

126

Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates  

SciTech Connect

Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Microstructure Modeling of Porosity-Graded Cathode Using Focused Ion Beam and Homogenization Techniques  

SciTech Connect

In this study, microstructure of a porosity-graded lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) has been characterized using focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM) combined with image processing. Two-point correlation functions of the two-dimensional (2D) images taken along the direction of porosity gradient are used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3D) microstructure. The effective elastic modulus of the two-phase porosity-graded cathode is predicted using strong contrast (SC) and composite inclusion (CI) homogenization techniques. The effectiveness of the two methods in predicting the effective elastic properties of the porositygraded LSM cathode is investigated in comparison with the results obtained from the finite element model (FEM).

Hamedani, Amani; Baniassadi, Majid; Sheidaei, A.; Pourboghrat, F.; Remond, Y.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Garmestani, Hamid

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

128

Thermal regulation of volume and porosity in lipid mesophases by coupling mobile ligands to soft membranes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short DNA linkers are increasingly being exploited for driving specific self-assembly of Brownian objects. DNA-functionalised colloids and nanoparticles can assemble into ordered or amorphous materials with tailored morphology. Recently, the same approach has been applied to compliant units, including emulsion droplets and lipid vesicles. The liquid structure of these substrates introduces new degrees of freedom: the tethers can diffuse and rearrange, radically changing the physics of the interactions. Unlike droplets, vesicles are extremely deformable and DNA-mediated adhesion causes significant shape adjustments. In this letter we investigate experimentally the thermal response of pairs and networks of DNA-tethered liposomes. We observe two intriguing and possibly useful collective properties: i) negative thermal expansion and ii) tuneable porosity of the liposome networks. A model providing a thorough understanding of this unexpected phenomenon is developed, explaining the emergent properties out of the interplay between the temperature-dependant tension of the bilayers and the DNA-mediated adhesive forces.

Lucia Parolini; Bortolo M. Mognetti; Jurij Kotar; Erika Eiser; Pietro Cicuta; Lorenzo Di Michele

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

129

Phase Diagram of Superfluid He3 in 99.3% Porosity Aerogel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report on continuous-wave NMR measurements of the energy gaps of the A-like and B-like superfluid phases of He3 at 28.4 mT confined to a 99.3% porosity silica aerogel. The gaps are suppressed by the presence of the aerogel in a temperature-independent manner, but the suppression is considerably stronger than expected from the suppression of Tc. We then use our measurements to calculate the free energy ratio between the A-like and B-like phases. The equilibrium AB transition temperature, derived from where this ratio reaches unity, is consistent with previous measurements of the initial displacement of the pinned AB interface on warming. On this basis, we present for the first time the equilibrium phase diagram of the A-like and B-like phases of superfluid He3 in aerogel.

J. E. Baumgardner and D. D. Osheroff

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

130

Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle Latest Global Carbon Budget Estimates Including CDIAC Estimates Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Consumption and Cement Manufacture, (2011) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Mass of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) Annual Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Global Stable Carbon Isotopic Signature (2012) Monthly Fossil-Fuel CO2 Emissions: Isomass (δ 13C) of Emissions Gridded by One Degree Latitude by One Degree Longitude (2012) AmeriFlux - Terrestrial Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, and Energy Balance Measurements Estimates of Monthly CO2 Emissions and Associated 13C/12C Values

131

Carbon Isotopes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Atmospheric Trace Gases » Carbon Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Gateway Pages to Isotopes Data Modern Records of Carbon and Oxygen Isotopes in Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide and Carbon-13 in Methane 800,000 Deuterium Record and Shorter Records of Various Isotopic Species from Ice Cores Carbon-13 13C in CO Measurements from Niwot Ridge, Colorado and Montana de Oro, California (Tyler) 13C in CO2 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (White and Vaughn) CSIRO GASLAB Flask Network (Allison, Francey, and Krummel) CSIRO in situ measurements at Cape Grim, Tasmania (Francey and Allison) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Keeling et al.) 13C in CH4 NOAA/CMDL Flask Network (Miller and White) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Quay and Stutsman) Northern & Southern Hemisphere Sites (Stevens)

132

Ultrasonic thickness measurement of weathering steel  

SciTech Connect

The popular and traditional method of measuring thickness over a single time of flight path using the first echo received as the timing mark can make reliable measurements on weathering steel difficult. Multiple-echo measurement is capable of obtaining good, repeatable, and accurate measurements on not only weathering steels but on all metals used extensively today. Corrosion monitoring of weathering steel can be properly carried out provided the measurements taken are reliable.

Cartwright, D.L. [Cygnus Instruments Ltd., Dorchester (United Kingdom)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld  

SciTech Connect

Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.

Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: malagon@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Thick Toroidal Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroidal structure are G106.6+2.9 and G76.9+1.0. Their structure contrasts with young pulsar nebulae like the Crab Nebula and 3C 38, which show a more chaotic, filamentary structure in the synchrotron emission. In both situations, a torus-jet structure is present where the pulsar wind passes through a termination shock, indicating the flow is initially toroidal. We suggest that the difference is due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that operates when the outer boundary of the nebula is accelerating into freely expanding supernova ejecta. The instability gives rise to mixing in the Crab and related objects, but is not present in the nebulae with thick toroidal regions.

Roger A. Chevalier; Stephen P. Reynolds

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Pore-Level Analysis of the Relationship Between Porosity, Irreducible Water Saturation, and Permeability of Clastic Rocks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and Permeability of Clastic Rocks T. Torskaya, SPE; G. Jin, SPE; and C. Torres-Verd´in, SPE, The University permeability from well- log calculations of porosity and irreducible water satura- tion. However, these models to inves- tigate the influence of these factors on the permeability of clastic rocks for explicit pore

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

136

Drug Release from Self-Assembled Inorganic?Organic Hybrid Gels and Gated Porosity Detected by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Drug Release from Self-Assembled Inorganic?Organic Hybrid Gels and Gated Porosity Detected by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy ... Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Münster, Corrensstrasse 36, 48149 Münster, Germany, CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, Victoria, Australia, and School of Chemistry, Monash University, Clayton Victoria, Australia ...

Ansgar Bögershausen; Steven J. Pas; Anita J. Hill; Hubert Koller

2006-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

137

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanorod PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Controlled Porosity M. D. Gasda, G. A. Eisman,* and D. Gallz as cathode electrodes in proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells. Deposition on flat substrates yields February 4, 2010. Proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cells are promising for future automotive applications

Gall, Daniel

138

Sound speed and attenuation in water-saturated glass beads as a function of frequency and porosity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Mathematics, The University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1200; Austin TX 78712 Harry L. Swinney Station C1610; Austin TX 78712 (Dated: June 19, 2009) Sound propagation in water-saturated granular and then al- lowed to rest overnight to dissolve trapped gas bubbles. Sediment porosity was controlled

139

Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical, electrical, thermal andoptical properties. They are harder than diamond yet exible, have betterelectrical conductor than copper, but can also… (more)

Fredriksson, Tore

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Capturing carbon | EMSL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Capturing carbon Capturing carbon New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Optimisation and sensitivity analysis of atmospheric plasma spraying parameters to minimise porosity in alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, an attempt has been made to establish an empirical relationship and is developed to predict the porosity level of alumina coated AZ31B magnesium alloy by incorporating process parameters such as power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate. The porosity of alumina coatings were evaluated by the digital image analysis method. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five level, central composite rotatable design matrix with full replications technique. The developed empirical relationship can be effectively used to predict the porosity level of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimise the atmospheric plasma spraying parameters to attain the minimum porosity level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on porosity level, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Application of borehole geophysics to fracture identification and characterization in low porosity limestones and dolostones  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical logging was conducted in exploratory core holes drilled for geohydrological investigations at three sites used for waste disposal on the US Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation. Geophysical log response was calibrated to borehole geology using the drill core. Subsequently, the logs were used to identify fractures and fractured zones and to characterize the hydrologic activity of such zones. Results of the study were used to identify zones of ground water movement and to select targets for subsequent piezometer and monitoring well installation. Neutron porosity, long- and short-normal resistivity, and density logs exhibit anomalies only adjacent to pervasively fractured zones and rarely exhibit anomalies adjacent to individual fractures, suggesting that such logs have insufficient resolution to detect individual fractures. Spontaneous potential, single point resistance, acoustic velocity, and acoustic variable density logs, however, typically exhibit anomalies adjacent to both individual fractures and fracture zones. Correlation is excellent between fracture density logs prepared from the examination of drill core and fractures identified by the analysis of a suite of geophysical logs that have differing spatial resolution characteristics. Results of the study demonstrate the importance of (1) calibrating geophysical log response to drill core from a site, and (2) running a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs that can evaluate both large- and small-scale rock features. Once geophysical log responses to site-specific geological features have been established, logs provide a means of identifying fracture zones and discriminating between hydrologically active and inactive fracture zones. 9 figs.

Haase, C.S.; King, H.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Laboratory Experiments to Evaluate Diffusion of 14C into Nevada Test Site Carbonate Aquifer Matrix  

SciTech Connect

Determination of groundwater flow velocities at the Nevada Test Site is important since groundwater is the principal transport medium of underground radionuclides. However, 14C-based groundwater velocities in the carbonate aquifers of the Nevada Test Site are several orders of magnitude slower than velocities derived from the Underground Test Area regional numerical model. This discrepancy has been attributed to the loss or retardation of 14C from groundwater into the surrounding aquifer matrix making 14C-based groundwater ages appear much older. Laboratory experiments were used to investigate the retardation of 14C in the carbonate aquifers at the Nevada Test Site. Three sets of experiments were conducted evaluating the diffusion of 14C into the carbonate aquifer matrix, adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the pore surfaces of the carbonate matrix, and adsorption and/or isotopic exchange onto the fracture surfaces of the carbonate aquifer. Experimental results a nd published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities from the Lower Carbonate Aquifer were applied to a 14C retardation model. The model produced an extremely wide range of retardation factors because of the wide range of published aquifer matrix and fracture porosities (over three orders of magnitude). Large retardation factors suggest that groundwater with very little measured 14C activity may actually be very young if matrix porosity is large relative to the fracture porosity. Groundwater samples collected from highly fractured aquifers with large effective fracture porosities may have relatively small correction factors, while samples from aquifers with a few widely spaced fractures may have very large correction factors. These retardation factors were then used to calculate groundwater velocities from a proposed flow path at the Nevada Test Site. The upper end of the range of 14C correction factors estimated groundwater velocities that appear to be at least an order of magnitude too high compared to published velocities. The lower end of the range of 14C correction factors falls within the range of reported velocities. From these results, future experimental studies (both laboratory and field scale) to support 14C groundwater age dating should focus on obtaining better estimates of aquifer properties including matrix and fracture porosities.

Ronald L. Hershey; William Howcroft; Paul W. Reimus

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Delamination and Failure at Ply Drops in Carbon Fiber Laminates Under Static and Fatigue Loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Delamination and Failure at Ply Drops in Carbon Fiber Laminates Under Static and Fatigue Loading in composites with thickness tapering has been a major concern in aerospace applications of carbon fibers, where carbon fiber and glass fiber prepreg laminates containing various ply drop geometries, and using thicker

145

Rippling and a phase-transforming mesoscopic model for multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rippling and a phase-transforming mesoscopic model for multiwalled carbon nanotubes M. Arroyo I 08034, Spain Abstract We propose to model thick multiwalled carbon nanotubes as beams with non- convex transformation, B. beams and columns, B. finite strain, B. multiwalled carbon nanotubes 1 Introduction Since

Huerta, Antonio

146

The relationship between petroleum emplacement and carbonate reservoir quality: examples from Abu Dhabi and the Amu Darya Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relative importance of petroleum emplacement in inhibiting diagenetic processes and preserving porosity and permeability in Lower Cretaceous, Thamama Group (Kharaib Formation) carbonate reservoirs of Abu Dhabi, UAE, and in Callovian-Kimmeridgian carbonate reservoirs of the Amu Darya Basin in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, has been evaluated by combining geologic, petrophysical and geochemical data. When petroleum emplacement is synchronous with and prior to significant burial cementation in carbonates, primary petroleum inclusions are trapped in the cements. The process appears to be characterised by steep intra-field porosity-depth trends within a more gradual regional decline in porosity with depth. This has profound implications for the prediction of porosity in carbonate reservoirs. Reservoir quality is better in grainstones and packstones compared to adjacent wackestones and lime mudstones in the Kharaib Formation because of preserved macroporosity (intergranular, vuggy, mouldic); the pore system in the finer units is dominated by micropores. These features indicate a primary textural control on porosity and permeability. Within the grainstones and packstones, macroporosity is variably filled by late equant sparry calcite cements. Porosity and permeability variations in grainstones and packstones at a reservoir scale are therefore controlled by the variation in amount of equant sparry calcite cement. This in turn depends on the timing of the precipitation of this cement relative to petroleum emplacement, as shown by fluid inclusion data. Where petroleum emplacement has occurred relatively early, at migration foci, prior to significant burial cementation by equant sparry calcite, reservoir quality is preserved. Where it has occurred after significant burial cementation, reservoir quality has been destroyed. In the Amu Darya sequences, primary macroporosity is commonly preserved down to depths of 11,000 ft (3.5 km) with differences in the porosity and permeability characteristics of grainstones being controlled by variations in the amount of early, probably freshwater, cement and the extent of associated dissolution. Small volumes of burial cements do occur, but they do not contain petroleum inclusions. Consequently, there is no firm evidence that petroleum emplacement has inhibited diagenesis in this area. This part of the study has shown that it is not always possible to obtain conclusive evidence from the diagenesis to pin down the processes responsible for the preservation of reservoir quality and that petroleum filling may not always be the primary cause. The relationships documented here show that the ‘race for space’ between diagenetic waters and petroleum is a major control on reservoir quality in the Thamama Group carbonate reservoirs, but is not so important for the Jurassic carbonates in the Amu Darya basin.

Joyce E. Neilson; Norman H. Oxtoby; Michael D. Simmons; Ivor R. Simpson; Natalia K. Fortunatova

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Global Sediment Thickness Dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Global Sediment Thickness Dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic Southern Ocean Joanne author: jo.whittaker@utas.edu.au Key Points - Global minimum sediment thickness compilation updated for Australia Antarctica - Sediment thicknesses computed from seismic reflection and refraction data - Sediment

Müller, Dietmar

148

Coating application and evaluation for heavy wall thickness, temperature and pressure pipeline  

SciTech Connect

A Venezuelan oil company is developing a project for high pressure gas injection for oil recovery. This project has a compression plant to increase the gas pressure from 1,200 to 9,000 psi. Due to the high gas pressure (9,000 psi) and high temperature (90 C), a carbon steel API 5L-X60 with 2.5 in thickness pipe has been selected. The gas is transported from the compression plant to the injection well. This type of pipeline is unique in the world and in the authors` knowledge no one has applied and evaluated external coating for this combination of heavy wall thickness, pressure and temperature pipeline. Dual fusion bonded epoxy was selected as main coating, combined with high temperature sleeves for the joints. Several parameters were considered in the selection of the coating: high temperature, wall thickness, application condition, heat during the welding process and coating performance in the lab. The large amount of heat accumulated during the application, due to the thick wall, requires a modification of coating application parameters, as well as the cooling condition. The evaluation of the coating was performed with a specially designed test for high temperatures. The laboratory results (impact resistance, degree of curing, cathodic disbonding, adhesion and hot water immersion) indicate that the application condition used was good to obtain a product under specification.

Rodriguez, V.; Perozo, E.; Alvarez, E. [Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela). Tecnologia de Materiales

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Determination of porosity of lignocellulosic biomass before and after pretreatment by using Simonsâ ’ stain and NMR techniques  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

porosity porosity of lignocellulosic biomass before and after pretreatment by using Simons' stain and NMR techniques Xianzhi Meng a , Marcus Foston a,1 , Johannes Leisen b , Jaclyn DeMartini c , Charles E. Wyman c , Arthur J. Ragauskas a,⇑ a BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th Street, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA b School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA c Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology, University of California, Riverside, BioEnergy Science Center, Riverside, CA 92507, USA h i g h l i g h t s  Cellulose accessibility was tested by Simons' stain and multiple NMR techniques.  Pretreatment increases the pore size and overall surface area of the

150

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

David a. Lang David a. Lang Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236 412-386-4881 david.lang@netl.doe.gov andrew chizmeshya Arizona State University Center for Solid State Science Tempe, AZ 85287-1704 480-965-6072 chizmesh@asu.edu A Novel ApproAch to MiNerAl cArboNAtioN: eNhANciNg cArboNAtioN While AvoidiNg MiNerAl pretreAtMeNt process cost Background Carbonation of the widely occurring minerals of the olivine group, such as forsterite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ), is a potential large-scale sequestration process that converts CO 2 into the environmentally benign mineral magnesite (MgCO 3 ). Because the process is exothermic, it inherently offers low-cost potential. Enhancing carbonation reactivity is the key to economic viability. Previous

151

Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A broad review of the structure and properties of carbon nanotubes is presented. Particular emphasis is given to ... dimensional density of states predicted for single-wall nanotubes of small diameter. The eviden...

M. S. Dresselhaus; G. Dresselhaus…

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Carbon Fiber  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

153

Carbon Fiber  

SciTech Connect

Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

McGetrick, Lee

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

154

Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.  

SciTech Connect

Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew J. (R.J. Lee Group, Inc., Monroeville, PA); Faraone, Kevin M. (BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, VA); Norris, Jerome T.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

156

Effect of sintering on thermally sprayed carbon nanotube reinforced aluminum nanocomposite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Reconsolidation of thermally spray formed (plasma and high velocity oxyfuel spraying) hypereutectic Al–Si nanocomposites with multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement was carried out by inert atmosphere sintering for prolonged time periods. The sintering treatment resulted in the removal of porosity and residual stress, and increase in size and volume fraction of primary Si particles in the Al–Si matrix. The morphology of multiwalled carbon nanotubes in sintered nanocomposites remained unchanged after sintering. The interfacial ultrathin product layer of silicon carbide between MWCNT reinforcement and Al–Si matrix was unaltered. Microhardness and elastic modulus of the sintered nanocomposites were influenced by combined effect of multiple factors, i.e. reduction in porosity, residual stress removal and MWCNT distribution. Overall improvement of microhardness and elastic modulus of the sintered nanocomposites was observed. The experimentally measured elastic modulus values were compared with theoretically estimated values using micromechanics models.

T. Laha; A. Agarwal

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Wabek and Plaza fields: Carbonate shoreline traps in the Williston basin of North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

Wabek and Plaza fields in Mountrail and Ware counties, North Dakota, will ultimately produce 8 million and 3 million bbl of oil, respectively, from reservoirs in the Sherwood and Bluell intervals of the Mississippian Mission Canyon Formation. Both fields produce from porous, oolitic, and pisolitic lime packstones and grainstones deposited as shoals along a low-energy shoreline. A facies change to impermeable dolomitic and salina/sabkha environments to the east provides the updip trap. The Sherwood at Wabek has more than 100 ft of oil column driven by solution gas and water influx. Effective porosity consists of interparticle, vuggy, and minor dolomitic intercrystalline porosity. Log porosities range from 6 to 26%, averaging about 10%, and net pay averages about 26 ft. One mile west of Wabek, Plaza field produces from the Bluell, stratigraphically overlying the Sherwood. Log porosities range from 6 to 16%, averaging about 9%. Net pay averages about 6 ft. An oil-water contact is not yet defined, but at least 120 ft of oil column are present. Regional depositional slope and local depositional topography were major controls on Mission Canyon shoreline trends and the development of reservoir facies. In the Wabek-Plaza complex, the position and trend of the Sherwood and Bluell shorelines can be related to structural trends indentified in the crystalline basement from aeromagnetic data. Locally, thickness variations in the underlying Mohall interval amplified relief on the Wabek-Plaza structure and influenced the deposition of shoreline reservoirs.

Sperr, T. (Presidio Oil Co., Denver, CO (United States)); Hendricks, M.L. (Hendricks and Associates, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)); Stancel, S.G.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

The Galactic thick and thin disks: differences in evolution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent observations demonstrate that the thin and thick disks of the Galaxy have different chemical abundance trends and evolution timescales. The relative abundances of $\\alpha$-elements in the thick Galactic disk are increased relative to the thin disk. Our goal is to investigate the cause of such differences in thick and thin disk abundances. We investigate the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk in the framework of the open two-zone model with gas inflow. The Galactic abundance trends for $\\alpha$-elements (Mg, Si, O) and Fe are predicted for the thin and thick Galactic disks. The star formation histories of the thin and thick disks must have been different and the gas infall must have been more intense during the thick disk evolution that the thin disk evolution.

T. V. Nykytyuk; T. V. Mishenina

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

159

Process Simulation and Paint Thickness Measurement for Robotic Spray Painting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method and a computer program are developed for modeling of spray painting process, simulation of robotic spray painting, off-line programming of industrial robots and paint thickness measurement for painting of curved surfaces. The computer program enables the user to determine the painting strategies, parameters and paths. Surface models of the parts that are to be painted are obtained by using a CAD software. For paint thickness measurements, probe of the coating thickness measurement gage is attached to the wrist of the robot by using a feedback/safety adapter designed and manufactured for this purpose. Thicknesses are measured and transferred to the computer automatically. Then, obtained thickness data is processed and comparisons between simulated and measured thicknesses are made.

M.A. Sahir ARIKAN; Tuna BALKAN

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Preparation of activated carbon from date pits: Effect of the activation agent and liquid phase oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two series of activated carbons have been prepared from date pits; series C, using carbon dioxide as activating agent, and series S, prepared by activation with steam under the same experimental conditions. The obtained samples were oxidized with nitric acid in order to introduce more oxygen surface groups. The surface area and porosity of the parent and oxidized activated carbons were studied by N2 adsorption at 77 K and CO2 adsorption at 273 K. The oxygen surface complexes were characterized by temperature-programmed decomposition (TPD). The results show that carbon dioxide and steam activations produce microporous carbons with an increasing amount of CO evolving groups when increasing the burn-off. On the other hand, oxidation with nitric acid increases the amount of CO and CO2 evolved by the decomposition of surface oxygen groups, this increase being related to the development of porosity in the carbon with the degree of activation and to the activating agent used (CO2 versus steam).

Meriem Belhachemi; Rachel V.R.A. Rios; Fatima Addoun; Joaquín Silvestre-Albero; Antonio Sepúlveda-Escribano; Francisco Rodríguez-Reinoso

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

High-frequency filtered images of an optically thick edge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peculiarities of high-frequency filtering (contouring) of images of symmetric thick (extended along the optical axis) edge are investigated in analytical form by the Kirchhoff–Fresnel...

Chugui, Yu V; Sokolov, V A

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing . Abstract: High temperature oxygen...

164

Method for fabricating thin films of pyrolytic carbon  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for fabricating ultrathin films of pyrolytic carbon. Pyrolytic carbon is vapor deposited onto a concave surface of a heated substrate to a total uniform thickness in the range of about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer. The carbon film on the substrate is provided with a layer of adherent polymeric resin. The resulting composite film of pyrolytic carbon and polymeric resin is then easily separated from the substrate by shrinking the 10 polymeric resin coating with thermally induced forces.

Brassell, G.W.; Lewis, J. Jr.; Weber, G.W.

1980-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

165

Photochemistry in Terrestrial Exoplanet Atmospheres III: Photochemistry and Thermochemistry in Thick Atmospheres on Super Earths and Mini Neptunes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some super Earths and mini Neptunes will likely have thick atmospheres that are not H2-dominated. We have developed a photochemistry-thermochemistry kinetic-transport model for exploring the compositions of thick atmospheres on super Earths and mini Neptunes, applicable for both H2-dominated atmospheres and non-H2-dominated atmospheres. Using this model to study thick atmospheres for wide ranges of temperatures and elemental abundances, we classify them into hydrogen-rich atmospheres, water-rich atmospheres, oxygen-rich atmospheres, and hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres. We find that carbon has to be in the form of CO2 rather than CH4 or CO in a H2-depleted water-dominated thick atmosphere, and that the preferred loss of light elements from an oxygen-poor carbon-rich atmosphere leads to formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (C2H2 and C2H4). We apply our self-consistent atmosphere models to compute spectra and diagnostic features for known transiting low-mass exoplanets GJ 1214 b, HD 97658 b, and 55 Cnc e. For GJ 1...

Hu, Renyu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Preparation of hollow-fibre and composite hollow-fibre carbon membranes  

SciTech Connect

Interest in carbon membranes world-wide has increased remarkably since Softer et al. introduced, in 1983, hollow-fibre carbon membranes produced by the pyrolysis of commercial cellulose membranes. The scientific community was attracted by the high permselectivities of these membranes and their stability at high temperatures. Scientific organizations in Japan, France, Germany and other countries have made efforts to prepare mechanically stable carbon hollow fibres by various techniques. Materials other than cellulose, such as phenolic resins and polyacrylonitrile (PAN), were used for this purpose. Although some Positive results have been reported in the literature, mechanically strong and flexible carbon hollow-fibre membranes with high porosity and highly asymmetrical structure have not yet been produced. Here, the production of hollow-fiber carbon membranes, the modification of their porous structure, and the investigation into various techniques for coating them with inorganic and organic materials, are presented.

Linkov, V.M.; Sanderson, R.D.; Jacobs, E.P. [Univ. of Stellenbosch (South Africa)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Strong and Tough Cellulose Nanopaper with High Specific Surface Area and Porosity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

After all NaClO was consumed, the pulp fibers were filtered and washed several times with deionized water until the filtrate solution was neutral. ... 300 mg solid content of cellulose) was diluted to ca. 0.1 wt %, degassed, and filtrated on top of a 0.65 ?m filter membrane (DVPP, Millipore) until a strong hydrogel is formed (see picture of the hydrogel in Figure 1b). ... The results are preliminary but demonstrate the ability of this method to give cellulose aerogels of large surface areas (400-500 m2 g-1) which may be useful as adsorbents, heat/sound insulators, filters, catalyst supports, or carbon aerogel precursors. ...

Houssine Sehaqui; Qi Zhou; Olli Ikkala; Lars A. Berglund

2011-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

Delayed carbon sequestration and rising carbon prices  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We set out a dynamic model to investigate optimal time paths of emissions, carbon stocks and carbon sequestration by land conversion, allowing for non-instantaneous carbon sequestration. Previous research in a dy...

Alejandro Caparrós

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Investigation of the accumulation of deuterium in carbon-deuterium films from the T-10 tokamak  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the experimental data obtained on the chemical composition of homogeneous carbon films codeposited with deuterium in the T-10 tokamak, the deuterium distribution over the thickness of ... of ca...

L. S. Danelyan; V. V. Zatekin…

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics: Nano Structured Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: Magnetic components are typically the largest components in a power converter. To date, however, researchers haven't found an effective way to reduce their size without negatively impacting their performance. And, reducing the size of the converter's other components isn't usually an option because shrinking them can also diminish the effectiveness of the magnetic components. GE is developing smaller magnetic components for power converters that maintain high performance levels. The company is building smaller components with magnetic films. These films are created using the condensation of a vaporized form of the magnetic material. It's a purely physical process that involves no chemical reactions, so the film composition is uniform. This process makes it possible to create a millimeter-thick film deposition over a wide surface area fairly quickly, which would save on manufacturing costs. In fact, GE can produce 1-10 millimeter-thick films in hours. The magnetic components that GE is developing for this project could be used in a variety of applications, including solar inverters, electric vehicles, and lighting.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations  

SciTech Connect

A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

Butcher, B.M.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Facies variation, diagenesis, and exploration potential of the Cretaceous rudist-bearing carbonates of the Arabian Gulf  

SciTech Connect

The Cretaceous rudist-bearing carbonates of the Arabian Gulf region are proven exploration targets for hydrocarbons and form the reservoirs of a number of giant fields, including Bu Hasa, Fateh, Fahud, Idd El Shargi, Rumaila, Shaybah, and Shah. Rudist buildups occur in three principal formations: (1) Aptian Shuaiba, (2) Cenomanian Mishrif, and (3) Maastrichtian Simsima. A regional subaerial unconformity marks the upper boundary of each of these formations. Associated with the rudists that dominate the Shuaiba Formation are calcareous algal crusts, foraminifera, and echinoid plates, which accumulated in mudstone, packstone, and carbonate sands. The Mishrif Formation contains mollusk fragments, bioclasitc packstones to grainstones, miliolid and nonrudist bivalves in muddy limestones, and rudist (mainly radiolitids and caprinids) conglomeratic floatstones, with fragmented rudists mixed with wackestone lithoclasts. The Mishrif sediments accumulated as a progradational, low-energy leeward margin formed in marginal slope, shoal-backshoal, and lagoonal settings. The Simsima Formation consists of bioclastic grainstone to packstone, and dolomitic lime mudstones to wackestone. The excellent reservoir porosity and permeability of the rudist deposits and their associated sediments are the products of primary and secondary diagenesis. Freshwater leaching during post-Aptian, post-Cenomanian, and post-Maastrichtian erosion enhanced the secondary moldic porosity. Fracturing locally improved porosity and permeability. Other porosity types that occur include interparticle, intraparticle, vuggy, growth framework, shelter, intercrystalline, and karstic. Because of their favorable depositional and post-depositional conditions, the Cretaceous succession of rudists in this region contains many giant oil fields.

Alsharhan, A.S. [U.A.E. Univ., Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Characteristics of Arctic Sea-Ice Thickness Variability in GCMs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Skillful Arctic sea ice forecasts may be possible for lead times of months or even years owing to the persistence of thickness anomalies. In this study sea ice thickness variability is characterized in fully coupled GCMs and sea ice–ocean-only ...

Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth; Cecilia M. Bitz

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ahead, and identifying the carbon pools and other green house gas emissions sources and savings coveredCarbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 Carbon

175

Ammonia-Activated Mesoporous Carbon Membranes for Gas Separations  

SciTech Connect

Porous carbon membranes, which generally show improved chemical and thermal stability compared to polymer membranes, have been used in gas separations for many years. In this work, we show that the post-synthesis ammonia treatment of porous carbon at elevated temperature can improve the permeance and selectivity of these membranes for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons from permanent gases. Hierarchically structured porous carbon membranes were exposed to ammonia gas at temperatures ranging from 850 C to 950 C for up to 10 min and the N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and C{sub 3}H{sub 6} permeances were measured for these different membranes. Higher treatment temperatures and longer exposure times resulted in higher gas permeance values. In addition, CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and C{sub 3}H{sub 6}/N{sub 2} selectivities increased by a factor of 2 as the treatment temperature and time increased up to a temperature and time of 900 C, 10 min. Higher temperatures showed increased permeance but decreased selectivity indicating excess pore activation. Nitrogen adsorption measurements show that the ammonia treatment increased the porosity of the membrane while elemental analysis revealed the presence of nitrogen-containing surface functionalities in the treated carbon membranes. Thus, ammonia treatment at high temperature provides a controlled method to introduce both added microporosity and surface functionality to enhance gas separations performance of porous carbon membranes.

Mahurin, Shannon Mark [ORNL; Lee, Jeseung [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Dai, Sheng [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Technology Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-4966 jose.figueroa@netl.doe.gov Kevin o'Brien Principal Investigator SRI International Materials Research Laboratory 333 Ravenswood Avenue Menlo Park, AK 94025 650-859-3528 kevin.obrien@sri.com Fabrication and Scale-Up oF polybenzimidazole - baSed membrane SyStem For pre - combUStion captUre oF carbon dioxide Background In order to effectively sequester carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from a gasification plant, there must be an economically viable method for removing the CO 2 from other gases. While CO 2 separation technologies currently exist, their effectiveness is limited. Amine-based separation technologies work only at low temperatures, while pressure-swing absorption and cryogenic distillation consume significantly

177

Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

andrea Mcnemar andrea Mcnemar National Energy Technology Laboratory 3610 Collins Ferry Road P.O. Box 880 Morgantown, WV 26507-0880 304-285-2024 andrea.mcnemar@netl.doe.gov Gregory J. Elbring Principal Investigator Sandia National Laboratory P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 505-844-4904 gjelbri@sandia.gov GeoloGic SequeStration of carbon DioxiDe in a DepleteD oil reServoir: a comprehenSive moDelinG anD Site monitorinG project Background The use of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is a familiar and frequently used technique in the United States. The oil and gas industry has significant experience with well drilling and injecting CO 2 into oil-bearing formations to enhance production. While using similar techniques as in oil production, this sequestration field

178

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

Weiblen, George D

179

Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating adhered to a substrate. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer is used to induce surface waves into the coating. The surface waves have a selected frequency and a fixed wavelength. Interpolation is used to determine the frequency of surface waves that propagate through the coating with the least attenuation. The phase velocity of the surface waves having this frequency is then calculated. The phase velocity is compared to known phase velocity/thickness tables to determine the thickness of the coating.

Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tow, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walter, John B (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing  

SciTech Connect

Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Crustal thickness and support of topography on Venus  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The topography of a terrestrial planet can be supported by several mechanisms: (1) crustal thickness variations, (2) density variations in the crust and mantle, (3) dynamic support, and (4) lithospheric stresses. Each of ...

James, Peter Benjamin

182

NETL: News Release - Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

19, 2004 19, 2004 Frio Formation Test Well Injected With Carbon Dioxide Researchers Perform Small Scale, Short Term Carbon Sequestration Field Test HOUSTON, TX - In the first U.S. field test to investigate the ability of brine formations to store greenhouse gasses, researchers funded by the U.S. Department of Energy are closely monitoring 1,600 tons of carbon dioxide that were injected into a mile-deep well in Texas in October. The test is providing unique data to help investigators understand the viability of geologic sequestration as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The Frio Brine Pilot experimental site is 30 miles northeast of Houston, in the South Liberty oilfield. Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Bureau of Economic Geology drilled a 5,753 foot injection well earlier this year, and developed a nearby observation well to study the ability of the high-porosity Frio sandstone formation to store carbon dioxide.

183

Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Fiber Consortium SHARE Carbon Fiber Consortium Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium The Oak Ridge Carbon Fiber Composites Consortium was established in 2011 to...

184

Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 2 of 3: Appendix B  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by RE/SPEC, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant.

Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

In situ measurement of the bonded film thickness of Z-Tetraol lubricant on magnetic recording media  

SciTech Connect

Currently, the bonded film thickness of perfluoropolyether lubricant on top of magnetic recording media is measured by a two-step process. First, the media disk has to be rinsed thoroughly using a fluorocarbon solvent (for instance, Vetrel) to remove the mobile lubricant. Second, the thickness of the remaining lubricant on the media surface which is regarded as the bonded lubricant thickness is then measured either by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. As the total lubricant thickness approaches single molecular dimension ({approx}10 A), current methods face tremendous challenge on the accuracy and sensitivity of the measurement. We studied the spectral characteristics responding to the lubricant bonding with the carbon overcoat by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra and proposed to use the peak area ratio (C{sub 3}H{sub 2}F/C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}) to characterize the bonded Z-Tetraol lubricant that produces a direct bonded lubricant thickness measurement without the need to remove the mobile lubricant with a solvent. After taking the background signal of disks prior to bonding by UV irradiation into account, this method becomes independent of the total lubricant thickness as well as shows good correlation linearity (R{sup 2{approx}}87%) with the current FTIR method for the ratio of C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}.

Zhu Lei; Li Feng [Material Science Laboratory, Recording Media Operation, Seagate Technology International, 16 Woodlands Loop, Singapore 738340 (Singapore)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Home > Technologies > Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf > Project Portfolio Carbon Storage 2011 Carbon Storage Project Portfolio Table of Contents CARBON STORAGE OVERVIEW Carbon Storage Program Contacts [PDF-26KB] Carbon Storage Projects National Map [PDF-169KB] State Projects Summary Table [PDF-39KB] Carbon Storage Program Structure [PDF-181KB] Selected Carbon Sequestration Program Papers and Publications The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Beneficial Uses of Carbon Dioxide (2011) [PDF-3.3MB] Greenhouse Gas Science and Technology Carbon Capture and Sequestration: The U.S. Department of Energy's R&D Efforts to Characterize Opportunities for Deep Geologic Storage of Carbon Dioxide in Offshore Resources (2011) [PDF-445KB]

187

CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

188

New method for the fabrication of films incorporating carbon nanotubes for mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber lasers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new and simple method for the production of micron-thick polymeric films incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) directly on the tip of an optical fiber ferrule using a...

Gerosa, Rodrigo M; Steinberg, David; Rosa, Henrique G; dos Santos, Claudia B; de Matos, Christiano; De Souza, Eunezio Antonio

189

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

191

Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

Narasayya, Vivek

192

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in 1990. These many alternative-fuel initiatives failed tolow-cost, low-carbon alternative fuels would thrive. Theto introduce low-carbon alternative fuels. Former Federal

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

Smit, Berend

2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

194

Seismic inversion and attributes analysis for porosity evaluation of the tight gas sandstones of the Whicher Range field in the Perth Basin, Western Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A comprehensive understanding of porosity variations in tight gas sandstones plays an important role in reservoir management and provision of plans for developing of the field. This is especially important when we encounter with some degree of complexity in reservoir characteristics of these sandstones. Reservoir properties of tight gas sandstones of the Whicher Range field, the target reservoir of this study, were affected by internal reservoir heterogeneity mostly related to depositional and diagenetic features of the reservoir sandstones. In this study, 2D seismic data in combination with well log data were used for prediction of porosity based on seismic inversion technique and multi-attribute regression analysis. The results show that acoustic impedance from model based inversion is the main seismic attribute in reservoir characterization of tight sandstones of the field. Wide variations in this parameter can be effectively used to differentiate the reservoir sandstones based on their tightness degree. Investigation of porosity by this method resulted in 2D-view of porosity variations in sandstone reservoir which is in accordance with variations in geological characteristics of tight gas sandstones in the field. This view can be extended to a 3D-view in the framework of reservoir model to follow the variations throughout the field.

Rahim Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi; Reza Moussavi-Harami; Reza Rezaee; Majid Nabi-Bidhendi; Ali Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials » Advanced Materials » Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick Protective Coatings A method for applying a protective coating on an article. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick Protective Coatings A method for applying a protective coating on an article, comprising the following steps: selecting an article with a surface for applying a coating thickness; creating undercut grooves on the article, where the grooves depend beneath the surface to a bottom portion with the grooves having an upper width on the surface and a lower width on the bottom portion connected by side walls, where at least one of the side walls connects the

196

Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

Perdieu, Louisa H. (Overland Park, KS)

2000-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

197

Acetylenic carbon allotrope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

Lagow, R.J.

1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

198

The Woodland Carbon Code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

199

Mesoporous carbon materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

200

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Thermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal barrier coating for high temperature applications, a discrete layer of ceramic material is bondedThermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes Senthil S. Vel and Rajeev Baskiyar method to obtain the temperature, displacements and thermal stresses. In addition to the thermal

Vel, Senthil

202

X-ray spectra transmitted through Compton-thick absorbers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

X-ray spectra transmitted through matter which is optically thick to Compton scattering are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Applications to the BeppoSAX data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy in Circinus, and to the spectral modeling of the Cosmic X-ray Background, are discussed.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

203

Mechanics of thick-shell microcapsules made by microfluidics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Double emulsion templates made by microfluidics allow for the production of tailored and monodisperse microcapsules. However, their mechanical properties cannot be predicted by traditional analytical models because of their relatively thick shells. In this work, we produce thick-shelled microcapsules with varying sizes and shell thicknesses and mechanically characterize them in single-capsule compression tests using Weibull statistics. We simulate their compression with finite element modeling and find a good agreement with the experimental results under linear elastic conditions, which enables the prediction of elastic properties based on bulk material parameters. Analysis of the simulated stresses show that capsules with a thickness-to-radius ratio above 20% consistently fail at a constant maximum principal stress in accordance with the brittle nature of their bulk material, enabling the extrapolation of their failure loads as well. Combining this structure-property correlation with processing-structure relationships found in previous studies provides a general predictive framework for the assembly of monodisperse microcapsules with tunable mechanics for protection and/or controlled release of encapsulants.

Philipp W. Chen; Jonathan Brignoli; André R. Studart

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Ecology of Plants and Light CAM plants have thick,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

orientation to maximize light exposure. Species Adaptations-Sun Solar tracking by leaves increases light1 Ecology of Plants and Light CAM plants have thick, succulent tissues to allow for organic acid and Light Some CAM plants not obligated to just CAM Can use C3 photosynthesis during day if conditions

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

205

Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method are disclosed for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials. 6 figs.

Novak, J.L.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

206

Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls, and sugar ba- gasse (Kleit et al. 1994. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was positively related to particulate sizeThrough-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and agricultural fiber composites Ronnie Y

207

Coherent radar ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems are designed to use pulse compression techniques and coherent integration to obtain the high sensitivity required to measure the thickness of more than 4 km of cold ice. We used these systems to collect radar data over the interior and margins...

Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Braaten, David A.; Leuschen, C.; Legarsky, J.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Stiles, J.; Allen, C.; Jezek, K.; Akins, T.

2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

208

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metallic nanotubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carbon2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical and ElectronicStructure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2 Carbon Nanotubes Physical andElectronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . . . . .Photophysics in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes . . . . .

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Evaluation of weld porosity in laser beam seam welds: optimizing continuous wave and square wave modulated processes.  

SciTech Connect

Nd:YAG laser joining is a high energy density (HED) process that can produce high-speed, low-heat input welds with a high depth-to-width aspect ratio. This is optimized by formation of a ''keyhole'' in the weld pool resulting from high vapor pressures associated with laser interaction with the metallic substrate. It is generally accepted that pores form in HED welds due to the instability and frequent collapse of the keyhole. In order to maintain an open keyhole, weld pool forces must be balanced such that vapor pressure and weld pool inertia forces are in equilibrium. Travel speed and laser beam power largely control the way these forces are balanced, as well as welding mode (Continuous Wave or Square Wave) and shielding gas type. A study into the phenomenon of weld pool porosity in 304L stainless steel was conducted to better understand and predict how welding parameters impact the weld pool dynamics that lead to pore formation. This work is intended to aid in development and verification of a finite element computer model of weld pool fluid flow dynamics being developed in parallel efforts and assist in weld development activities for the W76 and future RRW programs.

Ellison, Chad M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Perricone, Matthew; Faraone, Kevin M. (Honeywell FM& T, Kansas City, MO); Roach, Robert Allen; Norris, Jerome T.

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Late Jurassic shallow marine limestone in western Palaeo-Pacific, northwest Borneo  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Late Jurassic shallow marine limestone in western-Pacific a b s t r a c t Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy was applied to a 202 m-thick shallow marine, which was deposited in the western Palaeo-Pacific. Strontium isotopic ratios of rudist specimens suggest

Gilli, Adrian

212

Carbon International | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Kingdom Zip: NW1 8LH Sector: Carbon Product: London-based energy and communications agency specialising in low carbon energy and climate change. References: Carbon...

213

Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

Sarkar, Tapan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

Carmignani, B

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Additively manufactured 3D porous Ti-6Al-4V constructs mimic trabecular bone structure and regulate osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and local factor production in a porosity and surface roughness dependent manner  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Additive manufacturing by laser sintering is able to produce high resolution metal constructs for orthopedic and dental implants. In this study, we used a human trabecular bone template to design and manufacture Ti-6Al-4V constructs with varying porosity via laser sintering. Characterization of constructs revealed interconnected porosities ranging from 15–70% with compressive moduli of 2579–3693 MPa. These constructs with macro porosity were further surface-treated to create a desirable multi-scale micro-/nano-roughness, which has been shown to enhance the osseointegration process. Osteoblasts (MG63 cells) exhibited high viability when grown on the constructs. Proliferation (DNA) and alkaline phosphatase specific activity, an early differentiation marker, decreased as porosity increased, while osteocalcin, a late differentiation marker, as well as osteoprotegerin, vascular endothelial growth factor and bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 increased with increasing porosity. Three-dimensional (3D) constructs with the highest porosity and surface modification supported the greatest osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. These results indicate that additively manufactured 3D porous constructs mimicking human trabecular bone and produced with additional surface treatment can be customized for increased osteoblast response. Increased factors for osteoblast maturation and differentiation on high porosity constructs suggest the enhanced performance of these surfaces for increasing osseointegration in vivo.

Alice Cheng; Aiza Humayun; David J Cohen; Barbara D Boyan; Zvi Schwartz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Appendix PORSURF: Porosity Surface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

rate in SANTOS is The base gas generation rate is representative of relatively high gas production rates from both microbial degradation of cellulosic, plastic, and rubber...

217

Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding  

SciTech Connect

We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan [School of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022 (China)

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Far?Infrared Interference Technique for Determining Epitaxial Silicon Thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interference technique in the frequency range 30–200 cm?1 has been used for the first time to determine the thickness of low?conductivity epitaxialfilms deposited on a highly conducting silicon substrate. It is shown that for thick epitaxialfilms (d?4 ?m) the frequency at which half?order minimum occurs is highly sensitive to the epilayer?substrate interface carrier concentration profile. In general the far ir thickness is close to that obtained by angle?stain technique. A combination of ir and far?ir measurements therefore yields valuable information regarding the interface carrier concentration profile. The far?ir technique can replace the costly and destructive methods presently used such as angle stain and capacitance?voltage measurements made on specially fabricated diodes. The paper also discusses the optical constants of silicon in the far ir. The calculations show that it is necessary to use the energy?dependent anisotropicscattering time to correctly evaluate the optical constant in the far ir.

M. A. Saifi; R. H. Stolen

1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Method of making carbon-carbon composites  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for making a carbon-carbon composite having a combination of high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizable woven cloth are covered with petroleum or coal tar pitch and pressed at a temperature a few degrees above the softening point of the pitch to form a green laminated composite. The green composite is restrained in a suitable fixture and heated slowly to carbonize the pitch binder. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnation step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3000.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced pressure for approximately one hundred and fifty (150) hours.

Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to microelectode arrays (MEAs), and more particularly to carbon nanotube nanoelectrode arrays (CNT-NEAs) for chemical and biological sensing, and methods of use. A nanoelectrode array includes a carbon nanotube material comprising an array of substantially linear carbon nanotubes each having a proximal end and a distal end, the proximal end of the carbon nanotubes are attached to a catalyst substrate material so as to form the array with a pre-determined site density, wherein the carbon nanotubes are aligned with respect to one another within the array; an electrically insulating layer on the surface of the carbon nanotube material, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the electrically insulating layer; a second adhesive electrically insulating layer on the surface of the electrically insulating layer, whereby the distal end of the carbon nanotubes extend beyond the second adhesive electrically insulating layer; and a metal wire attached to the catalyst substrate material.

Ren, Zhifeng (Newton, MA); Lin, Yuehe (Richland, WA); Yantasee, Wassana (Richland, WA); Liu, Guodong (Fargo, ND); Lu, Fang (Burlingame, CA); Tu, Yi (Camarillo, CA)

2008-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Quantifying Carbon Cycle Feedbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Perturbations to the carbon cycle could constitute large feedbacks on future changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate. This paper demonstrates how carbon cycle feedback can be expressed in formally similar ways to climate feedback, ...

J. M. Gregory; C. D. Jones; P. Cadule; P. Friedlingstein

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

Terrestrial Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Terrestrial Carbon Management Data Sets and Analyses Carbon Accumulation with Cropland Management Influence of Agricultural Management on Soil Organic Carbon: A Compendium and Assessment of Canadian Studies (VandenBygaart et al., Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada) Soil Carbon Sequestration by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis (West and Post, Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Preliminary Estimates of the Potential for Carbon Mitigation in European Soils Through No-Till Farming (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Potential for Carbon Sequestration in European Soils: Preliminary Estimates for Five Scenarios Using Results from Long-Term Experiments (Smith et al., University of Aberdeen, United Kingdom) Carbon Accumulation with Grassland Management

224

Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections December 21, 2012 - 3:15pm Addthis Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What is graphene? Graphene is a substance made of pure carbon, with atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern similar to graphite, but in a one-atom thick sheet. Everyone has a favorite holiday treat. But what truly makes the season special isn't the tastes or the songs or the scents ... it's the presents. Actually, it's the gatherings with family and friends, the reconnecting

225

Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections Lasting Gifts From Carbon Connections December 21, 2012 - 3:15pm Addthis Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Graphene has properties that could possibly open up the next generation on nanotechnology. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Lab Charles Rousseaux Charles Rousseaux Senior Writer, Office of Science What is graphene? Graphene is a substance made of pure carbon, with atoms arranged in a regular hexagonal pattern similar to graphite, but in a one-atom thick sheet. Everyone has a favorite holiday treat. But what truly makes the season special isn't the tastes or the songs or the scents ... it's the presents. Actually, it's the gatherings with family and friends, the reconnecting

226

Supernova: Carbon detonation redux  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... A DECADE ago carbon detonation was all the rage among supernova theorists. The idea was that the characteristic burst ... wind.

J. Craig Wheeler

1983-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

227

Carbon Capital | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector: Carbon Product: Manages a carbon fund specialised in forestry projects References: Carbon Capital1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon...

228

C/H{sub 2}O reaction under supercritical conditions and their repercussions in the preparation of activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

Two chars prepared by carbonization of oak wood and anthracite were used to perform a comparative study of the gasification with supercritical water (SCW) and with steam. This work reports the effects of the type of char, the activating agent, temperature, flow rate, and particle size employed on the kinetics, mechanism of reaction, and the characteristics of the activated carbons obtained. The results show that the reactivity of the two chars is much higher with SCW than with steam. Although this increase can be explained in terms of the greater penetration of SCW and diffusional effects in the pore structure of the chars, some aspects suggest a possible change in the mechanism of reaction favored by the formation of clusters in SCW. The evolution of porosity was also found to differ when the char was gasified with SCW and with steam, being governed strongly by the starting material. When the oak char was activated with SCW, the smallest microporosity was broadened from the very first moments due to its very open pore structure, providing carbons with larger micropores and some mesoporosity. In contrast, in the case of the anthracite char, with a narrower pore structure, the evolution of the porosity was slower and less uniform, favoring external gasification of the particle. Accordingly, the carbons had a broader distribution of micropores, and mesoporosity was scarce.

Salvador, F.; Senchez-Montero, M.J.; Izquierdo, C. [University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

229

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Kinetics Of Carbon Gasification ... The steam–carbon reaction, which is the essential reaction of the gasification processes of carbon-based feed stocks (e.g., coal and biomass), produces synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a synthetically flexible, environmentally benign energy source. ... Coal Gasification in CO2 and Steam:? Development of a Steam Injection Facility for High-Pressure Wire-Mesh Reactors ...

C. W. Zielke; Everett. Gorin

1957-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

How Carbon Capture Works  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Carbon capture, utilization and storage is a process that captures carbon dioxide emissions from sources like coal-fired power plants and either reuses or stores it so it will not enter the atmosphere. We'll break down the process step by step so you can learn how this technology can help us lower our carbon pollution.

231

Intro to Carbon Sequestration  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

None

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

232

Carbon Connections | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product: Carbon Connections links partner universities with industry encouraging knowledge exchange and developing innovative ideas. References: Carbon Connections1 This...

233

Influence of Shrinkage and Swelling Properties of Coal on Geologic Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide  

SciTech Connect

The potential for enhanced methane production and geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in coalbeds needs to be evaluated before large-scale sequestration projects are undertaken. Geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide in deep unmineable coal seams with the potential for enhanced coalbed methane production has become a viable option to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The coal matrix is believed to shrink during methane production and swell during the injection of carbon dioxide, causing changes in tlie cleat porosity and permeability of the coal seam. However, the influence of swelling and shrinkage, and the geomechanical response during the process of carbon dioxide injection and methane recovery, are not well understood. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model based on constitutive equations that account for the coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium was developed and implemented in an existing reservoir model. Several reservoir simulations were performed at a field site located in the San Juan basin to investigate the influence of swelling and shrinkage, as well as other geomechanical parameters, using a modified compositional coalbed methane reservoir simulator (modified PSU-COALCOMP). The paper presents numerical results for interpretation of reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide at this site. Available measured data at the field site were compared with computed values. Results show that coal swelling and shrinkage during the process of enhanced coalbed methane recovery can have a significant influence on the reservoir performance. Results also show an increase in the gas production rate with an increase in the elastic modulus of the reservoir material and increase in cleat porosity. Further laboratory and field tests of the model are needed to furnish better estimates of petrophysical parameters, test the applicability of thee model, and determine the need for further refinements to the mathematical model.

Siriwardane, H.J.; Gondle, R.; Smith, D.H.

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Carbon in detonations  

SciTech Connect

We review three principal results from a five year study of carbon and its properties in detonations and discuss the implications of these results to the behavior of explosives. We first present a new determination of the carbon melt line from release wave velocity measurements in the shocked state. We then outline a colloidal theory of carbon clustering which from diffusion limited coagulation predicts a slow energy release rate for the carbon chemistry. Finally, we show the results from the examination of recovered soot. Here we see support for the colloid theory and find the diamond phase of carbon. The main theme of this paper is that the carbon in detonation products is in the form of a colloidal suspension of carbon clusters which grow through diffusion limited collisions. Even the final state is not bulk graphite or diamond, but is a collection of small, less than 100 /angstrom/A, diamond and graphitic clusters. 23 refs., 4 figs.

Johnson, J.D.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Vibration of circular plates, of several thicknesses, with three supports  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ o ~ ~ i Prccedure and DeeoriPt'alen Of APPSXat'aua ~ ~ e ~ a ~ 0 ~ ~ i EmPirioal Ccrrelabicn Of Dataa ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 01 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i Kathemat, ical Theory of Thin Plates ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ a ~ ~ ~ Heeultaa ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a... (cps) e M = symmetric mode, ie. 1, 2, 3, and 4. h= thickness of circular plate, in, Vhen there are mox'e than-thoro variables involved in the x esult, s of an experimental research, an empirical xelat, ionsh1p concerning the several variables may...

Ballentine, John Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

236

Lithospheric Thickness Modeled from Long Period Surface Wave Dispersion  

SciTech Connect

The behavior of surface waves at long periods is indicative of subcrustal velocity structure. Using recently published dispersion models, we invert surface wave group velocities for lithospheric structure, including lithospheric thickness, over much of the Eastern Hemisphere, encompassing Eurasia, Africa, and the Indian Ocean. Thicker lithosphere under Precambrian shields and platforms are clearly observed, not only under the large cratons (West Africa, Congo, Baltic, Russia, Siberia, India), but also under smaller blocks like the Tarim Basin and Yangtze craton. In contrast, it is found that remobilized Precambrian structures like the Saharan Shield and Sino-Korean Paraplatform do not have well-established lithospheric keels. The thinnest lithospheric thickness is found under oceanic and continental rifts, as well as along convergence zones. We compare our results to thermal models of continental lithosphere, lithospheric cooling models of oceanic lithosphere, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) estimates from S-wave receiver functions, and velocity variations of global tomography models. In addition to comparing results for the broad region, we examine in detail the regions of Central Africa, Siberia, and Tibet. While there are clear differences in the various estimates, overall the results are generally consistent. Inconsistencies between the estimates may be due to a variety of reasons including lateral and depth resolution differences and the comparison of what may be different lithospheric features.

Pasyanos, M E

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Submicron carbon filament cement-matrix composites for electromagnetic interference shielding  

SciTech Connect

Carbon filaments of diameter 0.1 mm were found to be a much more effective additive than conventional carbon fibers of diameter 10 mm in providing cement pastes capable of electromagnetic interference shielding. With 0.54 vol. % filaments and a shield thickness of 4 mm, a shielding effectiveness of 30 dB was attained at 1--2 GHz. However, the filaments were less effective than the fibers for reinforcing and for providing strain sensing cement-matrix composites.

Fu, X.; Chung, D.D.L. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.] [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Composite Materials Research Lab.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Ordered Hierarchical Nanostructured Carbon as a Highly Efficient Cathode Catalyst Support in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ordered hierarchical nanostructured carbon (OHNC) has been fabricated through inverse replication of silica template and explored for the first time to support high loading of Pt nanoparticles as cathode catalyst in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). ... Ordered porous carbon materials with three-dimensionally interconnected pore structures and highly developed porosity have a variety of potential applications such as catalyst supports in low temperature fuel cells,(1, 2) electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors(3, 4) and for lithium ion batteries,(5) adsorbents, and hydrogen storage materials. ... Carbon black Vulcan XC-72 (VC) is widely used as an electrocatalyst support in the PEMFCs due to its relatively large surface area and excellent chemical stability in the fuel cell environment. ...

Baizeng Fang; Jung Ho Kim; Minsik Kim; Jong-Sung Yu

2009-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

239

Potential of Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon for Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Potential of Silicon Carbide-Derived Carbon for Carbon Capture ... In contrast to conventional carbons made from natural precursors, carbide derived carbons (CDCs),(8, 10-13) being synthesized from an inorganic source, have no polar functional groups and are composed of purely covalently bonded carbon. ...

S. K. Bhatia; T. X. Nguyen

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

240

Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

Balser, Dana S.

242

Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

243

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

244

An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Exact Thickness-Weighted Average Formulation of the Boussinesq Equations WILLIAM R. YOUNG application of thickness-weighted averaging to the Boussinesq equa- tions of motion results in averaged

Young, William R.

245

Ultrasonic thickness measurements on corroded steel members: a statistical analysis of error  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose is to determine the suitability of ultrasonic thickness testing of corroded tubular members for the offshore industry. The research can be divided into two parts: 1) determining the error in an ultrasonic thickness measurement associated...

Konen, Keith Forman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - ag thick film Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on GaAs 110 only when... of many atomic layers, leading to the existence of a thickness window within which smooth metal films can... often depends on the film thickness. ......

247

Thickness Change in Molecularly Thin Lubricant Under Flying Head in Hard Disk Drives  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In hard disk drives (HDDs), lubricants on disks are very important material to reduce head and disk wear. Thus, it is necessary to ... thickness to keep lubricant thickness constant on rotating disks. For this pu...

K. Yanagisawa; T. Watanabe; Y. Kawakubo; M. Yoshino

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Carbon Emissions: Food Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Food Industry Food Industry Carbon Emissions in the Food Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 20) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 24.4 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 6.6% Total First Use of Energy: 1,193 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 5.5% Carbon Intensity: 20.44 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 24.4 Net Electricity 9.8 Natural Gas 9.1 Coal 4.2 All Other Sources 1.3 Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998

249

Carbon Emissions: Chemicals Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Chemicals Industry Chemicals Industry Carbon Emissions in the Chemicals Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 28) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 78.3 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 21.1% -- Nonfuel Emissions: 12.0 MMTC Total First Use of Energy: 5,328 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 24.6% Energy Sources Used As Feedstocks: 2,297 trillion Btu -- LPG: 1,365 trillion Btu -- Natural Gas: 674 trillion Btu Carbon Intensity: 14.70 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 78.3 Natural Gas 32.1

250

The Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle The Carbon Cycle The global carbon cycle involves the carbon in and exchanging between the earth's atmosphere, fossil fuels, the oceans, and the vegetation and soils of the earth's terrestrial ecosystems. image Each year, the world's terrestrial ecosystems withdraw carbon from the atmosphere through photosynthesis and add it again through respiration and decay. A more detailed look at the global carbon cycle for the 1990s is shown below. The main annual fluxes in GtC yr-1 are: pre-industrial "natural" fluxes in black and "anthropogenic" fluxes in red (modified from Sarmiento and Gruber, 2006, with changes in pool sizes from Sabine et al., 2004a). The net terrestrial loss of -39 GtC is inferred from cumulative fossil fuel emissions minus atmospheric increase minus ocean storage. The loss of

251

Carbon Emissions: Paper Industry  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Paper Industry Paper Industry Carbon Emissions in the Paper Industry The Industry at a Glance, 1994 (SIC Code: 26) Total Energy-Related Emissions: 31.6 million metric tons of carbon (MMTC) -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 8.5% Total First Use of Energy: 2,665 trillion Btu -- Pct. of All Manufacturers: 12.3% -- Pct. Renewable Energy: 47.7% Carbon Intensity: 11.88 MMTC per quadrillion Btu Renewable Energy Sources (no net emissions): -- Pulping liquor: 882 trillion Btu -- Wood chips and bark: 389 trillion Btu Energy Information Administration, "1994 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey" and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, 1994 Source of Carbon Carbon Emissions (million metric tons) All Energy Sources 31.6 Net Electricity 11.0

252

NETL: Carbon Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Storage Technologies Carbon Storage (formerly referred to as the "Carbon Sequestration Program") Program Overview For quick navigation of NETL's Carbon Storage Program website, please click on the image. NETL's Carbon Storage Program Fossil fuels are considered the most dependable, cost-effective energy source in the world. The availability of these fuels to provide clean, affordable energy is essential for domestic and global prosperity and security well into the 21st century. However, a balance is needed between energy security and concerns over the impacts of concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere - particularly carbon dioxide (CO2). NETL's Carbon Storage Program is developing a technology portfolio of safe, cost-effective, commercial-scale CO2 capture, storage, and mitigation

253

Using Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing in Lieu of Radiography for Acceptance of Carbon Steel Piping Welds  

SciTech Connect

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is conducting studies for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assess the capability, effectiveness, and reliability of ultrasonic testing (UT) as a replacement method for radiographic testing (RT) for volumetric examination of nuclear power plant (NPP) components. This particular study focused on evaluating the use of UT on carbon steel plate welds. Welding fabrication flaws included a combination of planar and volumetric types, e.g., incomplete fusion, lack of penetration, cracks, porosity, and slag inclusions. The examinations were conducted using phased-array (PA) UT techniques applied primarily for detection and flaw type characterization. This paper will discuss the results of using UT in lieu of RT for detection and classification of fabrication flaws in carbon steel plate welds.

Moran, Traci L.; Anderson, Michael T.; Cinson, Anthony D.; Crawford, Susan L.; Nove, Carol A.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Striving To Capture Carbon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Striving To Capture Carbon ... Energy ministers from around the world met in Washington, D.C., for three days earlier this month to wrestle with how to reenergize efforts to cut carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants. ... Their solution, not surprisingly, is a rapid acceleration of R&D for technologies that capture and sequester underground carbon dioxide emitted by power plants, refineries, and industrial manufacturers that burn fossil fuels. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

255

Paraconductivity in carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report the calculation of paraconductivity in carbon nanotubes above the superconducting transition temperature. The complex behavior of paraconductivity depending upon the tube radius, temperature, and magnetic field strength is analyzed. The results are qualitatively compared with recent experimental observations in carbon nanotubes of an inherent transition to the superconducting state and pronounced thermodynamic fluctuations above Tc. The application of our results to single-wall and multiwall carbon nanotubes as well as ropes of nanotubes is discussed.

D. V. Livanov and A. A. Varlamov

2002-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

256

Carbon Sequestration - Public Meeting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Public Meeting Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement Public Meeting May 18, 2004 National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Fossil Energy Scott Klara Carbon Sequestration Technology Manager Carbon Sequestration Program Overview * What is Carbon Sequestration * The Fossil Energy Situation * Greenhouse Gas Implications * Pathways to Greenhouse Gas Stabilization * Sequestration Program Overview * Program Requirements & Structure * Regional Partnerships * FutureGen * Sources of Information What is Carbon Sequestration? Capture can occur: * at the point of emission * when absorbed from air Storage locations include: * underground reservoirs * dissolved in deep oceans * converted to solid materials * trees, grasses, soils, or algae Capture and storage of CO 2 and other Greenhouse Gases that

257

NETL: Carbon Storage - Infrastructure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Infrastructure Infrastructure Carbon Storage Infrastructure The Infrastructure Element of DOE's Carbon Storage Program is focused on research and development (R&D) initiatives to advance geologic CO2 storage toward commercialization. DOE determined early in the program's development that addressing CO2 mitigation on a regional level is the most effective way to address differences in geology, climate, population density, infrastructure, and socioeconomic development. This element includes the following efforts designed to support the development of regional infrastructure for carbon capture and storage (CCS). Click on Image to Navigate Infrastructure Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) - This

258

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R&D Overview R&D Overview Office of Fossil Energy Justin "Judd" R. Swift Asst. Secretary for International Affairs Office of Fossil Energy U.S. Department of Energy 2 nd U.S/China CO 2 Emission Control Science & Technology Symposium May 28-29, 2008 Hangzhou, China Office of Fossil Energy Technological Carbon Management Options Improve Efficiency Sequester Carbon  Renewables  Nuclear  Fuel Switching  Demand Side  Supply Side  Capture & Store  Enhance Natural Sinks Reduce Carbon Intensity All options needed to:  Affordably meet energy demand  Address environmental objectives Office of Fossil Energy DOE's Sequestration Program Structure Infrastructure Regional Carbon Sequestration

259

Activated Carbon Injection  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

260

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Shift to alternative energy sources, which have been introduced in Chap.  8 .... They are effective in air pollution control as well as carbon

Zhongchao Tan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Composites of Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The purpose of this research was to study various methods of incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with polymers for producing electrically conductive polystyrene composites.… (more)

Tchoul, Maxim N.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

263

Carbon Fiber SMC  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

110,000 ACC capital) in 2008 * 54,000 for 2009 Partners * Continental Structural Plastic (CSP), a Tier One supplier * Discounted compounding and molding * Zoltek, a carbon...

264

Carbon Fiber Technology Facility  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

- 4M AMO - 1.5M VTP - Remainder covered by carry- over and ARRA project contingency * Cost of carbon fiber * Technology scaling * Market development * Workforce development * Oak...

265

Activated Carbon Injection  

SciTech Connect

History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

None

2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

266

NETL: Carbon Storage - Reference Shelf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage > Reference Shelf Carbon Storage Reference Shelf Below are links to Carbon Storage Program documents and reference materials. Each of the 10 categories has a variety of documents posted for easy access to current information - just click on the category link to view all related materials. RSS Icon Subscribe to the Carbon Storage RSS Feed. Carbon Storage Collage 2012 Carbon Utilization and Storage Atlas IV Carbon Sequestration Project Portfolio DOE/NETL Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage RD&D Roadmap Public Outreach and Education for Carbon Storage Projects Carbon Storage Technology Program Plan Carbon Storage Newsletter Archive Impact of the Marcellus Shale Gas Play on Current and Future CCS Activities Site Screening, Selection, and Initial Characterization for Storage of CO2 in Deep Geologic Formations Carbon Storage Systems and Well Management Activities Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting of CO2 Stored in Deep Geologic Formations

267

Cloud point determination using a thickness shear mode resonator  

SciTech Connect

Crude oils and crude oil products contain substantial amounts of petroleum waxes, consisting of a distribution of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. These waxes or paraffins have limited solubility in oil and tend to precipitate out at a temperature determined by the concentration and constituents of the wax. Precipitation and deposition of wax results in narrowing of pipelines, making crude oil recovery difficult. A parameter of practical importance is the wax precipitation temperature, traditionally known as the cloudpoint, at which visible crystallization occurs. Deposition problems arise in oil field operations at or below this temperature. Several techniques can be used to determine the cloud point: (1) visual observation, (2) viscosity measurement, (3) differential thermal analysis, and (4) pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. This report describes a method for determination of cloud point with the use of a thickness shear mode resonator.

Spates, J.J. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, S.J.; Mansure, A.J. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Germer, J.W. [Petrolite Corp., St. Louis, MO (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

Study on Ferroelectric Thick Film Insulator Sleeve On Plasma Focus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of ferroelectric lead germanate Pb 5 Ge 3O11 (PGO) thick film in the alumina insulator sleeve of the 400 Joule Mather?type plasma focus device PF?400J is studied. The breakdown phase along the insulator is fundamental for the formation of a homogeneous and symmetric current sheath that is essential for a good plasma pinching high neutron yield and X?ray emissions. For over several hundreds of electrical discharges the films show good mechanical and electric performance. From the beginning the operating system is highly reproducible shot to shot with a clear definition of the plasma pinch on the axis of discharge. The grade of influence of the electron emission from the ferroelectric is experimentally studied.

Gustavo Sylvester; Patricio Silva; José Moreno; Marcelo Zambra; Leopoldo Soto

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Optically Thick Outflows of Supercritical Accretion Discs: Radiative Diffusion Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Highly supercritical accretion discs are probable sources of dense optically thick axisymmetric winds. We introduce a new approach based on diffusion approximation radiative transfer in a funnel geometry and obtain an analytical solution for the energy density distribution inside the wind assuming that all the mass, momentum and energy are injected well inside the spherization radius. This allows to derive the spectrum of emergent emission for various inclination angles. We show that self-irradiation effects play an important role altering the temperature of the outcoming radiation by about 20% and the apparent X-ray luminosity by a factor of 2-3. The model has been successfully applied to two ULXs. The basic properties of the high ionization HII-regions found around some ULXs are also easily reproduced in our assumptions.

P. Abolmasov; S. Karpov; Taro Kotani

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes  

SciTech Connect

Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Fracture toughness of thick section dissimilar electron beam weld joints  

SciTech Connect

Microstructural investigations as well as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness test based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics were performed on single pass, full penetration similar and dissimilar electron beam (EB) welds of 40 mm thick 316L type austenitic steel and high alloyed fine tempered martensitic 9Cr 1Mo Nb V (P91 -ASTM A213) steel. The latter modified steel has been developed to fill up the gap between 12Cr steel and austenitic stainless steels with respect to the high temperature properties and better weldability. Furthermore, it shows a small thermal expansion coefficient and is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking like the austenitic steel. The weldment properties were evaluated by microstructural analysis, microhardness, Charpy V- notch impact, and by newly developed flat microtensile specimens (0.5 mm thick). The dissimilar EB weld metal and HAZ of P91 steel has been shown to be microstructurally and mechanically distinct from both austenitic and martenistic parent metals. The use of microsized rectangular tensile specimens provides unique solution to the problem of the mechanical property determination of the narrow EB weld joint. The HAZ of the 9Cr1Mo steel exhibits extremely poor CTOD toughness properties in as-welded condition at room temperature. The CTOD values obtained were believed to be represent the intrinsic property of this zone, since the distance of the crack tip to the austenitic steel part was too large to receive a stress relaxation effect from low strength side on the crack tip (by accommodating the applied strains in the high toughness, lower strength 316L plate).

Kocak, M.; Junghans, E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

272

Application of FLake for the prediction of ice thickness for inland waters in the Netherlands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Application of FLake for the prediction of ice thickness for inland waters in the Netherlands Cisco in the Netherlands. In cold spells numerous ditches, canals and lakes get frozen and many people go out for ice in the Netherlands. in ice thickness predictions. KNMI issues ice thickness predictions, based on a model of De Bruin

Stoffelen, Ad

273

SGL Carbon AG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon AG Jump to: navigation, search Name: SGL Carbon AG Place: Wiesbaden, Hessen, Germany Zip: 65203 Sector: Carbon Product: A Germany-based manufacturer of carbon-based...

274

Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Jump to: navigation, search Name: Eon Masdar Integrated Carbon Place: Germany Sector: Carbon Product: Germany-based carbon emission projects developer. References:...

275

EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Böhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

276

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Global Carbon Cycle, Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Mitigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon cycle is one of the biogeochemical cycles and describes the movement of carbon, in its many forms, within the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans and geosphere. The global carbon cycle involves the earth’...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations  

SciTech Connect

The most effective mechanism to limit CO{sub 2} release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO{sub 2} into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'?. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO{sub 2} from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO{sub 2}-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite-olivine and augite, both being common minerals this sequence. The Oronto Group samples have poor reservoir rock characteristics, none ever exceeded a permeability value of 2.0 mD even after extensive dissolution of calcite cement during the experiments. The overlying Bayfield Group – Jacobsville Formation sandstones averaged 13.4 ± 4.3% porosity and a single sample tested by core-flooding revealed a permeability of ~340 mD. The high porosity-permeability characteristics of these sandstones will allow them to be used for GCS as a continuous aquifer unit with the overlying Mt. Simon Formation. 3) Anaerobic sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) can enhance the conversion rate of CO{sub 2} into solid minerals and thereby improve long-term storage. SRB accelerated carbonate mineralization reactions between pCO{sub 2} values of 0.0059 and 14.7 psi. Hydrogen, lactate and formate served as suitable electron donors for SRB metabolism. The use of a {sup 13}CO{sub 2} spiked gas source also produced carbonate minerals with ~53% of the carbon being derived from the gas phase. The sulfate reducing activity of the microbial community was limited, however, at 20 psi pCO{sub 2} and carbonate mineralization did not occur. Inhibition of bacterial metabolism may have resulted from the acidic conditions or CO{sub 2} toxicity. 4) Microbialite communities forming in the high turbidity and hypersaline water of Storrs’ Lake, San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, were investigated for their distribution, mineralogy and microbial diversity. Molecular analysis of the organic mats on the microbialites indicate only a trace amount of cyanobacteria, while anaerobic and photosynthetic non-sulfur bacteria of the phyla Chloroflexi and purple sulfur bacteria of class Gammaproteobacteria were abundant.

Wronkiewicz, David; Paul, Varum; Abousif, Alsedik; Ryback, Kyle

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

Synthesis, adsorption and regeneration of nanoporous silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Usage of aerogels as an adsorbent has become more widespread because of its specifications such as high porosity and specific surface. Nanometer silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites were synthesized using a water glass precursor by ambient pressure drying method. Then, the adsorption capacity of synthesized adsorbents was studied in terms of benzene and ethyl benzene adsorption by chromatography method for continuous and batch testing. Results showed that silica aerogel and silica aerogel-activated carbon composites had high tendency for benzene and ethyl benzene adsorption. Silica aerogel showed maximum adsorption capacity of 2.3 g g?1 and 0.7 g g?1 in static adsorption of benzene and ethyl benzene respectively. Also, in dynamic adsorption of benzene and ethyl benzene, silica aerogel had maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity of 0.954 g g?1 and 0.219 g g?1 respectively. Minimum equilibrium adsorption capacity in benzene and ethyl benzene static adsorption was related to activated carbon with 0.7 g g?1 and silica aerogel–2 wt% activated carbon with 0.25 g g?1 respectively. After adsorption process, silica aerogel and silica aerogel–0.5 wt% activated carbon composite were regenerated by solvent extraction–thermal treatment method and, after at least 15 adsorption/desorption cycles, their adsorption capacity became fixed.

Akbar Mohammadi; Jafarsadegh Moghaddas

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Nanomechanics of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nanotechnology II Nanomechanics of carbon nanotubes Andras Kis 1 * Alex Zettl 2 3 * * Authors...important potential applications of carbon nanotubes are related to their mechanical properties...characterization of the mechanical properties of nanotubes includes a rich variety of experiments...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Carbon monoxide absorbing liquid  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure is directed to a carbon monoxide absorbing liquid containing a cuprous ion, hydrochloric acid and titanum trichloride. Titanium trichloride is effective in increasing the carbon monoxide absorption quantity. Furthermore, titanium trichloride remarkably increases the oxygen resistance. Therefore, this absorbing liquid can be used continuously and for a long time.

Arikawa, Y.; Horigome, S.; Kanehori, K.; Katsumoto, M.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

Fly ash carbon passivation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

284

Structure Controlled Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Solution Based Catalyst Deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Structure Controlled Synthesis of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Solution Based Catalyst. By varying the concentration of Fe catalyst, we synthesized SWCNT array film with different thickness ranging thank Dr. Myung Gwan Hahm for all instruction, and Alin Cristian Chipara for catalysts sputtering. M

Mellor-Crummey, John

285

Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. Avouris, in Carbon Nanotubes M. S. Dresselhaus, P.Physics of Carbon Nanotubes S. V. Rotkin, S. Subramoney,Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Philip G. Collins 1 and

Collins, Philip G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Carbon Sequestration: A Comparative Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon sequestration refers to the provision and safe storage of carbon dioxide that otherwise would be emitted to ... isolation, and final storage of the produced carbon dioxide, utilizing biological, chemical, ...

Christopher J. Koroneos; Dimitrios C. Rovas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

P. Avouris, in Carbon Nanotubes M. S. Dresselhaus, P.in Applied Physics of Carbon Nanotubes S. V. Rotkin, S.Electronic Properties of Carbon Nanotubes Philip G. Collins

Collins, Philip G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Digenetic Changes in Macro- to Nano-Scale Porosity in the St. Peter Sandstone:L An (Ultra) Small Angle Neutron Scattering and Backscattered Electron Imagining Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Small- and Ultra-Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS and USANS) provide powerful tools for quantitative analysis of porous rocks, yielding bulk statistical information over a wide range of length scales. This study utilized (U)SANS to characterize shallowly buried quartz arenites from the St. Peter Sandstone. Backscattered electron imaging was also used to extend the data to larger scales. These samples contain significant volumes of large-scale porosity, modified by quartz overgrowths, and neutron scattering results show significant sub-micron porosity. While previous scattering data from sandstones suggest scattering is dominated by surface fractal behavior over many orders of magnitude, careful analysis of our data shows both fractal and pseudo-fractal behavior. The scattering curves are composed of subtle steps, modeled as polydispersed assemblages of pores with log-normal distributions. However, in some samples an additional surface-fractal overprint is present, while in others there is no such structure, and scattering can be explained by summation of non-fractal structures. Combined with our work on other rock-types, these data suggest that microporosity is more prevalent, and may play a much more important role than previously thought in fluid/rock interactions.

Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University; Rother, Gernot [ORNL; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick [ORNL; Jackson, Andrew [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD; Littrell, Ken [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

An Overview of Geologic Carbon Sequestration Potential in California  

SciTech Connect

As part of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB), the California Geological Survey (CGS) conducted an assessment of geologic carbon sequestration potential in California. An inventory of sedimentary basins was screened for preliminary suitability for carbon sequestration. Criteria included porous and permeable strata, seals, and depth sufficient for critical state carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection. Of 104 basins inventoried, 27 met the criteria for further assessment. Petrophysical and fluid data from oil and gas reservoirs was used to characterize both saline aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Where available, well log or geophysical information was used to prepare basin-wide maps showing depth-to-basement and gross sand distribution. California's Cenozoic marine basins were determined to possess the most potential for geologic sequestration. These basins contain thick sedimentary sections, multiple saline aquifers and oil and gas reservoirs, widespread shale seals, and significant petrophysical data from oil and gas operations. Potential sequestration areas include the San Joaquin, Sacramento, Ventura, Los Angeles, and Eel River basins, followed by the smaller Salinas, La Honda, Cuyama, Livermore, Orinda, and Sonoma marine basins. California's terrestrial basins are generally too shallow for carbon sequestration. However, the Salton Trough and several smaller basins may offer opportunities for localized carbon sequestration.

Cameron Downey; John Clinkenbeard

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Carbon-free generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon-free generation Carbon-free generation Carbon-free central generation of electricity, either through fossil fuel combustion with carbon dioxide capture and storage or development of renewable sources such as solar, wind, and/or nuclear power, is key to our future energy portfolio. Brookhaven also provides tools and techniques for studying geological carbon dioxide sequestration and analyzing safety issues for nuclear systems. Our nation faces grand challenges: finding alternative and cleaner energy sources and improving efficiency to meet our exponentially growing energy needs. Researchers at Brookhaven National Laboratory are poised to meet these challenges with basic and applied research programs aimed at advancing the effective use of renewable energy through improved conversion,

291

2013 Global Carbon Project  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2013 Global Carbon Project 2013 Global Carbon Project DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2013_V1.1 image 2013 Budget v1.1 (November 2013) image 2013 Budget v1.3 (December 2013, contains typographical corrections to 2011 Australia emissions from v1.1 and corrections to the 2011 Australia transfer and consumption emissions from v1.2) image image image image Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions to Reach 36 Billion Tonnes in 2013 Global emissions of carbon dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels will reach 36 billion tonnes for the year 2013. "This is a level unprecedented in human history," says CSIRO's Dr Pep Canadell, Executive-Director of the Global Carbon Project (GCP) and co-author of a new report. Global emissions due to fossil fuel alone are set to grow this year at a slightly lower pace of 2.1% than the average 3.1% since 2000, reaching 36

292

Advanced forecast of coal seam thickness variation by integrated geophysical method in the laneway  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal seam thickness variation has a direct relationship with coal mine design and mining, and the mutation locations of the thickness are generally the gas accumulation area. In order to justify the feasibility and validity of advanced forecast about the thickness change, we carried out geophysical numerical simulation. Utilizing generalized Radon transform migration, coal-rock interface can be identified with an error of less than 2%. By the calculation of 2.5D finite difference method, transient electric magnetic response characteristics of the thickness variation is conspicuous. In a coal mine the case study indicated that: the reflected wave energy anomaly offer interface information of the thickness change point; the apparent resistivity provide the physical index of the thick or thin coal seam area; synthesizing two kinds of information can predict the thickness variation tendency ahead of the driving face, which can ensure the safety of driving efficiency.

Wang Bo; Liu Sheng-dong; Jiang Zhi-hai; Huang Lan-ying

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Black Carbon and the Carbon Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...reduces net CO 2 release by permanent deforestation...constitute a substantial fraction of the “missing carbon...estimate of oxygen release assuming 10% of...constitute a substantial fraction of sedimentary organic...formation by vegetation fires may be important...from soils becoming airborne by wind erosion...

Thomas A. J. Kuhlbusch

1998-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

294

Carbon Capture Research and Development  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Research Institute of Innovative Energy Carbon Capture Research and Development Carbon capture and storage from fossil-based power...

295

Carbon Trust | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

company funded by the UK government to help business and the public sector cut carbon emissions and capture the commercial potential of low carbon technologies....

296

Pacific Northwest rangeland carbon sequestration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This paper models the supply curve of carbon sequestration on Pacific Northwest rangelands. Rangeland managers have the ability to sequester carbon in agricultural soils by… (more)

Wiggins, Seth T.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

298

Carbon nanotubes for organic electronics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigated the use of carbon nanotubes as active components in solution processible organic semiconductor devices. We investigated the use of functionalized carbon nanotubes… (more)

Goh, Roland Ghim Siong

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in a light oil shallow shelf carbonate reservoir. 1994 Annual report  

SciTech Connect

It is anticipated that this project will show that the application of the CO{sub 2} Huff-n-Puff process in shallow shelf carbonates can be economically implemented to recover appreciable volumes of light oil. The goals of the project are the development of guidelines for cost-effective selection of candidate reservoirs and wells, along with estimating recovery potential. The selected site for the demonstration project is the Central Vacuum Unit waterflood in Lea County, New Mexico. Work is nearing completion on the reservoir characterization components of the project. The near-term emphasis is to, (1) provide an accurate distribution of original oil-in-place on a waterflood pattern entity level, (2) evaluate past recovery efficiencies, (3) perform parametric simulations, and (4) forecast performance for a site specific field demonstration of the proposed technology. Macro zonation now exists throughout the study area and cross-sections are available. The Oil-Water Contact has been defined. Laboratory capillary pressure data was used to define the initial water saturations within the pay horizon. The reservoir`s porosity distribution has been enhanced with the assistance of geostatistical software. Three-Dimensional kriging created the spatial distributions of porosity at interwell locations. Artificial intelligence software was utilized to relate core permeability to core porosity, which in turn was applied to the 3-D geostatistical porosity gridding. An Equation-of-State has been developed and refined for upcoming compositional simulation exercises. Options for local grid-refinement in the model are under consideration. These tasks will be completed by mid-1995, prior to initiating the field demonstrations in the second budget period.

Wehner, S.C.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

Nachbar, H.D.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology  

SciTech Connect

IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

None

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

303

Accelerated Carbonation of Brucite in Mine Tailings for Carbon Sequestration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Atmospheric CO2 is sequestered within ultramafic mine tailings via carbonation of Mg-bearing minerals. ... If carbonation of bulk tailings were accelerated, large mines may have the capacity to sequester millions of tonnes of CO2 annually, offsetting mine emissions. ... A Greenhouse-Scale Photosynthetic Microbial Bioreactor for Carbon Sequestration in Magnesium Carbonate Minerals ...

Anna L. Harrison; Ian M. Power; Gregory M. Dipple

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

304

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

Pierrehumbert, Raymond

305

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

306

Screening effects on field emission from arrays of (5,5) carbon nanotubes: Quantum mechanical simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The simulation of field electron emission from arrays of micrometer-long open-ended (5,5) carbon nanotubes is performed in the framework of quantum theory of many electrons. It is found that the applied external field is strongly screened when the spacing distance is shorter than the length of the carbon nanotubes. The optimal spacing distance is two to three times of the nanotube length, slightly depending on the applied external fields. The electric screening can be described by a factor that is an exponential function of the ratio of the spacing distance to the length of the carbon nanotubes. For a given length, the field enhancement factor decreases sharply as the screening factor is larger than 0.05. The simulation implies that the thickness of the array should be larger than a value, but it does not help the emission much by increasing the thickness a great deal.

Guihua Chen; Weiliang Wang; Jie Peng; Chunshan He; Shaozhi Deng; Ningsheng Xu; Zhibing Li

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fibers, carbon nanotubes, and carbon capsule structures canand multi-walled nanotubes and carbon fiber, and occurs withMulti- walled carbon nanotubes”, Carbon, v.43, pp.2608-2617,

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

The logic behind thick, liquid-walled, fusion concepts  

SciTech Connect

It may be possible to surround the region where fusion reactions are taking place with a neutronically thick liquid blanket which has penetrations that allow only a few tenths of a percent of the neutrons to leak out. Even these neutrons can be attenuated by adding an accurately placed liquid or solid near the target to shadow-shield the beam ports from line-of-sight neutrons. The logic of such designs are discussed and their evolution is described with examples applied to both magnetic and inertial fusion (HYLIFE-II). These designs with liquid protection are self healing when exposed to pulsed loading and have a number of advantages-over the usual designs with solid first walls. For example, the liquid-protected solid components will last the life of the plant, and therefore the capacity factor is estimated to be approximately 10% higher than for the non-liquid-walled blankets, because no blanket replacement shutdowns are required. The component replacement, operations, and maintenance costs might be half the usual value because no blanket change-out costs or accompanying facilities are required. These combined savings might lower the cost of electricity by 20%. Nuclear-grade construction should not be needed, largely because the liquid attenuates neutrons and results in less activation of materials. Upon decommissioning, the reactor materials should qualify for disposal by shallow burial even when constructed of ordinary 304 stainless steel. The need for a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron test facility to develop first-wall materials is avoided or greatly reduced, saving billions of development dollars. Flowing molten Li, the molten salt Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), and molten Li{sub l7}Pb{sub 83} have been considered. An advantage of molten salt is that it will not burn and has a low tritium solubility and therefore low tritium inventory.

Moir, R.W.

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

309

Thin-thick hydrogen target for nuclear physics  

SciTech Connect

In spectroscopic studies of unstable nuclei, hydrogen targets are of key importance. The CHyMENE Project aims to provide to the nuclear physics community a thin and pure solid windowless hydrogen or deuterium target. CHyMENE project must respond to this request for the production of solid Hydrogen. The solid hydrogen target is produced in a continuous flow (1 cm/s) by an extrusion technique (developed with the PELIN laboratory) in a vacuum chamber. The shape of the target is determined by the design of the nozzle at the extrusion process. For the purpose, the choice is a rectangular shape with a width of 10 mm and a thickness in the range of 30-50 microns necessary for the physics objectives. The cryostat is equipped with a GM Cryocooler with sufficient power for the solidification of the hydrogen in the lower portion of the extruder. In the higher part of the cryostat, the hydrogen gas is first liquefied and partially solidified. It is then compressed at 100 bars in the cooled extruder before expulsion of the film through the nozzle at the center of the reaction vacuum chamber. After the previous step, the solid hydrogen ribbon falls by gravity into a dedicated chamber where it sublimes and the gas is pumped and evacuated in a exhaust line. This paper deals with the design of the cryostat with its equipment, with the sizing of the thermal bridge (Aluminum and copper), with the results regarding the contact resistance as well as with the vacuum computations of the reaction and recovery hydrogen gas chambers.

Gheller, J.-M.; Juster, F.-P.; Authelet, G. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SACM, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Vinyar, I. [PELIN Limited Liability Company 27 A, Gzhatskaya Str, office 103 St. Petersbourg 195220 (Russian Federation); Relland, J. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SIS, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Commeaux, C. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, campus Universitaire-Bat 103, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

310

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption Carbon Dioxide Capture by Absorption with Potassium Carbonate Background Although alkanolamine solvents, such as monoethanolamine (MEA), and solvent blends have been developed as commercially-viable options for the absorption of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from waste gases, natural gas, and hydrogen streams, further process improvements are required to cost-effectively capture CO 2 from power plant flue gas. The promotion of potassium carbonate (K

311

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The main object of the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies is the...2...emissions produced in the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or natural gas. CCS involves first the capture of the emit...

Ricardo Guerrero-Lemus; José Manuel Martínez-Duart

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Introduction to Carbon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chapters 7–9 examine nontraditional separation technologies that in the most ideal sense may be considered carbon-neutral. The topics covered in these chapters include the role that algae plays in CO2 capture, CO

Prof. Jennifer Wilcox

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Low Carbon Fuel Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO) [ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO; Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager) [ATK, Program Manager

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

315

Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

316

Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wetland (peat) Carbon Cycle Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas, twenty times more potent than CO2, but atmospheric concentrations of CH4 under future climate change are...

317

Research Summary Carbon Additionality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of much/reporting additionality rules. Technological Application of specific technology. Term Abatement arises within a specified

318

Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

Fan, Hongyou

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon overconsumption and extracellular POC formation M. Schartau et carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon M. Schartau1 , A Correspondence to: M. Schartau (markus.schartau@gkss.de) 13 #12;BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

320

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalinventory of black carbon emissions. Atmos. Environ. 1993,commonly studied form of carbon emissions. Black carbon (BC)

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Comment on Magnetohydrodynamic non-Darcy mixed convection heat transfer from a vertical heated plate embedded in a porous medium with variable porosity, by Dulal Pal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the above paper the author treats the boundary layer flow along a vertical flat plate, immersed in a Darcy Brinkman Forchheimer porous medium. The porosity and the permeability of the porous medium are variable across the boundary layer. In addition a magnetic field with constant strength is applied normal to the plate. The fluid temperature at the plate is constant and different from that of the ambient fluid. This temperature difference creates a buoyancy force and the flow is characterized as mixed convection. The partial differential equations of the boundary layer flow are transformed into ordinary differential equations and subsequently are solved with the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg method. The results are presented in two tables and 11 figures.

Pantokratoras, Asterios

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Thick-Target Neutron Yield from the 19F(alpha,n) Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thick-target neutron yields from the 19F(alpha,n) reaction are reported for E(alpha) = 3.5 - 10.0 MeV.

E. B. Norman; T. E. Chupp; K. T. Lesko; G. L. Woodruff; P. J. Grant

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Simulation of micellar-polymer flooding of a layered oil reservoir of nonuniform thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamics of oil displacement from a layered reservoir of nonuniform thickness consisting of two hydrodynamically connected layers of different absolute permeability is studied. Results of numerical calcula...

N. S. Khabeev; N. A. Inogamov

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Thick-Target Neutron Yield from the 19F(alpha,n) Reaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thick-target neutron yields from the 19F(alpha,n) reaction are reported for E(alpha) = 3.5 - 10.0 MeV.

Norman, E B; Lesko, K T; Woodruff, G L; Grant, P J

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Evaluation of slug tests in wells containing a finite-thickness skin  

SciTech Connect

The effects of a finite-thickness skin (low-permeability zone surrounding the well bore face) on the response of slug tests is investigated by using a numerical model and a simple analytical solution. The results show that, for skins of finite thicknesses, estimates of hydraulic conductivity provided by slug tests can be more representative of the skin than of the surrounding formation. When a finite-thickness skin is present, the slug test response is shifted along the horizontal axis, making estimates of hydraulic conductivity unreliable. This result is different from that obtained by using an analytical solution for a skin of infinitesimal thickness.

Faust, C.R.; Mercer, J.W.

1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Carbon nanotube (CNT) gas sensors for emissions from fossil fuel burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Fossil fuels endow wide applications in industrial, transportation, and power generation sectors. However, smoke released by burning fossil fuels contains toxic gases, which pollutes the environment and severely affects human health. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are potential material for gas sensors due to their high structural porosity and high specific surface area. Defects present on the CNT sidewalls and end caps facilitate adsorption of gas molecules. The chemical procedures adopted to purify and disperse carbon nanotubes create various chemical groups on their surface, which further enhance the adsorption of gas molecules and thus improve the sensitivity of CNTs. Present review focuses on CNT chemiresistive gas sensing mechanisms, which make them suitable for the development of next generation sensor technology. The resistance of carbon nanotubes decreases when oxidizing gas molecules adsorb on their surface, whereas, adsorption of reducing gas molecules results in increasing the resistance of CNTs. Sensing ability of carbon nanotubes for the gases namely, NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and SO2, released on burning of fossil fuels is reviewed. This review provides basic understanding of sensing mechanisms, creation of adsorption sites by chemical processes and charge transfer between adsorbed gas molecules and surface of CNTs. In addition, useful current update on research and development of CNT gas sensors is provided.

M. Mittal; A. Kumar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction  

SciTech Connect

Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were incorporated onto the surface of epoxy carbon fiber composites, as proposed fire shieldsStudy of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites Qiang Wu, Wei Zhu, Chuck Zhang *, Zhiyong Liang, Ben Wang Department

Das, Suman

329

Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

330

Supercritical carbon dioxide behavior in porous silica aerogel  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the tails of the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) intensities relevant to samples formed by porous silica and carbon dioxide at pressures ranging from 0 to 20 MPa and at temperatures of 308 and 353 K confirms that the CO2 fluid must be treated as a two-phase system. The first of these phases is formed by the fluid closer to the silica wall than a suitable distance [delta] and the second by the fluid external to this shell. The sample scattering-length densities and shell thicknesses are determined by the Porod invariants and the oscillations observed in the Porod plots of the SANS intensities. The resulting matter densities of the shell regions (thickness 15-35 {angstrom}) are approximately equal, while those of the outer regions increase with pressure and become equal to the bulk CO2 at the higher pressures only in the low-temperature case.

Ciccariello, Salvino [Universita di Padova; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

NETL: Carbon Storage - Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BSCSP BSCSP Carbon Storage Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing BSCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is led by Montana State University-Bozeman and represents a coalition of more than 60 organizations including universities, national laboratories, private companies, state agencies, Native American tribes, and international collaborators. The partners are engaged in several aspects of BSCSP projects and contribute to the efforts to deploy carbon storage projects in the BSCSP region. The BSCSP region encompasses Montana, Wyoming, Idaho, South Dakota, and eastern Washington and Oregon. BSCSP Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region

332

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

SciTech Connect

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

333

Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

334

NETL: Carbon Dioxide 101 FAQs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

is carbon dioxide? is carbon dioxide? CO2 Dipole Carbon Dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical name CO2) is a clear gas composed of one atom of carbon (C) and two atoms of oxygen (O). Carbon dioxide is one of many chemical forms of carbon on the Earth. It does not burn, and in standard temperature and pressure conditions it is stable, inert, and non-toxic. Carbon dioxide occurs naturally in small amounts (about 0.04%) in the Earth's atmosphere. The volume of CO2 in the atmosphere is equivalent to one individual in a crowd of 2,500. Carbon dioxide is produced naturally by processes deep within the Earth. This CO2 can be released at the surface by volcanoes or might be trapped in natural underground geologic CO2 deposits, similar to underground deposits of oil and natural gas. As a major greenhouse gas, CO2 helps create and

335

A Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

....................................................................................................................................................14 Figures 1. Image of oil emulsion from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico offA Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy By Roger N. Clark (AVIRIS) Team, 2010, A method for quantitative mapping of thick oil spills using imaging spectroscopy: U

Torgersen, Christian

336

UTL CONSOLIDATION AND OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE CURING OF THICK COMPOSITE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 M00-022 UTL CONSOLIDATION AND OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE CURING OF THICK COMPOSITE STRUCTURES John Player fabrication of complex composite structures, but significant thickness reduction may occur during cure due fiber/Hexcel 8552 thermoset prepreg. KEY WORDS: Composite Structures, Cure Modeling, Ultrasonics

Roylance, David

337

An Affordable Approach for Robust Design of Thick Laminated Composite Structure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An Affordable Approach for Robust Design of Thick Laminated Composite Structure Wei Chen* Assistant of thick laminated composite structures. Our approach integrates the principles of the Robust Concept-level optimization procedure for managing the complexity of composite structure optimization. Foundational

Chen, Wei

338

Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity Environments-non-premixed, flame-spread Submitted to Twenty-Ninth International Symposium on Combustion, Sapporo, Japan, July 21 ­ July 26, 2002. #12;Radiation-Driven Flame Spread Over Thermally-Thick Fuels in Quiescent Microgravity

339

Effective elastic thickness of South America and its implications for intracontinental deformation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective elastic thickness of South America and its implications for intracontinental deformation. Within cratonic South America, Te variations are observed at regional scale: relatively lower Te occurs.y. Components: 13,516 words, 8 figures. Keywords: elastic thickness; South America; lithospheric structure

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

340

Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and sediment thickness Jon M. Collisa and William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute110 8th Street within elastic sediment layers. When these methods are implemented together, the parabolic equation method can be applied to problems involving variations in bathymetry and the thickness of sediment layers

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary conditions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before

Kudrolli, Arshad

342

Optimal phosphor thickness for portal imaging Jean-Pierre Bissonnette 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal phosphor thickness for portal imaging Jean-Pierre Bissonnette 1 a), 2 b) London Regional this approach to determine which of eight phosphor screen thicknesses ranging between 67 and 947 mg/cm2 modest improvements in the indices of image quality for phosphor screens thicker than 350­400 mg/cm2

Cunningham, Ian

343

2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for Wind as wind blade size has increased. Typical blade joints use paste adhesives several millimeters thick aircraft, which are also of relevance to wind blades in many instances. The strengths of lap-shear and many

344

Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

H. , 2005, IPCC: Carbon Capture and Storage: Technical05CH11231. INTRODUCTION Carbon capture and storage (CCS)Development Mechanism CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage C02e:

Hoversten, Shanna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

The Social Carbon Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: The Social Carbon Company Place: Brasilia, Distrito Federal (Brasilia), Brazil Zip: CEP 70610-440 Sector: Carbon, Services Product:...

346

Carbon Nanohoops: Molecular Templates for Precision Nanotube...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

build carbon-ring "nanohoops," molecular building blocks for the formation of carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanohoops might serve as seeds, or templates, for the efficient and...

347

Electrochemical implications of defects in carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Hollow Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . 4.3.2.1 IncreasingThe electrochemistry of carbon nanotubes. Journal of Thethe sidewalls of carbon nanotubes. Journal of the American

Hoefer, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes - Energy Innovation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Management Using Carbon Nanotubes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes...

349

A cell nanoinjector based on carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

based on carbon nanotubes Xing Chen *|| , Andras Kis †|| ,that uses carbon nanotubes to deliver cargo into cells. Astrength (2, 3), carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are ideal nanoscale

Chen, Xing; Kis, Andras; Zettl, Alex; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

through single carbon nanotubes G. Chai Apollo Technologies,aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). Embedding of CNTsuse of fiber coated carbon nanotubes makes the handling of

Chai, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Ultrafast Nonlinear Spectroscopy of Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Exciton binding energies in carbon nanotubes from two-photonExciton binding energies in carbon nanotubes from two-photonoptical transition energies of carbon nanotubes: the role of

Graham, Matthew Werden

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Equinox Carbon Equities LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Equities, LLC Place: Newport Beach, California Zip: 92660 Sector: Carbon Product: Investment firm focused on carbon trading References: Equinox Carbon Equities, LLC1 This...

353

Carbon Trust Investments Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Ltd Place: United Kingdom Sector: Carbon Product: UK-based venture capital investment division of The Carbon Trust. References: Carbon Trust Investments Ltd1 This...

354

Carbon Nanotubes: Bearing Stress Like Never Before  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hart, A.J. (2013). Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Futureproduction of carbon nanotubes, and can be used to producesynthesized properly, and carbon nanotubes are no exception.

Limaye, Aditya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Electrochemical implications of defects in carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

parameters. Fullerenes, Nanotubes and Carbon Nanostructures,in Hollow Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . . 4.3.2.1 Increasingmigration in graphite and carbon nanotubes. Chemical Physics

Hoefer, Mark

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Nanoelectromechanical Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotubes on the2.4 Static Deformation of Carbon Nanotubes . . . . . .3.2 Field Emission from Carbon Nanotubes: Electrostatics

Aleman, Benjamin Jose

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Defects and Disorder in Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perebeinos, V. (2008) Carbon Nanotubes 111 423. Bachilo, S.M. & Mceuen, P. L. (2008) Carbon Nanotubes 111 Biro, L. P. ,sectional structure of carbon nanotubes. Fullerenes '96.

Collins, Philip G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Electron transport through single carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transport through single carbon nanotubes G. Chai Apolloaligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (CNT). Embedding of CNTsuse of fiber coated carbon nanotubes makes the handling of

Chai, G

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

How Carbon Capture Works | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

past two decades. Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) -- also referred to as carbon capture, utilization and sequestration -- is a process that captures carbon dioxide...

360

Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Universal Carbon Credits Limited Jump to: navigation, search Name: Universal Carbon Credits Limited Place: London, England, United Kingdom Zip: EC3A6DF Sector: Carbon Product:...

362

Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

Deck, Christian Peter

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

GS Carbon Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

search Name: GS Carbon Corporation Place: New York, New York Zip: 10119 Sector: Carbon Product: The company offsets emissions output with carbon credits through the...

365

BNL | Carbon Cycle Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding The Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group aims to increase understanding of the impacts of global change on managed and unmanaged ecosystems and improve knowledge of possible global change mitigation approaches. The group has three main focus areas. FACE Climate Change Experimental Facility Design and Management The CCS&T group is an internationally recognized leader in the development of Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) research facilities. We are interested in the design and management of manipulative experiments that examine the effects of carbon dioxide, ozone, other atmospheric pollutants, temperature and precipitation on natural and managed ecosystems. FACE Plant Physiology and High Throughput Biochemical Phenotyping At FACE facilities we have studied the mechanisms that underlie the

366

Carbon Sequestration 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Storage - Directions, Challenges, and Opportunities Thomas J. Feeley, III National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Capture and Storage November 13-15, 2007 Austin, Texas C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 U.S. Fossil Fuel Reserves / Production Ratio 250+ Year Supply at Current Demand Levels ! 258 11.7 9.7 0 100 200 300 Coal Oil Natural Gas Anthracite & Bituminous Sub- Bituminous & Lignite Sources: BP Statistical Review, June 2004, - for coal reserves data - World Energy Council; EIA, Advance Summary U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 2003 Annual Report, September 22, 2004 - for oil and gas reserves data. C Capture & Storage, Austin, TX Nov. 13-15, 2007 80 120 160 200 240 1970 1975 1980

367

Carbon Storage Review 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sequestration Options in the Illinois Basin - Phase III DE-FC26-05NT42588 Robert J. Finley and the MGSC Project Team Illinois State Geological Survey (University of Illinois) and Schlumberger Carbon Services U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory Carbon Storage R&D Project Review Meeting Developing the Technologies and Building the Infrastructure for CO 2 Storage August 21-23, 2012 * The Midwest Geological Sequestration Consortium is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) via the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program (contract number DE-FC26-05NT42588) and by a cost share agreement with the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity, Office of Coal Development through the Illinois Clean Coal

368

RMOTC - Testing - Carbon Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Management Carbon Management Ten Sleep Time Structure, 2nd Wall Creek Formation at RMOTC Notice: As of July 15th 2013, the Department of Energy announced the intent to sell Naval Petroleum Reserve Number 3 (NPR3). The sale of NPR-3 will also include the sale of all equipment and materials onsite. A decision has been made by the Department of Energy to complete testing at RMOTC by July 1st, 2014. RMOTC will complete testing in the coming year with the currently scheduled testing partners. For more information on the sale of NPR-3 and sale of RMOTC equipment and materials please join our mailing list here. RMOTC has the field setting, infrastructure, and expertise to play an important role in carbon management testing, demonstration, and research. The unique combination of a publicly-owned and DOE-operated oil field,

369

Success Stories: Carbon Explorer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon LBNL Device Monitors Ocean Carbon Imagine waking up each morning and discovering that twenty percent of all plants in your garden had disappeared over night. They had been eaten. Equally astonishing would be the discovery in the afternoon that new plants had taken their place. This is the norm of life in the ocean. Without the ability to accurately observe these daily changes in ocean life cycles, over vast spatial scales, we lack the ability to predict how the ocean will respond to rising CO2 levels, crippling our ability to develop accurate models of global warming or devise strategies to prevent it. The Carbon Explorer, conceived by Berkeley Lab's James K. Bishop in collaboration with Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, California) and WET labs, Inc. (Philomath, Oregon), bridges this

370

Carbon Materials Breakout Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Breakout Group Process Materials Breakout Group Process * Day 2, Thursday - Review results of Day 1 and modify if needed - Identify critical R&D needs - Outline R&D plan with key milestones - Report results to plenary Carbon Materials Breakout Group * Key Results - Target: get the science right to engineer carbon materials for hydrogen storage * Integrate theory, experiment, engineering * Understand mechanisms, effects, and interactions ranging from physisorption to chemisorption - Theory * Provide "directional" guidance for experiments (and vice- versa) * Provide baseline theory to elucidate parameters affecting the number and type of binding sites and the heat of their interaction with H2 (∆H ) for a broad range of (highly) modified carbon materials

371

Development of carbon-carbon composites from solvent extracted pitch  

SciTech Connect

There are several methods used to fabricate carbon-carbon composites. One used extensively in the fabrication of aerospace components such as rocket nozzles and reentry vehicle nosetips, as well as commercial components for furnace fixturing and glass manufacturing, is the densification of a woven preform with molten pitch, and the subsequent conversion of the pitch to graphite through heat treatment. Two types of pitch are used in this process; coal tar pitch and petroleum pitch. The objective of this program was to determine if a pitch produced by the direct extraction of coal could be used as a substitute for these pitches in the fabrication of carbon-carbon composites. The program involved comparing solvent extracted pitch with currently accepted pitches and rigidizing a carbon-carbon preform with solvent extracted pitch for comparison with carbon-carbon fabricated with currently available pitch.

NONE

1996-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

372

Carbon Capture and Storage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SECARB's SECARB's Mississippi SalineTest Site: A Field Project Update Robert C. Trautz (rtrautz@epri.com) Electric Power Research Institute Senior Project Manager DOE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Annual Review Meeting October 6-8, 2008 Pittsburgh, PA 2 1. Introduction 2. Well Drilling & Completion 3. Reservoir Characterization 4. CO 2 Injection Operations 5. Monitoring and Verification Outline 3 Key Organizations and Acknowledgments SOUTHERN STATES ENERGY BOARD Dr. Gerald (Jerry) R. Hill OTHER FIELD PROJECTS AND SUPPORTING ACTIVITIES * Advanced Resources * Alabama Geological Survey/ SCS * Gulf Coast Carbon Center (TXBEG) * EPRI * Virginia Tech University * Mississippi State University * Others Richard Esposito MISSISSIPPI POWER CO. Rick Berry Richard (Dick) Rhudy Robert (Rob) Trautz

373

Carbon Capture and Storage  

SciTech Connect

Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is the long-term isolation of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through physical, chemical, biological, or engineered processes. This includes a range of approaches including soil carbon sequestration (e.g., through no-till farming), terrestrial biomass sequestration (e.g., through planting forests), direct ocean injection of CO{sub 2} either onto the deep seafloor or into the intermediate depths, injection into deep geological formations, or even direct conversion of CO{sub 2} to carbonate minerals. Some of these approaches are considered geoengineering (see the appropriate chapter herein). All are considered in the 2005 special report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2005). Of the range of options available, geological carbon sequestration (GCS) appears to be the most actionable and economic option for major greenhouse gas reduction in the next 10-30 years. The basis for this interest includes several factors: (1) The potential capacities are large based on initial estimates. Formal estimates for global storage potential vary substantially, but are likely to be between 800 and 3300 Gt of C (3000 and 10,000 Gt of CO{sub 2}), with significant capacity located reasonably near large point sources of the CO{sub 2}. (2) GCS can begin operations with demonstrated technology. Carbon dioxide has been separated from large point sources for nearly 100 years, and has been injected underground for over 30 years (below). (3) Testing of GCS at intermediate scale is feasible. In the US, Canada, and many industrial countries, large CO{sub 2} sources like power plants and refineries lie near prospective storage sites. These plants could be retrofit today and injection begun (while bearing in mind scientific uncertainties and unknowns). Indeed, some have, and three projects described here provide a great deal of information on the operational needs and field implementation of CCS. Part of this interest comes from several key documents written in the last three years that provide information on the status, economics, technology, and impact of CCS. These are cited throughout this text and identified as key references at the end of this manuscript. When coupled with improvements in energy efficiency, renewable energy supplies, and nuclear power, CCS help dramatically reduce current and future emissions (US CCTP 2005, MIT 2007). If CCS is not available as a carbon management option, it will be much more difficult and much more expensive to stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions. Recent estimates put the cost of carbon abatement without CCS to be 30-80% higher that if CCS were to be available (Edmonds et al. 2004).

Friedmann, S

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

374

An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.  

SciTech Connect

The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in inconsistent proportions of metal and glassy phase particles present during the subsequent firing process. The consequences were subtle, intermittent changes to the thick film microstructure that gave rise to the reaction layer and, thus, the low pull strength phenomenon. A mitigation strategy would be the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques to create thin film bond pads; this is multi-chip module, deposited (MCM-D) technology.

Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling Oak Ridge National fiber reinforced composites have enjoyed limited acceptance in the automotive industry due to high costs to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model

376

ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION EFFORTS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION examines biological carbon sequestration using a grassland restoration as a model system. Chapter 1 for biological carbon sequestration. In this analysis, we found that significantly greater soil carbon

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

377

Vitreous carbon mask substrate for X-ray lithography  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is directed to the use of vitreous carbon as a substrate material for providing masks for X-ray lithography. The new substrate also enables a small thickness of the mask absorber used to pattern the resist, and this enables improved mask accuracy. An alternative embodiment comprised the use of vitreous carbon as a LIGA substrate wherein the VC wafer blank is etched in a reactive ion plasma after which an X-ray resist is bonded. This surface treatment provides a surface enabling good adhesion of the X-ray photoresist and subsequent nucleation and adhesion of the electrodeposited metal for LIGA mold-making while the VC substrate practically eliminates secondary radiation effects that lead to delamination of the X-ray resist form the substrate, the loss of isolated resist features, and the formation of a resist layer adjacent to the substrate that is insoluble in the developer.

Aigeldinger, Georg (Livermore, CA); Skala, Dawn M. (Fremont, CA); Griffiths, Stewart K. (Livermore, CA); Talin, Albert Alec (Livermore, CA); Losey, Matthew W. (Livermore, CA); Yang, Chu-Yeu Peter (Dublin, CA)

2009-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

378

Carbon Jungle | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jungle Jungle Jump to: navigation, search Name Carbon Jungle Place El Segundo, California Zip 90246 Sector Carbon Product Carbon Jungle's mission is to decrease CO2 in the atmosphere by planting and managing tree plantations, increasing awareness of the facts behind increased CO2 in the atmosphere, and giving companies a means to participate in carbon credit trading. References Carbon Jungle[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Carbon Jungle is a company located in El Segundo, California . References ↑ "Carbon Jungle" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Carbon_Jungle&oldid=343237" Categories: Clean Energy Organizations

379

Organic modification of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed ... and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects: organic covalent modificat...

Luqi Liu; Zhixin Guo; Liming Dai; Daoben Zhu

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion species at various energies...

Aitkaliyeva, Assel

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Asset Carbon | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Place: United Kingdom Product: UK-based startup looking to invest in CDMJI projects. References: Asset Carbon1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding...

382

Forests, carbon and global climate  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change...Atmosphere analysis Biomass Carbon metabolism Carbon...through fossil-fuel combustion and land-use change...during fossil fuel and biomass combustion and the release of ammo...

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Carbon smackdown: wind warriors  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Carbon-Fuelled Future  

SciTech Connect

Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

Appel, Aaron M.

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

385

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

386

Carbon Footprint Calculator  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

387

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO decommissioning of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) storage wells. The manual builds on lessons learned through NETL research; the experiences of the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships' (RCSPs) carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) field tests; and the acquired knowledge of industries that have been actively drilling wells for more than 100 years. In addition, the BPM provides an overview of the well-

388

In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15??m thick. Using a 0.1?mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1?mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Less Carbon Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Less Carbon Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Less Carbon Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC3M 4BT Sector: Carbon Product: Less Carbon advises energy...

390

First Carbon Fund Ltd | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

First Carbon Fund Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: First Carbon Fund Ltd Place: London, Greater London, United Kingdom Zip: EC1V 9EE Sector: Carbon Product: First Carbon Fund...

391

NETL: Gasifipedia - Carbon Sequestration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Coal: SNG from Coal: Process & Commercialization: Carbon Sequestration Carbon sequestration, also termed carbon storage, is the permanent storage of CO2, usually in deep geologic formations. Industrially-generated CO2 -- resulting from fossil fuel combustion, gasification, and other industrial processes -- is injected as a supercritical fluid into geologic reservoirs, where it is held in place by natural traps and seals. Carbon storage is one approach to minimizing atmospheric emissions of man-made CO2. As discussed above, the main purpose of CO2 EOR such as the Weyburn Project is tertiary recovery of crude oil, but in effect substantial CO2 remains sequestered/stored as a result. Current Status of CO2 Storage CO2 storage is currently underway in the United States and around the world. Large, commercial-scale projects, like the Sleipner CO2 Storage Site in Norway and the Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project in Canada, have been injecting CO2 into geologic storage formations more than a decade. Each of these projects stores more than 1 million tons of CO2 per year. Large-scale efforts are currently underway in Africa, China, Australia, and Europe, as well. These commercial-scale projects are demonstrating that large volumes of CO2 can be safely and permanently stored. In addition, a number of smaller pilot projects are underway in different parts of the world to determine suitable locations and technologies for future long-term CO2 storage. To date, more than 200 small-scale CO2 storage projects have been carried out worldwide. A demonstration project that captures CO2 from a pulverized coal power plant and pipes it to a geologic formation for storage recently came online in Alabama.

392

Carbon Nanotubes for Data Processing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Nanotubes for Data Processing Joerg Appenzeller, T. J. Watson Research Center, IBM Research.2 Electronic Structure of Graphene 4 2.3 Electronic Structure of Carbon Nanotubes 4 2.4 Transport Properties 6 2.5 Contacts 9 3 Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes 10 3.1 Synthetic Methods 10 3.2 Growth Mechanisms 12

Joselevich, Ernesto

393

4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, suggested much larger estimates for tropical forest carbon sequestration in the Ama- zon BasinBGD 4, 99­123, 2007 Amazon carbon balanc J. Lloyd et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences An airborne regional carbon balance

Boyer, Edmond

394

Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

Wei, G.C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTORS: AN EVALUATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTORS: AN EVALUATION L.C. Castro, D.L. John, and D.L. Pulfrey Department A simple, non-equilibrium model is used to evaluate the likely DC performance of carbon nanotube field and transcon- ductance close to the low-quantum-capacitance limit. Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, field

Pulfrey, David L.

396

1, 167193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

BGD 1, 167­193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title Page Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences The carbon budget.janssens@ua.ac.be) 167 #12;BGD 1, 167­193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

397

NETL: Carbon Storage - Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing SECARB efforts can be found on their website. The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (SECARB), managed by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), represents a 13-State region, including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia, and portions of Kentucky and West Virginia. SECARB is comprised of over 100 participants representing Federal and State governments, industry, academia, and non-profit organizations. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region The primary goal of SECARB is to develop the necessary framework and

398

Hydrogen storage in multilayer carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multilayer carbon nanotubes obtained by pyrolysis and mechanical activation of plant-derived amorphous carbon are excellent sorbents for hydrogen.

D. V. Onishchenko; V. P. Reva; V. G. Kuryavyi

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the lower Olentangy shale (Hamilton group)  

SciTech Connect

The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit. Maps are included.

Majchszak, F.L.; Honeycutt, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the Cleveland member of the Ohio shale  

SciTech Connect

The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit.

Majchszak, F.L.; Honeycutt, M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Net carbon flux from agriculture: Carbon emissions, carbon sequestration, crop yield, and land-use change  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

There is a potential to sequester carbon in soil by changing agricultural management practices. ... fossil-fuel use, agricultural inputs, and the carbon emissions associated with fossil fuels and other ... with f...

Tristram O. West; Gregg Marland

2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Carbon Sequestered, Carbon Displaced and the Kyoto Context  

SciTech Connect

The integrated system that embraces forest management, forest products, and land-use change impacts the global carbon cycle - and hence the net emission of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide - in four fundamental ways. Carbon is stored in living and dead biomass, carbon is stored in wood products and landfills, forest products substitute in the market place for products made from other materials, and forest harvests can be used wholly or partially to displace fossil fuels in the energy sector. Implementation of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change would result in the creation of international markets for carbon dioxide emissions credits, but the current Kyoto text does not treat all carbon identically. We have developed a carbon accounting model, GORCAM, to examine a variety of scenarios for land management and the production of forest products. In this paper we explore, for two simple scenarios of forest management, the carbon flows that occur and how these might be accounted for under the Kyoto text. The Kyoto protocol raises questions about what activities can result in emissions credits, which carbon reservoirs will be counted, who will receive the credits, and how much credit will be available? The Kyoto Protocol would sometimes give credits for carbon sequestered, but it would always give credits when fossil-fuel carbon dioxide emissions are displaced.

Marland, G.; Schlamadinger, B.

1999-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

403

Development of a dual-porosity model for vapor-dominated fractured geothermal reservoirs using a semi-analytical fracture/matrix interaction term  

SciTech Connect

A new type of dual-porosity model is being developed to simulate two-phase flow processes in fractured geothermal reservoirs. At this time it is assumed that the liquid phase in the matrix blocks remains immobile. By utilizing the effective compressibility of a two-phase water/steam mixture in a porous rock, flow within the matrix blocks can be modeled by a single diffusion equation. This equation in turn is replaced by a non-linear ordinary differential equation that utilizes the mean pressure and mean saturation in the matrix blocks to calculate the rate of fluid flow between the matrix blocks and fractures. This equation has been incorporated into the numerical simulator TOUGH to serve as a source/sink term for computational gridblocks that represent the fracture system. The new method has been compared with solutions obtained using fully-discretized matrix blocks, on a problem involving a three-dimensional vapor-dominated reservoir containing an injection and a production well, and has been found to be quite accurate.

Zimmerman, R.W.; Hadgu, T.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

*** How PAN based Carbon Fibers are  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

*** How PAN based Carbon Fibers are Manufactured *** How Carbon Fiber Material Properties are Achieved *** Carbon Fiber Markets/Applications CarbonFiber AerospaceEngineeringGuestLecture: Friday as a Business Development Manager for Amoco's carbon fiber business unit (manufacturers of T-300 carbon fiber

Hu, Hui

405

6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hypothetical carbon sequestration site  

SciTech Connect

Carbon sequestration in geologic reservoirs is an important approach for mitigating greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study first develops an integrated Monte Carlo method for simulating CO2 and brine leakage from carbon sequestration and subsequent geochemical interactions in shallow aquifers. Then, we estimate probability distributions of five risk proxies related to the likelihood and volume of changes in pH, total dissolved solids, and trace concentrations of lead, arsenic, and cadmium for two possible consequence thresholds. The results indicate that shallow groundwater resources may degrade locally around leakage points by reduced pH and increased total dissolved solids (TDS). The volumes of pH and TDS plumes are most sensitive to aquifer porosity, permeability, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. The estimated plume size of pH change is the largest, while that of cadmium is the smallest among the risk proxies. Plume volume distributions of arsenic and lead are similar to those of TDS. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight for understanding risks of deep fluids leaking into shallow aquifers, determining the area of review, and designing monitoring networks at carbon sequestration sites.

Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana H.; Viswanathan, Hari; Stauffer, Philip; Jordan, Amy B.; Pawar, Rajesh

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

Carbon Cycle 2.0  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Carbon Cycle 2.0 Carbon Cycle 2.0 Pioneering science for sustainable energy solutions Artificial Photosynthesis Energy Storage Combustion Carbon Capture & Storage Developing World Efficiency Photovoltaics Biofuels Energy Analysis Climate Modeling Carbon Cycle 2.0 is... 1. A vision for * a global energy system integrated with the Earth's natural carbon cycles * an interactive Berkeley Lab environment with a shared sense of purpose 2. A program development plan that will allow us to deepen our capabilities and provide more opportunities to have impact 3. An attempt to integrate our basic research with applications using models of technology deployment constraints 4. Set of internal activities aimed at priming the effort

408

Influence of Substrate Mineralogy on Bacterial Mineralization of Calcium Carbonate: Implications for Stone Conservation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...limestone and sandstone with their...reduction of the porosity and/or permeability of geological...optical-quality Iceland spar...intergranular porosity (up to 1...slabs of sandstone (from Prague...large air reservoir in the tubes...

Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro; Fadwa Jroundi; Mara Schiro; Encarnación Ruiz-Agudo; María Teresa González-Muñoz

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

409

Optical Histology: A Method to Visualize Microvasculature in Thick Tissue Sections of Mouse Brain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Austin J. Moy1,2 , Matthew P. Wiersma1,2 , Bernard Choi1,2,3 * 1 Beckman Laser Institute, University: Moy AJ, Wiersma MP, Choi B (2013) Optical Histology: A Method to Visualize Microvasculature in Thick

Rose, Michael R.

410

Impact of the insulation materials’ features on the determination of optimum insulation thickness  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The optimum thickness of the building envelope insulation materials depends on a large number of ... used in the building, and specifically the insulation ones, are included in the process to calculate the optimu...

Jérôme Barrau; Manel Ibanez; Ferran Badia

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot

412

Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Despite proven economic benefit, the hydraulic fracture fluid damages the producing formation and the propped fracture. To analyze the gel damage effect quantitatively, the filter cake thickness is used as a parameter that has not been measured before...

Xu, Ben

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

413

Extrusion of Aluminum Tubes with Axially Graded Wall Thickness and Mechanical Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study the indirect extrusion of seamless aluminum tubes with variable wall thickness was investigated. Therefore, an axially moveable stepped mandrel was applied. Investigations revealed that wall thickness transitions can either be graded over the tube length or very sharp. The microstructures in thin-walled and thick-walled tube sections were investigated. The local variation of the extrusion ratio and with that the tube wall thickness, product velocity and product temperature during the process lead to significantly different local microstructures at TB=400 °C. At TB=500 °C the microstructure was homogeneously recrystallized with similar grain size in all different tube sections. Furthermore, the mechanical tube properties were characterized by three point bending tests.

M. Negendank; S. Müller; W. Reimers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Analysis of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness: A Newly Created Database for 2000-2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observations of Antarctic sea ice thickness are sporadic in space and time, hindering knowledge of its variability. A proxy based on stage of development data from the National Ice Center (NIC) weekly operational charts is used to create a high...

Morgan, Benjamin Patrick

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

415

Net thickness of the radioactive shale facies in the upper Olentangy Shale  

SciTech Connect

This map represents the net thickness of the radioactive shale facies included in that part of the Olentangy Shale of Ohio which correlates to the West Falls, Sonyea, and Genesee Formations of New York State. Specifically excluded from consideration is the uppermost part of the upper Olentangy Shale which correlates to the Java Formation of New York. The net thickness of radioactive shale is determined by first establishing a normal base line for each well based upon the gamma ray log response of shale units, such as the Bedford, Chagrin, and certain units within the Olentangy, observed to be fairly consistently radioactive. Radioactive shales are then defined as those shales having a gamma ray response 20 API units or more to the right of the shale base line. The combined thickness of beds reaching the radioactive shale threshold value is reported as the net thickness of radioactive shale facies within the mapping unit.

Honeycutt, M.; Majchszak, F.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Doppler effect in the field of a thick spherical shell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The relativistic field of a thick spherical shell of matter is worthy of notice inasmuch as it provides the only known example of a Euclidean pocket in a Riemannian space-time. The boundary conditions are used to...

V. V. Narlikar F.A.Sc.; Ayodhya Prasad M.Sc.

1949-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Aqueous Synthesis of Zinc Blende CdTe/CdS Magic-Core/Thick-Shell...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CdTeCdS Magic-CoreThick-Shell Tetrahedral Shaped Nanocrystals with Emission Tunable to Near-Infrared Authors: Deng, Z., Schulz, O., Lin, S., Ding, B., Liu, X., Wei, X., Ros, R.,...

418

CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION CHARTER FOR THE CARBON SEQUESTRATION LEADERSHIP FORUM (CSLF): A CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE The undersigned national governmental entities (collectively the "Members") set forth the following Terms of Reference for the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF), a framework for international cooperation in research and development for the separation, capture, transportation and storage of carbon dioxide. The CSLF will seek to realize the promise of carbon capture and storage over the coming decades, making it commercially competitive and environmentally safe. 1. Purpose of the CSLF To facilitate the development of improved cost-effective technologies for the separation and capture of carbon dioxide for its transport and long-term safe storage; to make these

419

The effect of stratum thickness ratio on crossflow in a stratified petroleum reservoir  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF STRATUM THICKNESS RATIO ON CROSSFLOW IN A STRATIFIED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR A Thesis By Michael J. Kereluk Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 4966 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering THE EFFECT OF STRATUM THICKNESS RATIO ON CROSSFLOW IN A STRATIFIED PETROLEUM RESERVOIR A Thesis By Michael I. Kereluk Approved as to style and content by: Chazrma of Com 'ttee...

Kereluk, Michael Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

420

Thickness estimation of subsurface layers in asphalt pavement using monstatic ground penetrating radar  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Approved as to style and content by...

Lau, Chun Lok

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Minimum thickness for circumferential sleeve repair fillet welds in corroded gas pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The minimum weldable pipe wall thickness for sleeve repair welds is numerically assessed in this work, as a function of pressure during the welding operations of a corroded gas pipeline, according to the approach by Battelle. The minimum weldable thickness is found to increase when the flow rate of the transported gas in the section being repaired increases. Integrity of the repairs is assessed, and alternative measures to momentarily increase the flow in the area of the repair are evaluated.

A.P Cisilino; M.D Chapetti; J.L Otegui

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

CARBON7510.pdf  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Author's personal copy Author's personal copy NMR a critical tool to study the production of carbon fiber from lignin Marcus Foston a , Grady A. Nunnery b , Xianzhi Meng a , Qining Sun a , Frederick S. Baker b , Arthur Ragauskas a, * a BioEnergy Science Center, School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Georgia Institute of Technology, 500 10th St., Atlanta, GA 30332, United States b Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6087, United States A R T I C L E I N F O Article history: Received 7 April 2012 Accepted 6 September 2012 Available online 14 September 2012 A B S T R A C T The structural changes occurring to hardwood Alcell TM lignin as a result of fiber devolatiliza- tion/extrusion, oxidative thermo-stabilization and carbonization are investigated in this study by solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance

423

Magnetoconductance of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As a result of the interaction between the spin and the magnetic field (B), special step structures are predicted to exist in the ballistic magnetoconductance of carbon nanotubes. The electronic structure of a carbon nanotube drastically changes from a metal (semiconductor) to a semiconductor (metal) during the variation of the magnetic flux. When the spin-B interaction is neglected, the Fermi level only touches the conductance and valence bands of a metallic nanotube. This paramagnetic interaction could make the subbands cross and intersect with the Fermi level within a certain magnetic-flux range; the ballistic magnetoconductance thus exhibits step structures. Such special structures are expected to be observable at low temperature (<1 K) and bias voltage (<0.1 mV). Moreover there exists another effect, the doping effect, which could lead to step structures even without the spin-B interaction.

M. F. Lin and Kenneth W. -K. Shung

1995-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

Magnetism of carbon clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ?-electron ring current magnetic susceptibilities and endohedral chemical shifts of the fullerenes are calculated with the London theory. The diamagnetism calculated for the fullerenes that have been characterized to date does not show a monotonic increase toward the graphite value. By carrying out calculations on high-symmetry giant fullerenes (Cn) in the size regime 100magnetic susceptibility of graphite on a per carbon basis. Endohedral chemical shifts are predicted to be invariant to cluster size, but subject to the quantum size effects seen in smaller fullerenes and metallic clusters. The fullerenes are different from the metallic clusters because the finite band gap in conjugated carbon compounds allows the diamagnetic term to dominate at large cluster size. The experimentally observed decrease in nanotube material diamagnetism with temperature is attributed to the increased importance of the Van Vleck term due to finite-temperature effects.

R. C. Haddon and Alfredo Pasquarello

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Solitons in carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The symmetries of spontaneous lattice distortions in carbon nanotubes are investigated. When the degeneracy of the ground states remains discrete, there are solitons or domain walls connecting the different symmetry-broken vaccua. These solitons, similarly to the case of polyacetelene, are fractionally charged states. In addition to the topological domain walls, there are polaron states with discrete energies within the energy gap. The energies and shapes of these localized midgap states should be accessible via scanning tunneling microscopy spectroscopy.

Claudio Chamon

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

426

CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.  

SciTech Connect

Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

FUJITA,E.

2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

427

Electrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 39653975 Elucidating differences between carbon paper and carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of them are carbon-fiber-based porous materials: carbon paper is non-woven, while carbon cloth is wovenElectrochimica Acta 52 (2007) 3965­3975 Elucidating differences between carbon paper and carbon the performance differences between carbon paper (CP) and carbon cloth (CC). Three-dimensional simulations, based

428

EB2012-MS-43 ADVANCES IN THE MODELLING OF CARBON/CARBON  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EB2012-MS-43 ADVANCES IN THE MODELLING OF CARBON/CARBON COMPOSITE UNDER TRIBOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS 1, homogenization, carbon ABSTRACT Thermo mechanical properties of Carbon-Carbon composite (C/C) allow them, the Carbon-Carbon composites (C/C) are materials frequently used in industrial applications such as plane

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

429

Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

430

Carbon taxes and India  

SciTech Connect

Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Relationships between observed pore and pore-throat geometries, measured porosity and permeability, and indirect measures of pore volume by nuclear magnetic resonance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Though NMR logging has been used to estimate pore sizes, it has not been used to identify genetic pore types or to aid in determinations of reservoir quality for different pore assemblages. Five genetic pore types identified in 40 carbonate and 7...

Adams, Aaron J.

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

432

Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Credits in Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities K. Thomas Klasson and Brian H. Davison Oak Ridge National Laboratory * Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6226 Presentation First National Conference on Carbon Sequestration May 14-17, 2001 Washington, DC "The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes." * Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 1 Estimation of Carbon Credits in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration Activities

433

Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NOAA/ESRL. Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Annual Mean Data.H. Can reducing black carbon emissions counteract globalanalysis of black carbon in soils. Global Biogeochem. Cycle.

Shrestha, Gyami

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

B v + B d ) C T = Total carbon B v = biomass contained indevelopment through carbon sequestration: experiences in2000) Rural livelihoods and carbon management, IIED Natural

Osborne, Tracey Muttoo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

NETL: Carbon Storage - Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MRCSP MRCSP Carbon Storage Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership MORE INFO Additional information related to ongoing MRCSP efforts can be found on their website. The Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP) was established to assess the technical potential, economic viability, and public acceptability of carbon storage within a region consisting of nine contiguous states: Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. A group of leading universities, state geological surveys, non-governmental organizations and private companies, led by Battelle Memorial Institute, has been assembled to carry out this research. The MRCSP currently consists of nearly 40 members; each contributing technical knowledge, expertise and cost sharing.

436

Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the life-cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon footprintingto integrate the economics- and LCA-based perspectives onto life-cycle assessment (LCA). The existing literature on

Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO  

SciTech Connect

The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been made. Petrophysical and engineering property characterization is progressing. Data on reservoir production rate and pressure history at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been tabulated, and porosity data from core analysis has been correlated with porosity as observed from well log response. Data integration is on schedule, in that, the geological, geophysical, petrophysical and engineering data collected to date for Appleton and Vocation Fields have been compiled into a fieldwide digital database for reservoir characterization, modeling and simulation for the reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs for each of these fields.

Ernest A. Mancini

2001-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

440

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Agricultural Carbon Mitigation in Europe Smith P, Powlson DS, Smith JU, Falloon P, and Coleman K. 2000. Meeting Europe's climate change commitments: Quantitative estimates of the potential for carbon mitigation by agriculture. Global Climate Change 6:525-539. Abstract Under the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union is committed to a reduction in CO2 emissions to 92% of baseline (1990) levels during the first commitment period (2008-2012). The Kyoto Protocol allows carbon emissions to be offset by demonstrable removal of carbon from the atmosphere. Thus, land-use / land-management change and forestry activities that are shown to reduce atmospheric CO2 levels can be included in the Kyoto targets. These activities include afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (article

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

ARM - Field Campaign - Aircraft Carbon  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govCampaignsAircraft Carbon govCampaignsAircraft Carbon Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Aircraft Carbon 2006.07.01 - 2008.09.30 Lead Scientist : Margaret Torn For data sets, see below. Description Airborne trace-gas measurements at ARM-SGP provided valuable data for addressing carbon-cycle questions highlighted by the US Climate Change Research Program and the North American Carbon Program. A set of carbon-cycle instruments and sample collection systems were added to an ARM-managed aircraft at ARM-SGP user facility. A separate (in-place) grant covered the cost of developing the instrument systems, analyzing the data, and ingesting all data to the ARM data archives. In the short-term (~1 y) we had two priorities. The first was to acquire

442

Compilation of carbon-14 data  

SciTech Connect

A review and critical analysis was made of the original sources of carbon-14 in the graphite moderator and reflector zones of the eight Hanford production reactors, the present physical and chemical state of the carbon-14, pathways (other than direct combustion) by which the carbon-14 could be released to the biosphere, and the maximum rate at which it might be released under circumstances which idealistically favor the release. Areas of uncertainty are noted and recommendations are made for obtaining additional data in three areas: (1) release rate of carbon-14 from irradiated graphite saturated with aerated water; (2) characterization of carbon-14 deposited outside the moderator and reflector zones; and (3) corrosion/release rate of carbon-14 from irradiated steel and aluminum alloys.

Paasch, R.A.

1985-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

443

Nafion Structural Phenomena at the Platinum and Carbon Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

Neutron Reflectometry (NR) was used to examine the interactions of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell (PEFC) materials that comprise the triple-phase interface. Smooth, idealized layers of Nafion on glassy carbon (GC) and Pt surfaces were used to experimentally model the PEFC electrode interfaces. Different multilayer structures of Nafion were found in contact with the Pt or GC surfaces. These structures showed separate hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains formed within the Nafion layer when equilibrated with saturated D2O vapor. A hydrophobic Nafion region was formed adjacent to a Pt film. However, when Nafion was in contact with a PtO surface, the Nafion at the Pt interface became hydrophilic. The adsorbed oxide layer caused a long-range restructuring of the perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) polymer chains that comprise Nafion . The thicknesses of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains changed to the same magnitude when the oxide layer was present compared to a thin hydrophobic domain in contact with Pt. A three-layer Nafion structure was formed when Nafion was in direct contact with GC. The findings in this research are direct experimental evidence that both the interfacial and long-range structural properties of Nafion are affected by the material with which it is in contact. Evidence of physical changes of aged Nafion films was obtained, and the results showed a permanent increase in the thickness of the Nafion film and a decrease in scattering length density (SLD), which are attributed to irreversible swelling of the Nafion film. The aging also resulted in a decrease in SLD of the GC substrate, which is likely due to either an increase in surface oxidation of the carbon or loss of carbon mass at the GC surface.

WoodIII, David L [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chlistunoff, Jerzy [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Majewski, Jaroslaw [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Borup, Rodney [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Polarons in Carbon Nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We use ab initio total-energy calculations to predict the existence of polarons in semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We find that the CNTs' band edge energies vary linearly and the elastic energy increases quadratically with both radial and with axial distortions, leading to the spontaneous formation of polarons. Using a continuum model parametrized by the ab initio calculations, we estimate electron and hole polaron lengths, energies, and effective masses and analyze their complex dependence on CNT geometry. Implications of polaron effects on recently observed electro- and optomechanical behavior of CNTs are discussed.

M. Verissimo-Alves; R. B. Capaz; Belita Koiller; Emilio Artacho; H. Chacham

2001-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

445

Carbonate fuel cell anodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

446

Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbon Sequestration Partnership Presented to: Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Annual Review Meeting Development Phase Field Tests Pittsburgh, PA October 5, 2010 Presented by: Gerald R. Hill, Ph.D. Senior Technical Advisor Southern States Energy Board Acknowledgements  This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory.  Cost share and research support provided by SECARB/SSEB Carbon Management Partners Through innovations in energy and environmental policies, programs and technologies, the Southern States Energy Board enhances economic development and the quality of life in the South. - SSEB Mission Statement SSEB Carbon Management Program  Established 2003  Characterizing Southeast Region

447

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Industrial Carbon Management Initiative Industrial Carbon Management Initiative (ICMI) Background The ICMI project is part of a larger program called Carbon Capture Simulation and Storage Initiative (C2S2I). The C2S2I has a goal of expanding the DOE's focus on Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) for advanced coal power systems and other applications, including the use of petroleum coke as a feedstock for the industrial sector. The American Recovery and Re-Investment Act (ARRA)-funded

448

The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

26 July 1912 research-article The Viscosity of Carbon Dioxide P. Phillips The Royal Society is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to Proceedings...

1912-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

Leonard, F. L.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video  

SciTech Connect

The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

Rodosta, Traci

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

451

Industrial Carbon Capture Project Selections  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Industrial Carbon Capture Project SelectionsSeptember 2, 2010These projects have been selected for negotiation of awards; final award amounts may vary.

452

Carbon-assisted flyer plates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

Stahl, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Magnetism of the carbon allotropes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... a benzene ring. This analysis clearly shows the rationale behind the continuing interest in the magnetism of conjugated carbon compounds: properly interpreted,

R. C. Haddon

1995-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

454

Carbon Stars | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Stars Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Stars Place: Netherlands Sector: Services Product: General Financial & Legal Services ( Private family-controlled ) References:...

455

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation ... Photosynthetic pigments, photosystems, the Calvin cycle, the Hatch-Slack pathway, photorespiration, and photosynthetic yield improvement. ...

Muriel B. Bishop; Carl B. Bishop

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Brucite Carbonation in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Carbonation in Dry to Water-Saturated Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. Abstract: In geologic carbon sequestration, while part of the injected carbon dioxide will dissolve into host...

458

Self-assembling functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-walled carbon nanotubes Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) arescale synthesis of carbon nanotubes." Nature, Vol.358, 220-Ropes of Metallic Carbon Nanotubes." Science, Vol.273(5274),

Gao, Yan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Carbon/Ternary Alloy/Carbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CarbonTernary AlloyCarbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical Data Storage Medium to Potentially Replace Magnetic Tape. CarbonTernary AlloyCarbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an...

460

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China Agency/Company /Organization: Asian Development Bank Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency, Industry Topics: Low emission development planning, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type: Publications, Case studies/examples Website: www.adb.org/documents/studies/carbon-efficiency-prc/carbon-efficiency- Country: China UN Region: Eastern Asia Coordinates: 35.86166°, 104.195397° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":35.86166,"lon":104.195397,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Geothermal Lab Call Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Project Type / Topic 1 Laboratory Call for Submission of Applications for Research, Development and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Project Type / Topic 2 Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Reservoir Rock Chemical Interactions Project Description Supercritical CO2 is currently becoming a more common fluid for extracting volatile oil and fragrance compounds from various raw materials that are used in perfumery. Furthermore, its use as a heat transmission fluid is very attractive because of the greater uptake capability of heat from hot reservoir rock, compared with that of water. However, one concern was the reactivity of CO2 with clay and rock minerals in aqueous and non-aqueous environments. So if this reaction leads to the formation of water-soluble carbonates, such formation could be detrimental to the integrity of wellbore infrastructure.

462

Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

463

Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the intrinsic material properties of carbon, functionalized films can be produced through chemical modification fabrication method capable of producing large area (%100 s cm2 ) submicrometer porous carbon films. In our methodology. The palladium-modified electrodes exhibit a catalytic response for methanol oxidation

New Mexico, University of

464

Carbon Sequestration Science  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Science Science July 2001 Focus Area Overview Presentation Mission and Scope Program Relationships Scientific Challenges Research Plans Facility Plans Princeton.ppt 7/16/01 Carbon Sequestration Science Focus Area New Projects Contribute to Sequestration Science Systems Integration Virtual Simulation of CO 2 Capture Technologies Cleanup Stream Gas Gasification Gasification MEA CO 2 Capture Facility Oxygen Membrane 3 km 2 inch tube 800m - 20 °C, 20 atm Liquid CO 2 , 100 tons ~1 kg CO 2 / s = 5 MW ^ CO 2 Coal Other Fuels Coal Other Fuels CO 2 Sequestration Aquifer H 2 O Flue gas H 2 O CH 4 CH 4 CO 2 Oil field Oil well Power plant CH 4 Coal - bed Aquiclude H 2 O CO 2 /N 2 CO 2 N 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 Water Rock , 2 Coal Other Fuels Coal Other Fuels Combustor Oxygen Membrane Princeton.ppt 7/16/01 Carbon Sequestration Science Focus Area

465

Chlorination of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report ab initio density functional theory calculations for chlorinated single-wall carbon nanotubes and investigate the atomic structure, energetics, and electronic structure of the chlorinated nanotubes, as well as the energetics of the desorption reaction. We find that the Cl atoms should be adsorbed in pairs and thus focus on doubly chlorinated nanotubes. Using the terminology of arene substitution patterns, ortho and para configurations are the most stable. The physisorption is preferable to the chemisorption in large-diameter nanotubes. The impurity states appear near the Fermi level EF in the electronic structure and may alter the electronic properties considerably. The bonding character for adsorption outside the nanotube is mainly covalent, but inside it consists of physical bonding. The adsorption of several Cl atoms inside a carbon nanotube leads to the formation of a charged Cl chain. Our calculated desorption barrier of ?1.4 eV per Cl atom pair indicates that the cleansing by chlorination is a less damaging alternative with removable residue.

Dogan Erbahar and Savas Berber

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

466

Carbon dioxide and climate  

SciTech Connect

Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Structural graphitic carbon foams  

SciTech Connect

Graphitic carbon foams are a unique material form with very high structural and thermal properties at a light weight. A process has been developed to produce microcellular, open-celled graphitic foams. The process includes heating a mesophase pitch preform above the pitch melting temperature in a pressurized reactor. At the appropriate time, the pressure is released, the gas nucleates bubbles, and these bubbles grow forming the pitch into the foam structure. The resultant foamed pitch is then stabilized in an oxygen environment. At this point a rigid structure exists with some mechanical integrity. The foam is then carbonized to 800 C followed by a graphitization to 2700 C. The shear action from the growing bubbles aligns the graphitic planes along the foam struts to provide the ideal structure for good mechanical properties. Some of these properties have been characterized for some of the foam materials. It is known that variations of the blowing temperature, blowing pressure and saturation time result in foams of variously sized with mostly open pores; however, the mechanism of bubble nucleation is not known. Therefore foams were blown with various gases to begin to determine the nucleation method. These gases are comprised of a variety of molecular weights as well as a range of various solubility levels. By examining the resultant structures of the foam, differences were noted to develop an explanation of the foaming mechanism.

Kearns, K.M.; Anderson, H.J. [Air Force Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Materials and Mfg. Directorate

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

468

Carbon Dioxide Carbonates in the Earth;s Mantle: Implications to the Deep Carbon Cycle  

SciTech Connect

An increase in the ionic character in C-O bonds at high pressures and temperatures is shown by the chemical/phase transformation diagram of CO{sub 2}. The presence of carbonate carbon dioxide (i-CO{sub 2}) near the Earth's core-mantle boundary condition provides insights into both the deep carbon cycle and the transport of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to anhydrous silicates in the mantle and iron core.

Yoo, Choong-Shik; Sengupta, Amartya; Kim, Minseob (Princeton); (WSU)

2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

469

Death of a carbonate basin: The Niagara-Salina transition in the Michigan basin  

SciTech Connect

The A-O Carbonate in the Michigan basin comprises a sequence of laminated calcite/anhydrite layers intercalated with bedded halite at the transition between normal marine Niagaran carbonates and lower Salina Group evaporites. The carbonate/anhydrite interbeds represent freshing events during initial evaporative concentration of the Michigan basin. Recent drilling in the Michigan basin delineates two distinct regions of A-O Carbonate development: a 5 to 10 m thick sequence of six 'laminites' found throughout most of the western and northern basin and a 10 to 25 m thick sequence in the southeastern basin containing both thicker 'laminates' and thicker salt interbeds. Additionally, potash deposits of the overlying A-1 evaporite unit are restricted to the northern and western basin regions. The distribution of evaporite facies in these two regions is adequately explained by a source of basin recharge in the southeast-perhaps the 'Clinton Inlet' of earlier workers. This situation suggest either that: (1) the source of basin recharge is alternately supplying preconcentrated brine and more normal marine water, or (2) that the basin received at least two distinct sources of water during A-O deposition.

Leibold, A.W.; Howell, P.D. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (United States))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Electroless Deposition of Conformal Nanoscale Iron Oxide on Carbon Nanoarchitectures for Electrochemical Charge Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

iron oxide; electrochemical capacitor; battery; charge storage; pseudocapacitance; aerogel ... To retain the through-connected aperiodic pore structure of the native carbon nanofoam and to avoid build-up of thick FeOx coatings on the exterior of the nanofoam, it is imperative to identify deposition conditions where the FeOx precursor, in this case K2FeO4, reacts preferentially with the carbon until the resulting FeOx coating passivates the surface to further reaction, while also minimizing extraneous reactions in solution that may result in FeOx precipitates and/or thick exterior coatings. ... As would be expected for incorporation of FeOx coatings within the bare carbon nanofoam interior, the mean pore size and total pore volume decreased with longer FeOx deposition times (and concomitant higher FeOx weight loadings), as shown in Table 1 and Figure 4B. Pore-size distribution plots generated from the isotherm data show that the width of the pores gradually shifts to smaller sizes with increasing FeOx content, yet even the 40-h FeOx-coated carbon nanofoam retains a through-connected pore network, with pore sizes ranging from ca. 3?15 nm. ...

Megan B. Sassin; Azzam N. Mansour; Katherine A. Pettigrew; Debra R. Rolison; Jeffrey W. Long

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

471

Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Utilizing commercial mine blasts and local earthquakes, as well as a dense array of portable seismographs, we have achieved long-range crustal refraction profiles across northern Nevada and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In our most recent refraction experiment, the Idaho-Nevada-California (INC) transect, we used a dense spacing of 411 portable seismographs and 4.5-Hz geophones. The instruments were able to record events ranging from large mine blasts to small local earthquakes.

472

Thickness of surficial sediment at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thickness of surficial sediment was determined from natural-gamma logs in 333 wells at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho to provide reconnaissance data for future site-characterization studies. Surficial sediment, which is defined as the unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie the uppermost basalt flow at each well, ranges in thickness from 0 feet in seven wells drilled through basalt outcrops east of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to 313 feet in well Site 14 southeast of the Big Lost River sinks. Surficial sediment includes alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits that generally accumulated during the past 200 thousand years. Additional thickness data, not included in this report, are available from numerous auger holes and foundation borings at and near most facilities.

Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Ackerman, D.J.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Thickness measurement system for transparent plates using dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups  

SciTech Connect

A low-cost high-precision thickness measurement system for transparent plates that uses dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups is proposed. The two DVD pickups are used as the transmitter and the receiver in the measurement system, respectively. One of the DVD pickups emits a laser to the other DVD pickup (receiver) and projects on the photodiode integrated circuit of the receiver. The transparent plate is placed in the optical path to change the focused point that will affect the focusing error signal (FES) of the receiver. Using the FES, a mathematical model for thickness measurement based on the geometric optical method is developed. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 1.5 {mu}m, and the uncertainty is estimated to be {+-}1.37 {mu}m for the measured thickness of 150{mu}m.

Liu, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Shien-Chang; Huang, Hsueh-Liang

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Axial-scanning low-coherence interferometer method for noncontact thickness measurement of biological samples  

SciTech Connect

We investigated a high-precision optical method for measuring the thickness of biological samples regardless of their transparency. The method is based on the precise measurement of optical path length difference of the end surfaces of objects, using a dual-arm axial-scanning low-coherence interferometer. This removes any consideration of the shape, thickness, or transparency of testing objects when performing the measurement. Scanning the reference simplifies the measurement setup, resulting in unambiguous measurement. Using a 1310 nm wavelength superluminescent diode, with a 65 nm bandwidth, the measurement accuracy was as high as 11.6 {mu}m. We tested the method by measuring the thickness of both transparent samples and nontransparent soft biological tissues.

Kim, Do-Hyun; Song, Chul-Gyu; Ilev, Ilko K.; Kang, Jin U.

2011-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

475

Green light emitting diode grown on thick strain-reduced GaN template  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract We report a green light-emitting diode (LED) grown on thick strain-reduced GaN template. As the injection current changes from 20 mA to 120 mA, blue-shift of EL peak wavelength reduces from 9.3 nm for the LED on sapphire substrate to 6.8 nm for the LED grown on thick strain-reduced GaN template. Furthermore, the light output power and external quantum efficiency of the LED on thick strain-reduced GaN template are respectively 1.48 mW and 2.5% at the forward current of 20 mA, which is twice as much as the LED on sapphire substrate. In contrast, the reverse current is 2 ?A lower than that of the LED on the sapphire at ?8 V.

Jiankun Yang; Tongbo Wei; Qiang Hu; Ziqiang Huo; Baojuan Sun; Ruifei Duan; Junxi Wang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Thickness and density of adsorbed additive layer on metal surface in lubricant by neutron reflectometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thickness and density of the adsorbed additive layer on a metal surface in lubricant were directly measured by neutron reflectometry. First, two kinds of metal surfaces, iron and copper, on ultra-flat silicon blocks were prepared by physical vapor deposition. After that, each target surface was analyzed by neutron reflectometry in air, in base oil and in base oil with an additive. Poly-alpha-olefin was used as the base oil, while deuterated acetic acid was used as an additive. Fitting operation based on Parratt's theory showed that the thicknesses of the adsorbed layers on the iron and copper surfaces were quite thin, only 2.0 nm. The friction coefficients of the metal surfaces measured by a ball-on-disk tribometer decreased considerably when the acetic acid was added to the base oil. It was concluded that the additive adsorbed layers on the metal surfaces considerably affected friction properties despite being only several nanometers thick.

Tomoko Hirayama; Takashi Torii; Yohei Konishi; Masayuki Maeda; Takashi Matsuoka; Kazuko Inoue; Masahiro Hino; Dai Yamazaki; Masayasu Takeda

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Physicochemical controls on absorbed water film thickness in unsaturated geological media  

SciTech Connect

Adsorbed water films commonly coat mineral surfaces in unsaturated soils and rocks, reducing flow and transport rates. Therefore, it is important to understand how adsorbed film thickness depends on matric potential, surface chemistry, and solution chemistry. Here, the problem of adsorbed water film thickness is examined through combining capillary scaling with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Novel aspects of this analysis include determining capillary influences on film thicknesses, and incorporating solution chemistry-dependent electrostatic potential at air-water interfaces. Capillary analysis of monodisperse packings of spherical grains provided estimated ranges of matric potentials where adsorbed films are stable, and showed that pendular rings within drained porous media retain most of the 'residual' water except under very low matric potentials. Within drained pores, capillary contributions to thinning of adsorbed films on spherical grains are shown to be small, such that DLVO calculations for flat surfaces are suitable approximations. Hamaker constants of common soil minerals were obtained to determine ranges of the dispersion component to matric potential-dependent film thickness. The pressure component associated with electrical double layer forces was estimated using the compression and linear superposition approximations. The pH-dependent electrical double layer pressure component is the dominant contribution to film thicknesses at intermediate values of matric potential, especially in lower ionic strength solutions (< 10 mol m{sup -3}) on surfaces with higher magnitude electrostatic potentials (more negative than - 50 mV). Adsorbed water films are predicted to usually range in thickness from 1 to 20 nm in drained pores and fractures of unsaturated environments.

Tokunaga, T.

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

478

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

Barthelat, Francois

479

46 (2009-6) Nucleation of a single-walled carbon nanotube inside a carbon nanotube  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the metal-carbide. Key Words : Molecular Dynamics, Double-Walled Carbon Nanotube, Growth Mechanism, Carbon functions of carbon atoms and metal atoms in the metal carbide cluster #12;,10) Carbon (11,11) Carbon (15,6) Carbon (10,10) Metal (11,11) Metal (15,6) Metal Fig. 4 Density distribution

Maruyama, Shigeo

480

University of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carbon vision 11 2.3 Strategic themes 12 Targets and objectives 13 3 Emissions Baseline and Projections. Professor Anton Muscatelli, Principal Foreword from the Carbon Trust Cutting carbon emissions as partUniversity of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 Carbon

Mottram, Nigel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thickness porosity carbon" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Simultaneous measurement of group refractive index and thickness of optical samples using optical coherence tomography  

SciTech Connect

Optical coherence tomography (OCT), based on a Michelson interferometer and utilizing low coherence light as the optical source, is a novel technique for the noninvasive imaging of optical scattering media. A simple OCT scheme based on a 3x3 fiber coupler is presented for the simultaneous measurement of the refractive index and thickness of optical samples. The proposed system enables the refractive index and thickness to be determined without any prior knowledge of the sample parameters and is characterized by a simple and compact configuration, a straightforward measurement procedure, and a low cost. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using BK7 and B270 optical glass samples.

Cheng, Hsu-Chih; Liu, Yi-Cheng

2010-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

482

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, D.A.

1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

483

Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Large Magnetization at Carbon Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure carbon to be magnetic, but for more than ten years scientists have suspected that carbon can be made to be magnetic by doping it with nonmagnetic materials, changing its order ever so slightly. Years ago, the first x-ray images obtained using the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at ALS Beamline 11.0.2 provided valuable insight into how proton irradiation can cause carbon to transform into a ferromagnetic material. Now, researchers are using x-ray spectroscopy at ALS Beamline 4.0.2 to study the magnetism of proton-irradiated graphite surfaces in order to understand the effects of hydrogen (i.e. protons) on the electronic structure of carbon. In studying the properties of electrons responsible for magnetic order in graphite, researchers found that a very large magnetic moment is essentially switched on when hydrogen atoms are incorporated at the surface of graphite.

484

Controlled growth of carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Terrones Controlled growth of carbon nanotubes R. Vajtai 1 B. Q. Wei 2 P. M. Ajayan...Rouge, LA 70803-5901, USA Carbon nanotubes have extraordinary mechanical and electronic...state-of-the-art account of tailored nanotube growth. To provide these properties...

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Plasmachemical Synthesis of Carbon Suboxide  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A nonthermal carbon monoxide plasma is known to produce a solid deposition which is thought to be a polymer of carbon suboxide (C3O2); however there are very few investigations of this deposition in the literature. This thesis contains an analysis...

Geiger, Robert

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

486

Capture of carbon dioxide from ambient air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide capture from ambient air could compensate for all carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. Such capture would, for example, make it possible to use liquid, carbon-based fuels in cars or airplane...

K.S. Lackner

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Blundell and Fraser Armstrong Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage Sam...Nottingham NG12 5GG, UK Carbon dioxide capture and geological storage is a...80-90%. It involves the capture of carbon dioxide at a large industrial...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Nanobiocatalysts for Carbon Capture, Sequestration and Valorisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The approaches being pursued for carbon management includes: (i) increased efficiency of ... energy conversion, (ii) usage of low-carbon or carbon-free energy sources, and (iii) capturing and sequestering anthrop...

Sadhana Rayalu; Renu Yadav; Snehal Wanjari; Chandan Prabhu…

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Carbon Market Brasil Consulting | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brasil Consulting Jump to: navigation, search Name: Carbon Market Brasil Consulting Place: Sao Paulo, Brazil Zip: 04120-070 Sector: Carbon Product: Brazil-based carbon Market is a...

490

Microstructure of metal-filled carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Microstructure of metal-filled carbon nanotubes Shoichi Toh 1 Kenji Kaneko 2 Yasuhiko...are usually required to produce carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and play important roles during...mechanisms. metal filling|MPCVD|carbon|nanotube|palladium|microstructure| Microstructure......

Shoichi Toh; Kenji Kaneko; Yasuhiko Hayashi; Tomoharu Tokunaga; Won-Jin Moon

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

A method for characterizing carbon nanotubes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Letter A method for characterizing carbon nanotubes Toshie Yaguchi 1 Takahiro Sato 1 Takeo...spectroscopy of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) at elevated temperatures were...spectroscopy|multi&hyphen|walled carbon nanotube|specimen&hyphen|heating holder......

Toshie Yaguchi; Takahiro Sato; Takeo Kamino; Yoshifumi Taniguchi; Kenichi Motomiya; Kazuyuki Tohji; Atsuo Kasuya

2001-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Carbon Capital Markets | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Carbon Product: London-based fund manager and trader specialising in the carbon and clean energy markets. References: Carbon Capital Markets1 This article is a stub. You can help...

493

Carbon Nanotubes: Bearing Stress Like Never Before  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A.J. (2013). Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future CommercialP.M. (2008). Carbon Nanotubes. A. Jorio, G. Dresselhaus, &V.N. (2004). Carbon Nanotubes: properties and application.

Limaye, Aditya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

Defects and Disorder in Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perebeinos, V. (2008) Carbon Nanotubes 111 423. Bachilo, S.P. L. (2008) Carbon Nanotubes 111 Biro, L. P. , Khanh, N.structure of carbon nanotubes. Fullerenes '96. Oxford, UK.

Collins, Philip G

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular A Dissertation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular Structures ____________________________________ A Dissertation and honeycombs. However, for weight sensitive, ambient temperature applications, carbon fiber composites have emerged as a promising material due to its high specific strength and low density. Carbon fiber reinforced

Wadley, Haydn

496

Porous Carbon Nanoparticle Networks with Tunable Absorbability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and repel liquid droplets2,3 . Recently, carbon materials such as amorphous carbon coatings, graphene foams carbon materials or structures have been used extensively as electrode materials for batteries and super

Kim, Ho-Young

497

ASSESSMENT OF BUILDING LIFECYLE CARBON EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Even though the Carbon Capture & Sequestration Technologies (CC & ST) program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology initiated carbon emission research in late 1990s (CSI, 2013), carbon emissions has only become a hot topic in the last decade...

Kwok, George

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

498

2e Carbon Access | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Access Jump to: navigation, search Name: 2e Carbon Access Place: New York, New York Zip: 10280 Sector: Carbon Product: 2E Carbon Access is an enterprise focused solely on bringing...

499

Carbon Nanotubes: Bearing Stress Like Never Before  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube– polymercomposites. Carbon, 44. 1624 – 1652 doi: 10.1016/j.R.H. , & Hart, A.J. (2013). Carbon Nanotubes: Present and

Limaye, Aditya

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Who Pays a Price on Carbon?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on a per-capita basis a carbon price is much more regressiveadverse distributional effects of a carbon emissions policy.Distributional incidence · Carbon tax · Tradable permits Q52

Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z