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1

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet) Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study:...

2

Formal Methods applied to Plywood Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Formal notations and mathematics are used in severalareas to capture the requirements and express thefunctionalities of the software. This paper focuses on theuse of formal methods to model the real worldenvironment in a Malaysian plywood productionmanufacturing ...

Rosziati Ibrahim; Marlene Lu

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Design of plywood and paper flywheel rotors  

SciTech Connect

Technical and economic design factors of cellulosic rotors are compared with conventional materials for stationaly flywheel energy storage systems. Wood species, operation in a vacuum, assembly and costs of plywood rotors are evaluated. Wound kraft paper, twine and veneer rotors are examined. Plywood moisture equilibration during manufacture and assembly is critical. Disk shaping and rotor assembly are described. Potential self-centering dynamic balancing methods and equipment are described. High resolution tensile tests were performed while monitoring the acoustic emissions. Reasonable correlations exist between the instantaneous sample stiffness during the test and the accumulated acoustic energy released in fracture of the sample. They indicate promise for short term monitoring of damage during tensile tests. Preliminary duration of load tests were performed on vacuum dried hexagonal Birch plywood. Dynamic and static rotor-hub fatigue equipment were designed. Moisture loss rates while vacuum drying plywood cylinders were measured, and the radial and axial diffusion coefficients were evaluated. Diffusion coefficients of epoxy coated plywood cylinders were also obtained. Economics of cellulosic and conventional rotors were examined. Plywood rotor manufacturing costs were evaluated. The optimum economic shape for laminated rotors is shown to be cylindrical. Vacuum container costs are parametrically derived and based on material properties and costs. Containment costs are significant and are included in comparisons. The optimum design stress and wound rotor configuration are calculated for 17 examples. Plywood rotors appear to be marginally competitive with steel hose wire or E-glass rotors. High performance oriented draft paper rotors potentially provide the lowest energy storage costs in stationary systems.

Hagen, D.L.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Safety evaluation for packaging two plywood boxes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This safety evaluation for packaging evaluates and documents the ability of the plywood boxes listed below to meet the packaging requirements of WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping, for the onsite transfer of Type B radioactive material. Onsite transfer is the transport of hazardous materials on controlled routes confined to established limited areas and to portions of federally owned roadways to which public access is prohibited during transfer. The plywood boxes being used for this transport are PIN number PNLD-95-322 and PNLD-95-385. The contents being transported are wood, plastic, piping, rubber, and gloves. The source term was determined by nondestructive analysis and obtained from the solid waste storage/disposal record. Before the nondestructive analysis, the intention was to transport the boxes under WHC-SD-TP-SEP-020, Safety Evaluation for Packaging (Onsite) Plywood Box (WHC 1994), but Type B shipments are not included.

Flanagan, B.D.

1996-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

5

Total phenolic compounds and free phenol in softwood structural plywood  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Construction-grade plywood panels manufactured at five plywood mills were analyzed for total phenolic compounds and free phenol detection. Small samples of plywood were ground plywood samples were also analyzed for total phenolic compounds by a distillation-colorimetric method. The range of total phenolic compounds was 6.8 to 25.3 mg/kg and the range of free phenol was 0.090 to 0.73 mg/kg. The sources of phenolic compounds in plywood are wood components, the phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive, and the ligno-cellulosic adhesive fillers. The source of free phenol in structural plywood is presumably the phenol-formaldehyde resin adhesive. The extraction procedures used in this study were extreme and are not typical for plywood in service. Yet the levels of phenolic compounds and free phenol detected were so low that they most often were beyond the quantitative accuracy of the test methods and instruments, requiring extrapolative techniques. The low levels are supportive of the fact that structural wood composites bonded with phenol-formaldehyde resins have been found to be very safe environmentally for multiple uses.

Tiedeman, G.T.; Isaacson, R.L. (Weyerhaeuser Co., Tacoma, WA (United States)); Sellers, T. Jr. (Mississippi Forest Products Lab., Mississippi State, MS (United States))

1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Design of plywood and paper flywheel rotors. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Technical and economic design factors of cellulosic rotors are compared with conventional materials for stationary flywheel energy storage systems. Wood species, operation in a vacuum, assembly and costs of rotors are evaluated. Wound kraft paper, twine and plywood rotors are examined. Two hub attachments are designed. Support stiffness is shown to be constrained by the material strength, rotor configuration and speed ratio. Preliminary duration of load tests was performed on vacuum dried hexagonal birch plywood. Dynamic and static rotor-hub fatigue equipment is designed. Moisture loss rates while vacuum drying plywood cylinders were measured, and the radial and axial diffusion coefficients were evaluated. Diffusion coefficients of epoxy coated plywood cylinders were also obtained. Economics of cellulosic and conventional rotors were examined. Plywood rotor manufacturing costs were evaluated. The optimum economic shape for laminated rotors is shown to be cylindrical. Vacuum container costs are parametrically derived and based on material properties and costs. Containment costs are significant and are included in comparisons. The optimum design stress and wound rotor configuration are calculated for seventeen examples. Plywood rotors appear to be marginally competitive with the steel hose wire or E-glass rotors. High performance oriented kraft paper rotors potentially provide the lowest energy storage costs in stationary systems.

Erdman, A.G.; Hagen, D.L.; Gaff, S.A.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Rough sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rough set theory, introduced by Zdzislaw Pawlak in the early 1980s [11, 12], is a new mathematical tool to deal with vagueness and uncertainty. This approach seems to be of fundamental importance to artificial intelligence (AI) and cognitive sciences, ...

Zdzislaw Pawlak; Jerzy Grzymala-Busse; Roman Slowinski; Wojciech Ziarko

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Predicting Current Serviceability And Residual Service Life Of Plywood Roof Sheathing Using  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report presents the findings and implications of a 10-year research program, carried out at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, to develop kinetics-based service-life models for untreated and fire-retardant- (FR) treated plywood roof sheathing exposed to elevated in-service temperatures. This program was initiated because some FR-treated sheathing products were experiencing significant thermal degrade and needed to be replaced. This 10-year research program systematically identified the cause of the degradation and has resulted in new acceptance and performance standards and revisions to U.S. building codes. The strength loss was cumulatively related to FR chemistry, thermal exposure during pretreatment, treatment, and post-treatment processing, and in-service exposure. Quantitatively, a kinetics-based approach could be used to predict strength loss of plywood based on its time-- temperature exposure history. The research program then developed models to assess current condition, predict future hazard based on past service life, and predict residual serviceability of untreated and FR-treated plywood used as structural roof sheathing. Findings for each of these subjects are briefly described in this report. Results of research programs like this one can be used to extend the service life of wood by providing engineers with an estimate of residual serviceability and thereby avoiding premature removal. Many of the approaches in these kinetics-based servicelife models for plywood roof sheathing are directly applicable to the development of predictive durability models for wood and wood composite roof and wall sheathing that has been exposed to moisture and has eventually decayed. When those models are developed, they will help building code officials, ...

Kinetics-Based Models Je; Je Win; Y Pk Lebow; Jf Murphy; Usda Forest; Service Madison; Wisconsin Usa

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Two-scale convergence for locally-periodic microstructures and homogenization of plywood structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The generalization of the notion of the two-scale convergence defined for periodic microstructures to the locally-periodic situation is the main aim of this article. The compactness theorem for the locally-periodic two-scale convergence is proven. Then, the locally-periodic two-scale convergence is applied to derive macroscopic equations for a linear elasticity problem defined in domains with locally-periodic and non-periodic plywood microstructures. The fully non-periodic microstructure is approximated by a locally-periodic domain, under regularity assumptions on the transformation matrix, described considered microstructures.

Ptashnyk, Mariya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Design of a Veneer Cooler/Sorter for the Plywood Industry.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radio Frequency (rf) dryers offer the opportunity for veneer manufacturers to process more high grade veneer and to do it more efficiently. A veneer cooler has been designed to enhance the use of rf technology in this industry by eliminating certain problems associated with cooling and inventory delays. The objective of this study was to determine the economic and technical feasibility of a veneer cooler/sorter for use with rf dryers in the plywood manufacturing industry. The second part of this report provides an accurate cost estimate for building a forced air cooler system to be used in conjunction with an rf veneer redryer. 6 refs., 4 tabs.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Fuzzy rough signatures  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We extend the idea of Fuzzy Signature to Fuzzy Rough Signature (FRS). The proposed Fuzzy Rough Signature is capable of handling most kind of uncertainty: epistemic and random uncertainty, vagueness due to indiscernibility, and linguistic vagueness that ... Keywords: aggregation operators, fuzzy probability, fuzzy signatures, generalized weighted relevance aggregation operator (WRAO), mathematical theory of evidence, polymorphic fuzzy signatures (PFS), possibility, probability, probability of fuzzy events, rough fuzzy signatures, rough sets

B. S. U. Mendis; L. T. Kóczy

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Jefferson Lab's Workbench Projects - Go Far Car Ramps - Component...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(roughly 3 feet needed) 1 6 pine board (roughly 1 foot needed) 14" thick oak or poplar plywood (a section 4 feet long and 7 58" wide needed) 6 3 38" screw hook (2...

13

Mill study of the quality yield, and mechanical properties of plywood produced from fast-grown loblolly pine  

SciTech Connect

Veneers were cut from 37 fast-grown pines 20-25 year old and from 27 trees with average growth rates in East Texas. After drying, the veneer was used to make plywood panels with a variety of assembly criteria. The yield and grade of veneer were substantially less from the fast-grown trees with a large core of juvenile wood, than from the slower-grown trees of similar size. The greatest reduction was in veneer grade, with fast-grown trees yielding less than 1% of input volume as grade C or better, while control trees exceeded 20%. Plywood made from fast-grown trees had mechanical properties that were marginal for the species, especially in stiffness and MOE. Bending strength was reduced, but less so. It is concluded that use of fast-grown, short-rotation trees will preclude the production of higher grade panels.

MacPeak, M.D.; Burkhart, L.F.; Weldon, D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

ORIGINAL PAPER Rough convex cones and rough convex fuzzy cones  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Based on the equivalence relation on a linear space, in this paper we introduce the definition of rough convex cones and rough convex fuzzy cones and discuss some of the fundamental properties of such rough convex cones.

Zuhua Liao; Juan Zhou

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Rough Ride Test Procedure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NTP005 NTP005 Revision 2 Effective December 1, 2004 Electric Vehicle Rough Road Course Test Prepared by Electric Transportation Applications Prepared by: _______________________________ Date:__________ Ryan Harkins Approved by: _________________________________________________ Date: _______________ Donald B. Karner ©2004 Electric Transportation Applications All Rights Reserved Procedure ETA-NTP005 Revision 2 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Objectives 3 2.0 Purpose 3 3.0 Documentation 3 4.0 Initial Conditions and Prerequisites 4 5.0 Testing Activity Requirements 6 6.0 Glossary 12 7.0 References 14 Appendices Appendix A - Electric Vehicle Rough Road Test Data Sheet 15

16

Granular Rough Theory: A representation semantics oriented theory of roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present work is an archival paper for a series of contributions proposed in last few years on building a theory of roughness over pure mereological relations among information granules. There are five major efforts taken in the present paper: (1) ... Keywords: Granular Representation Calculus, Granular Rough Theory, Granular-Rough Computational Web Intelligence

Bo Chen; Ming Sun; Mingtian Zhou

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Wind tunnel simulation of wind effects and associated displacement hazards on flat surface construction materials such as plywood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accidents and hazards continue to plague the construction industry. One often overlooked hazard to workers is the potential for flying debris and materials during high winds. This research was designed to evaluate the wind velocity required to create such an airborne hazard with flat surface materials such as plywood. This research was developed to show select correlations between the wind velocity, lifting forces and the susceptibility to movement of large surface area flat sheets of construction material, specifically four feet by eight feet sheets of floordeck plywood weighing 107 pounds. It also examined and evaluated the correlation of a shape coefficient to movement of materials and wind velocities, so that calculations can be made to adequately predict the potential movement of these materials. This will allow construction supervisors to reasonably prepare for such anticipated conditions. The Texas A&M University low speed wind tunnel was used to place a ftffl-scale stack of plywood floor decking material with the air stream flowing over the stack until top sheet separated or lifted from the stack. Next, a half-scale model was placed in the test section of the tunnel with pressure ports attached to a high speed sampling transducer to measure the actual pressures at select velocities. This allowed for a correlation between the ftifl-scale data and the sampled data. Tests were performed for several front and side angles of the wind striking the edge surface of the materials. Velocities were used up to 60 miles per hour full-scale equivalent. The full-scale model achieved lift forces exceeding the material weight of 107 pounds at one orientation angle at a velocity just below 30 miles per hour. This was consistent with the half-scale test pressures for a similar orientation. Various orientations yielded different forces as was anticipated. From this information a pressure coefficient was developed which when applied with a safety factor allows for reasonable calculations to be made to determine potential hazards and adequately secure materials on any sites where large flat materials may be handled or stored.

Madeley, Jack T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Common Indoor Sources of volatile organic compounds: emission rates and techniques for reducing consumer exposures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of 1.3-cm thick, smooth plywood. These paints were appliedlatex paint combination. The plywood floor was covered withpaint consisted of two plywood panels each with surface

Hodgson, A.T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Title Dark spot formation relative to ITO surface roughness for polyfluorene devices Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2004 Authors Liu, Gao, John B. Kerr, and Stephen G. Johnson Journal Synthetic Metals Volume 144 Pagination 1-6 Keywords dark spot, failure mechanism, interface, ito surface, oled Abstract The failure behaviors of ITO/PEDOT;PSS/polyfluorene/Al devices are different depending on the surface roughness of the sputtered ITO anode film. The spikes on ITO surface are responsible for the initial local shorts of the device, which develop into dark spots very quickly. Indium adsorption is observed on the polymer and Al cathode interface. A chemical etching procedure is used to smoothen the ITO surface without changing the ITO thickness and the sheet resistance. Devices made out of smooth ITO show minimum changes at polymer-cathode interface during operation.

20

Combinatorial Block Copolymer Ordering on Tunable Rough  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Morphology control of block copolymer (BCP) thin films through substrate interaction via controlled roughness parameters is of significant interest for numerous high-tech applications ranging from solar cells to high-density storage media. While effects of substrate surface energy (SE) and roughness (R) on BCP morphology have been individually investigated, their synergistic effects have not been explored in any systematic manner. Interestingly, orientation response of BCP to changes in SE can be similar to what can be accomplished with variations in R. Here we present a novel approach for orienting lamellar BCP films of poly(styrene)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) on spin-coated xerogel (a dried gel of silica nanoparticle network) substrate with simultaneously tunable surface energy, {gamma}{sub s} {approx} 29-53 mJ/m{sup 2}, by UVO exposure and roughness, R{sub rms} {approx} 0.5-30 nm, by sol-gel processing steps of regulating the catalyst concentration and sol aging time. As in previous BCP orientation studies on 20 nm diameter monodisperse silica nanoparticle coated surface, we find a similar but broadened oscillatory BCP orientation behavior with film thickness due to the random rather than periodic rough surfaces. We also find that higher random roughness amplitude is not the necessary criteria for obtaining a vertical orientation of BCP lamellae. Rather, a high surface fractal dimension (D{sub f} > 2.4) of the rough substrate in conjunction with an optimal substrate surface energy {gamma}{sub s} 29 mJ/m{sup 2} results in 100% vertically oriented lamellar microdomains. The AFM measured film surface microstructure correlates well with the internal 3D BCP film structure probed by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and rotational small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In contrast to tunable self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-coated substrates, the xerogel films are very durable and retain their chemical properties over period of several months. These results also highlight importantly that BCP orientation control for nanotechnology is possible not only on specially prepared patterned substrates but also on industrially viable sol-gel substrates.

Kulkarni M. M.; Yager K.; Sharma, A.; Karim, A.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken [Nagaoka University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-2188 (Japan); Ogata, Masayoshi [Macoho Co., Ltd. 525 Kanawa, Isurugi-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2032 JAPAN (Japan)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

22

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Application of Spray Foam Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing PROJECT aPPliCaTiON Construction: Existing homes with unvented cathedralized roofs. Type: Residential Climate Zones: All TEam mEmbERs Building Science Corporation www.buildingscience.com BASF www.basf.com Dow Chemical Company www.dow.com Honeywell http://honeywell.com Icynene www.icynene.com COdE COmPliaNCE 2012 International Code Council, International Residential Code Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and

23

The apparent surface roughness of moving sand transported by wind  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a comprehensive analytical model of aeolian sand transport in saltation. It quantifies the momentum transfer from the wind to the transported sand by providing expressions for the thickness of the saltation layer and the apparent surface roughness. These expressions are for the first time entirely derived from basic physical principles. The model further predicts the sand transport rate (mass flux) and the impact threshold shear velocity. We show that the model predictions are in very good agreement with experiments and numerical state of the art simulations of aeolian saltation.

Thomas Pähtz; Jasper F. Kok; Hans J. Herrmann

2011-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

24

Factorization methods for photonics and rough surfaces.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigates non-destructive testing problems for rough and periodic surfaces, where the task is to determine such structures from scattered waves. Such problems are… (more)

Lechleiter, Armin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Numerical Schemes for Rough Parabolic Equations  

SciTech Connect

This paper is devoted to the study of numerical approximation schemes for a class of parabolic equations on (0,1) perturbed by a non-linear rough signal. It is the continuation of Deya (Electron. J. Probab. 16:1489-1518, 2011) and Deya et al. (Probab. Theory Relat. Fields, to appear), where the existence and uniqueness of a solution has been established. The approach combines rough paths methods with standard considerations on discretizing stochastic PDEs. The results apply to a geometric 2-rough path, which covers the case of the multidimensional fractional Brownian motion with Hurst index H>1/3.

Deya, Aurelien, E-mail: deya@iecn.u-nancy.fr [Universite de Nancy 1, Institut Elie Cartan Nancy (France)

2012-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

DESIGN OF A MOBILE LABORATORY FOR VENTILATION STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and covered with 1" thick plywood. This floor was covered inoff with a 3/4" piece of plywood hinged at the bottom to beby a vertical 3/4 11 plywood slab hinged at the bottom to

Berk, James V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

MEASUREMENT OF RADIATION FIELD AROUND HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a. > a. > ::J LL o Thickness of plywood (in. ) MU-26413 Fig.of Bevatron stray neutrons in plywood: two-counter study inof the attenuation in plywood of the Bevatron stray neutron

Smith, Alan R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

DESIGN OF A MOBILE LABORATORY FOR VENTILATION STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR POLLUTION MONITORING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

vertical. covered with 1" thick plywood. padded anti-staticoff with a 3/4" piece of plywood hinged at the bottom to beThe by a vertical 3/4" plywood slab hinged box is vented by

Berk, James V.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Potential Applications of Microtesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detected Using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

inch thick premium grade A1 oak plywood. Since the 54-inchthe dimensions of 4 by 8 foot plywood sheets, we used ato attach additional plywood to form ~58- inch squares. We

Myers, Whittier R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect

Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended area-specific values range from 0.3 m for E Area to 0.7 m for A Area at the Savannah River National Laboratory. These area-specific values, summarized in Table 4-1, were determined using the Environmental Protection Agency's AERSURFACE computer algorithm.

Hunter, C.

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

32

RFCM: A Hybrid Clustering Algorithm Using Rough and Fuzzy Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid unsupervised learning algorithm, termed as rough-fuzzy c-means, is proposed in this paper. It comprises a judicious integration of the principles of rough sets and fuzzy sets. While the concept of lower and upper approximations of rough sets ... Keywords: Pattern recognition, clustering, data mining, fuzzy c-means, rough sets

Pradipta Maji; Sankar K. Pal

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

A timeshared foreline and roughing vacuum system  

SciTech Connect

A system to perform turbomolecular drag foreline pumping and scattering chamber roughing was installed in the Surface Modification and Characterization Research Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The system consists of an oil-free mechanical scroll pump that can be connected to either a roughing manifold serving four scattering chambers or to a foreline ballast tank and manifold serving five turbomolecular drag pumps. A controller mediates the demands of the two manifolds, giving priority to the foreline. Due to the low leakage from the accelerator beamlines, the duty cycle in the foreline pumping mode consists of a few minutes of operating time every few days, greatly reducing wear on the scroll pump. Significant savings are realized due to reduced consumption of liquid nitrogen for sorption pumping, elimination of oil changes and repairs to individual mechanical foreline pumps, and lower electrical power consumption.

Hensley, D.K.; Thomas, D.K.; Poker, D.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

On the Parameterization of Surface Roughness at Regional Scales  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parameterization for surface roughness and blending height at regional scales, under neutral atmospheric stability, is studied and tested. The analysis is based on a suite of large-eddy simulations (LES) over surfaces with varying roughness ...

Elie Bou-Zeid; Marc B. Parlange; Charles Meneveau

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Internal Wave Reflection and Scatter from Sloping Rough Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal gravity waves propagating in a uniformly stratified ocean are scattered on reflection from a rough inclined boundary. The boundary is inclined at angle ? to the horizontal and the roughness is represented by superimposed sinusoidal ...

S. A. Thorpe

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

A Note on the Ocean Surface Roughness Spectrum  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent study, the dimensionless surface roughness spectrum has been empirically parameterized as a power-law function of the dimensionless wind speed expressed as the ratio of wind friction velocity and phase speed of the surface roughness ...

Paul A. Hwang

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

On the Climate Impact of Surface Roughness Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale deployment of wind power may alter climate through alteration of surface roughness. Previous research using GCMs has shown large-scale impacts of surface roughness perturbations but failed to elucidate the dynamic mechanisms that ...

Daniel B. Kirk-Davidoff; David W. Keith

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reasoning with rough description logics: An approximate concepts approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The current research progress and the existing problems of uncertain or imprecise knowledge representation and reasoning in description logics are analyzed in this paper. Approximate concepts are introduced to description logics based on rough set theory, ... Keywords: Approximate concepts, Concepts, Description logics, Rough description logics, Rough set theory

Yuncheng Jiang; Ju Wang; Suqin Tang; Bao Xiao

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Laser Detection Of Material Thickness  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Detection Of Material Thickness Detection Of Material Thickness Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Laser Detection Of Material Thickness There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of

40

Target preparations and thickness measurements  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of isotope target preparative methods have been used, including rolling of metals, vapor deposition, electrodeposition, chemical vapor deposition, and sputtering, to obtain thin and thick films of most elements or compounds of elements in the Periodic Table. Most thin films prepared for use in self-supported form as well as those deposited on substrates require thickness measurement (atom count and distribution) and/or thickness uniformity determination before being used in nuclear research. Preparative methods are described together with thickness and uniformity determination procedures applicable to samples being prepared (in situ) and to completed samples. Only nondestructive methods are considered applicable to target samples prepared by the ORNL Solid State Division, Isotope Research Materials Laboratory. Thickness or areal density measurements of sufficient sophistication to yield errors of less than +-1 percent have been achieved with regularity. A statistical analysis procedure is applied which avoids error caused by balance zero-point drift in direct weight measurement methods. (auth)

Adair, H.L.; Kobisk, E.H.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission  

SciTech Connect

Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of {eta}{sub e} {le} 130 and {eta}{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup 4} respectively, with 1 MeV K{sup +} incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as {eta}{sub e} {proportional_to} 1/cos({theta}), where {theta} is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90{sup o}) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62{sup o}. Gas desorption varies more slowly with {theta} (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of {approx}2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K{sup +} ions backscatter when incident at 88-89{sup o} from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within {approx}10{sup o} of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90{sup o}. Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams.

Molvik, A

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

42

Reprinted from "Scattering and Surface Roughness," Z.-H. Gu ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Reprinted from "Scattering and Surface Roughness," Z.-H. Gu and AA Maradudin, Editors, Proc. SPIE 3141, 220-231 (1997) Page 2. Page 3 ...

2010-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

43

Contact mechanics for randomly rough surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When two solids are squeezed together they will in general not make atomic contact everywhere within the nominal (or apparent) contact area. This fact has huge practical implications and must be considered in many technological applications. In this paper I briefly review basic theories of contact mechanics. I consider in detail a recently developed contact mechanics theory. I derive boundary conditions for the stress probability distribution function for elastic, elastoplastic and adhesive contact between solids and present numerical results illustrating some aspects of the theory. I analyze contact problems for very smooth polymer (PMMA) and Pyrex glass surfaces prepared by cooling liquids of glassy materials from above the glass transition temperature. I show that the surface roughness which results from the frozen capillary waves can have a large influence on the contact between the solids. The analysis suggest a new explanation for puzzling experimental results [L. Bureau, T. Baumberger and C. Caroli, arXiv:cond-mat/0510232] about the dependence of the frictional shear stress on the load for contact between a glassy polymer lens and flat substrates. I discuss the possibility of testing the theory using numerical methods, e.g., finite element calculations.

Bo N. J. Persson

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

44

AIM-94-0800 Effect of Initial Ice Roughness  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ice accretion phase. Using5close-up photography and videography Hansman has studied the initial phase of ice accretion. At warm temperatures, a runback zone aft of the rough zone is observed. WaterAIM-94-0800 Effect of Initial Ice Roughness on Airfoil Aerodynamics M. Bragg, M. Kerho and M

Bragg, Michael B.

45

Prediction of surface roughness using artificial neural network in lathe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the effect of tool geometry on surface roughness has been investigated in universal lathe. Machining process has been carried out on AISI 1040 steel in dry cutting condition using various insert geometry at depth of cut off 0.5 mm. At ... Keywords: artificial neural network, surface roughness, tool geometry

?akir Ta?demir; Süleyman Ne?eli; Ismail Sarita?; Süleyman Yaldiz

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

None

2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

47

A Monte Carlo Model for Interrogation of Thick Cargos for Clandestine Fissionable Materials; Tests with 14-MeV Neutrons  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Monte Carlo model has been developed for interrogation of fissionable material embedded in thick cargos when high-energy {beta}-delayed {gamma} rays are detected following neutron-induced fission. The model includes the principal structural components of the laboratory, the neutron source and collimator assembly in which it resides, the assembly that represents cargo of given characteristics, a target of highly-enriched uranium (HEU) and large external plastic scintillators for photon detection. The ability of this model to reproduce experimental measurements was tested by comparing simulations with measurements of the number of induced fissions and the number of detected photons when the HUE target was irradiated with 14.25-MeV neutrons in the absence of any cargo and while embedded in assemblies of plywood and iron pipes. The simulations agreed with experimental measurements within a factor of about 2 for irradiation of the bare target and when the areal density of intervening cargo was 33 g cm{sup -2} (wood) and 61 g cm{sup -2} (steel pipes). This suggests that the model can permit exploration of a large range in parameter space with reasonable fidelity.

Prussin, S; Descalle, M; Hall, J; Pruet, J; Slaughter, D; Accatino, M; Alford, O; Asztalos, S; Bernstein, A; Church, J; Gosnell, T; Loshak, A; Madden, N; Manatt, D; Mauger, G; Meyer, A; Moore, T; Norman, E; Pohl, B; Petersen, D; Rusnak, B; Sundsmo, T; Tembrook, W; Walling, R

2006-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

48

System for measuring film thickness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, Paul R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

Lagasse, P.R.

1985-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

51

Fermion localization on thick branes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Tempo, Jose David [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); Centro de Estudios Cientificos CECS, Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

52

Thick-thin battery jar  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A battery jar is described comprised of side, end and bottom walls wherein the side and end walls are divided into upper, middle and lower sections with the wall thickness in each section being T, T1 and T2, respectively, wherein T2 is greater than T1 and less than T.

Hardigg, J.S.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

53

Surface Roughness Parameter Estimated with a Drag Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The surface roughness parameter, z0, can be estimated with different techniques. These techniques are analyzing the mean wind profile, estimating the surface drag coefficient and using the universal functions according to the Monin-Obukhov ...

Adrie F. G. Jacobs; Emile Schols

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Effective Roughness Length for Turbulent Flow over a Wavy Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two-equation turbulence model is used to calculate the effective roughness length for two-dimensional turbulent flow over small amplitude, wavy surface topography. The governing equations are solved using the method of matched asymptotic ...

S. J. Jacobs

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

Yovanovich, M. Michael

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The effect of roughness on aerosol deposition in tubes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental measurements of simulated roughness within tubes and the subsequent aerosol penetration performance through these tubes were conducted for a aerosol particle size range of 5 nm to 20 nm and a flow rate range of 28 L/min to 169.9 L/min. The relative roughness for each of the tubes tested are as follows: clean aluminum pipe and clean copper tube, F,/D = 10-4; fine sandpaper pipe, F,/D = 0.017-12 helical ridges per linear centimeter copper tube, F,/D = 0.046; coarse sandpaper pipe, F,/D = 0.065. Non-dimensional quantities were used to produce an empirical model relating roughness to aerosol penetration. The dependent variable, aerosol penetration, was encompassed in the non-dimensional deposition velocity (v,) and modeled as a function of the dependent variables, non-dimensional particle relaxation time (,c,) and relative roughness (&/D). In addition, a method was developed for estimating when to remove the sampling transport lines for cleaning due to the roughness within the transport line. The empirical correlation fits the data over the range of 0. I 6 to 112 L/min. For these conditions, the model deviated from the experimental data by less than 10% with one outlier which deviated by 20% for the coarse sandpaper pipe at a flow rate of 1 12 L/min. The correlation was used to show that the transport lines should be removed for cleaning or replacement once the pressure drop has exceeded 7.5 mm Hg. The experimental data has shown that the aerosol penetration decreases below 85% for an internal roughness comparable to this pressure drop limit. The correlation for aerosol penetration in transport lines with internal roughness presented should be a beneficial engineering tool for predicting the aerosol losses in sampling systems where roughness is a concern. The correlation should be a useful sub-model for aerosol penetration prediction computational tools as well.

Chavez, Mario Cesar

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Thermal Hydraulic Effect of Fuel Plate Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study presents surface roughness measurements characteristic of the pre-film layer applied to a typical Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel plate. This data is used to estimate the friction factor for thermal hydraulic flow calculations of a Gas Test Loop (GTL) system proposed for incorporation into ATR to provide a fast neutron flux environment for the testing of nuclear fuels and materials. To attain the required neutron flux, the design includes booster fuel plates clad with the same aluminum alloy as the ATR driver fuel and cooled with water supplied by the ATR primary coolant pumps. The objectives of this study are to: (1) determine the surface roughness of the protective boehmite layer applied to the ATR driver fuel prior to reactor operations in order to specify the machining tolerances for the surface finish on simulated booster fuel plates in a GTL hydraulic flow test model, and (2) assess the consequent thermal hydraulic impact due to surface roughness on the coolability of the booster fuel with a similar pre-film layer applied. While the maximum roughness of this coating is specified to be 1.6 µm (63 microinches), no precise data on the actual roughness were available. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the pre-film coating was analyzed using optical profilometry. Measurements yielded a mean surface roughness of 0.53 µm (21 microinches). Results from a sensitivity study show that a ±15% deviation from the mean measured surface finish would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature. However, frictional losses from roughnesses greater than 1.5 µm (~60 microinches) produce a marked decrease in flow rate, causing fuel and coolant temperatures to rise sharply.

Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES  

SciTech Connect

Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, W& M College; Xu, Chen [JLAB, W& M College

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Ready Biomass Facility and Ready Biomass Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Rough and Ready Biomass Facility Facility Rough and Ready Sector Biomass Owner Rough and Ready Lumber Co. Location Cave Junction, Oregon Coordinates 42.1628912°, -123.6481235° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":42.1628912,"lon":-123.6481235,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

60

ANNUAL HEATING AND COOLING REQUIREMENTS AND DESIGN DAY PERFORMANCE FOR A RESIDENTIAL MODEL IN SIX CLIMATES: A COMPARISON OF NBSLD, BLAST 2, AND DOE-2.1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Siding Surface Rough- ness b Plywood Thermal Absorp- tivityF F Floor Slab D D F Shingles Plywood I-F-R F F F .J F DoorPAP-ASPH SHIG, 1/2 IN PLYWOOD); CEILING'" (RESISTANCE19);

Carroll, William L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm...

62

Optimization and learning for rough terrain legged locomotion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a novel approach to legged locomotion over rough terrain that is thoroughly rooted in optimization. This approach relies on a hierarchy of fast, anytime algorithms to plan a set of footholds, along with the dynamic body motions required ... Keywords: Legged robots, adaptive control, mobile robotics, motion control, nonholonomic motion planning

Matt Zucker; Nathan Ratliff; Martin Stolle; Joel Chestnutt; J Andrew Bagnell; Christopher G Atkeson; James Kuffner

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Hybrid rough sets intelligent system architecture for survival analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Survival analysis challenges researchers because of two issues. First, in practice, the studies do not span wide enough to collect all survival times of each individual patient. All of these patients require censor variables and cannot be analyzed without ... Keywords: Kaplan-Meier method, hybrid intelligent systems, reducts, rough sets, soft computing, survival analysis

Puntip Pattaraintakorn; Nick Cercone; Kanlaya Naruedomkul

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Approaches to Conflict Dynamics Based on Rough Sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conflict analysis and conflict resolution play an important role in negotiation during contract-management situations in many organizations. The issue here is how to model a combination of complex situations among agents where there are disagreements ... Keywords: Approximation space, conflict, conflict graph, conflict resolution, negotiation, requirements engineering, rough sets

Sheela Ramanna; James F. Peters; Andrzej Skowron

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

RoSy: a rough knowledge base system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a user-oriented view of ${\\mathcal R}o{\\mathcal S}y$, a ${\\mathcal R}{\\rm ough}$ Knowledge Base ${\\mathcal S}$ystem. The system tackles two problems not fully answered by previous research: the ability to define rough sets in terms ...

Robin Andersson; Aida Vitória; Jan Ma?uszy?ski; Jan Komorowski

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

The Roughness Length for Heat of Sparse Vegetation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dual-source model that solves the energy balance over vegetation and soil separately can be inverted to obtain the roughness length for heat z0h of a single-source model. Model parameters for the dual-source model were taken from previous ...

E. M. Blyth; A. J. Dolman

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Ultrasonic thickness measuring imaging system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system in which an ultrasonic probe for measuring thickness of an object, such as a wall of tube, a computer for controlling movement of the probe in a scanning pattern within the tube and processing an analog signal produced by the probe which is proportional to the tube wall thickness in the scanning pattern and a line scan recorder for producing a record of the tube wall thicknesses measured by the probe in the scanning pattern. The probe is moved in the scanning pattern to sequentially scan circumferentially the interior tube wall at spaced apart adjacent axial locations. The computer processes the analog signal by converting it to a digital signal into a multiplicity of thickness points with each falling in one of a plurality of thickness ranges corresponding to one of plurality of shades of grey. From the multiplicity of quantified thickness points, a line scan recorder connected to the computer generates a pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses with each quantified thickness point thus being obtained from a minute area of the tube wall and representing one pixel of the pictorial map. In the pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses, the pixels represent different wall thicknesses having different shades of grey.

Bylenok, P.J.; Patmos, W.M.; Wagner, T.A.; Martin, F.H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties P. Minnis 1 , P. W. Heck 2 , R. F. Arduini 3 , R. Palikonda 3 , J. K. Ayers 3 , M. M. Khaiyer 3 , P. Yang 4 , Y. Xie 4 3 Science Systems & Applications, Inc. Hampton, VA 1 NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA Current Cirrus Models Inadequate Cirrus cloud optical depths Ï„ (heights z e ) are often over (under) estimated when derived from solar reflectances. In situ data suggest smaller asymmetry factors, g, than used in most retrieval models. Multi-angle measurements point to smoother phase functions than for solid, smooth xtals. Calculations show that solid crystals with roughened facets or embedded bubbles --both observed in real cirrus particles-- yield smoother phase functions & smaller g

69

Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the noncontact regions. We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

B. N. J. Persson; B. Lorenz; A. I. Volokitin

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

70

Specification of Surface Roughness for Hydraulic Flow Test Plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A study was performed to determine the surface roughness of the corrosion layer on aluminum clad booster fuel plates for the proposed Gas Test Loop (GTL) system to be incorporated into the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. A layer of boehmite (a crystalline, non-porous gamma-alumina hydrate) is typically pre-formed on the surface of the fuel cladding prior to exposure to reactor operation to prevent the uncontrolled buildup of corrosion product on the surface. A representative sample coupon autoclaved with the ATR driver fuel to produce the boehmite layer was analyzed using optical profilometry to determine the mean surface roughness, a parameter that can have significant impact on the coolant flow past the fuel plates. This information was used to specify the surface finish of mockup fuel plates for a hydraulic flow test model. The purpose of the flow test is to obtain loss coefficients describing the resistance of the coolant flow paths, which are necessary for accurate thermal hydraulic analyses of the water-cooled booster fuel assembly. It is recommended that the surface roughness of the boehmite layer on the fuel cladding be replicated for the flow test. While it is very important to know the order of magnitude of the surface roughness, this value does not need to be matched exactly. Maintaining a reasonable dimensional tolerance for the surface finish on each side of the 12 mockup fuel plates would ensure relative uniformity in the flow among the four coolant channels. Results obtained from thermal hydraulic analyses indicate that ±15% deviation from a surface finish (i.e., Ra) of 0.53 ìm would have a minimal effect on coolant temperature, coolant flow rate, and fuel temperature.

Donna Post Guillen; Timothy S. Yoder

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Foam flow through a transparent rough-walled rock fracture  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an experimental study of nitrogen, water, and aqueous foam flow through a transparent replica of a natural rough-walled rock fracture with a hydraulic aperture of roughly 30 {mu}m. It is established that single-phase flow of both nitrogen and water is well described by analogy to flow between parallel plates. Inertial effects caused by fracture roughness become important in single-phase flow as the Reynolds number approaches 1. Foam exhibits effective control of gas mobility. Foam flow resistances are approximately 10 to 20 times greater than those of nitrogen over foam qualities spanning from 0.60 to 0.99 indicating effective gas-mobility control. Because previous studies of foam flow have focused mainly upon unfractured porous media, little information is available about foam flow mechanisms in fractured media. The transparency of the fracture allowed flow visualization and demonstrated that foam rheology in fractured media depends upon bubble shape and size. Changes in flow behavior are directly tied to transitions in bubble morphology.

Kovscek, A.; Tretheway, D.; Radke, C. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Localizing gravity on exotic thick 3-branes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider localization of gravity on thick branes with a nontrivial structure. Double walls that generalize the thick Randall-Sundrum solution, and asymmetric walls that arise from a Z{sub 2} symmetric scalar potential, are considered. We present a new asymmetric solution: a thick brane interpolating between two AdS{sub 5} spacetimes with different cosmological constants, which can be derived from a 'fake supergravity' superpotential, and show that it is possible to confine gravity on such branes.

Castillo-Felisola, Oscar [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela); International Centre for Theoretical Physics, 34100 Trieste (Italy); Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Ramirez, Alba [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida (Venezuela)

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Modeling the Critical Current Decrease in Coated Conductors with Film Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

YBCO-based Coated Conductors (CC) are touted as the next generation of high current=carrying capacity High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) wires. If commercially viable, CC will signal a revolution in power trnasmission, with enormous economic consequences. It has been recently reported that the observed ciritical current in such CC is decreasing with the fil thickness d, roughly as d-1/2. The origin of this decrease is not understood. This work is aimed at developing a simple model to explain this feature.

D. Agassi; D.K. Christen; S.J. Pennycook

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Enhancing evolutionary instance selection algorithms by means of fuzzy rough set based feature selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In recent years, fuzzy rough set theory has emerged as a suitable tool for performing feature selection. Fuzzy rough feature selection enables us to analyze the discernibility of the attributes, highlighting the most attractive features in the construction ... Keywords: Evolutionary algorithms, Feature selection, Instance selection, Nearest neighbor, Rough sets

Joaquín Derrac; Chris Cornelis; Salvador García; Francisco Herrera

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Research on operating parameters and energy consumption of cold store based on rough set theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rough set theory is applied to analyze the energy consumption of an industrial cold storage facility for the first time. The features of rough set theory in data extraction are analyzed. The operating parameters collected in a sample refrigerating plant ... Keywords: cold store, energy consumption, operating parameters, rough set

Jianyi Zhang; Ying Xu; Fei Chen

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

The modified Beckmann-Kirchhoff scattering theory for rough surface analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper focusses on how reflectance models based on scattering theory and reported in the physics literature can be used for making estimates of surface roughness parameters using reflectance measurements obtained with a digital camera. We commence ... Keywords: BRDF measurements, Beckmann model, Physics-based reflectance models, Rough surface scattering, Roughness estimation

Hossein Ragheb; Edwin R. Hancock

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Interface roughness induced asymmetric magnetic property in sputter-deposited Co/CoO/Co exchange coupled trilayers  

SciTech Connect

The effect of interface roughness on magnetic properties of exchange coupled polycrystalline Co/CoO(t{sub AF})/Co trilayers has been investigated by varying antiferromagnetic layer (CoO) thickness. It has been found that the upper CoO/Co interface becomes rougher with increasing CoO layer thickness, resulting in stronger exchange bias of the upper interface than the lower one. The interfacial exchange coupling is strengthened by the increase of defect-generated uncompensated antiferromagnetic spins; such spins form coupling with spins in the Co layer at the interface. As a result, the CoO layer thickness dependence of exchange bias is much enhanced for the upper Co layer. The transition from anisotropic magnetoresistance to isotropic magnetoresistance for the top Co layer has also been found. This could be attributed to the defects, probably partial thin oxide layers, between Co grains in the top Co layer that leads a switch from spin-orbit scattering related magnetoresistance to spin-dependent electron scattering dominated magnetoresistance.

Wang, J.; Sannomiya, T.; Shi, J.; Nakamura, Y. [Department of Metallurgy and Ceramics Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1, O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8552 (Japan)

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

source source History View New Pages Recent Changes All Special Pages Semantic Search/Querying Get Involved Help Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search File Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » File:Wind rough example.pdf Jump to: navigation, search File File history File usage Metadata File:Wind rough example.pdf Size of this preview: 776 × 600 pixels. Go to page 1 2 Go! next page → next page → Full resolution ‎(1,650 × 1,275 pixels, file size: 196 KB, MIME type: application/pdf, 2 pages) File history Click on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. Date/Time Thumbnail Dimensions User Comment current 18:03, 2 January 2014 Thumbnail for version as of 18:03, 2 January 2014 1,650 × 1,275, 2 pages (196 KB) Foteri (Talk | contribs) Category:Wind for Schools Portal CurriculaCategory:Wind for Schools Elementary School Curricula

80

Crack Surface Roughness in Three-Dimensional Random Fuse Networks  

SciTech Connect

Using large system sizes with extensive statistical sampling, we analyze the scaling properties of crack roughness and damage profiles in the three-dimensional random fuse model. The analysis of damage profiles indicates that damage accumulates in a diffusive manner up to the peak load, and localization sets in abruptly at the peak load starting from a uniform damage landscape. The global crack width scales as $W \\sim L^{0.5}$ and is consistent with the scaling of localization length $\\xi \\sim L^{0.5}$ used in the data collapse of damage profiles in the post-peak regime. This consistency between the global crack roughness exponent and the post-peak damage profile localization length supports the idea that the post-peak damage profile is predominantly due to the localization produced by the catastrophic failure, which at the same time results in the formation of the final crack. Finally, the crack width distributions can be collapsed for different system sizes and follow a log-normal distribution.

Nukala, Phani K [ORNL; Zapperi, Stefano [University of La Sapienza, Rome; Simunovic, Srdjan [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Influence of roughness on near-field heat transfer between two plates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The surface roughness correction to the near-field heat transfer between two rough bulk materials is discussed by using second-order perturbation theory. The results allow for estimating the impact of surface roughness to the heat transfer in recent experiments between two plates and between a microsphere and a plate (using the Derjaguin approximation). Furthermore, we show that the proximity approximation for describing rough surfaces is valid for distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface roughness even if the heat transfer is dominated by the coupling of surface modes.

Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Thick-Shell Nanocrystal Quantum Dots Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous

83

Cloud Optical Thickness Estimation from Irradiance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiative transfer algorithms are developed to estimate the optical thickness of clouds using an irradiance detector located above, deep within, and beneath a cloud. Both monodirectional and diffuse illumination cases are considered. For each ...

H. C. Yi; N. J. McCormick; R. Sanchez

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough-walled fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Flow visualization experiments were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rough-walled fractures. The fracture was inclined to observe the interplay between capillary and gravity forces. Water was introduced into the fracture by a capillary siphon. Preferential flow paths were observed, where intermittent flow frequently occurred. The water infiltration experiments suggest that intermittent flow in fractures appears to be the rule rather than the exception. In order to investigate the mechanism causing intermittent flow in fractures, parallel plates with different apertures were assembled using lucite and glass. A medium-coarse-fine pore structure is believed to cause the intermittency in flow. Intermittent flow was successfully produced in the parallel plate experiments using the lucite plates. After several trials, intermittent flow was also produced in the glass plates.

Su, G.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

On relative permeability of rough-walled fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a conceptual and numerical model of multiphase flow in fractures. The void space of real rough-walled rock fractures is conceptualized as a two-dimensional heterogeneous porous medium, characterized by aperture as a function of position in the fracture plane. Portions of a fracture are occupied by wetting and non-wetting phase, respectively, according to local capillary pressure and accessibility criteria. Phase occupancy and permeability are derived by assuming a parallel-plate approximation for suitably small subregions in the fracture plane. Wetting and non-wetting phase relative permeabilities are calculated by numerically simulating single phase flows separately in the wetted and non-wetted pore spaces. Illustrative examples indicate that relative permeabilities depend sensitively on the nature and range of spatial correlation between apertures. 30 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

Pruess, K.; Tsang, Y.W.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

ROUGH-TOOTHED DOLPHIN (Steno bredanensis): Northern Gulf of Mexico Stock  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The rough-toothed dolphin is distributed worldwide in tropical to warm temperate waters (Leatherwood and Reeves 1983; Miyazaki and Perrin 1994). Rough-toothed dolphins occur in both oceanic and continental shelf waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Fulling et al. 2003; Mullin and Fulling, in review). Rough-toothed dolphins were seen in all seasons during GulfCet aerial surveys of the northern Gulf of Mexico between

Stock Definition; Geographic Range

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Abstract--Face Milling is today the most effective and productive manufacturing method for roughing and finishing large  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Surface Roughness in Cnc Face Milling of Cobalt-Based Alloy (Stellite 6)", The International Journal

Aristomenis, Antoniadis

88

Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance  

SciTech Connect

Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 ?m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

B. R. Marshall

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

90

A Prognostic Relationship for Entrainment Zone Thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thickness of the entrainment zone at the top of the atmospheric mixed layer is analyzed using measurements made with a ground-based lidar during the BLX83 and CIRCE field programs. When the entrainment-zone depth normalized by mixed-layer ...

Eric Nelson; Roland Stull; Edwin Eloranta

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Free Energy of thick Center Vortices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The free energy of thick center vortices is calculated in continuum Yang-Mills theory in one-loop approximation using the proper time regularization. The vortices are represented by Abelian gauge field configurations on the torus which satisfy twisted boundary conditions.

Ch. Korn; H. Reinhardt; T. Tok

2004-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

92

Estimating local thickness for finite element analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Within the development of motor vehicles, crash safety is one of the most important attributes. To comply with the ever increasing requirements of shorter cycle times and costs reduction, car manufacturers keep intensifying the use of virtual development ... Keywords: FEA mesh, automotive crash simulations, ray tracing, structural modelling, thickness estimation

Vânio Ferreira; Luís Paulo Santos; Ricardo Simoes; Markus Franzen; Omar O. Ghouati

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

The center conjecture for thick spherical buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that a convex subcomplex of a spherical building of type E7 or E8 is a subbuilding or the group of building automorphisms preserving the subcomplex has a fixed point in it. Together with previous results of Muehlherr-Tits, and Leeb and the author, this completes the proof of Tits' Center Conjecture for thick spherical buildings.

Ramos-Cuevas, Carlos

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Classical and dominance-based rough sets in the search for genes under balancing selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the time of Kimura’s theory of neutral evolution at molecular level the search for genes under natural selection is one of the crucial problems in population genetics. There exists quite a number of statistical tests designed for it, however, ... Keywords: ATM, BLM, RECQL, WRN, balancing selection, classical rough sets approach, dominance-based rough sets approach, natural selection, neutrality tests

Krzysztof A. Cyran

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Power Transformer Fault Diagnosis Based on Integrated of Rough Set Theory and Evidence Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When using chromatography data analysis in diagnosis of power transformer fault, fault information cannot be make full use, which can't effectively discover knowledge hidden in data. In this paper a method integreted of rough set theory and evidence ... Keywords: Rough Set, Evidence Theory, Power Transformer, Fault Diagnosis

Zhou Ai-Hua, Yao Yi, Song Hong, Zeng Xiao-Hui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

A Simple Formula for Estimation of the Roughness Length for Heat Transfer over Partly Vegetated Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A simple formula for computation of the effective roughness length z0Heff for heat transfer or rather for the parameter kB?1eff [=ln(z0Meff/z0Heff) with z0Meff = roughness length for momentum], which are needed in single-source models for evaluating ...

K. Blümel

1999-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Duct Leakage Modeling in EnergyPlus and Analysis of Energy Savings from Implementing SAV with InCITeTM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

plywood p.25.5 2005 ASHRAE Hdbk of Fundamentals LgOffVAV.idfplywood p.25.5 2005 ASHRAE Hdbk of Fundamentals Thickness

Wray, Craig

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

99

METALLICITY GRADIENTS OF THICK DISK DWARF STARS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We examine the metallicity distribution of the Galactic thick disk using F, G, and K dwarf stars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Data Release 8. Using the large sample of dwarf stars with proper motions and spectroscopically determined stellar parameters, metallicity gradients in the radial direction for various heights above the Galactic plane and in the vertical direction for various radial distances from the Galaxy center have been found. In particular, we find a vertical metallicity gradient of -0.113 {+-} 0.010 (-0.125 {+-} 0.008) dex kpc{sup -1} using an isochrone (photometric) distance determination in the range 1 kpc solar neighborhood. Metallicity gradients in the thin and thick disks are important probes into possible formation scenarios for our Galaxy and a consistent picture is beginning to emerge from results using large spectroscopic surveys, such as the ones presented here.

Carrell, Kenneth; Chen Yuqin; Zhao Gang, E-mail: carrell@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Solar absorption in thick and multilayered glazings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thick and multilayered glazings generally have a nonuniform distribution of absorbed solar radiation which is not taken into account by current methods for calculating the center of glass solar gain and thermal performance of glazing systems. This paper presents a more accurate method for calculating the distribution of absorbed solar radiation inside thick and multilayered glazings and demonstrates that this can result in a small but significant difference in steady-state temperature profile and Solar Heat Gain Coefficient for some types of glazing systems when compared to the results of current methods. This indicates that a more detailed approach to calculating the distribution of absorbed solar radiation inside glazings and resulting thermal performance may be justified for certain applications.

Powles, Rebecca; Curcija, Dragan; Kohler, Christian

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Ultrasonic thickness testing of aging offshore structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objectives of this thesis concern the use of ultrasonic thickness (UT) testing for use in the offshore industry. Evidence from prior studies conducted at Texas A&M University suggests that the corrosion on the surface of offshore structural members is not distributed in a random fashion. It was therefore desired to study the matter more extensively to 1) determine the feasibility of using ultrasonic thickness measurements for assessment of corroded members in offshore structures, 2) determine the amount of data needed for meaningful assessment, and 3) identify any common patterns of corrosion in offshore structural members, which might be used in designing a more effective assessment protocol. First, three specimens from an earlier study were available for use here. These "Riverside Specimens'' were subjected to extensive UT measurements. An important statistical tool, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), was used to determine the probability that thickness variations along the length and around the circumference of each member could be a random event. Both longitudinal and circumferential non-random variations were found in some of these members. A study of reduced sample size confirmed that reduction of data caused more uncertainty in the results. Next, a field study was conducted on recently salvaged offshore jackets in Morgan City, LA. Six tubular bracing specimens (three horizontal, three diagonal) near the splash zone were evaluated. The statistical evidence for corrosion trends was found to be rather weak. Nonetheless, it was possible to make certain generalizations. In particular, the outside facing sections tend to be the most corroded (thinnest), while the surfaces toward the center of the structure tend to be the least corroded (thickest). This also agrees with industry observations. Finally, the effect of sample size on the detection of strength loss was observed. Using some basic assumptions regarding sample mean and standard deviation, it was shown that even with greatly reduced numbers of measurement points, one may still obtain reasonable estimates of critical thickness values corresponding to certain strength loss ratios.

Ellison, Brian Kirk

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

103

Influence of Land Surface Roughness on Atmospheric Circulation and Precipitation: A Sensitivity Study with a General Circulation Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The influence of land surface roughness on the large scale atmospheric circulation and rainfall was examined by comparing three sets of simulations made with a general circulation model in which the land surface roughness length, z0, was reduced ...

Y. C. Sud; J. Shukla; Y. Mintz

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ocean Surface Roughness Spectrum in High Wind Condition for Microwave Backscatter and Emission Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean surface roughness plays an important role in air–sea interaction and ocean remote sensing. Its primary contribution is from surface waves much shorter than the energetic wave components near the peak of the wave energy spectrum. Field ...

Paul A. Hwang; Derek M. Burrage; David W. Wang; Joel C. Wesson

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Hazard avoidance for high-speed rough-terrain unmanned ground vehicles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High-speed unmanned ground vehicles have important applications in rough-terrain. In these applications unexpected and dangerous situations can occur that require rapid hazard avoidance maneuvers. At high speeds, there is ...

Spenko, Matthew J. (Matthew Julius), 1976-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Large Eddy Simulation of Internal Boundary Layers Created by a Change in Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Turbulence in a ?-mesoscale internal boundary layer (IBL) formed by a discontinuous change in surface roughness has been investigated using a large eddy simulation (LES) model to explicitly treat turbulent transport. Two cases are examined: a ...

John W. Glendening; Ching-Long Lin

2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

A Mechanism for Local Dissipation of Internal Tides Generated at Rough Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fine- and micro-structure observations indicate that turbulent mixing is enhanced within O(1) km above rough topography. Enhanced mixing is associated with internal wave breaking and, in many regions of the ocean, has been linked to the breaking ...

Maxim Nikurashin; Sonya Legg

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Roughness Lengths for Momentum and Heat Derived from Outdoor Urban Scale Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban climate experimental results from the Comprehensive Outdoor Scale Model (COSMO) were used to estimate roughness lengths for momentum and heat. Two different physical scale models were used to investigate the scale dependence of the ...

M. Kanda; M. Kanega; T. Kawai; R. Moriwaki; H. Sugawara

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Method for Estimation of Surface Roughness and Similarity Function of Wind Speed Vertical Profile  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is aimed at identifying and refining a method suitable to estimate the surface roughness length (z0) and the universal similarity function of the wind speed profile (?M) based on ultrasonic anemometer measurements carried out at only ...

Roberto Sozzi; Maurizio Favaron; Teodoro Georgiadis

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

On Detection of a Wave Age Dependency for the Sea Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The wave age dependency of the nondimensional sea surface roughness (also called the Charnock parameter) is investigated with data from the new field measurement program at Rødsand in the Danish Baltic Sea. An increasing Charnock parameter with ...

B. Lange; H. K. Johnson; S. Larsen; J. Højstrup; H. Kofoed-Hansen; M. J. Yelland

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Assessment of Roughness Length Schemes Implemented within the Noah Land Surface Model for High Altitude Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Current land surface models still have difficulties with producing reliable surface heat fluxes and skin temperature (Tsfc) estimates for high altitude regions, which may be addressed via adequate parameterization of the roughness lengths for ...

Donghai Zheng; Rogier Van Der Velde; Zhongbo Su; Martijn J. Booij; Arjen Y. Hoekstra

112

Ocean Surface Roughness Spectrum in High Wind Condition for Microwave Backscatter and Emission Computations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ocean surface roughness plays an important role in air-sea interaction and ocean remote sensing. Its primary contribution is from surface waves much shorter than the energetic wave components near the peak of the wave energy spectrum. Field ...

Paul A. Hwang; Derek M. Burrage; David W. Wang; Joel C. Wesson

113

Eddy-Induced Modulation of Turbulent Dissipation over Rough Topography in the Southern Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mesoscale eddies are universal features of the ocean circulation, yet the processes by which their energy is dissipated remain poorly understood. One hypothesis argues that the interaction of strong geostrophic flows with rough bottom topography ...

J. Alexander Brearley; Katy L. Sheen; Alberto C. Naveira Garabato; David A. Smeed; Stephanie Waterman

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Derivation of Effective Aerodynamic Surface Roughness in Urban Areas from Airborne Lidar Terrain Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An automated technique was developed that uses only airborne lidar terrain data to derive the necessary parameters for calculation of effective aerodynamic surface roughness in urban areas. The technique provides parameters for geometric models ...

Donald E. Holland; Judith A. Berglund; Joseph P. Spruce; Rodney D. McKellip

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Scintillometer-Based Estimates of Sensible Heat Flux Using Lidar-Derived Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The estimation of sensible heat flux, H, using large aperture scintillometer (LAS) under varying surface heterogeneity conditions was investigated. Surface roughness features characterized by variable topography and vegetation height were ...

Hatim M. E. Geli; Christopher M. U. Neale; Doyle Watts; John Osterberg; Henk A. R. De Bruin; Wim Kohsiek; Robert T. Pack; Lawrence E. Hipps

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control  

SciTech Connect

Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

Bernitsas, Michael M. (Saline, MI); Raghavan, Kamaldev (Houston, TX)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An 18-inch constant-chord model of the LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions ate University 7{times}10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel. The objective was to document section lift and moment characteristics model and air flow conditions. Surface pressure data was acquired at {minus}60{degrees} through + 230{degrees} geometric angles of attack, at a nominal 1 million Reynolds number. Cases with and without leading edge grit roughness were investigated. The leading edge mulated blade conditions in the field. Additionally, surface pressure data were acquired for Reynolds numbers of 1.5 and 2.0 million, with and without leading edge grit roughness; the angle of attack was limited to a {minus}20{degrees} to 40{degrees} range. In general, results showed lift curve slope sensitivities to Reynolds number and roughness. The maximum lift coefficient was reduced as much as 29% by leading edge roughness. Moment coefficient showed little sensitivity to roughness beyond 50{degrees} angle of attack, but the expected decambering effect of a thicker boundary layer with roughness did show at lower angles. Tests were also conducted with vortex generators located at the 30% chord location on the upper surface only, at 1 and 1.5 million Reynolds numbers, with and without leading edge grit roughness. In general, with leading edge grit roughness applied, the vortex generators restored 85 percent of the baseline level of maximum lift coefficient but with a more sudden stall break and at a higher angle of attack than the baseline.

Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Boundary-Layer Receptivity to Three-Dimensional Roughness Arrays on a Swept-Wing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-going efforts to reduce aircraft drag through transition delay focus on understanding the process of boundary-layer transition from a physics-based perspective. For swept-wings subject to transition dominated by a stationary crossflow instability, one of the remaining challenges is understanding how freestream disturbances and surface features such as surface roughness create the initial amplitudes for unstable waves. These waves grow, modify the mean flow and create conditions for secondary instabilities to occur, which in turn ultimately lead to transition. Computational methods that model the primary and secondary instability growth can accurately model disturbance evolution as long as appropriate initial conditions are supplied. Additionally, transition delay using discrete roughness arrays that exploit known sensitivities to surface roughness has been demonstrated in flight and wind tunnel testing; however, inconsistencies in performance from the two test platforms indicate further testing is required. This study uses detailed hotwire boundary-layer velocity scans to quantify the relationship between roughness height and initial disturbance amplitude. Naphthalene flow visualization provides insight into how transition changes as a result of roughness height and spacing. Micron-sized, circular roughness elements were applied near the leading edge of the ASU(67)-0315 model installed at an angle of attack of -2.9 degrees in the Klebanoff-Saric Wind Tunnel. Extensive flow quality measurements show turbulence intensities less than 0.02% over the speed range of interest. A survey of multiple roughness heights for the most unstable and control wavelengths and Reynolds numbers of 2.4 x 10? 2.8 x 10? and 3.2 x 10? was completed for chord locations of 10%, 15% and 20%. When care was taken to measure in the region of linear stability, it was found that the disturbance amplitude varies almost linearly with roughness height. Naphthalene flow visualization indicates that moderate changes in already-low freestream turbulence levels can have a significant impact on transition behavior.

Hunt, Lauren Elizabeth

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Simulation of surface roughness during the formation of thermal spray coatings  

SciTech Connect

The formation of a thermal spray coating was analyzed to identify methods to reduce the surface roughness of the coating. A new methodology was developed which uses a string of equally spaced node points to define the shape of the coating surface and to track the shape change as the thermal spray mass is deposited. This allows the calculation of arbitrary shapes for the coating surface which may be very complex. The model simulates the stochastic deposition of a large number of thermal spray droplets, where experimental data is used for the mass flux distribution on the target surface. This data shows that when the thermal spray mass impinges on the target surface, a large fraction of it (over-spray) splashes off the target and is re-deposited with a small spray angle, resulting in a large coating roughness. This analysis was used in a parameter study to identify methods for reducing the coating roughness. Effect of the shape of the profile for the pre-roughened substrate was found to be small. Decreasing the droplet size by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 13%. Increasing the spray angle for the over-spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 50%, and decreasing the amount of over- spray by a factor of 2 decreased the roughness by 51%.

Kanouff, M.P.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Radiation phantom with humanoid shape and adjustable thickness  

SciTech Connect

A radiation phantom comprising a body with a general humanoid shape and at least a portion having an adjustable thickness. In one embodiment, the portion with an adjustable thickness comprises at least one tissue-equivalent slice.

Lehmann, Joerg (Pleasanton, CA); Levy, Joshua (Salem, NY); Stern, Robin L. (Lodi, CA); Siantar, Christine Hartmann (Livermore, CA); Goldberg, Zelanna (Carmichael, CA)

2006-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Piezoelectric Thick-Film Structures for High-Frequency Transducer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dielectric, mechanical and piezoelectric parameters of selected thick films will be ... and Their Electrochemical Performance for Energy Storage Applications

122

Stochastic modeling of random roughness in shock scattering problems: theory and simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Random rougness is omnipresent in engineering applications and may often affect performance in unexpected way. Here, we employ synergistically stochastic simulations and second-order stochastic perturbation analysis to study supersonic flow past a wedge with random rough surface. The roughness (of length $d$) starting at the wedge apex is modeled as stochastic process (with zero mean and correlation length $A$) obtained from a new stochastic differential equation. A multi-element probabilistic collocation method (ME-PCM) based on {\\em sparse grids} is employed to solve the stochastic Euler equations while a WENO scheme is used to discretize the equations in two spatial dimensions. The perturbation analysis is used to verify the stochastic simulations and to provide insight for small values of $A$, where stochastic simulations become prohibitively expensive. % We show that the random roughness enhances the lift and drag forces on the wedge beyond the rough region, and this enhancement is proportional to $(d/A)^2$. The effects become more pronounced as the Mach number increases. These results can be used in designing smart rough skins for airfoils for maxiumum lift enhancement at a minimum drag penalty.

Lin, Guang; Su, Chau-Hsing; Karniadakis, George E.

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Kemiteknik -Vrme-och strmningsteknik Processteknikens grunder (PTG) 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.2 cm thick laid over plywood 2.0 cm thick. In winter, the basement air is at 15o C while = 0.17 W/m·K, plywood = 0.12 W/m·K #12;4. Old PTG exam question (5+1 = 6 p.) En aluminium (Al) kub

Zevenhoven, Ron

124

Tailoring interfacial exchange coupling with low-energy ion beam bombardment: Tuning the interface roughness  

SciTech Connect

By ascertaining NiO surface roughness in a Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/NiO film system, we were able to correlate the effects of altered interface roughness from low-energy ion-beam bombardment of the NiO layer and the different thermal instabilities in the NiO nanocrystallites. From experiment and by modelling the temperature dependence of the exchange bias field and coercivity, we have found that reducing the interface roughness and changing the interface texture from an irregular to striped conformation enhanced the exchange coupling strength. Our results were in good agreement with recent simulations using the domain state model that incorporated interface mixing.

Lin, K.-W.; Shueh, C.; Huang, H.-R.; Hsu, H.-F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Tiachung 402, Taiwan (China); Mirza, M.; Lierop, J. van [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

2012-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

125

Adhesive contact of rough surfaces: comparison between numerical calculations and analytical theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have employed a numerical procedure to analyze the adhesive contact between a soft elastic layer and a rough rigid substrate. The solution of the problem is obtained by calculating the Green's function which links the pressure distribution to the normal displacements at the interface. The problem is then formulated in the form of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind with a logarithmic kernel, and the boundaries of the contact area are calculated by requiring that the energy of the system is stationary. The methodology has been employed to study the adhesive contact between an elastic semi-infinite solid and a randomly rough rigid profile with a self-affine fractal geometry. We show that, even in presence of adhesion, the true contact area still linearly depends on the applied load. The numerical results are then critically compared with the prediction of an extended version of the Persson's contact mechanics theory, able to handle anisotropic surfaces, as 1D interfaces. It is shown that, for any given load, Persson's theory underestimates the contact area of about 50% in comparison with our numerical calculations. We find that this discrepancy is larger than what is found for 2D rough surfaces in case of adhesionless contact. We argue that this increased difference might be explained, at least partially, by considering that Persson's theory is a mean field theory in spirit, so it should work better for 2D rough surfaces rather than for 1D rough surfaces. We also observe, that the predicted value of separation is in very good agreement with our numerical results as well as the exponent of the power spectral density of the contact pressure distribution and of the elastic displacement of the solid. Therefore, we conclude that Persson's theory captures almost exactly the main qualitative behavior of the rough contact phenomena.

Giuseppe Carbone; Michele Scaraggi; Ugo Tartaglino

2010-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

126

Kosterlitz-Thouless Transition in 4He Films Adsorbed to Rough Calcium Fluoride  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Previous measurements in our lab have shown that the onset of superfluidity at the KT transition, typically seen as a sharp change in the frequency of a smooth-surface quartz crystal microbalance, becomes less identifiable in the presence of increasing surface roughness or disorder, while the peak in the dissipation is unchanged. Using a series of microbalances coated with increasingly rough CaF2, we have extended our measurements to lower 4He film coverages and thus lower temperatures. We find at lower 4He coverages that the presence of disorder on the substrate has a diminished effect on the frequency shift.

Luhman, D. R.; Hallock, R. B. [Laboratory of Low Temperature Physics, Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 01003 (United States)

2006-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Global Distribution of Ice Cloud Particle Shape and Roughness from PARASOL Satellite Measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The energy balance of the Earth is regulated in part by ice clouds, which both reflect shortwave solar radiation and absorb infrared radiation from the Earth. These clouds appear frequently worldwide, with up to 70% coverage in tropical regions. The microphysics of ice clouds determines their radiative properties, and is important for accurately predicting the role of ice clouds in Earth’s energy balance. However, describing the microphysics of ice clouds remains a challenging problem, especially with regard to the shape of ice particles and the degree of ice particle surface roughening. In-situ studies have found evidence for ice surface roughness and have found many complex ice geometries; however, these studies are limited spatially and temporally. An approach which allows large-scale analysis is to retrieve these properties via theoretical modeling using satellite observations of polarized reflectance from ice clouds, since polarized reflectance is sensitive to the shape and roughness of ice particles. The theoretical model requires the scattering properties of simulated ice particles. These properties are obtained for 10 different ice shapes and 17 different levels of surface roughness. Simulations are performed for 3 different effective ice particle diameters: 30, 60 and 90 ?m. Overall, the retrieved shape is dominated by the compact aggregate of columns. Although the exact composition of shapes varies from month to month, the compact aggregate of columns remains the most commonly retrieved shape. The retrieved roughness varies from moderately rough at ? = 0.1 to severely rough at ? = 0.5. Retrieved roughness varies more than shape, and smooth surfaced ice is most prominent in January. Tropical regions tend to have ice particles that are more roughened, while the midlatitudes and polar regions tend to have more smooth ice. In almost all cases, roughened ice represents > 60% of the total retrievals. The asymmetry parameter inferred from the retrieval of ice particle shape and roughness has a mean value near 0.77, with only small differences based on assumed ice effective diameter. The median value of the asymmetry parameter has a nearly constant value of approximately 0.75.

Cole, Benjamin

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Fetch Dependent Model Of Sea Surface Roughness For Offshore Wind Power Utilisation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The sea surface roughness z 0 is usually determined from friction velocity u * with the Charnock relation as z 0 =z ch u * /g, where g is the gravitational acceleration and z ch an empirical parameter, which was meant to be a constant, but turned out to be site specific for sites with coastal influence. Several attempts to improve this relation aim on finding a power law between a non-dimensional sea surface roughness and a non-dimensional group describing the influence of the wave field. The Rdsand field measurement was used to test several proposed relations. A significant

Bernhard Lange; Jørgen Højstrup; Søren Larsen; Rebecca Barthelmie

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thick planar domain wall: its thin wall limit and dynamics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider a planar gravitating thick domain wall of the $\\lambda \\phi^4$ theory as a spacetime with finite thickness glued to two vacuum spacetimes on each side of it. Darmois junction conditions written on the boundaries of the thick wall with the embedding spacetimes reproduce the Israel junction condition across the wall in the limit of infinitesimal thickness. The thick planar domain wall located at a fixed position is then transformed to a new coordinate system in which its dynamics can be formulated. It is shown that the wall's core expands as if it were a thin wall. The thickness in the new coordinates is not constant anymore and its time dependence is given.

S. Ghassemi; S. Khakshournia; R. Mansouri

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

130

Generalized triangle inequalities in thick Euclidean buildings of rank 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We give the generalized triangle inequalities which determine the possible vector valued side lengths of n-gons in thick Euclidean buildings of rank 2.

Ramos-Cuevas, Carlos

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Numerical Investigation of Residual Stress in Thick Titanium Alloy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 22, 2010 ... thick welded components with EBW is very difficult, especially for .... Because the welded plate is symmetrical about the weld centerline, only ...

132

Rough Sets in the Interpretation of Statistical Tests Outcomes for Genes Under Hypothetical Balancing Selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Detection of natural selection at the molecular level is one of the crucial problems in contemporary population genetics. There exists a number of statistical tests designed for it, however, the interpretation of the outcomes is often obscure, because ... Keywords: ATM, BLM, RECQL, WRN, natural selection, neutrality tests, rough sets

Krzysztof Cyran

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

The Rough Guide to the iPad, 2nd edition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It's an eBook reader. It's a touch-screen computer. It's a games machine. It's a movie player. It's for browsing the web and sending emails. Whatever you think the Apple iPad is, "The Rough Guide to the iPad" will show you that it's so much more, and ...

Peter Buckley

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Controller Design for the Khepera Robot: A Rough Set Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Khepera robot belongs to the family of miniature mobile robots of the K-Team firm. It is used in a number of places for scientific and educational purposes. Considering its advantages (such as small size, precision of movement, ease of control), ... Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Khepera robot, control design, expert system, fuzzy systems, machine learning, rough sets

Zbigniew Suraj; James F. Peters; Piotr Grochowalski

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Discovering patterns of missing data in survey databases: An application of rough sets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Databases for data mining often have missing values. Missing data are often mistreated in data mining and valuable knowledge related to missing data is often overlooked. This study discusses patterns of missing data in survey databases. It proposes a ... Keywords: Association rules, Data mining, Knowledge discovery, Missing values, Rough sets, Rule induction, Survey

Hai Wang; Shouhong Wang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of Roughness as Determined by Atomic Force Microscopy on the Wetting Properties of PTFE Thin Engineering College of Mines and Earth Sciences University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 and G. YAMAUCHI films has been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle goniometry. Surface

Drelich, Jaroslaw W.

137

Contribution of Boussinesq pressure and bottom roughness terms for open channel flows with shocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For high-velocity flows accompanied with hydraulic jump, this paper attempts to evaluate the contribution of non-hydrostatic (i.e., Boussinesq) pressure term and the bottom roughness coefficient. To perform this analysis, we have solved the one-dimensional ... Keywords: high resolution, hydraulic jump, hydrostatic, modeling, shocks

Prasada Rao

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Rough Terrain Autonomous Mobility—Part 2: An Active Vision, Predictive Control Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Off-road autonomous navigation is one of the most difficult automation challenges from the point of view of constraints on mobility, speed of motion, lack of environmental structure, density of hazards, and typical lack of prior information. ... Keywords: autonomous vehicles, goal-seeking, mobile robots, obstacle avoidance, requirements analysis, rough terrain mobility, terrain mapping, trajectory generation

Alonzo Kelly; Anthony Stentz

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Stock Trading Using RSPOP: A Novel Rough Set-Based Neuro-Fuzzy Approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigates the method of forecasting stock price difference on artificially generated price series data using neuro-fuzzy systems and neural networks. As trading profits is more important to an investor than statistical performance, this ... Keywords: Forecasting theory, fuzzy neural networks, rough set theory, stock market, time series

K. K. Ang; C. Quek

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

A New Drag Relation for Aerodynamically Rough Flow over the Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From almost 7000 near-surface eddy-covariance flux measurements over the sea, the authors deduce a new air–sea drag relation for aerodynamically rough flow:Here u* is the measured friction velocity, and UN10 is the neutral-stability wind speed at ...

Edgar L Andreas; Larry Mahrt; Dean Vickers

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Effective thermal conductivity of rough spherical packed beds Majid Bahrami *, M. Michael Yovanovich, J. Richard Culham  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

relationships. The present model accounts for the thermophysical properties of spheres and the gas, load-dimensional numerical analysis which makes the FEM modeling extremely expen- sive from the calculative point of view [3]. In addition, ther- mal contact resistance (TCR) of rough spheres must be fed into the software as boundary

Bahrami, Majid

142

Application of Particle Swarm Optimization technique for achieving desired milled surface roughness in minimum machining time  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Face milling is a widely used machining operation to produce various components. The finished component depends not only on the dimensional accuracy but also on the surface finish. The present method of selection of machining parameters by trial and ... Keywords: Face milling, Machining parameters, Machining time, Particle Swarm Optimization, Surface roughness

S. Bharathi Raja; N. Baskar

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Combining rough set and case based reasoning for process conditions selection in camshaft grinding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Case Based Reasoning (CBR) is a novel paradigm that uses previous cases to solve new, unseen and different problems. However, redundant features may not only dramatically increase the case memory, but also make the case retrieval more time-consuming. ... Keywords: Camshaft grinding, Case based reasoning, Case evaluation, Case reclassify, Feature reduction, Genetic algorithm, Rough set

X. H. Zhang; Z. H. Deng; W. Liu; H. Cao

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Velocity Variance in the Urban Surface Roughness Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data from six urban areas in a nationwide network of sites within the surface roughness layer are examined. It is found that the average velocity variances in time, derived by averaging the conventional variances from a network of n stations, are ...

Bruce B. Hicks; Elena Novakovskaia; Ronald J. Dobosy; William R. Pendergrass III; William J. Callahan

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Rough set-based approach for modeling relationship measures in product planning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Quality function deployment (QFD) provides a planning and problem-solving methodology that is widely renowned for translating customer requirements (CRs) into engineering characteristics (ECs) for new product development. As the first phase of QFD, product ... Keywords: Customer requirement, Engineering characteristic, Quality function deployment, Relationship measure, Rough set

Yan-Lai Li; Jia-Fu Tang; Kwai-Sang Chin; Xing-Gang Luo; Yi Han

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Exploring the boundary region of tolerance rough sets for feature selection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Of all of the challenges which face the effective application of computational intelligence technologies for pattern recognition, dataset dimensionality is undoubtedly one of the primary impediments. In order for pattern classifiers to be efficient, ... Keywords: Attribute reduction, Classification, Feature selection, Rough sets

Neil Mac Parthaláin; Qiang Shen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

The generic genetic algorithm incorporates with rough set theory - An application of the web services composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Evolutionary computing (EC) techniques have been used traditionally used for solving challenging optimization problems. But the increase in data and information has reduced the performance capacity of the GA, but highlighted the cost of finding a solution ... Keywords: Generic, Genetic algorithm, Rough set, Web services, Web services composition

Wen-Yau Liang; Chun-Che Huang

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Uncertainty handling in navigation services using rough and fuzzy set theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Navigation services, such as used in cars, are widely used nowadays. Many applications, positioning technologies and techniques have been developed to make navigation systems easier to use. However current navigation systems suffer from different aspects ... Keywords: fuzzy set theory, location based services, navigation services, rough set theory, spatio-temporal objects, uncertainty

Anahid Basiri; Pouria Amirian; Adam Winstanley; Colin Kuntzsch; Monika Sester

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics: Nano Structured Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics  

SciTech Connect

ADEPT Project: Magnetic components are typically the largest components in a power converter. To date, however, researchers haven't found an effective way to reduce their size without negatively impacting their performance. And, reducing the size of the converter's other components isn't usually an option because shrinking them can also diminish the effectiveness of the magnetic components. GE is developing smaller magnetic components for power converters that maintain high performance levels. The company is building smaller components with magnetic films. These films are created using the condensation of a vaporized form of the magnetic material. It's a purely physical process that involves no chemical reactions, so the film composition is uniform. This process makes it possible to create a millimeter-thick film deposition over a wide surface area fairly quickly, which would save on manufacturing costs. In fact, GE can produce 1-10 millimeter-thick films in hours. The magnetic components that GE is developing for this project could be used in a variety of applications, including solar inverters, electric vehicles, and lighting.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Transformer fault diagnosis based on reasoning integration of rough set and fuzzy set and Bayesian optimal classifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In accordance with intelligent complementary strategies, a new transformer fault diagnosis method is proposed based on rough set (RS) and fuzzy set (FS) and Bayesian optimal classifier in this paper. Through RS reduction, the diagnostic decision table ... Keywords: Bayesian optimal classifier, fault diagnosis, fuzzy set, information entropy, intelligent complementary, rough set, transformer

Hongsheng Su; Haiying Dong

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud  

SciTech Connect

The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating adhered to a substrate. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer is used to induce surface waves into the coating. The surface waves have a selected frequency and a fixed wavelength. Interpolation is used to determine the frequency of surface waves that propagate through the coating with the least attenuation. The phase velocity of the surface waves having this frequency is then calculated. The phase velocity is compared to known phase velocity/thickness tables to determine the thickness of the coating.

Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tow, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walter, John B (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

2009-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

154

The Resonator Impedance Model of Surface Roughness Applied to the LCLS Parameters  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The resonator impedance model of surface roughness in a cylindrical beam tube, derived in Ref. 1, is compared to the inductive impedance model of Ref. 2. It is shown that for long, smooth bunches the two models both give an inductive response, that the e#ective inductance per length is proportional to the corrugation depth over the beam pipe radius, and that the absolute results also are comparable. For a non-smooth bunch shape, such as is found in the undulator region of the LCLS, however, the inductive impedance model is no longer valid; and the resonator model gives a non-inductive response, with the induced energy spread decreasing much more slowly with increasing bunch length than for a smooth distribution. When applied to the actual bunch shape and parameters in the LCLS, the resonator model predicts that, to remain within tolerances for induced energy spread, the beam tube roughness must be kept to 10 nm. Further calculations suggest, however, that if the period-to-depth aspect ratio of the surface features is large, #as has been found in recent measurements of polished beam tube surfaces#, then the wake#eld e#ect may be greatly suppressed, and the roughness tolerance greatly increased.

Karl L.F. Bane; Alexander Novokhatskii

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

THOR—Cloud Thickness from Offbeam Lidar Returns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional wisdom is that lidar pulses do not significantly penetrate clouds having an optical thickness exceeding about ? = 2, and that no returns are detectible from more than a shallow skin depth. Yet optically thicker clouds of ? ? 2 ...

Robert F. Cahalan; Matthew McGill; John Kolasinski; Tamás Várnai; Ken Yetzer

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Reactor physics assessment of thick silicon carbide clad PWR fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High temperature tolerance, chemical stability and low neutron affinity make silicon carbide (SiC) a potential fuel cladding material that may improve the economics and safety of light water reactors (LWRs). "Thick" SiC ...

Bloore, David A. (David Allan)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Estimation of Cirrus Optical Thickness from Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is proposed to estimate the optical thickness of cirrus clouds from ground-based sun photometry. Transfer calculations of solar radiation in ice clouds were made by the Monte Carlo method. A scattering phase function presented by Takano ...

Masataka Shiobara; Shoji Asano

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Consistent 4D cortical thickness measurement for longitudinal neuroimaging study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Accurate and reliable method for measuring the thickness of human cerebral cortex provides powerful tool for diagnosing and studying of a variety of neuro-degenerative and psychiatric disorders. In these studies, capturing the subtle longitudinal changes ...

Yang Li; Yaping Wang; Zhong Xue; Feng Shi; Weili Lin; Dinggang Shen

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing  

SciTech Connect

Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

2011-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Improving the Noah Land Surface Model in Arid Regions with an Appropriate Parameterization of the Thermal Roughness Length  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Daytime land surface temperatures in arid and semiarid regions are typically not well simulated in current land surface models (LSMs). This study first evaluates the importance of parameterizing the thermal roughness length (z0h) to model the ...

Yingying Chen; Kun Yang; Degang Zhou; Jun Qin; Xiaofeng Guo

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A New Scheme for Effective Roughness Length and Effective Zero-Plane Displacement in Land Surface Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the similarity theory of the atmospheric surface layer and the flux conservation and mass conservation laws, a new scheme for determining the effective roughness length (ERL) and the effective zero-plane displacement (EZPD) for a ...

Zhong Zhong; Wei Lu; Shuai Song; Yaocun Zhang

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Influences of Sea Surface Temperature Gradients and Surface Roughness Changes on the Motion of Surface Oil: A Simple Idealized Study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors' modeling shows that changes in sea surface temperature (SST) gradients and surface roughness between oil-free water and oil slicks influence the motion of the slick. Physically significant changes occur in surface wind speed, surface ...

Yangxing Zheng; Mark A. Bourassa; Paul Hughes

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

A Self-Contained Sector-Scanning Sonar for Bottom Roughness Observations as Part of Sediment Transport Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Studies and models of sediment transport in the bottom boundary layer require knowledge of the bottom roughness as a parameter affecting the suspension and transport of sediment. Knowledge of this has often been quite imprecise since measurements ...

J. D. Irish; J. F. Lynch; P. A. Traykovski; A. E. Newhall; K. Prada; A. E. Hay

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

An Improvement of Roughness Height Parameterization of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) over the Tibetan Plateau  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Roughness height for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in the estimation of sensible heat flux. In this study, the performance of the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) has been tested and evaluated for typical land surfaces on the Tibetan ...

Xuelong Chen; Zhongbo Su; Yaoming Ma; Kun Yang; Jun Wen; Yu Zhang

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness  

SciTech Connect

We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N?-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N?-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (?-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang (Frank) [Frank; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S814 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Horizontal-axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the design of new rotor airfoils. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can also be used to validate analytical computer codes. An S814 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 X 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 X 5) under steady flow with both stationary model conditions and pitch oscillations. To study the extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25 and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. While the model underwent pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions {+-}5.5{degrees} and {+-}10{degrees}, were used; at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation.

Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR  

SciTech Connect

Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Experimental investigation of electric field distributions in a chaotic 3D microwave rough billiard  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the first experimental study of the electric field distributions E_N of a three-dimensional (3D) microwave chaotic rough billiard with the translational symmetry. The translational symmetry means that the cross-section of the billiard is invariant under translation along z direction. The 3D electric field distributions were measured up to the level number N = 489. In this way the experimental spatial correlation functions C_{N,p}(x,s) ~ were found and compared with the theoretical ones. The experimental results for higher two-dimensional level number N_{|} appeared to be in good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

Oleg Tymoshchuk; Nazar Savytskyy; Oleh Hul; Szymon Bauch; Leszek Sirko

2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

169

Artificial Neural Network and Rough Set for HV Bushings Condition Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most transformer failures are attributed to bushings failures. Hence it is necessary to monitor the condition of bushings. In this paper three methods are developed to monitor the condition of oil filled bushing. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP), Radial basis function (RBF) and Rough Set (RS) models are developed and combined through majority voting to form a committee. The MLP performs better that the RBF and the RS is terms of classification accuracy. The RBF is the fasted to train. The committee performs better than the individual models. The diversity of models is measured to evaluate their similarity when used in the committee.

Mpanza, LJ

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Ant Colony Optimization of Rough Set for HV Bushings Fault Detection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most transformer failures are attributed to bushings failures. Hence it is necessary to monitor the condition of bushings. In this paper three methods are developed to monitor the condition of oil filled bushing. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP), Radial basis function (RBF) and Rough Set (RS) models are developed and combined through majority voting to form a committee. The MLP performs better that the RBF and the RS is terms of classification accuracy. The RBF is the fasted to train. The committee performs better than the individual models. The diversity of models is measured to evaluate their similarity when used in the committee.

Mpanza, J L

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Study of semantic features of dimensional adjective Cu 'thick' in mandarin chinese  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cu 'thick' is an adjective which is used to describe an object's spatial dimension of thickness. Cu 'thick' used to describe cylindrical objects shares the same sense in essence with Cu 'thick' used to describe granular objects, ... Keywords: Cu 'thick', dimensional adjective, semantic features

Ying Wu

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Materials » Advanced Materials » Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick Protective Coatings A method for applying a protective coating on an article. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Spray Shadowing For Stress Relief And Mechanical Locking In Thick Protective Coatings A method for applying a protective coating on an article, comprising the following steps: selecting an article with a surface for applying a coating thickness; creating undercut grooves on the article, where the grooves depend beneath the surface to a bottom portion with the grooves having an upper width on the surface and a lower width on the bottom portion connected by side walls, where at least one of the side walls connects the

173

Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

Perdieu, Louisa H. (Overland Park, KS)

2000-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

174

Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Bryan Pivovar (PI) Bryan Pivovar (PI) National Renewable Energy Laboratory Sept 30, 2009 Extended, Continuous Pt Nanostructures in Thick, Dispersed Electrodes This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information Objectives To assist the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program in meeting cost, durability, and performance targets in the areas of Electrocatalysts and MEAs. Approach: Novel Synthesis and Electrode Studies Pt nanotubes (UC-R) Pt coated carbon nanotubes Synthesis of novel catalysts based on extended surfaces due to 3M's demonstrated improvements in specific activity and durability using similar systems. Electrode architecture design, based on novel catalyst structures that allow thick (~10 µm), dispersed electrodes to

175

Some thick brane solutions in $f(R)$-gravity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thick brane model is considered in $f(R)\\sim R^n$ gravity. It is shown that regular asymptotically anti-de Sitter solutions exist in some range of values of the parameter $n$. A peculiar feature of this model is the existence of a fixed point in the phase plane where all solutions start, and the brane can be placed at this point. The presence of the fixed point allows to avoid fine tuning of the model parameters to obtain thick brane solutions.

V. Dzhunushaliev; V. Folomeev; B. Kleihaus; J. Kunz

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

176

Codeposition on hot CVD surfaces: Particle dynamics and deposit roughness interactions  

SciTech Connect

To capture in a tractable manner essential coupling effects in CVD systems when particles generated in thermal boundary layers also deposit, a film theory was developed that predicts simultaneous vapor and particle deposition rates at a hot deposition surface. The codeposition rate prediction method also calculates for the first time the corresponding solid deposit roughness using recently published results of particle-level simulations. For the numerical illustrations, the growth of TiO{sub 2}(s) films by the codeposition of titanium tetra-isopropoxide vapor and film-nucleated/grown TiO{sub 2} particles (generated in the thermal boundary layer) was considered. Experimental rate data for this system are available. The continuum and particle-level simulation methods provide: the interplay of vapor precursor kinetics, particle nucleation, growth, coagulation and diffusion in determining the complex ``structure`` of such multiphase chemically reacting boundary layers; wall deposition rates of both surviving vapors and film-nucleated particles; and the ``self-consistent`` microstructure (surface roughness) of the resulting solid deposit. Timely and tractable generalizations are discussed in the light of recent results for the transport properties and stability of ``fractal-like`` aggregated particles.

Tandon, P.; Rosner, D.E. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States)

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Adhesive contact of rough surfaces: comparison between numerical calculations and analytical theories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have employed a numerical procedure to analyze the adhesive contact between a soft elastic layer and a rough rigid substrate. The solution of the problem is obtained by calculating the Green's function which links the pressure distribution to the normal displacements at the interface. The problem is then formulated in the form of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind with a logarithmic kernel, and the boundaries of the contact area are calculated by requiring that the energy of the system is stationary. The methodology has been employed to study the adhesive contact between an elastic semi-infinite solid and a randomly rough rigid profile with a self-affine fractal geometry. We show that, even in presence of adhesion, the true contact area still linearly depends on the applied load. The numerical results are then critically compared with the prediction of an extended version of the Persson's contact mechanics theory, able to handle anisotropic surfaces, as 1D interfaces. It is shown that, for any ...

Carbone, Giuseppe; Tartaglino, Ugo; 10.1140/epje/i2009-10508-5

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Predicting Daily Maximum Temperatures Using Linear Regression and Eta Geopotential Thickness Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationship between forecast geopotential thickness and observed maximum temperature is investigated, and regression equations are calculated using numerical model thickness forecasts for Nashville. Model thickness forecast accuracy is shown ...

Darrell R. Massie; Mark A. Rose

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Design of thermal imprinting system with uniform residual thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new thermal imprinting system for the printed circuit boards (PCBs) with both large areas and fine conducting lines was developed adopting hot airs with a high pressure. Several small nickel stamps were used to cover the large area, and the stamps ... Keywords: Patterned circuit boards, Thermal imprinting system, Uniformity of residual thickness

Won-Ho Shin

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Effects of Membrane- and Catalyst-layer-thickness Nonuniformities in Polymer-electrolyte Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thicknesses for the membrane and catalyst layer. Figure 2.of dry membrane (a) and catalyst-layer (b) thickness (andhollow symbols) and catalyst-layer (filled symbols)

Weber, Adam Z.; Newman, John

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs are usually low due to poor permeability. As such, state-of-the-art technology must be used to economically develop the resource. TGS formations need to be hydraulically fractured in order to enhance the gas production rates. A majority of these reservoirs can be described as thick, multilayered gas systems. Many reservoirs are hundreds of feet thick and some are thousands of feet thick. The technology used to complete and stimulate thick, tight gas reservoirs is quite complex. It is often difficult to determine the optimum completion and stimulating techniques in thick reservoirs. The optimum methods are functions of many parameters, such as depth, pressure, temperature, in-situ stress and the number of layers. In multilayered reservoirs, it is important to include several sand layers in a single completion. The petroleum literature contains information on the various diversion techniques involved in the completion of these multilayered reservoirs. In this research, we have deduced and evaluated eight possible techniques that have been used in the oil and gas industry to divert multilayered fracture treatments in layered reservoirs. We have developed decision charts, economic analyses and computer programs that will assist completion engineers in determining which of the diversion methods are feasible for a given well stimulation. Our computer programs have been tested using case histories from the petroleum literature with results expressed in this thesis. A limited entry design program has also being developed from this research to calculate the fluid distribution into different layers when fracture treating multilayered tight gas reservoirs using the limited entry technique. The research is aimed at providing decision tools which will eventually be input into an expert advisor for well completions in tight gas reservoirs worldwide.

Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

A study of pitch oscillation and roughness on airfoils used for horizontal axis wind turbines  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Under subcontract XF-1-11009-3 the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed an extensive database of empirical aerodynamic data. These data will assist in the development of analytical models and in the design of new airfoils for wind turbines. To accomplish the main objective, airfoil models were designed, built and wind tunnel tested with and without model leading edge grit roughness (LEGR). LEGR simulates surface irregularities due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. This report is a summary of project project activity for Phase III, which encompasses the time period from September 17, 1 993 to September 6, 1 994.

Gregorek, G.M.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ramsay, R.R.; Janiszewska, J.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Experimental and theoretical studies of friction and heat transfer in rough passages  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses activities during this reporting period. A paper based on the results presented in the first final report (DOE/CE/90029-2) and entitled The Role of Transition in Determining Friction and Heat Transfer in Smooth and Rough Passages'' was published in the October issue (Volume 33) of the International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. Beginning with the minimum objectives established at the outset of the period covered by this report, the general picture can be summed up as follows: detailed heat transfer and pressure drop (with and without heating) measurements with the smooth tube, fabrication of the eleven (enhanced tube) heat transfer test sections, tests with two of the three Hitachi tubes, and the construction of the liquid test facility were completed. In short, the minimum objectives were, for the most part, accomplished satisfactorily. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Numerical study of roughness distributions in nonlinear models of interface growth  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the shapes of roughness distributions of discrete models in the Kardar, Parisi and Zhang (KPZ) and in the Villain, Lai and Das Sarma (VLDS) classes of interface growth, in one and two dimensions. Three KPZ models in d=2 confirm the expected scaling of the distribution and show a stretched exponential tail approximately as exp[-x^(0.8)], with a significant asymmetry near the maximum. Conserved restricted solid-on-solid models belonging to the VLDS class were simulated in d=1 and d=2. The tail in d=1 has the form exp(-x^2) and, in d=2, has a simple exponential decay, but is quantitatively different from the distribution of the linear fourth-order (Mullins-Herring) theory. It is not possible to fit any of the above distributions to those of 1/f^\\alpha noise interfaces, in contrast with recently studied models with depinning transitions.

Fabio D. A. Aarão Reis

2005-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

185

Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

186

Fluid flow analysis in a rough fracture (type II) using complex networks and lattice Boltzmann method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Complexity of fluid flow in a rough fracture is induced by the complex configurations of opening areas between the fracture planes. In this study, we model fluid flow in an evolvable real rock joint structure, which under certain normal load is sheared. In an experimental study, information regarding about apertures of the rock joint during consecutive 20 mm displacements and fluid flow (permeability) in different pressure heads have been recorded by a scanner laser. Our aim in this study is to simulate the fluid flow in the mentioned complex geometries using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), while the characteristics of the aperture field will be compared with the modeled fluid flow permeability To characterize the aperture, we use a new concept in the graph theory, namely: complex networks and motif analysis of the corresponding networks. In this approach, the similar aperture profile along the fluid flow direction is mapped in to a network space. The modeled permeability using the LBM shows good correlat...

Ghaffari, H; Sharifzadeh, M; Young, R P

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

188

Chamber Surface Roughness and Electron Cloud for the Advanced Photon Source Superconducting Undulator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The electron cloud is a possible heat source in the superconducting undulator (SCU) designed for the Advanced Photon Source (APS), a 7-GeV electron synchrotron radiation source at Argonne National Laboratory. In electron cloud generation extensive research has been done, and is continuing, to understand the secondary electron component. However, little work has been done to understand the parameters of photoemission in the accelerator environment. To better understand the primary electron generation in the APS; a beamline at the Australian Light Source synchrotron was used to characterize two samples of the Al APS vacuum chamber. The total photoelectron yield and the photoemission spectra were measured. Four parameters were varied: surface roughness, sample temperature, incident photon energy, and incident photon angle, with their results presented here.

Boon, Laura

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

190

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

SciTech Connect

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

191

Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the solar reflectance of asphalt roofing shingles that are covered with pigmented mineral roofing granules. The reflecting surface is rough, with a total area approximately twice the nominal area. We introduce a simple analytical model that relates the 'micro-reflectance' of a small surface region to the 'macro-reflectance' of the shingle. This model uses a mean field approximation to account for multiple scattering effects. The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are known. Simple linear averaging works well, with small corrections to linear averaging derived for highly reflective materials. Reflective base granules and reflective surface coatings aid achievement of high solar reflectance. Other factors that influence the solar reflectance are the size distribution of the granules, coverage of the asphalt substrate, and orientation of the granules as affected by rollers during fabrication.

Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Jacobs, Jeffry; Klink, Frank

2008-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

192

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0417MOD airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculations of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation caused by surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and/or the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. An LS(l)-0417MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5%{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions foil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

Janiszewska, J.M.; Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the LS(1)-0421MOD airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An LS(1)-0421 MOD airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. In order to study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) pattern was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, and 1.25 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}10{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data was acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For this report, unsteady conditions refer to the model in pitch oscillation. In general, the maximum unsteady lift coefficient was from 10% to 50% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient. Variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient was nearly two times greater than steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation for accurate load estimates.

Reuss, R.L.; HOffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S815 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are cause by the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S815 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel (3 x 5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degree}, 14{degree}, and 20{degree}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

Reuss Ramsay, R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for FocusingSoft X-rays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi,Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W.

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

196

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S801 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Horizontal axis wind turbine rotors experience unsteady aerodynamics due to wind shear when the rotor is yawed, when rotor blades pass through the support tower wake, and when the wind is gusting. An understanding of this unsteady behavior is necessary to assist in the calculation of rotor performance and loads. The rotors also experience performance degradation due to surface roughness. These surface irregularities are due to the accumulation of insect debris, ice, and the aging process. Wind tunnel studies that examine both the steady and unsteady behavior of airfoils can help define pertinent flow phenomena, and the resultant data can be used to validate analytical computer codes. A S801 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3x5 subsonic wind tunnel (3x5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, as well as with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was used to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers used for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used, {plus_minus} 5.5 {degrees}and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees} 14{degrees} and 20{degrees} For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means that the airfoil model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord.

Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

The Turbulence Power Spectrum in Optically Thick Interstellar Clouds  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Fourier power spectrum is one of the most widely used statistical tools to analyze the nature of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the interstellar medium. Lazarian & Pogosyan (2004) predicted that the spectral slope should saturate to -3 for an optically thick medium and many observations exist in support of their prediction. However, there have not been any numerical studies to-date testing these results. We analyze the spatial power spectrum of MHD simulations with a wide range of sonic and Alfv\\'enic Mach numbers, which include radiative transfer effects of the $^{13}$CO transition. We confirm numerically the predictions of Lazarian & Pogosyan (2004) that the spectral slope of line intensity maps of an optically thick medium saturates to -3. Furthermore, for very optically thin supersonic CO gas, where the density or CO abundance values are too low to excite emission in all but the densest shock compressed gas, we find that the spectral slope is shallower than expected from the column density....

Burkhart, Blakesley; Ossenkopf, V; Stutzki, J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin  

SciTech Connect

A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

Marra, John J; McNamee, Sara

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

199

Effects of buffer thickness on ATW blanket performance.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents preliminary results of target and buffer design studies for liquid metal cooled accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) systems, aimed at maximizing the source importance while simultaneously reducing the irradiation damage to fuel. Using 840 MWt liquid metal cooled ATW designs, the effects of buffer thickness on the blanket performance have been studied. Varying the buffer thickness for a given blanket configuration, system performance parameters have been estimated by a series of calculations using the MCNPX and REBUS-3 codes. The effects of source importance variation are studied by investigating the low-energy (< 20 MeV) neutron source distribution and the equilibrium cycle blanket performance parameters such as fuel inventory, discharge burnup, burnup reactivity loss, and peak fast fluence. For investigating irradiation damage to fuel, the displacements per atom (dpa), hydrogen production, and helium production rates are evaluated at the buffer and blanket interface where the peak fast fluence occurs. Results for the liquid-metal-cooled designs show that the damage rates and the source importance increase monotonically as the buffer thickness decreases. Based on a compromise between the competing objectives of increasing the source importance and reducing the damage rates, a buffer thickness of around 20 cm appears to be reasonable. Investigation of the impact of the proton beam energy on the target and buffer design shows that for a given blanket power level, a lower beam energy (0.6 GeV versus 1 GeV) results in a higher irradiation damage to the beam window. This trend occurs because of the increase in the beam intensity required to maintain the power level.

Yang, W. S.; Mercatali, L.; Taiwo, T. A.; Hill, R. N.

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

200

Enhanced electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells using short ZnO nanotips on a rough metal anode.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many efforts have been directed toward the enhancement of electron transport in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) using one-dimensional nanoarchitectured semiconductors. However, the improvement resulting from these ordered 1-D nanostructured electrodes is often offset or diminished by the deterioration in other device parameters intrinsically associated with the use of these 1-D nanostructures, such as the two-sided effect of the length of the nanowires impacting the series resistance and roughness factor. In this work, we mitigate this problem by allocating part of the roughness factor to the collecting anode instead of imparting all the roughness factors onto the semiconductor layer attached to the anode. A microscopically rough Zn microtip array is used as an electron-collecting anode on which ZnO nanotips are grown to serve as the semiconductor component of the DSSC. For the same surface roughness factor, our Zn-microtip|ZnO-nanotip DSSC exhibits an enhanced fill factor compared with DSSCs that have ZnO nanowires supported by a planar anode. In addition, the open-circuit voltage of the Zn-microtip|ZnO-nanotip DSSC is also improved due to a favorable band shift at the Zn-ZnO interface, which raises the Fermi level of the semiconductor and consequently enlarges the energy gap between the quasi-Fermi level of ZnO and the redox species. With these improvements, the overall efficiency becomes 1.4% with an open-circuit voltage of 770 mV, while the surface roughness factor of ZnO is approximately 60. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic study reveals that the electron collection time is much shorter than the electron lifetime, suggesting that fast electron collection occurs in our device due to the significantly reduced electron collection distance along the short ZnO nanotips. The overall improvement demonstrates a new approach to enhance the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells.

Yang, Z.; Xu, T.; Ito, Y.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Materials Science Division; Northern Illinois Univ.

2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Rob Newsom; John Goldsmith

202

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

203

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

204

Incorporation of Stratification Effects on the Oceanic Roughness Length in the Derivation of the Neutral Drag Coefficient  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the assumption that, over the sea, the roughness length of the wind profile scales with the wind stress, a new formulation that describes the drag coefficient as a function of the given neutral drag coefficient and stability is derived. ...

Gerald Geernaert; Kristina B. Katsaros

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Effluent Quality Prediction of Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Fuzzy-Rough Sets and Artificial Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Effluent ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen (TN) removals are the most common environmental and process performance indicator for all types of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In this paper, a soft computing ... Keywords: neural network, fuzzy rough sets, input variable selection, wastewater treatment, prediction, soft computing

Fei Luo; Ren-hui Yu; Yu-ge Xu; Yan Li

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, VOL. 28, NO. 5, PAGES 811-814, MARCH 1, 2001 Parameterizing Tidal Dissipation over Rough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ocean, the energy flux carried by internal waves generated over rough topog- raphy dominates the energy that the inclusion of this dissipation mechanism improves hydro- dynamical models of the ocean tide. It also issues. The first is whether including a parameterization for internal wave energy-flux in a model

Jayne, Steven

207

Residual stress measurement and microstructural characterization of thick beryllium films  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium films are synthesized by a magnetron sputtering technique incorporating in-situ residual stress measurement. Monitoring the stress evolution in real time provides quantitative through-thickness information on the effects of various processing parameters, including sputtering gas pressure and substrate biasing. Specimens produced over a wide range of stress states are characterized via transmission and scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy, in order to correlate the stress data with microstructure. A columnar grain structure is observed for all specimens, and surface morphology is found to be strongly dependent on processing conditions. Analytical models of stress generation are reviewed and discussed in terms of the observed microstructure.

Detor, A; Wang, M; Hodge, A M; Chason, E; Walton, C; Hamza, A V; Xu, H; Nikroo, A

2008-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

208

Abundance trends in the thin and thick disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Milky Way harbours two disks that appear distinct concerning scale-heights, kinematics, and elemental abundance patterns. Recent years have seen a surge of studies of the elemental abundance trends in the disks using high resolution spectroscopy. Here I will review and discuss the currently available data. Special focus will also be put on how we define stars to be members of either disk, and how current models of galaxy formation favour that thick disks are formed from several accreted bodies. The ability for the stellar abundance trends to test such predictions are discussed.

Sofia Feltzing

2004-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

209

Effects of surface roughness and vortex generators on the NACA 4415 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind turbines in the field can be subjected to many and varying wind conditions, including high winds with rotor locked or with yaw excursions. In some cases the rotor blades may be subjected to unusually large angles of attack that possibly result in unexpected loads and deflections. To better understand loadings at unusual angles of attack, a wind tunnel test was performed. An 18-inch constant chord model of the NACA 4415 airfoil section was tested under two dimensional steady state conditions in the Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 7 x 10 Subsonic Wind Tunnel (7 x 10). The objective of these tests was to document section lift and moment characteristics under various model and air flow conditions. These included a normal angle of attack range of {minus}20{degree} to +40{degree}, an extended angle of attack range of {minus}60{degree} to +230{degree}, applications of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR), and use of vortex generators (VGs), all at chord Reynolds numbers as high as possible for the particular model configuration. To realistically satisfy these conditions the 7 x 10 offered a tunnel-height-to-model-chord ratio of 6.7, suggesting low interference effects even at the relatively high lift and drag conditions expected during the test. Significantly, it also provided chord Reynolds numbers up to 2.0 million. 167 figs., 13 tabs.

Reuss, R.L.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Comprehensive Evaluation Model of Building Energy Efficiency Based on Rough Sets Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to improve the objectivity of building energy efficiency evaluation, this paper uses a new method to evaluate building energy efficiency on the basis of rough sets theory. The contribution of different subentry evaluation indicators to comprehensive evaluation is calculated with the conception of attribute-significance, and then their weights are decided by using weighted normalization. According to characteristics of subentry evaluation indicators, their scores are conformed, in the end their comprehensive evaluation is calculated depending on sums of weight normalization. The model is validated by the swatches that are given on base of the software "DeST". It is concluded that the comprehensive evaluation on base of the model coincides with the result of the software " DeST ". The contribution of shape coefficient is most important among the different factors, and building orientation is next. The method by which weight can be decided with the conception "attribute- significance from RS cuts down man-made factors” interfere., and objective results can be obtained.

Ding, L.; Ruan, X.; Huang, J.; Li, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Image Formation by Incoherent and Coherent Transition Radiation from Flat and Rough Surfaces  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we derive equations for the image formation of transverse profile of a relativistic beam obtained by means of optical transition radiation (OTR) from flat and rough metal surfaces. The motivation behind this study lies in the desire to suppress coherent transition radiation (COTR) observed in experiments at modern free electron lasers. The physical mechanism behind the problem of COTR is that the OTR is predominantly radiated at small angles of order of 1/{gamma} where {gamma} is the relativistic factor of the beam. This means that the transverse formation size of the image is of order of {bar {lambda}}{gamma} where {bar {lambda}} = {lambda}/2{pi} with {lambda} the radiation wavelength. For relativistic beams this can be comparable or even exceed the transverse size of the beam, which would mean that the image of the beam has very little to do with its transverse profile. It is fortuitous, however, that the incoherent image is formed by adding radiation energy of electrons and results in the transverse formation size being of order of {bar {lambda}}/{theta}{sub a}, with {theta}{sub a} is the aperture angle of the optical system. The COTR image, in contrast, is formed by adding electromagnetic field of electrons, and leads to the formation size {bar {lambda}}{gamma}. In situations when the COTR intensity exceeds that of OTR the COTR imaging makes the diagnostic incapable of measuring the beam profile.

Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Line Emission from Optically Thick RelativisticAccretion Tori  

SciTech Connect

We calculate line emission from relativistic accretion tori around Kerr black holes and investigate how the line profiles depend on the viewing inclination, spin of the central black hole, parameters describing the shape of the tori, and spatial distribution of line emissivity on the torus surface. We also compare the lines with those from thin accretion disks. Our calculations show that lines from tori and lines from thin disks share several common features. In particular, at low and moderate viewing inclination angles they both have asymmetric double-peaked profiles with a tall, sharp blue peak and a shorter red peak which has an extensive red wing. At high viewing inclination angles they both have very broad, asymmetric lines which can be roughly considered as single-peaked. Torus and disk lines may show very different red and blue line wings, but the differences are due to the models for relativistic tori and disks having differing inner boundary radii. Self-eclipse and lensing play some role in shaping the torus lines, but they are effective only at high inclination angles. If inner and outer radii of an accretion torus are the same as those of an accretion disk, their line profiles show substantial differences only when inclination angles are close to 90{sup o}, and those differences are manifested mostly at the central regions of the lines instead of the wings.

Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.; Wu, Kinwah; /Mullard Space Sci. Lab.

2007-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

213

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the NACA 4415 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A NACA 4415 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from {minus}10{degree} to +40{degree} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, these were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Steady state results of the NACA 4415 testing at Reynolds number of 1.25 million showed a baseline maximum lift coefficient of 1.30 at 12.3{degree} angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 20% and increased the 0.0090 minimum drag coefficient value by 62%. The zero lift pitching moment of {minus}0.0967 showed a 13% reduction in magnitude to {minus}0.0842 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude, and both unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall is delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack is increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack. In addition, with LEGR, the hysteresis behavior persisted into lower angles of attack than for the clean case.

Hoffmann, M.J.; Reuss Ramsay, R.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S809 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An S809 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory (OSU/AARL) 3{times}5 subsonic wind tunnel (3{times}5) under steady flow and stationary model conditions, and also with the model undergoing pitch oscillations. To study the possible extent of performance loss due to surface roughness, a standard grit pattern (LEGR) was developed to simulate leading edge contamination. After baseline cases were completed, the LEGR was applied for both steady state and model pitch oscillation cases. The Reynolds numbers for steady state conditions were 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million, while the angle of attack ranged from {minus}20, to +40 {degrees}. With the model undergoing pitch oscillations, data were acquired at Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.4 million, at frequencies of 0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 Hz. Two sine wave forcing functions were used; {plus_minus} 5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus} 10{degrees}, at mean angles of attack of 8{degrees}, 14{degrees}, and 20{degrees}. For purposes herein, any reference to unsteady conditions means the model was in pitch oscillation about the quarter chord. In general, the unsteady maximum lift coefficient was from 4% to 86% higher than the steady state maximum lift coefficient, and variation in the quarter chord pitching moment coefficient magnitude was from {minus}83% to 195% relative to steady state values at high angles of attack. These findings indicate the importance of considering the unsteady flow behavior occurring in wind turbine operation to obtain accurate load estimates.

Ramsay, R.F.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the S810 airfoil  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An S810 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from -20{degrees} to +40{degrees} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, the above conditions were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Baseline steady state results of the S810 testing showed a maximum lift coefficient of 1.15 at 15.2{degrees}angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 12% and increased the 0.0085 minimum drag coefficient value by 88%. The zero lift pitching moment of -0.0286 showed a 16% reduction in magnitude to -0.0241 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {plus_minus}5.5{degrees} and {plus_minus}10{degrees}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude and both sets of unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall was delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack was increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. In addition to the hysteresis behavior, an unusual feature of these data were a sudden increase in the lift coefficient where the onset of stall was expected. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack.

Ramsay, R.R.; Hoffman, M.J.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Eddy Transport of Thickness and Momentum in Layer and Level Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relation between thickness diffusion in layer and level models is set out. Parameterizations of thickness diffusion are related to a parameterization of eddy effects on momentum. The author anticipates where these parameterizations for ...

Greg Holloway

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A New Apparatus for Monitoring Sea Ice Thickness Based on the Magnetostrictive-Delay-Line Principle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-precision ice thickness observations are required to gain a better understanding of ocean–ice–atmosphere interactions and to validate numerical sea ice models. A new apparatus for monitoring sea ice and snow thickness has been developed, ...

Ruibo Lei; Zhijun Li; Yanfeng Cheng; Xin Wang; Yao Chen

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Response to ISRP Review of Accord Proposal 200830800 Willamette Falls Lamprey Escapement Estimate (ISRP 2011-6)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OR Kinzua Energy Corp Idle Lane Plywood Wood 1.0 1982 Eugene OR Lane Plywood Lane Plywood Longview Fibre

219

Statistical cloud coverage as a function of cloud optical thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The time-averaged, daylight fractional statistical cloud coverages as a function of cloud optical thickness and selected values of cloud transmission were determined for various geographic areas using D1 data from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). The regions of interest chosen for this report are: global earth, global sea, global land, global coast, and the six 30{degree}-latitude bands over sea, over land, and over coast with longitude 0{degree}--360{degree}. This statistical information is deduced from data determined from satellite measurements of terrestrial, atmospheric and cloud properties by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. In particular the results are based on the ISCCP D1 data base.

Brower, K.L.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Mass gap for gravity localized on thick branes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a scalar thick brane configuration arising in a theory of 5D gravity coupled to a self—interacting scalar field. We start from a classical solution of the field equations and study the physics of linear fluctuations around this background which obey a Schrödinger—like equation. We further focus our attention on a special case in which it is possible to solve this equation analytically for any massive mode. This fact allows us to make a closed analysis of the massive spectrum of Kaluza–Klein (KK) excitations and to compute the corrections to Newton’s law in the thin brane limit. There exist two bound states: the massless 4D graviton

N. Barbosa–Cendejas; A. Herrera–Aguilar; U. Nucamendi; I. Quiros; M. A. Reyes Santos; C. Schubert

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thick $f(R)$-Brane Solutions in Maximally Symmetric Spaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative way of finding thick brane solutions in metric $f(R)$ gravity with a background scalar field. Our main idea is to constrain the bulk curvature as a constant, so that all the dynamical equations reduce to second or even first order ones. To prevent our work from the problem of singularity, we give up the Gaussian normal coordinates. Instead, a more general metric is applied as our set up. The studies we have performed show that as an arbitrary symmetric warp factor $a(y)$ is given, the solution of the background scalar field is determined only by the value of $df(R)/dR$. Different values of $f(R)$ would lead to various types of distribution of the energy density. As another new feature, the kink-like solution of the background scalar field might, but not necessarily connect two extreme points of the scalar potential.

Zhong, Yuan; Yang, Ke

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Bilayer Thickness Mismatch Controls Domain Size in Model Membranes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The observation of lateral phase separation in lipid bilayers has received considerable attention, especially in connection to lipid raft phenomena in cells. It is widely accepted that rafts play a central role in cellular processes, notably signal transduction. While micrometer-sized domains are observed with some model membrane mixtures, rafts much smaller than 100 nm beyond the reach of optical microscopy are now thought to exist, both in vitro and in vivo. We have used small-angle neutron scattering, a probe free technique, to measure the size of nanoscopic membrane domains in unilamellar vesicles with unprecedented accuracy. These experiments were performed using a four-component model system containing fixed proportions of cholesterol and the saturated phospholipid 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC), mixed with varying amounts of the unsaturated phospholipids 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and 1,2-dioleoylsn- glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC). We find that liquid domain size increases with the extent of acyl chain unsaturation (DOPC:POPC ratio). Furthermore, we find a direct correlation between domain size and the mismatch in bilayer thickness of the coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases, suggesting a dominant role for line tension in controlling domain size. While this result is expected from line tension theories, we provide the first experimental verification in free-floating bilayers. Importantly, we also find that changes in bilayer thickness, which accompany changes in the degree of lipid chain unsaturation, are entirely confined to the disordered phase. Together, these results suggest how the size of functional domains in homeothermic cells may be regulated through changes in lipid composition.

Heberle, Frederick A [ORNL; Petruzielo, Robin S [ORNL; Pan, Jianjun [ORNL; Drazba, Paul [ORNL; Kucerka, Norbert [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre and Comelius University (Slovakia); Feigenson, Gerald [Cornell University; Katsaras, John [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Study on thick-film PTC thermistor fabricated by micro-pen direct writing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Micro-pen direct-write technique has been used to fabricate thick-film PTC thermistor. Thick-film PTC thermistors were fired at 700, 750, 800, 850 and 900^oC. The microstructure and the development of the conductive phase were investigated by optical ... Keywords: Direct writing, Micro-pen, Microstructure, Thick-film PTC thermistor

Zhixiang Cai; Xiangyou Li; Qianwu Hu; Xiaoyan Zeng

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Surface Termination and Roughness of Ge(100) Cleaned by HF and HCl Solutions  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxide removal from Ge(100) surfaces treated by HCl and HF solutions with different concentrations are systematically studied by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES). SR-PES results show that clean surfaces without any oxide can be obtained after wet chemical cleaning followed by vacuum annealing with a residual carbon contamination of less than 0.02 monolayer. HF etching leads to a hydrogen terminated Ge surface whose hydrogen coverage is a function of the HF concentration. In contrast, HCl etching yields a chlorine terminated surface. Possible etching mechanisms are discussed. Surface roughness after HF and HCl treatments is also investigated by AFM, which shows that HF treatment leaves a rougher surface than HCl. Germanium (Ge) is increasingly being studied for MOSFET applications to take advantage of its high intrinsic electron and hole mobility. To fabricate high performance devices on Ge, it is essential to understand Ge surface chemistry and find an effective way to clean and passivate its surface. Although Si surface cleaning and passivation have been extensively studied, only recently has some research been done on Ge surfaces. Conventional XPS results show that HF etching removes Ge oxide and carbon contamination significantly, and HCl etching leads to a chlorine terminated Ge(111) surface, which only forms Ge monochloride. However, it is difficult to probe the details of the chemical nature of treated surfaces and quantify the surface termination and cleanness with conventional XPS, because of its limited surface sensitivity and resolution. In addition, little attention has been paid to the HF concentration, which turns out to be an important factor in the surface hydrogen passivation. In this work, we study the Ge(100) surfaces treated by aqueous HCl and HF solutions with three different concentrations by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES) at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). Using SR-PES, we can tune the photon energy to achieve very high surface sensitivity and good resolution, so the chemical states of treated surfaces can be resolved unambiguously, and the surface termination and cleanness can be quantified. We find that HF treatment results in a hydrogen terminated surface, and the hydrogen coverage depends on the HF concentration. In contrast, a Cl terminated Ge(100) surface is achieved after HCl treatment. Both monochloride and dichloride are formed on the surface. The termination difference between HF etching and HCl etching can be explained by the etching mechanism. In both cases, the residual carbon and oxygen after chemical etching can be removed by vacuum annealing.

Sun, Shiyu; /SLAC, SSRL

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

225

Method and system using power modulation and velocity modulation producing sputtered thin films with sub-angstrom thickness uniformity or custom thickness gradients  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and system for determining a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a selected thickness profile of a film to be deposited (e.g., with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) over a flat or curved substrate (such as concave or convex optics) by exposing the substrate to a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. Preferably, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. Preferably, the method includes the steps of measuring the source flux distribution (using a test piece held stationary while exposed to the source with the source operated at each of a number of different applied power levels), calculating a set of predicted film thickness profiles, each film thickness profile assuming the measured flux distribution and a different one of a set of source flux modulation recipes, and determining from the predicted film thickness profiles a source flux modulation recipe which is adequate to achieve a predetermined thickness profile. Aspects of the invention include a computer-implemented method employing a graphical user interface to facilitate convenient selection of an optimal or nearly optimal source flux modulation recipe to achieve a desired thickness profile on a substrate. The method enables precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Walton, Christopher Charles (Berkeley, CA)

2003-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

226

Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

Nachbar, H.D.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

The Relative Age of the Thin and Thick Galactic Disks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We determine the relative ages of the open cluster NGC 188 and selected Hipparcos field stars by isochrone fitting, and compare them to the age of the thick disk globular cluster 47 Tuc. The best fit age for NGC 188 was determined to be $6.5 \\pm 1.0$ Gyr. The solar metallicity Hipparcos field stars yielded a slightly older thin disk age, $7.5 \\pm 0.7$ Gyr. Two slightly metal-poor ($\\feh = -0.22$) field stars whose kinematic and orbital parameters indicate that they are members of the thin disk were found to have an age of $9.7\\pm 0.6$ Gyr. The age for 47 Tuc was determined to be $12.5 \\pm 1.5$ Gyr. All errors are internal errors due to the uncertainty in the values of metallicity and reddening. Thus, the oldest stars dated in the thin disk are found to be $2.8\\pm 1.6$ Gyr younger than 47 Tuc. Furthermore, as discussed by \\citet{Chb99} 47 Tuc has a similar age to three globular clusters located in the inner part of the Galactic halo, implying that star formation in the thin disk started within $2.8\\pm 1.6$ Gyr of star formation in the halo.

Wilson M. Liu; Brian Chaboyer

2000-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

228

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. For thick layers of exterior insulation (more than 1.5 in.), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. Although the approach has proven effective, there is significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

The logic behind thick, liquid-walled, fusion concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It may be possible to surround the region where fusion reactions are taking place with a neutronically thick liquid blanket which has penetrations that allow only a few tenths of a percent of the neutrons to leak out. Even these neutrons can be attenuated by adding an accurately placed liquid or solid near the target to shadow-shield the beam ports from line-of-sight neutrons. The logic of such designs are discussed and their evolution is described with examples applied to both magnetic and inertial fusion (HYLIFE-II). These designs with liquid protection are self healing when exposed to pulsed loading and have a number of advantages-over the usual designs with solid first walls. For example, the liquid-protected solid components will last the life of the plant, and therefore the capacity factor is estimated to be approximately 10% higher than for the non-liquid-walled blankets, because no blanket replacement shutdowns are required. The component replacement, operations, and maintenance costs might be half the usual value because no blanket change-out costs or accompanying facilities are required. These combined savings might lower the cost of electricity by 20%. Nuclear-grade construction should not be needed, largely because the liquid attenuates neutrons and results in less activation of materials. Upon decommissioning, the reactor materials should qualify for disposal by shallow burial even when constructed of ordinary 304 stainless steel. The need for a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron test facility to develop first-wall materials is avoided or greatly reduced, saving billions of development dollars. Flowing molten Li, the molten salt Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), and molten Li{sub l7}Pb{sub 83} have been considered. An advantage of molten salt is that it will not burn and has a low tritium solubility and therefore low tritium inventory.

Moir, R.W.

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Measurements of Aerodynamic Roughness, Bowen Ratio, and Atmospheric Surface Layer Height by Eddy Covariance and Tethersonde Systems Simultaneously over a Heterogeneous Rice Paddy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aerodynamic roughness, Bowen ratio, and friction velocity were measured over a rice paddy using tethersonde and eddy covariance (EC) systems. In addition, the height ranges of the atmospheric inertial sublayer (ISL) were derived using the ...

Jeng-Lin Tsai; Ben-Jei Tsuang; Po-Sheng Lu; Ken-Hui Chang; Ming-Hwi Yao; Yuan Shen

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Significant Decrease of Uncertainties in Sensible Heat Flux Simulation Using Temporally Variable Aerodynamic Roughness in Two Typical Forest Ecosystems of China  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aerodynamic roughness length zom is an important parameter for reliably simulating surface fluxes. It varies with wind speed, atmospheric stratification, terrain, and other factors. However, it is usually considered a constant. It is known that ...

Yanlian Zhou; Weimin Ju; Xiaomin Sun; Xuefa Wen; Dexin Guan

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability and porosity on boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux and optimization of boiling surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) were examined using carefully-engineered surfaces. All test surfaces were prepared on ...

O'Hanley, Harrison Fagan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

The Effect of Inaccuracies in Weather-Ship Data on Bulk-Derived Estimates of Flux, Stability and Sea-Surface Roughness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical error analysis (or sensitivity study) is performed for the momentum, heat, and humidity flux estimates made from weather-ship observations by using the bulk flux method. Bulk-derived stability and roughness errors are also examined. ...

Theodore V. Blanc

1986-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

An Evaluation of Two Models for Estimation of the Roughness Height for Heat Transfer between the Land Surface and the Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Roughness height for heat transfer is a crucial parameter in estimation of heat transfer between the land surface and the atmosphere. Although many empirical formulations have been proposed over the past few decades, the uncertainties associated ...

Z. Su; T. Schmugge; W. P. Kustas; W. J. Massman

2001-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

A Global Climatology of Albedo, Roughness Length and Stomatal Resistance for Atmospheric General Circulation Models as Represented by the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Components of the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) of Sellers et al. were used to generate global monthly fields of surface albedo (0.4–4.0 ?m), roughness length and minimum surface (stomatal) resistance.

J. L. Dorman; P. J. Sellers

1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reduction of Crosshatch Roughness and Threading Dislocation Density in Metamorphic GaInP Buffers and GaInAs Solar Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Surface crosshatch roughness typically develops during the growth of lattice-mismatched compositionally graded buffers and can limit misfit dislocation glide. In this study, the crosshatch roughness during growth of a compressive GaInP/GaAs graded buffer is reduced by increasing the phosphine partial pressure throughout the metamorphic growth. Changes in the average misfit dislocation length are qualitatively determined by characterizing the threading defect density and residual strain. The decrease of crosshatch roughness leads to an increase in the average misfit dislocation glide length, indicating that the surface roughness is limiting dislocation glide. Growth rate is also analyzed as a method to reduce surface crosshatch roughness and increase glide length, but has a more complicated relationship with glide kinetics. Using knowledge gained from these experiments, high quality inverted GaInAs 1 eV solar cells are grown on a GaInP compositionally graded buffer with reduced roughness and threading dislocation density. The open circuit voltage is only 0.38 V lower than the bandgap potential at a short circuit current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}, suggesting that there is very little loss due to the lattice mismatch.

France, R. M.; Geisz, J. F.; Steiner, M. A.; To, B.; Romero, M. J.; Olavarria, W. J.; King, R. R.

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

www.mdpi.org/ijms The Effects of Heat Treatment on the Physical Properties and Surface Roughness of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) Wood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract: Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on the physical properties and surface roughness of Turkish Hazel (Corylus colurna L.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Kastamonu Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and for different durations. The physical properties of heat-treated and control samples were tested, and oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties were determined. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Four main roughness parameters, mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), root mean square roughness (Rq), and maximum roughness (Ry) obtained from the surface of wood were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant difference was determined (p = 0.05) between physical properties and surface roughness parameters (Ra,Rz, Ry, Rq) for three temperatures and threeInt. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9 1773 durations of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and

Derya Sevim Korkut; Süleyman Korkut; Ilter Bekar; Mehmet Budakç?; Tuncer Dilik; Nevzat Çak?c?er

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Growth of Thick, On-Axis SiC Epitaxial Layers by High Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Layers by High Temperature Halide CVD for High Voltage Power Devices ... rate, high temperature process ideally suited for thick epitaxial requirements.

239

Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Arenst Andreas Arie. On-Site Speaker

240

Experimental analysis of disc thickness variation development in motor vehicle brakes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Over the past decade vehicle judder caused by Disc Thickness Variation (DTV) has become of major concern to automobile manufacturers worldwide. Judder is usually perceived… (more)

Rodriguez, C

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

242

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

SciTech Connect

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Chitra Sivaraman; Connor Flynn

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

243

Thickness measurement and crease detection of wheat grains using stereo vision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wheat grain quality assessment is important in meeting market requirements. The thickness of grains can be used for the measurement of the mass proportion of grains that pass through a sieve. This measure is known as ''screenings''. The determination ... Keywords: Grain crease detection, Grain thickness measurement, Stereo vision

Changming Sun; Mark Berman; David Coward; Brian Osborne

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Li-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thick film interdigital capacitors for microwave applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microwave properties of Li-doped (Ba,Sr)TiO"3 thick film interdigital capacitors have been investigated. According to the reported papers, BaSrTiO"3 materials, paraelectric state at the room temperature, have high dielectric permittivity (>500 @ 1MHz) ... Keywords: BST, Microwave properties, Screen printing, Thick film, Tunability

Se-Ho Kim; Jung-Hyuk Koh

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for Wind as wind blade size has increased. Typical blade joints use paste adhesives several millimeters thick aircraft, which are also of relevance to wind blades in many instances. The strengths of lap-shear and many

246

Hadron energy resolution as a function of iron plate thickness at ICAL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on a detailed study of the hadron energy resolution as a function of the thickness of the absorber plates for the proposed Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO). We compare the hadron resolutions obtained with absorber thicknesses in the range 1.5 -- 8 cm for neutrino interactions in the energy range 2 -- 15 GeV, which is relevant to hadron production in atmospheric neutrino interactions. We find that at lower energies, the thickness dependence of energy resolution is steeper than at higher energies, however there is a constant contribution that dominates at the lower thicknesses discussed in this paper. As a result, the gain in hadron energy resolution with decreasing plate thickness is marginal. We present the results in the form of fits to a function with energy-dependent exponent.

Mohan, Lakshmi S; Devi, Moon Moon; Kaur, Daljeet; Choubey, Sandhya; Dighe, Amol; Indumathi, D; Murthy, M V N; Naimuddin, Md

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Film Thickness Changes in EHD Sliding Contacts Lubricated by a Fatty Alcohol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the appearance of abnormal film thickness features formed in elastohydrodynamic contacts lubricated by a fatty alcohol. Experiments were conducted by varying the slide to roll ratio between a steel ball and a glass disk in a ball-on-disk type device. Lauric alcohol was used as lubricant and film thickness was measured in the contact area by optical interferometry. Experimental results showed that the film thickness distributions under pure rolling conditions remained classical whereas the film shape changed when the slide to roll ratio was increased. The thickness in the central contact area increased and in the same time inlet and exit film thicknesses were modified. In addition, the film shapes observed when the ball surface was moving faster than the disk one and those obtained in the opposite case were different, i.e. when opposite signs but equal absolute values of the slide to roll ratio were applied.

Yagi, Kazuyuki

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Indoor Humidity and Human Health--Part I: Literature Review of Health Effects of Humidity-Influenced Indoor Pollutants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

when samples of timber, plywood, gypsumboard, fiberboard,materials, is including plywood, particleboard, and other

Baughman, A.; Arens, Edward A

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Register Closing Effects on Forced Air Heating System Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with gypsum wallboard and plywood, with carefully tapedenvelope and covered using plywood plates as illustrated in

Walker, Iain S.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

THE IMPACT OF REDUCED VENTILATION ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from particle- board, plywood, urea formaldehyde foammaterials, particleboard, plywood, textiles, adhesives,

Berk, James V.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Roughness and surface material effects on nucleate boiling heat transfer from cylindrical surfaces to refrigerants R-134a and R-123  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents results of an experimental investigation carried out to determine the effects of the surface roughness of different materials on nucleate boiling heat transfer of refrigerants R-134a and R-123. Experiments have been performed over cylindrical surfaces of copper, brass and stainless steel. Surfaces have been treated by different methods in order to obtain an average roughness, Ra, varying from 0.03 {mu}m to 10.5 {mu}m. Boiling curves at different reduced pressures have been raised as part of the investigation. The obtained results have shown significant effects of the surface material, with brass being the best performing and stainless steel the worst. Polished surfaces seem to present slightly better performance than the sand paper roughened. Boiling on very rough surfaces presents a peculiar behavior characterized by good thermal performance at low heat fluxes, the performance deteriorating at high heat fluxes with respect to smoother surfaces. (author)

Jabardo, Jose M. Saiz [Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de la Coruna, Mendizabal s/n Esteiro, 15403 Ferrol, Coruna (Spain); Ribatski, Gherhardt; Stelute, Elvio [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense 400 Centro, 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

2009-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Refractive index gradient measurement across the thickness of a dielectric film by the prism coupling method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is proposed for measuring the refractive index gradient n(z) in nonuniformly thick dielectric films. The method is based on the excitation of waveguide modes in a film using the prism coupling technique and on the calculation of n(z) and film thickness H{sub f} with the help of the angular positions of the TE or TM modes. The method can be used for an arbitrary shape of the index modulation over the film thickness in the limit of a small gradient [{Delta} n(z)/n(z) || 1]. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Sokolov, Viktor I; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya; Seminogov, V N [Institute of Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

254

Optimizing diode thickness for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, we investigate the optimal thickness of a semiconductor diode for thin-film solid state thermal neutron detectors. We evaluate several diode materials, Si, CdTe, GaAs, C (diamond), and ZnO, and two neutron converter materials, {sup 10}B and {sup 6}LiF. Investigating a coplanar diode/converter geometry, we determine the minimum semiconductor thickness needed to achieve maximum neutron detection efficiency. By keeping the semiconductor thickness to a minimum, gamma rejection is kept as high as possible. In this way, we optimize detector performance for different thin-film semiconductor materials.

Murphy, John W.; Mejia, Israel; Quevedo-Lopez, Manuel A.; Gnade, Bruce [Department of Materials and Science, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States); Kunnen, George R.; Allee, David [Flexible Display Center at Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85284 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

A Model for the Thickness and Salinity of the Upper Layer in the Arctic Ocean and the Relationship between the Ice Thickness and Some External Parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a dynamical model for the salinity and thickness of the upper layer in the Arctic. The parameters are the river runoff to the Arctic, the buoyancy supply through the Bering Strait, the export of ice from the Arctic and a ...

Anders Stigebrandt

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Cloud Layer Thicknesses from a Combination of Surface and Upper-Air Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Cloud layer thicknesses are derived from base and top altitudes by combining 14 years (1975–1988) of surface and upper-air observations at 63 sites in the Northern Hemisphere. Rawinsonde observations are employed to determine the locations of ...

Kirk D. Poore; Junhong Wang; William B. Rossow

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Modeling Global Sea Ice with a Thickness and Enthalpy Distribution Model in Generalized Curvilinear Coordinates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A parallel ocean and ice model (POIM) in generalized orthogonal curvilinear coordinates has been developed for global climate studies. The POIM couples the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) with a 12-category thickness and enthalpy distribution (TED) ...

Jinlun Zhang; D. A. Rothrock

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Determination of the Scaled Optical Thickness of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. The procedure compares measurements of the reflection function with asymptotic expressions for the reflection function of ...

Michael D. King

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Future Projections of Landfast Ice Thickness and Duration in the Canadian Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Projections of future landfast ice thickness and duration were generated for nine sites in the Canadian Arctic and one site on the Labrador coast with a simple downscaling technique that used a one-dimensional sea ice model driven by ...

J. A. Dumas; G. M. Flato; R. D. Brown

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness Using Shortwave Broadband Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an empirical equation is presented that can be used to estimate shortwave cloud optical thickness from measurements and analysis of shortwave broadband irradiances. When applied to a time series of broadband observations, this ...

James C. Barnard; Charles N. Long

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

The Role of Finite Mixed-Layer Thickness in the Structure of the Ventilated Thermocline  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A model of the ventilated thermocline consisting of three adiabatic layers surmounted by a mixed layer of finite thickness is presented. The mixed-layer depth density increase continuously northward, and these attributes of the mixed layer are ...

Joseph Pedlosky; Paul Robbins

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Scaling Properties of Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrieved from Ground-Based Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Statistical scale-by-scale analysis, for the first time, has been applied to the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrieved from the Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) network. The MFRSR data were collected in September 2000 from ...

Mikhail D. Alexandrov; Alexander Marshak; Brian Cairns; Andrew A. Lacis; Barbara E. Carlson

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Transmission Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements of 238U in Thick Targets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thickness of a nuclear fuel assembly. The experimental dataproperties similar to a nuclear fuel assembly so that thein ? bjquiter@lbl.gov nuclear fuel could be tested. In this

Quiter, Brian J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms and modeling and experimental capabilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

et al. , "HYLIFE-II: a Molten-Salt Inertial Fusion Energyliquid, such as the molten salts flibe (Li BeF ) orflinabe (of the thick liquid metal or molten salt systems would be to

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Surface?modified RuO2?based thick film resistors using Nd:YAG laser  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An RuO2?based thick film resistor (TFR) is a cermet?type resistor which consists of RuO2 particles and glass. Paste containing organic vehicles is printed onto an insulating substrate

E. Gofuku; T. Ogama; H. Takasago

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

White-light scanning interferometer for absolute nano-scale gap thickness measurement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A special configuration of white-light scanning interferometer is described for measuring the absolute air gap thickness between two planar plates brought into close proximity. The measured gap is not located in any ...

Xu, Zhiguang

267

Tropospheric Aerosol Optical Thickness from the GOCART Model and Comparisons with Satellite and Sun Photometer Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Georgia Institute of Technology–Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the aerosol optical thickness ? for major types of tropospheric aerosols including sulfate, dust, organic carbon ...

Mian Chin; Paul Ginoux; Stefan Kinne; Omar Torres; Brent N. Holben; Bryan N. Duncan; Randall V. Martin; Jennifer A. Logan; Akiko Higurashi; Teruyuki Nakajima

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Boundary Layer Height and Entrainment Zone Thickness Measured by Lidars and Wind-Profiling Radars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors examine measurements of boundary layer height zi and entrainment zone thickness observed with two lidars and with a radar wind profiler during the Flatland96 Lidars in Flat Terrain experiment. Lidar backscatter is proportional to ...

Stephen A. Cohn; Wayne M. Angevine

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Commercializatzon of thick film solar cells. Quarterly progress report, September 21, 1979-December 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Starting materials for the preparation of thick film cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride solar cells have been comminuted. Initial trial films of cadmium sulfide showed that during the next phase of this work, the printing of films, one of the major problem areas will be to obtain sufficient reflow in the printed films to remove the screen-caused variation in film thickness. The thin areas corresponding to the screen pattern caused pinholes to form in the fired parts.

McDonald, G.D.; Goodman, G.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Brief Studying of Oil Crust Thickness Measurement by Gamma Ray Compton Scattering Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The relation between the scattering cross section and the scattering angle under different energy condition of the incident rays is analyzed. From Compton scattering total cross section, a formula of quasi-parallel incident gamma ray Compton scattering response function versus to thickness of oil crust target is derived and analyzed. Numerical fitting result shows that there exists cubic relation between response function of gamma ray and thickness of oil crust. Key words: Gamma ray, Compton scattering, oil crust

Mamatrishat, Mamat; Jie, Ding; Shiheng, Wang

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Assessment of Nondestructive Evaluation Methods and Analytical Procedures for Thick-Section Component Cracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant concern for owners and operators, damage in the form of cracking in thick-section components (valves, casings, headers, and so on) in fossil fuel–fired boilers continues to be observed. With increased cyclic duty and the fast startups associated with combined-cycle plants, such damage will remain a prevalent industry problem. Specifically, the concerns for continued operation of cracked thick-section components arise from the uncertainties associated with the nondestructive ...

2013-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Film thickness measurement techniques applied to micro-scale two-phase flow systems  

SciTech Connect

Recently semi-empirical models to estimate flow boiling heat transfer coefficient, saturated CHF and pressure drop in micro-scale channels have been proposed. Most of the models were developed based on elongated bubbles and annular flows in the view of the fact that these flow patterns are predominant in smaller channels. In these models, the liquid film thickness plays an important role and such a fact emphasizes that the accurate measurement of the liquid film thickness is a key point to validate them. On the other hand, several techniques have been successfully applied to measure liquid film thicknesses during condensation and evaporation under macro-scale conditions. However, although this subject has been targeted by several leading laboratories around the world, it seems that there is no conclusive result describing a successful technique capable of measuring dynamic liquid film thickness during evaporation inside micro-scale round channels. This work presents a comprehensive literature review of the methods used to measure liquid film thickness in macro- and micro-scale systems. The methods are described and the main difficulties related to their use in micro-scale systems are identified. Based on this discussion, the most promising methods to measure dynamic liquid film thickness in micro-scale channels are identified. (author)

Tibirica, Cristiano Bigonha; do Nascimento, Francisco Julio; Ribatski, Gherhardt [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

273

Fluctuating Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Changes Estimated by an In Situ Learned and Empirically Forced Neural Network Model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sea ice thickness (SIT) is a key parameter of scientific interest because understanding the natural spatiotemporal variability of ice thickness is critical for improving global climate models. In this paper, changes in Arctic SIT during 1982–2003 ...

G. I. Belchansky; D. C. Douglas; N. G. Platonov

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Determination of the Optical Thickness and Effective Particle Radius of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements. Part I: Theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the optical thickness and effective particle radius of stratiform cloud layers from reflected solar radiation measurements. A detailed study is presented which shows that the cloud optical thickness (?c) and ...

Teruyuki Nakajima; Michael D. King

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Two-phase flow visualization and relative permeability measurement in transparent replicas of rough-walled rock fractures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Understanding and quantifying multi-phase flow in fractures is important for mathematical and numerical simulation of geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste repositories, and petroleum reservoirs. While the cubic law for single-phase flow has been well established for parallel-plate fractures theoretically and experimentally, no reliable measurements of multi-phase flow in fractures have been reported. This work reports the design and fabrication of an apparatus for visualization of two-phase flow and for measurement of gas-liquid relative permeability in realistic rough-walled rock fractures. A transparent replica of a natural rock fracture from a core specimen is fabricated by molding and casting in clear epoxy. Simultaneous flow of gas and liquid with control of capillary pressure at inlet and outlet is achieved with the Hassler sandwich'' design: liquid is injected to the fracture through a porous block, while gas is injected directly to the edge of the fracture through channels in the porous block. A similar arrangement maintains capillary separation of the two phases at the outlet. Pressure drops in each phase across the fracture, and capillary pressures at the inlet and outlet, are controlled by means of pumps and needle valves, and are measured by differential and absolute pressure transducers. The clear epoxy cast of the natural fracture preserves the geometry of the fracture and permits visual observation of phase distributions. The fracture aperture distribution can be estimated by filling the fracture with a dyed liquid, and making pointwise measurements of the intensity of transmitted light.

Persoff, P.; Pruess, K.; Myer, L.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

277

Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta potential of spherical electric double layers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layers in electrolyte solutions with divalent counter-ions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: 1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, 2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and 3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function (ICDF) and potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes have significant impacts on the zeta potential, and thus the structure of electric double layers.

Zecheng Gan; Xiangjun Xing; Zhenli Xu

2012-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

278

MCELROY REPORT; ROUGH DRAFT  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combining a New 3-D Seismic S-Wave Propagation Analysis Combining a New 3-D Seismic S-Wave Propagation Analysis for Remote Fracture Detection with a Robust Subsurface Microfracture-Based Verification Technique FINAL REPORT June 6, 2000-December 31, 2003 Principal Authors: Bob Hardage, M. M. Backus, M. V. DeAngelo, R. J. Graebner, S. E. Laubach, and Paul Murray Report Issue Date: February 2004 DOE Contract No. DE-AC26-00NT40690 Submitting Organization: Bureau of Economic Geology The University of Texas at Austin University Station, Box X Austin, TX 78713-8924 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal

279

Method and apparatus for ultrasonic characterization through the thickness direction of a moving web  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for determining the caliper and/or the ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web of material using ultrasonic pulses generated by a rotatable wheel ultrasound apparatus. The apparatus includes a first liquid-filled tire and either a second liquid-filled tire forming a nip or a rotatable cylinder that supports a thin moving web of material such as a moving web of paper and forms a nip with the first liquid-filled tire. The components of ultrasonic transit time through the tires and fluid held within the tires may be resolved and separately employed to determine the separate contributions of the two tire thicknesses and the two fluid paths to the total path length that lies between two ultrasonic transducer surfaces contained within the tires in support of caliper measurements. The present invention provides the benefit of obtaining a transit time and caliper measurement at any point in time as a specimen passes through the nip of rotating tires and eliminates inaccuracies arising from nonuniform tire circumferential thickness by accurately retaining point-to-point specimen transit time and caliper variation information, rather than an average obtained through one or more tire rotations. Morever, ultrasonic transit time through the thickness direction of a moving web may be determined independent of small variations in the wheel axle spacing, tire thickness, and liquid and tire temperatures.

Jackson, Theodore (Atlanta, GA); Hall, Maclin S. (Marietta, GA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Calculated /alpha/-induced thick target neutron yields and spectra, with comparison to measured data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One component of the neutron source associated with the decay of actinide nuclides in many environments is due to the interaction of decay /alpha/ particles in (/alpha/,n) reactions on low Z nuclides. Measurements of (/alpha/,n) thick target neutron yields and associated neutron spectra have been made for only a few combinations of /alpha/ energy and target nuclide or mixtures of actinide and target nuclides. Calculations of thick target neutron yields and spectra with the SOURCES code require /alpha/-energy-dependent cross sections for (/alpha/,n) reactions, as well as branching fractions leading to the energetically possible levels of the product nuclides. A library of these data has been accumulated for target nuclides of Z /le/ 15 using that available from measurements and from recent GNASH code calculations. SOURCES, assuming neutrons to be emitted isotopically in the center-of-mass system, uses libraries of /alpha/ stopping cross sections, (/alpha/,n) reaction cross reactions, product nuclide level branching fractions, and actinide decay /alpha/ spectra to calculate thick target (/alpha/,n) yields and neutron spectra for homogeneous combinations of nuclides. The code also calculates the thick target yield and angle intergrated neutron spectrum produced by /alpha/-particle beams on targets of homogeneous mixtures of nuclides. Illustrative calculated results are given and comparisons are made with measured thick target yields and spectra. 50 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Wilson, W.B.; Bozoian, M.; Perry, R.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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281

Metal Oxidation Kinetics and the Transition from Thin to Thick Films  

SciTech Connect

We report an investigation of growth kinetics and transition from thin to thick films during metal oxidation. In the thin film limit (< 20 nm), Cabrera and Mott’s theory is usually adopted by explicitly considering ionic drift through the oxide in response to electric fields, where the growth kinetics follow an inverse logarithmic law . It is generally accepted that Wagner’s theory, involving self-diffusion, is valid only in the limit of thick film regime (>1?m) and leads to parabolic growth kinetics , where l is the oxide film thickness. Theory presented here unifies the two models and provides a complete description of oxidation including the transition from thin to thick film. The range of validity of Cabrera and Mott’s theory and Wagner’s theory can be well defined in terms of the Debye-Hückel screening length. The transition from drift-dominated ionic transport for thin film to diffusion-dominated transport for thick film is found to strictly follow the direct logarithmic law that is frequently observed in many experiments.

Xu, Zhijie; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Paper: Variable Crustal Thickness In The Western Great Basin- A Compilation Of Old And New Refraction Data Details Activities (3) Areas (3) Regions (0) Abstract: Utilizing commercial mine blasts and local earthquakes, as well as a dense array of portable seismographs, we have achieved long-range crustal refraction profiles across northern Nevada and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. In our most recent refraction experiment, the Idaho-Nevada-California (INC) transect, we used a dense spacing of 411 portable seismographs and 4.5-Hz geophones. The instruments were able to record events ranging from large mine blasts to small local earthquakes.

283

Thickness of surficial sediment at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho  

SciTech Connect

Thickness of surficial sediment was determined from natural-gamma logs in 333 wells at and near the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in eastern Idaho to provide reconnaissance data for future site-characterization studies. Surficial sediment, which is defined as the unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel that overlie the uppermost basalt flow at each well, ranges in thickness from 0 feet in seven wells drilled through basalt outcrops east of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to 313 feet in well Site 14 southeast of the Big Lost River sinks. Surficial sediment includes alluvial, lacustrine, eolian, and colluvial deposits that generally accumulated during the past 200 thousand years. Additional thickness data, not included in this report, are available from numerous auger holes and foundation borings at and near most facilities.

Anderson, S.R.; Liszewski, M.J.; Ackerman, D.J.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Permeability-thickness determination from transient production response at the southeast geysers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Fetkovich production decline curve analysis method was extended for application to vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs for the purpose of estimating the permeability-thickness product (kh) from the transient production response. The analytic dimensionless terms for pressure, production rate, decline rate, and decline time were derived for saturated steam using the real gas potential and customary geothermal production units of pounds-mass per hour. The derived terms were numerically validating using ``Geysers-line`` reservoir properties at initial water saturation of 0 and at permeabilities of 1, 10, and 100 mD. The production data for 48 wells in the Southeast Geysers were analyzed and the permeability-thickness products determined from the transient production response using the Fetkovich production decline type curve. The kh results were in very good agreement with the published range at the Southeast Geysers and show regions of high permeability-thickness.

Faulder, D.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

First-principles study of the critical thickness in asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions  

SciTech Connect

The absent critical thickness of fully relaxed asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions is investigated by first-principles calculations. The results show that PbTiO{sub 3} thin film between Pt and SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes can still retain a significant and stable polarization down to thicknesses as small as 0.8 nm, quite unlike the case of symmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions. We trace this surprising result to the generation of a large electric field by the charge transfer between the electrodes caused by their different electronic environments, which acts against the depolarization field and enhances the ferroelectricity, leading to the reduction, or even complete elimination, for the critical thickness.

Cai Mengqiu [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); School of Physics and Microelectronics Science, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Zhongshan University, Guangzhou 510275, Guangdong (China); Du Yong; Huang Boyun [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

2011-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

The design of a modern steamflood in a thick, dipping, heavy oil reservoir  

SciTech Connect

In 1988, Mobil completed the design phase of a new steamflood project. This project is in a thick, moderately dipping, unconsolidated heavy oil reservoir. The design takes advantage of the gravity drainage recovery mechanism in the thick reservoir, allowing vertical steam zone expansion with minimal steam breakthrough. The steamflood was designed to be economic in the late 1980's period of low oil prices. The design was completed with an interdisciplinary teamwork approach using concurrent studies for expediency. This paper was first presented at the 1989 California Regional Meeting in Bakersfield. The presentation for this meeting will conclude with an update of project performance since 1989.

Atkinson, D.S.; Clayton, C.A.; Baldwin, J.O.; Smith, R.C. (Mobile E and P US, Inc., Denver, CO (United States))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Probability and dynamics in the toss of a non-bouncing thick coin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When a thick cylindrical coin is tossed in the air and lands without bouncing on an inelastic substrate, it ends up on its face or its side. We account for the rigid body dynamics of spin and precession and calculate the probability distribution of heads, tails, and sides for a thick coin as a function of its dimensions and the distribution of its initial conditions. Our theory yields a simple expression for the aspect ratio of homogeneous coins with a prescribed frequency of heads/tails compared to sides, which we validate by tossing experiments using coins of different aspect ratios.

Ee Hou Yong; L. Mahadevan

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

288

In-situ temperature and thickness characterization for silicon wafers undergoing thermal annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano scale processing of IC chips has become the prime production technique as the microelectronic industry aims towards scaling down product dimensions while increasing accuracy and performance. Accurate control of temperature and a good monitoring mechanism for thickness of the deposition layers during epitaxial growth are critical parameters influencing a good yield. The two-fold objective of this thesis is to establish the feasibility of an alternative to the current pyrometric and ellipsometric techniques to simultaneously measure temperature and thickness during wafer processing. TAP-NDE is a non-contact, non-invasive, laser-based ultrasound technique that is employed in this study to contemporarily profile the thermal and spatial characteristics of the wafer. The Gabor wavelet transform allows the wave dispersion to be unraveled and the group velocity of individual frequency components to be extracted from the experimentally acquired time waveform. The thesis illustrates the formulation of a theoretical model that is used to identify the frequencies sensitive to temperature and thickness changes. The group velocity of the corresponding frequency components is determined and their corresponding changes with respect to temperature for different thickness are analytically modeled. TAP-NDE is then used to perform an experimental analysis on Silicon wafers of different thickness to determine the maximum possible resolution of TAP-NDE towards temperature sensitivity, and to demonstrate the ability to differentiate between wafers of different deposition layer thickness at temperatures up to 600?C. Temperature resolution is demonstrated for ?10?C resolution and for ?5?C resolution; while thickness differentiation is carried out with wafers carrying 4000? and 8000? of aluminum deposition layer. The experimental group velocities of a set of selected frequency components extracted using the Gabor Wavelet time-frequency analysis as compared to their corresponding theoretical group velocities show satisfactory agreement. As a result of this work, it is seen that TAP-NDE is a suitable tool to identify and characterize thickness and temperature changes simultaneously during thermal annealing that can replace the current need for separate characterization of these two important parameters in semiconductor manufacturing.

Vedantham, Vikram

2003-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing  

SciTech Connect

Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Lightweight plywood construction assembly : a lightweight approach to the elegant utilitarian form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

What will be the fundamental aspect and concern of today's good design? As global energy reserves deplete over the coming decades, a strategy of reduced consumption will be essential to the production of furniture and ...

Kwong, Edmund Ming Yip

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Measuring the eccentricity of the Earth orbit with a nail and a piece of plywood  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I describe how to obtain a rather good experimental determination of the eccentricity of the Earth orbit, as well as the obliquity of the Earth rotation axis, by measuring, over the course of a year, the elevation of the Sun as a function of time during a day. With a very simple "instrument" consisting of an elementary sundial, first-year students can carry out an appealing measurement programme, learn important concepts in experimental physics, see concrete applications of kinematics and changes of reference frames, and benefit from a hands-on introduction to astronomy.

Lahaye, Thierry

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Effect of substrate roughness on the apparent surface free energy of sputter deposited superhydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene coatings: A comparison of experimental data with different theoretical models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have studied the effect of substrate roughness on the wettability and the apparent surface free energy (SFE) of sputter deposited polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) coatings deposited on untreated glass (average roughness, R{sub a}=2.0 nm), plasma etched glass (R{sub a}=7.4 nm), and sandblasted glass (R{sub a}=4500 nm) substrates. The wettability of the PTFE coatings deposited on substrates with varying roughnesses was evaluated by measuring the apparent contact angle (CA) using a series of probe liquids from nonpolar aprotic to polar protic. The wettability measurements indicate that an apparent water CA of 152 deg. with a sliding angle of 8 deg. was achieved for PTFE coatings deposited on a substrate with R{sub a}=4500 nm. The superhydrophobicity observed in these coatings is attributed to the presence of dual scale roughness, densely packed microstructure and the presence of CF{sub 3} groups. Unlike the bulk PTFE which is mainly dispersive, the sputter deposited PTFE coatings are expected to have some degree of polar component due to the plasma treatment. In order to calculate the dispersive SFE of PTFE coatings, we have used the Girifalco-Good-Fowkes (GGF) method and validated it with the Zisman model. Furthermore, the Owens-Wendt model has been used to calculate the dispersive and the polar components of the apparent SFE of the PTFE coatings. These results are further corroborated using the Fowkes method. Finally, an ''equation of state'' theory proposed by Neumann has been used to calculate the apparent SFE values of the PTFE coatings. The results indicate that the apparent SFE values of the PTFE coatings obtained from the Owens-Wendt and the Fowkes methods are comparable to those obtained from the Neumann's method. The analyses further demonstrate that the GGF and the Zisman methods underestimate the apparent SFE values of the sputter deposited PTFE coatings.

Selvakumar, N.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Rajam, K. S. [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, CSIR, Bangalore 560 017 (India)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

294

Temporal Variability of the Energy Balance of Thick Arctic Pack Ice  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temporal variability of the six terms of the energy balance equation for a slab of ice 3 m thick is calculated based on 45 yr of surface meteorological observations from the drifting ice stations of the former Soviet Union. The equation ...

R. W. Lindsay

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Commercialization of thick film solar cell. Final technical report, 9/15/79-9/14/80  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Films of cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride have been produced by screen printing and sintering. Cadmium sulfide films ten microns thick had a resistivity in the 10 ohm-cm range. A technique was developed for forming a cadmium telluride layer on top of a cadmium sulfide layer. Process control and device preparation are areas requiring further study.

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

297

Physical Aging of Arsenic Trisulfide Thick Films and Bulk Materials Rong-Ping Wang,w  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical Aging of Arsenic Trisulfide Thick Films and Bulk Materials Rong-Ping Wang,w Andrei Rode referred to as a physical aging phenomenon.7,8 To avoid the changes in physical properties caused by physical aging, a material with completely saturated aging should be used in chalcogenide-based devices

Chen, Ying

298

Extended Kantorovich method for static analysis of moderately thick functionally graded sector plates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an iterative procedure based on the extended Kantorovich method (EKM) is presented to gain highly accurate solution for bending of moderately thick functionally graded (FG) fully clamped sector plates. Effective mechanical properties of ... Keywords: Bending analysis, Extended Kantorovich method, Fully clamped sector plates, Functionally graded material

M. M. Aghdam; N. Shahmansouri; M. Mohammadi

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Thin-film thickness measurement using x-ray peak ratioing in the scanning electron microscope  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The procedure used to measure laser target film thickness using a scanning electron microscope is summarized. This method is generally applicable to any coating on any substrate as long as the electron energy is sufficient to penetrate the coating and the substrate produces an x-ray signal which can pass back through the coating and be detected. (MOW)

Elliott, N.E.; Anderson, W.E.; Archuleta, T.A.; Stupin, D.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Influence of the Sea Ice Thickness Distribution on Polar Climate in CCSM3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sea ice simulation of the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3) T42-gx1 and T85-gx1 control simulations is presented and the influence of the parameterized sea ice thickness distribution (ITD) on polar climate conditions is ...

Marika M. Holland; Cecilia M. Bitz; Elizabeth C. Hunke; William H. Lipscomb; Julie L. Schramm

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Model-based analysis of flow-mediated dilation and intima-media thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an end-to-end system for the automatic measurement of flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) for the assessment of the arterial function. The video sequences are acquired from a B-mode echographic scanner. A spline model ...

G. Bartoli; G. Menegaz; M. Lisi; G. Di Stolfo; S. Dragoni; T. Gori

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Aerosol optical thickness retrieval from satellite observation using support vector regression  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processing of data recorded by the MODIS sensors on board the Terra and Aqua satellites has provided AOT maps that in some cases show low correlations with ground-based data recorded by the AERONET. Application of SVR techniques to MODIS data is a promising, ... Keywords: MODIS, aerosol optical thickness, earth observation, remote sensing, support vector regression

Thi Nhat Thanh Nguyen; Simone Mantovani; Piero Campalani; Mario Cavicchi; Maurizio Bottoni

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

A robust SN-DG-approximation for radiation transport in optically thick and diffusive regimes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We introduce a new discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method with reduced upwind stabilization for the linear Boltzmann equation applied to particle transport. The asymptotic analysis demonstrates that the new formulation does not suffer from the limitations ... Keywords: Discontinuous Galerkin, Radiation transport, Thick diffusion limit, Upwind technique

J. C. Ragusa; J. -L. Guermond; G. Kanschat

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Linear surface smoothening of (Ti{sub 0.48}Al{sub 0.52})N thin films grown on rough substrates  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of surface roughness during the growth of sputter-deposited solid solution (Ti{sub 0.48}Al{sub 0.52})N films on rough high-speed-steel (HSS) substrates has been studied by atomic force microscopy. It has been revealed that the growing (Ti{sub 0.48}Al{sub 0.52})N/HSS film experiences a continuous surface smoothening. Scaling analyses along with surface power spectra calculation of the (Ti{sub 0.48}Al{sub 0.52})N films grown on smooth Si(100) substrates under the same deposition conditions indicate that this surface smoothening is linear and can be explained by a simple linear equation with surface diffusion as the smoothening mechanism and shot noise as the roughening effect. The observed linear surface smoothening in (Ti{sub 0.48}Al{sub 0.52})N/HSS films has also been confirmed by our numerical simulations of the film growth using real HSS and Si(100) substrates as their initial growth conditions and can be understood in terms of the competition between the surface-diffusion-induced decrease in substrate roughness contribution and the noise-driven roughening effect.

Liu, Z.-J.; Shum, P.W.; Shen, Y.G. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management (MEEM), City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

305

PRICE 9S. 6d. NETExperiments Concerning the Effect of Trailing, Edge Thickness on Blade Loss and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Theoretical assessments of the influence of trailing-edge thickness on turbine blade loss coefficients are reviewed and compared with the results of a cascade tunnel investigation. Tests on a single-stage turbine indicate that efficiency is much more sensitive to stator blade trailing-edge thickness than simple estimates woul d indicate, but rotor blade thickness effects on efficiency are in line with simple prediction.

Turbine Stage Efficiency; I. H. Johnston; D. C. Dransfield; D. J. Fullbrook; Turbine Stage Efficiency; I. H. Johnston; D. C. Dransfield; D. J. Fullbrook

1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Simple Empirical Equation to Calculate Cloud Optical Thickness from Shortwave Broadband Measurements J. C. Barnard and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Observational studies of shortwave cloud optical thickness, c , play an important role in determining how clouds affect climate. Accordingly, considerable effort has been, and continues to be expended to characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of c over the globe. This effort involves satellite and ground-based measurements that infer c from measurements of the reflection or transmission of solar radiation. Transmitted solar radiation forms the basis of several important algorithms designed to calculate c ; these algorithms use either spectral irradiances (Min and Harrison 1996; henceforth referred

307

Transmission Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence Measurements of 238U in Thick Targets  

SciTech Connect

Transmission nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements were made on targets consisting of Pb and depleted U with total areal densities near 86 g/cm2. The 238U content n the targets varied from 0 to 8.5percent (atom fraction). The experiment demonstrates the capability of using transmission measurements as a non-destructive technique to identify and quantify the presence of an isotope in samples with thicknesses comparable to he average thickness of a nuclear fuel assembly. The experimental data also appear to demonstrate the process of notch refilling with a predictable intensity. Comparison of measured spectra to previous backscatter 238U measurements indicates general agreement in observed excited states. Two new 238U excited states and possibly a third state have also been observed.

Quiter, Brian J.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Mozin, Vladimir V.; Wilson, Cody; Korbly, Steve

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

Stress intensity magnification factors for fully circumferential cracks in valve bodies (thick cylinders)  

SciTech Connect

The stress intensity solutions presented herein were obtained using an energy method in conjunction with a two-dimensional finite element program in order to explicitly account for curvature effect for fully circumferential cracks. The magnification factors for a specific crack depth were calculated by successively loading the crack surface by a uniform, linear, quadratic, and a cubic loading distribution. The magnification factors can be used to calculate the stress intensity factors by superposition method. The functions for each load condition in terms of radius to thickness ratio (R/t) and a fractional distance in terms of crack depth to thickness ratio (a/t) were developed. The validity of these functions is R/t = 1.5 to 10.0 and for 0.0125 {le} a/t {le} 0.8125. The functions agree to within 1% of the finite elements solutions for most magnification factors.

Toor, P.M.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Stradins, Paul (Golden, CO); Teplin, Charles (Boulder, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

310

Overview of thick-film technology as applied to solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thick-film technology was developed by the electronics industry as a means of fabricating components and miniature circuitry. Today, the solar cell industry is looking at screen printing as an alternate to more expensive, high-vacuum techniques in several of the production steps during the manufacture of silicon solar cells. Screen printing is already fairly well established as a means of providing electrical contact to a cell and for the formation of a back surface field. Now under investigation are the possibilities of non-noble metal contacts and protective and antireflective coatings applied to solar cells by the use of screen printing. Most exciting is the work being done in the non-silicon area on the fabrication of the active layers of a solar cell, using thick-film inks made up of II-VI semiconductors.

Firor, K.; Hogan, S.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Evaluation of Cadmium-Free Thick Film Materials on Alumina Substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new cadmium-free material system was successfully evaluated for the fabrication of thick film hybrid microcircuits at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The characterization involved screen printing, drying and firing two groups of resistor networks which were made using the current material system and the cadmium-free material system. Electrical, environmental and adhesion tests were performed on both groups to determine the more suitable material system. Additionally, untrimmed test coupons were evaluated to further characterize the new materials. The cadmiumfree material system did as well or better than the current material system. Therefore, the new cadmium-free material system was approved for use on production thick film product.

L. H. Perdieu

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Design method for turbomachine blades with finite thickness by the circulation method  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a procedure to extend a recently developed three-dimensional inverse method for infinitely thin blades to handle blades with finite thickness. In this inverse method, the prescribed quantities are the blade pressure loading and the blade thickness distributions, and the calculated quantity is the blade mean camber line. The method is formulated in the fully inverse mode whereby the blade shape is determined iteratively using the flow-tangency condition along the blade surfaces. Design calculations are presented for an inlet guide vane, an impulse turbine blade, and a compressor blade in the two-dimensional inviscid- and incompressible-flow limit. Consistency checks are carried out for these design calculations using a panel analysis method and the analytical solution for the Gostelow profile.

Jiang, J.; Dang, T. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Manufacturing Engineering

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Thickness effects on the plastic collapse of perforated plates with triangular penetration patterns  

SciTech Connect

This paper investigates the effects of plate thickness on the accuracy of limit load solutions obtained using an elastic-perfectly plastic [EPP] equivalent solid [EQS] procedure for flat perforated plates with a triangular array of penetrations. The EQS approach for limit loads is based on an EQS collapse surface that is valid for generalized plane strain. This assumption is applicable for very thick plates but is known to be less reasonable for very thin plates where plane stress may be a better assumption. The limits of applicability of the generalized plane strain assumption are investigated by obtaining limit load solutions for perforated plates of various thicknesses that are subjected to in-plane and bending loads. Plastic limit load solutions obtained using three-dimensional EPP finite element analysis [FEA] of models which include each penetration explicitly are compared with solutions obtained using the EQS approximation. The penetration pattern chosen for this study has a ligament efficiency (ligament width-to-pitch ratio, h/P) of 0.32. For plates thicker than the pitch, the limit load calculated using the EQS method for both in-plane and bending loads is shown to be very accurate (within 4%) of the limit load calculated for the explicit model. On the other hand, for thin plates (t/P< 2), the EQS limit load is 5% greater than the explicit limit load for bending and 8% greater than the explicit limit load for in-plane loads. For thinner plates, the collapse surface is tied to the local geometry deformation and, hence, an equivalent solid plate representation of plastic collapse is a function of deformation mode and thickness.

Gordon, J.L.; Jones, D.P.; Holliday, J.E.

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Estimation of the Thickness of Overlapping Materials by Using Neural Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Backpropagation type artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to estimate the thickness of two overlapping materials by inspecting two X-ray images obtained at different x-ray tube voltage settings. Radiographic images of overlapping aluminum and brass wedges were simulated by using the X-ray radiography simulation program XRSIM. Simulated images were used for training and testing of the ANNs. The average estimation error was less than 4% and 7% on the training and test data respectively.

Reen, N.; Tansel, I. N.; Chen, P.; Wang, X. [Florida International University, Miami, Fl 33174 (United States); Inanc, F. [CNDE, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-3042 (United States); Kropas-Hughes, C. [AFRL/MLLP, Wright Patterson, OH 45433 (United States)

2005-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

316

Unique Challenges Accompany Thick-Shell CdSe/nCdS (n > 10) Nanocrystal Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

Thick-shell CdSe/nCdS (n {ge} 10) nanocrystals were recently reported that show remarkably suppressed fluorescence intermittency or 'blinking' at the single-particle level as well as slow rates of Auger decay. Unfortunately, whereas CdSe/nCdS nanocrystal synthesis is well-developed up to n {le} 6 CdS monolayers (MLs), reproducible syntheses for n {ge} 10 MLs are less understood. Known procedures sometimes result in homogeneous CdS nucleation instead of heterogeneous, epitaxial CdS nucleation on CdSe, leading to broad and multimodal particle size distributions. Critically, obtained core/shell sizes are often below those desired. This article describes synthetic conditions specific to thick-shell growth (n {ge} 10 and n {ge} 20 MLs) on both small (sub2 nm) and large (>4.5 nm) CdSe cores. We find added secondary amine and low concentration of CdSe cores and molecular precursors give desired core/shell sizes. Amine-induced, partial etching of CdSe cores results in apparent shell-thicknesses slightly beyond those desired, especially for very-thick shells (n {ge} 20 MLs). Thermal ripening and fast precursor injection lead to undesired homogeneous CdS nucleation and incomplete shell growth. Core/shells derived from small CdSe (1.9 nm) have longer PL lifetimes and more pronounced blinking at single-particle level compared with those derived from large CdSe (4.7 nm). We expect our new synthetic approach will lead to a larger throughput of these materials, increasing their availability for fundamental studies and applications.

Guo, Y; Marchuk, K; Abraham, R; Sampat, S; Abraham, R.; Fang, N; Malko, AV; Vela, J

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

317

Effects of the Thickness of Niobium Surface Oxide Layers on Field Emission  

SciTech Connect

Field emission on the inner surfaces of niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities is still one of the major obstacles for reaching high accelerating gradients for SRF community. Our previous experimental results* seemed to imply that the threshold of field emission was related to the thickness of Nb surface oxide layers. In this contribution, a more detailed study on the influences of the surface oxide layers on the field emission on Nb surfaces will be reported. By anodization technique, the thickness of the surface pentoxide layer was artificially fabricated from 3 nm up to 460 nm. A home-made scanning field emission microscope was employed to perform the scans on the surfaces. Emitters were characterized using a scanning electron microscope together with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer. The SFEM experimental results were analyzed in terms of surface morphology and oxide thickness of Nb samples and chemical composition and geographic shape of the emitters. A model based on the classic electromagnetic theory was developed trying to understand the experimental results. Possibly implications for Nb SRF cavity applications from this study will be discussed.

A.T. Wu, S. Jin, J.D. Mammosser, R.A. Rimmer, X.Y. Lu, K. Zhao

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Proposed method for determining the thickness of glass in solar collector panels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical method has been developed for determining the minimum thickness for simply supported, rectangular glass plates subjected to uniform normal pressure environmental loads such as wind, earthquake, snow, and deadweight. The method consists of comparing an analytical prediction of the stress in the glass panel to a glass breakage stress determined from fracture mechanics considerations. Based on extensive analysis using the nonlinear finite element structural analysis program ARGUS, design curves for the structural analysis of simply supported rectangular plates have been developed. These curves yield the center deflection, center stress and corner stress as a function of a dimensionless parameter describing the load intensity. Results are included for plates having length-to-width ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4. The load range considered extends to 1000 times the load at which the behavior of the plate becomes significantly nonlinear. Over the load range analyzed, the analysis shows that the ratio of center deflection to plate thickness for a plate of length-to-width ratio of 4 is less than 70 to 1, whereas linear theory would predict a center deflection about 1200 times the plate thickness. The stress is also markedly lower than would be predicted by linear theory. These analytical results show good agreement with the analytical and experimental work of others.

Moore, D.M.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polishand aged (~20 year old) plywood wall paneling was present inboard Description New plywood paneling with new polish 1 New

Ortiz, Anna C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

between vertical plywood panels) during calibration check atbuilding materials such as plywood, particle board and foamstone Panicleboard, Plywood Insulation Fire Retardant

Cairns, E.J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Chemical Emissions of Residential Materials and Products: Review of Available Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

wood materials used (i.e. plywood, OSB, MDB, cabinetry) (regulation is applicable to plywood, particle board, medium-Carpet, polyurethane foam Plywood Laminate w/ particle board

Willem, Henry

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates measured over one year in a new manufactured house  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

living area. The subfloor is plywood; 17 % of the floor areafiberboard passage doors, and plywood sub flooring underA possible source is the plywood subfloor. However, terpene

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nabinger, Steven J.; Persily, Andrew K.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orto the high surface area of plywood paneling, all THUs hadstandards for all plywood and particleboard materials using

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

A Water Conservation Scenario for the Residential and Industrial Sectors in California: Potential Saveings of Water and Related Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Insulation Board Plywood, Hardboard and Wood PreservingWood Pro- duct A) Millwork, Plywood and Related Products W .REFERENCE Millwork, Plywood & Related Products Effluent

Benenson, P.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

The George H. Scripps Memorial Marine Biological Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the glass sidewalk lights. Plywood was installed over all ofpaint below. Most of the plywood covers were removed fromlower halves covered with plywood; the second window from

Shor, George G Jr.; Shor, Elizabeth N; Spiess, Fred N

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Lightweight Impact-Resistant Composite Materials: Lessons from Mantis Shrimp  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

revealing the buckled rotated plywood structural motif ofrevealing the buckled rotated plywood structural motif ofvan Ginnekcn, 1975), rotated plywood (Weiner, 1997), twisted

Milliron, Garrett

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Particle penetration through building cracks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aluminum, brick, concrete, plywood, redwood lumber, pinealuminum, brick, concrete, plywood, redwood lumber, pineof building gaps made of plywood and strand board, the inner

Liu, D L; Nazaroff, William W

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mater- ials -- particle board, plywood and urea-formaldehydeformaldehyde foam insulation, plywood, and particle board.method) is 78% on average. Plywood constructed with urea-

Sonderegger, R. C.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Experimental and analytical investigation of the seismic performance of low-rise masonry veneer buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Linderman, R.R. , “Narrow plywood shear panels”, Earthquakeracking behavior of plywood, OSB, gypsum, and fiberbondof sheathing type, i.e. , plywood versus wafer board, on the

Okail, Hussein

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Cohesiveness, Productivity, and Wage Dispersion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

approximately 18 worker- owned plywood mills which maintainare paid identically. The plywood cooperatives have shownBernstein, 1976: 20] The plywood cooperatives typically have

Levine, David

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I. Sabanay, B. Geiger, “Rotated plywood structure of primaryWoven fiber structure. c) Plywood-like structure present inarrays, woven fibers, plywood-like lamellar structures, and

Lee, Hoe Yun; Lee, Hoe Yun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

A prototype station for ARIANNA: a detector for cosmic neutrinos  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

converter module. The plywood supports were later buried infittings, supported (on the ground) by plywood „feet?.The plywood and pipes were painted white to minimize solar

Gerhardt, L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSIONS IN TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

constructed with ?-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin ortile, gypsum board, shiplap, plywood, terracotta brick) thatsamples are all made from plywood. Humidity Equilibration

Parthasarathy, Srinandini

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Air pollutant penetration through airflow leaks into buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

aluminum, brick, concrete, plywood, redwood lumber, pinelaboratory. Mounted in a plywood panel, the finished windowsheet 8% RH 70% RH Plywood f Plate glass f Aluminum f

Liu, De-Ling

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Streamlined energy-savings calculations for heat-island reduction strategies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shingles on a 20° sloped plywood deck, over a naturallyup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilatedup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilated

Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Rational Expectations and Biological Feasibility in the Projection of Supply and Demand for Douglas Fir Stumpage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

logged, milled into either plywood or lumber, and used forthat ber and 50% of plywood (Stanford Research Institute,The widespread use of plywood and the availability of

Berck, Peter

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Bio-inspired tailored hydroxyapatite-based powder composites for dental applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

scales are composed of plywood structure with collagendifferent layers to form the plywood structure. The diameterscales are composed of plywood structure with collagen

Lin, Yen-Shan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Volatile organic chemical emissions from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials and implications for indoor air quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fiberboard, hardboard and plywood are the predominantliterature for OSB and for plywood, a composite wood productthe predominant southern pine plywood, as it typically is

Hodgson, Alfred T.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Energy effects of heat-island reduction strategies in Toronto, Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shingles on a 20° sloped plywood deck, over a naturallyup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilatedup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilated

Akbari, Hashem; Konopacki, Steven

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Implementation of VOC source reduction practices in a manufactured house and in school classrooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interior doors and the plywood subfloor. Emission rates ofwith acrylic finish) and the plywood subfloor under carpetedand cushion over the plywood had no significant effect on

Hodgson, A.T.; Apte, M.G.; Shendell, D.G.; Beal, D.; McIlvaine, J.E.R.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Notes on Culture and Natural Resource Management  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of potential markets for plywood, gold, cement, pulp andprime wood for the Japanese plywood trade. They puzzled overones; the result was the plywood cartel, Apkindo, which

Tsing, Anna

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Energy impacts of heat island reduction strategies in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shingles on a 20° sloped plywood deck, over a naturallyup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilatedup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilated

Konopacki, Steven; Akbari, Hashem

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

BUILDING VENTILATION AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1978  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mater- ials -- particle board, plywood and urea-formaldehydeformaldehyde foam insulation, plywood, and particle board.method) is 78% on average. Plywood constructed with urea-

Cairns, Elton J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

SIMULATION OF CARGO CONTAINER INTERROGATION BY D-D NEUTRONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

rails, forklift pockets, plywood floor, etc. The containermodel Material Oakwood Plywood SPA-H steel Nat Composition (have the same composition as plywood but their densities are

Lou, Tak Pui; Antolak, Arlyn

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Rapidly locating sources and predicting contaminant dispersion in buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

interior doors and the plywood subfloor. Emission rates ofwith acrylic finish) and the plywood subfloor under carpetedand cushion over the plywood had no significant effect on

Sohn, Michael D.; Reynolds, Pamela; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Sextro, Richard G.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Thickness-dependent changes in the optical properties of PPV-and PF-based polymer light emitting diodes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the thickness-dependent optical properties of single layer polymer light emitting diodes for two materials, poly the electronic and optical properties of these materials in light emitting diode LED structures.2 OurThickness-dependent changes in the optical properties of PPV- and PF-based polymer light emitting

Carter, Sue

348

Optimization of a Sea Ice Model Using Basinwide Observations of Arctic Sea Ice Thickness, Extent, and Velocity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A stand-alone sea ice model is tuned and validated using satellite-derived, basinwide observations of sea ice thickness, extent, and velocity from the years 1993 to 2001. This is the first time that basin-scale measurements of sea ice thickness ...

Paul A. Miller; Seymour W. Laxon; Daniel L. Feltham; Douglas J. Cresswell

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

DETERMINATION OF LIQUID FILM THICKNESS FOLLOWING DRAINING OF CONTACTORS, VESSELS, AND PIPES IN THE MCU PROCESS  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Department of Energy (DOE) identified the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) process as the preferred technology to remove cesium from radioactive waste solutions at the Savannah River Site (SRS). As a result, Washington Savannah River Company (WSRC) began designing and building a Modular CSSX Unit (MCU) in the SRS tank farm to process liquid waste for an interim period until the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) begins operations. Both the solvent and the strip effluent streams could contain high concentrations of cesium which must be removed from the contactors, process tanks, and piping prior to performing contactor maintenance. When these vessels are drained, thin films or drops will remain on the equipment walls. Following draining, the vessels will be flushed with water and drained to remove the flush water. The draining reduces the cesium concentration in the vessels by reducing the volume of cesium-containing material. The flushing, and subsequent draining, reduces the cesium in the vessels by diluting the cesium that remains in the film or drops on the vessel walls. MCU personnel requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers conduct a literature search to identify models to calculate the thickness of the liquid films remaining in the contactors, process tanks, and piping following draining of salt solution, solvent, and strip solution. The conclusions from this work are: (1) The predicted film thickness of the strip effluent is 0.010 mm on vertical walls, 0.57 mm on horizontal walls and 0.081 mm in horizontal pipes. (2) The predicted film thickness of the salt solution is 0.015 mm on vertical walls, 0.74 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.106 mm in horizontal pipes. (3) The predicted film thickness of the solvent is 0.022 mm on vertical walls, 0.91 mm on horizontal walls, and 0.13 mm in horizontal pipes. (4) The calculated film volume following draining is: (a) Salt solution receipt tank--1.6 gallons; (b) Salt solution feed tank--1.6 gallons; (c) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--1.6 gallons; (d) Contactor drain tank--0.40 gallons; (e) Strip effluent hold tank--0.33 gallons; (f) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--0.37 gallons; (g) Strip effluent decanter--0.14 gallons; (h) Solvent hold tank--0.30 gallon; and (i) Corrugated piping between contactors--16-21 mL. (5) After the initial vessel draining, flushing the vessels with 100 gallons of water using a spray nozzle that produces complete vessel coverage and draining the flush water reduces the source term by the following amounts: (i) Salt solution receipt tank--63X; (ii) Salt solution feed tank--63X; (iii) Decontaminated salt solution hold tank--63X; (iv) Contactor drain tank--250X; (v) Strip effluent hold tank--300X; (vi) Decontaminated salt solution decanter--270X; (vii) Strip effluent decanter--710X; (viii) Solvent hold tank--330X. Understand that these estimates of film thickness are based on laboratory testing and fluid mechanics theory. The calculations assume drainage occurs by film flow. Much of the data used to develop the models came from tests with very ''clean'' fluids. Impurities in the fluids and contaminants on the vessels walls could increase liquid holdup. The application of film thickness models and source term reduction calculations should be considered along with operational conditions and H-Tank Farm/Liquid Waste operating experience. These calculations exclude the PVV/HVAC duct work and piping, as well as other areas that area outside the scope of this report.

Poirier, M; Fernando Fondeur, F; Samuel Fink, S

2006-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

350

EFFECT OF DUST ON Ly{alpha} PHOTON TRANSFER IN AN OPTICALLY THICK HALO  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of dust on Ly{alpha} photons emergent from an optically thick medium by solving the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer of resonant photons. To solve the differential equations numerically, we use the weighted essentially non-oscillatory method. Although the effects of dust on radiative transfer are well known, the resonant scattering of Ly{alpha} photons makes the problem non-trivial. For instance, if the medium has an optical depth of dust absorption and scattering of {tau}{sub a} >> 1, {tau} >> 1, and {tau} >> {tau}{sub a}, the effective absorption optical depth in a random walk scenario would be equal to {radical}({tau}{sub a}({tau}{sub a}+{tau})). We show, however, that for a resonant scattering at frequency {nu}{sub 0}, the effective absorption optical depth would be even larger than {tau}({nu}{sub 0}). If the cross section of dust scattering and absorption is frequency-independent, the double-peaked structure of the frequency profile given by the resonant scattering is basically dust-independent. That is, dust causes neither narrowing nor widening of the width of the double-peaked profile. One more result is that the timescales of the Ly{alpha} photon transfer in an optically thick halo are also basically independent of the dust scattering, even when the scattering is anisotropic. This is because those timescales are mainly determined by the transfer in the frequency space, while dust scattering, either isotropic or anisotropic, does not affect the behavior of the transfer in the frequency space when the cross section of scattering is wavelength-independent. This result does not support the speculation that dust will lead to the smoothing of the brightness distribution of a Ly{alpha} photon source with an optically thick halo.

Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Computing Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3QD (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Study of Thick CZT Detectors for X-ray and Gamma-ray Astronomy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CdZnTe (CZT) is a wide bandgap II-VI semiconductor developed for the spectroscopic detection of X-rays and {gamma}-rays at room temperature. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope is using an 5240 cm{sup 2} array of 2 mm thick CZT detectors for the detection of 15-150 keV X-rays from Gamma-ray Bursts. We report on the systematic tests of thicker (0.5 cm) CZT detectors with volumes between 2 cm{sup 3} and 4 cm{sup 3} which are potential detector choices for a number of future X-ray telescopes that operate in the 10 keV to a few MeV energy range. The detectors contacted in our laboratory achieve Full Width Half Maximum energy resolutions of 2.7 keV (4.5%) at 59 keV, 3 keV (2.5%) at 122 keV and 4 keV (0.6%) at 662 keV. The 59 keV and 122 keV energy resolutions are among the world-best results for 0.5 cm thick CZT detectors. We use the data set to study trends of how the energy resolution depends on the detector thickness and on the pixel pitch. Unfortunately, we do not find clear trends, indicating that even for the extremely good energy resolutions reported here, the achievable energy resolutions are largely determined by the properties of individual crystals. Somewhat surprisingly, we achieve the reported results without applying a correction of the anode signals for the depth of the interaction. Measuring the interaction depths thus does not seem to be a pre-requisite for achieving sub-1% energy resolutions at 662 keV.

Li Q.; De Geronimo G.; Beilicke, M.; Lee, K.; Garson III, A.; Guo, Q.; Martin, J.; Yin, Y.; Dowkontt, P.; Jung, I.; Krawczynski, H.

2011-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

352

Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A standard quarter-wavelength multilayer optical coating will produce the highest reflectivity for a given number of coating layers, but in general it will not yield the lowest thermal noise for a prescribed reflectivity. Coatings with the layer thicknesses optimized to minimize thermal noise could be useful in future generation interferometric gravitational wave detectors where coating thermal noise is expected to limit the sensitivity of the instrument. We present the results of direct measurements of the thermal noise of a standard quarter-wavelength coating and a low noise optimized coating. The measurements indicate a reduction in thermal noise in line with modeling predictions.

Villar, Akira E.; Black, Eric D.; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Libbrecht, Kenneth G.; Michel, Christophe; Morgado, Nazario; Pinard, Laurent; Pinto, Innocenzo M.; Pierro, Vincenzo; Galdi, Vincenzo; Principe, Maria; Taurasi, Ilaria [LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 264-33, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Laboratoire des Materiaux Avances, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Villeurbaune (France); Waves Group, University of Sannio at Benevento, Benevento, Italy, INFN and LSC (Italy)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

353

Effective Diffusion-Medium Thickness for Simplified Polymer-Electrolyte-Fuel-Cell Modeling  

SciTech Connect

In this manuscript, conformal mapping is applied to a rib/channel domain of a polymer-electrolyte-fuel-cell diffusion medium. The analysis leads to the calculation of an effective diffusion-medium thickness, which can subsequently be used in 1-D simulations to account for the average rib/channel 2-D geometric effect. Extensions of the analysis to anisotropic and multilayer diffusion media are also given. Both equations and figures show the impact on a given variable at the catalyst layer of having a combined conducting/nonconducting boundary across from it.

Weber, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

2008-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

354

Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a semiconductor wafer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for measuring thicknesses of semiconductor wafers, comprising: housing means for supporting a wafer in a light-tight environment; a light source mounted to the housing at one side of the wafer to emit light of a predetermined wavelength to normally impinge the wafer; a light detector supported at a predetermined distance from a side of the wafer opposite the side on which a light source impinges and adapted to receive light transmitted through the wafer; and means for measuring the transmitted light.

Ciszek, Theodoer F. (31843 Miwok Trail, P.O. Box 1453, Evergreen, CO 80439)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES OF THE METAL-POOR THICK DISK OF THE MILKY WAY AND INSIGHTS INTO ITS ORIGINS  

SciTech Connect

We have undertaken the study of the elemental abundances and kinematic properties of a metal-poor sample of candidate thick-disk stars selected from the Radial Velocity Experiment spectroscopic survey of bright stars to differentiate among the present scenarios of the formation of the thick disk. In this paper, we report on a sample of 214 red giant branch, 31 red clump/horizontal branch, and 74 main-sequence/sub-giant branch metal-poor stars, which serves to augment our previous sample of only giant stars. We find that the thick disk [{alpha}/Fe] ratios are enhanced and have little variation (<0.1 dex), in agreement with our previous study. The augmented sample further allows, for the first time, investigation of the gradients in the metal-poor thick disk. For stars with [Fe/H] < -1.2, the thick disk shows very small gradients, <0.03 {+-} 0.02 dex kpc{sup -1}, in {alpha}-enhancement, while we find a +0.01 {+-} 0.04 dex kpc{sup -1} radial gradient and a -0.09 {+-} 0.05 dex kpc{sup -1} vertical gradient in iron abundance. In addition, we show that the peak of the distribution of orbital eccentricities for our sample agrees better with models in which the stars that comprise the thick disk were formed primarily in the Galaxy, with direct accretion of stars contributing little. Our results thus disfavor direct accretion of stars from dwarf galaxies into the thick disk as a major contributor to the thick-disk population, but cannot discriminate between alternative models for the thick disk, such as those that invoke high-redshift (gas-rich) mergers, heating of a pre-existing thin stellar disk by a minor merger, or efficient radial migration of stars.

Ruchti, Gregory R.; Fulbright, Jon P.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Bloomberg Center for Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gilmore, Gerard F. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Bienayme, Olivier; Siebert, Arnaud [Observatoire de Strasbourg, 11 Rue de L'Universite, 67000 Strasbourg (France); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Gibson, Brad K. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute for Astrophysics and Super-computing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Grebel, Eva K. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstr. 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Helmi, Amina [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Munari, Ulisse [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Via dell'Osservatorio 8, Asiago I-36012 (Italy); Navarro, Julio F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Station CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Parker, Quentin A.; Reid, Warren [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Seabroke, George M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Siviero, Alessandro [Department of Astronomy, Padova University, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 2, Padova 35122 (Italy); Steinmetz, Matthias; Williams, Mary [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany); Watson, Fred G. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW 2357 (Australia); Zwitter, Tomaz, E-mail: gruchti@mpa-garching.mpg.de [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

356

Methods of making glass wool blowing insulation  

SciTech Connect

A process is described of making pieces of glass wool, suitable to be blown into attics as thermal insulation, from an elongated generally laminar resiliently compressible glass wool blanket having an original thickness in an unrestrained condition and made of glass fibers bonded with thermoset resin. The process comprises feeding the blanket longitudinally through a compressing station where it is resiliently compressed from its original thickness to a smaller thickness, and feeding the compressed blanket longitudinally between a rotating backup roll and a cooperative rotating cutting roll from one side of the rolls, the cutting roll including a supporting cylinder. A plywood blade-mounting cylinder is mounted on the supporting cylinder, circular cutting blades each have shank portions spaced from each other and disposed substantially completely around an inner periphery of the blade. Straight cutting blades have shank portions spaced from each other and disposed substantially completely along a length of the blade. Resiliently compressible plugs, the circular cutting blades respectively are separately mounted on the plywood cylinder circumferentially distributed substantially throughout the length spaced equally from each other axially by a distance smaller than the original thickness of the blanket, and having their shank portions mounted respectively in slits extending substantially all the way through a wall thickness of the plywood cylinder. The straight cutting blades respectively are separatedly mounted on the plywood cylinder axially distributed throughout the circumference.

Johnson, A.R.; Yawberg, R.C.

1987-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

357

Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 {at} 20 C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. < 15{sup o}) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow.

R Castelli; P Persans; W Strohmayer; V Parkinson

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

358

Effective zero-thickness model for a conductive membrane driven by an electric field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The behavior of a conductive membrane in a static (DC) electric field is investigated theoretically. An effective zero-thickness model is constructed based on a Robin-type boundary condition for the electric potential at the membrane, originally developed for electrochemical systems. Within such a framework, corrections to the elastic moduli of the membrane are obtained, which arise from charge accumulation in the Debye layers due to capacitive effects and electric currents through the membrane and can lead to an undulation instability of the membrane. The fluid flow surrounding the membrane is also calculated, which clarifies issues regarding these flows sharing many similarities with flows produced by induced charge electro-osmosis (ICEO). Non-equilibrium steady states of the membrane and of the fluid can be effectively described by this method. It is both simpler, due to the zero thickness approximation which is widely used in the literature on fluid membranes, and more general than previous approaches. The predictions of this model are compared to recent experiments on supported membranes in an electric field.

Falko Ziebert; Martin Z. Bazant; David Lacoste

2009-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

359

A system for combined three-dimensional morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue specimens  

SciTech Connect

We present a new system for simultaneous morphological and molecular analysis of thick tissue samples. The system is composed of a computer assisted microscope and a JAVA-based image display, analysis and visualization program that allows acquisition, annotation, meaningful storage, three-dimensional reconstruction and analysis of structures of interest in thick sectioned tissue specimens. We describe the system in detail and illustrate its use by imaging, reconstructing and analyzing two complete tissue blocks which were differently processed and stained. One block was obtained from a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lumpectomy specimen and stained alternatively with Hematoxilyn and Eosin (H&E), and with a counterstain and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to the ERB-B2 gene. The second block contained a fully sectioned mammary gland of a mouse, stained for Histology with H&E. We show how the system greatly reduces the amount of interaction required for the acquisition and analysis and is therefore suitable for studies that require morphologically driven, wide scale (e.g., whole gland) analysis of complex tissue samples or cultures.

Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Jones, Arthur; Garcia-Rodriguez, Enrique; Yuan Chen, Ping; Idica, Adam; Lockett, Stephen J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Ortiz-de-Solorzano, Carlos

2002-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

360

From the Circumnuclear Disk in the Galactic Center to thick, obscuring tori of AGNs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compare three different models of clumpy gas disk and show that the Circumnuclear Disk (CND) in the Galactic Center and a putative, geometrically thick, obscuring torus are best explained by a collisional model consisting of quasi-stable, self-gravitating clouds. Kinetic energy of clouds is gained by mass inflow and dissipated in cloud collisions. The collisions give rise to a viscosity in a spatially averaged gas dynamical picture, which connects them to angular momentum transport and mass inflow. It is found that CND and torus share the same gas physics in our description, where the mass of clouds is 20 - 50 M_sun and their density is close to the limit of disruption by tidal shear. We show that the difference between a transparent CND and an obscuring torus is the gas mass and the velocity dispersion of the clouds. A change in gas supply and the dissipation of kinetic energy can turn a torus into a CND-like structure and vice versa. Any massive torus will naturally lead to sufficiently high mass accretion rates to feed a luminous AGN. For a geometrically thick torus to obscure the view to the center even super-Eddington accretions rates with respect to the central black hole are required.

B. Vollmer; T. Beckert; W. J. Duschl

2003-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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361

Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition  

SciTech Connect

Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing material toxicity. Indium phosphide (InP) offers a 'green' alternative to the traditional cadmium-based NQDs, but suffers from extreme susceptibility to oxidation. Coating InP cores with more stable shell materials significantly improves nanocrystal resistance to oxidation and photostability. We have investigated several new InP-based core-shell compositions, correlating our results with theoretical predictions of their optical and electronic properties. Specifically, we can tailor the InP core-shell QDs to a type-I, quasi-type-II, or type-II bandgap structure with emission wavelengths ranging from 500-1300 nm depending on the shell material used (ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe) and the thickness of the shell. Single molecule microscopy assessments of photobleaching and blinking are used to correlate NQD properties with shell thickness.

Dennis, Allison M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mangum, Benjamin D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Piryatinski, Andrei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Young-Shin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

362

Thickness Dependency of Thin Film Samaria Doped Ceria for Oxygen Sensing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High temperature oxygen sensors are widely used for exhaust gas monitoring in automobiles. This particular study explores the use of thin film single crystalline samaria doped ceria as the oxygen sensing material. Desired signal to noise ratio can be achieved in a material system with high conductivity. From previous studies it is established that 6 atomic percent samarium doping is the optimum concentration for thin film samaria doped ceria to achieve high ionic conductivity. In this study, the conductivity of the 6 atomic percent samaria doped ceria thin film is measured as a function of the sensing film thickness. Hysteresis and dynamic response of this sensing platform is tested for a range of oxygen pressures from 0.001 Torr to 100 Torr for temperatures above 673 K. An attempt has been made to understand the physics behind the thickness dependent conductivity behavior of this sensing platform by developing a hypothetical operating model and through COMSOL simulations. This study can be used to identify the parameters required to construct a fast, reliable and compact high temperature oxygen sensor.

Sanghavi, Rahul P.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Jiang, Weilin; Varga, Tamas; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Engelhard, Mark H.; Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Kayani, Asghar N.; Prasad, Shalini

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

363

Growth of C02 frost thickness near Chasma Borealis during northern winter and spring.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Epithermal neutron fluxes measured using the Neutron Spectrometer component of the Mars OdysscNGamma-Ray Spectrometer suite of instruments were studied to determ i ne the spatial and temporal dependence of CO2 frost cover of the nor t h polar cap for L, between 329 and 99 arcoccntric longitude. This time period spans the la t e northern xvinter through summer solstice . In the absence of a CO, cuvcr, the entire basement terrain p o l eward of about +55 latitude is vm, rich in I1 :0 . The consequent enhanced abundance of hydrogen in near-surface soils leads to an anomaluusly low flux of oumardly leaking cpithcrmal ncutrons, wh i ch is a prominent signatu r e of epi t hermal neutron maps measured after about L, = 90 . Because the epithermal neutron flux rises monotonically w i t h increasing thickness of t h e CO . fros t cover, it provides a robust measure of the CO2 thickness in space and time .

Feldman, W. C. (William C.); Boynton, W. V. (William V.); Prettyman, T. H. (Thomas H.); Kelly, N.; Maurice, S. (Sylvestre)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Homobuffer thickness effect on the background electron carrier concentration of epitaxial ZnO thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Epitaxial ZnO thin films were grown on r-plane sapphire substrates using plasma-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy. ZnO homobuffer layers grown at a lower temperature were introduced to improve the crystallinity of the top ZnO thin films. Thicker homobuffer layers lead to better crystallinity of the subsequent epitaxial ZnO thin films due to the strain relaxation effect. Residual background electron carrier concentration in these undoped ZnO thin films first decreases, then increases as the buffer layer thickness increases from {approx}1 to 30 nm, with a minimum electron concentration of {approx}1x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} occurring in ZnO homobuffer of {approx}5 nm. These results demonstrate that the optimized ZnO homobuffer thickness to achieve both good ZnO crystallinity and low residual electron concentration is determined by the relative electron carrier concentration ratios and mobility ratios between the buffer and epi-ZnO layers.

Yang, Z.; Zhou, H. M.; Li, L.; Zhao, J. Z.; Liu, J. L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Quantum Structures Laboratory, University of California, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Chen, W. V.; Yu, P. K. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

365

Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. (First quarterly report, FY 1981)  

SciTech Connect

The choice of sets of root welding parameters is discussed. Thick field demonstration/qualification welds will be performed. A welding procedure handbook which will be prepared is mentioned. (DLC)

Schneider, U.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Observations of Saharan Aerosols: Results of ECLATS Field Experiment. Part I: Optical Thicknesses and Aerosol Size Distributions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of ground-based and airborne observations of desert aerosols, the ECLATS experiment was carried out in December 1980 in the vicinity of Niamey (Niger). This paper deals with aerosol optical thicknesses and size distributions derived from ...

Y. Fouquart; B. Bonnel; M. Chaoui Roquai; R. Santer; A. Cerf

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Potential Vorticity and Layer Thickness Variations in the Flow around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Oval BC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Layer thickness variations in Jupiter's atmosphere are investigated by treating potential vorticity as a conserved tracer. Starting with the horizontal velocity field measured from Voyager images, fluid trajectories around the Great Red Spot (GRS)...

Timothy E. Dowling; Andrew P. Ingersoll

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Estimation of Thin Ice Thickness and Detection of Fast Ice from SSM/I Data in the Antarctic Ocean  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Antarctic coastal polynyas are important areas of high sea ice production and dense water formation, and thus their detection including an estimate of thin ice thickness is essential. In this paper, the authors propose an algorithm that estimates ...

Takeshi Tamura; Kay I. Ohshima; Thorsten Markus; Donald J. Cavalieri; Sohey Nihashi; Naohiko Hirasawa

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

The Accuracy of Marine Shadow-Band Sun Photometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Thickness and Ångström Exponent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An analytical uncertainty propagation model is used in conjunction with laboratory and field data to quantify the uncertainty in measurements of the direct-normal irradiance, aerosol optical thickness, and Ångström exponent made with a ship-...

Mark A. Miller; Mary Jane Bartholomew; R. Michael Reynolds

2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Estimations of Cloud Optical Thickness from Ground-Based Measurements of Incoming Solar Radiation in the Arctic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A technique for evaluation of cloud optical thickness (plant-parallel, homogeneous layer) from ground-based measurements of incoming solar irradiance using a simple radiation model is introduced. The sensitivities of downward and upward fluxes of ...

E. Leontyeva; K. Stamnes

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

A System Review of Magnetic Sensing System for Ground Vehicle Control and Guidance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

large flat (120 cm x 240 cm) plywood board with the point ofof a grid drawn on the plywood board. This setup allows thebeyond the edges of the plywood. The plywood is placed on a

Chan, Ching-yao

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Effect of Ag thickness on electrical transport and optical properties of indium tin oxide-Ag-indium tin oxide multilayers  

SciTech Connect

We report the dependence of electronic and optical properties on the Ag thickness in transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO)-Ag-ITO (IMI) multilayer films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate flexible substrate by sputtering at room temperature. The electrical properties (such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity) changed significantly with incorporation of Ag between the ITO layers. Comparison of sheet resistance of the IMI multilayers and the calculated sheet resistance of the Ag midlayer indicates that most of the conduction is through the Ag film. The critical thickness of Ag to form a continuous conducting layer is found to be 8 nm using electrical and optical analysis. A conduction mechanism is proposed to elucidate the mobility variation with increased Ag thickness. Carrier transport is limited by either interface scattering or grain-boundary scattering depending on the thickness of the Ag midlayer. Interface scattering is dominant for thinner (5.5-7 nm) Ag and grain-boundary scattering is dominant for thicker (8-10.5 nm) Ag midlayers. In addition, the effect of varying Ag midlayer thickness on transmittance behavior is also discussed. A figure of merit is used to compare performance of the IMI multilayer systems as a function of Ag thickness.

Indluru, A.; Alford, T. L. [School of Materials and Flexible Display Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Density slope of the nuclear symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Expressing explicitly the parameters of the standard Skyrme interaction in terms of the macroscopic properties of asymmetric nuclear matter, we show in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach that unambiguous correlations exist between observables of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. We find that existing data on neutron skin thickness Delta r(np) of Sn isotopes give an important constraint on the symmetry energy E(sym)(rho(0)) and its density slope L at saturation density rho(0). Combining these constraints with those from recent analyses of isospin diffusion and the double neutron/proton ratio in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies leads to a more stringent limit on L approximately independent of E(sym)(rho(0)). The implication of these new constraints on the Delta r(np) of (208)Pb as well as the core-crust transition density and pressure in neutron stars is discussed.

Chen, Lie-Wen; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Bao-An; Xu, Jun.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

EVOLVING GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISKS OVER COSMIC TIME: IMPLICATIONS FOR THICK DISK FORMATION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of disk galaxies at z {approx} 2 have demonstrated that turbulence driven by gravitational instability can dominate the energetics of the disk. We present a one-dimensional simulation code, which we have made publicly available, that economically evolves these galaxies from z {approx} 2 to z {approx} 0 on a single CPU in a matter of minutes, tracking column density, metallicity, and velocity dispersions of gaseous and multiple stellar components. We include an H{sub 2}-regulated star formation law and the effects of stellar heating by transient spiral structure. We use this code to demonstrate a possible explanation for the existence of a thin and thick disk stellar population and the age-velocity-dispersion correlation of stars in the solar neighborhood: the high velocity dispersion of gas in disks at z {approx} 2 decreases along with the cosmological accretion rate, while at lower redshift the dynamically colder gas forms the low velocity dispersion stars of the thin disk.

Forbes, John; Krumholz, Mark [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: jforbes@ucolick.org, E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org, E-mail: burkert@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich (USM), Scheinerstrasse 1, 81679 Munich (Germany)

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

375

Development of economical improved thick film solar cell contact. Final report, September 1978-April 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential for economy and efficiency has been demonstrated for the thick film metallization process using screen printing for solar cell electrodes. However, process reliability and materials economy remain deficient. It is believed that these deficiencies can be removed by the use of ink formulations designed specifically for silicon solar cells, departing from ceramic technology tradition and utilizing all metal systems. The objectives of this investigation are as follows: 1) eliminate the glass frit which has been the conventional liquid phase sintering medium and adhesive for metallization inks; 2) provide an appropriate metal which can serve as the liquid phase sintering medium; 3) find a chemical constituent which effectively removes the native oxide from the silicon during the firing step, which can be made part of the ink, and which either becomes fugitive or remains an inert part of the matured metallization; and 4) maintain cognizance of the cost objectives of the LSA Project in selecting materials and processes. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Ross, B.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling  

SciTech Connect

A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Characterization of thick lead zirconate titanate films fabricated using a new sol gel based process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films 60 {mu}m in thickness have been fabricated using a new sol gel based process. PZT powders are dispersed in a sol gel matrix to form a 0{endash}3 ceramic/ceramic composite. The dielectric properties of these films have been studied as a function of powder concentration, frequency, and temperature. The characteristic Curie point is observed at 420{degree}C. The ferroelectric behavior measured in terms of the remanant polarization (P{sub r}=35 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) and coercive field (E{sub c}=20 kV/cm) was an improvement over values quoted for thin PZT films but lower than that of bulk ceramic. The piezoelectric properties d{sub 33} (325 pC/N) and d{sub 31} ({minus}80 pC/N) were comparable with those of the bulk ceramic. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Barrow, D.A. [Datec Coating Corporation, Stirling Hall, 99 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada); Petroff, T.E. [Datec Coating Corporation, Stirling Hall, 99 University Avenue, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)]|[Department of Chemistry, Queen`s University, Kingston, Ontario KL7 3NG (Canada); Tandon, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Sayer, M. [Department of Physics, Queen`s University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6 (Canada)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thick-film technology for ultra high vacuum interfaces of micro-structured traps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We adopt thick-film technology to produce ultra high vacuum compatible interfaces for electrical signals. These interfaces permit voltages of hundreds of Volts and currents of several Amperes and allow for very compact vacuum setups, useful in quantum optics in general, and especially for quantum information and quantum simulations using miniaturized traps for ions or neutral atoms. Such printed circuits can also be useful as pure in-vacuum devices. We demonstrate a specific interface, which provides eleven current feedthroughs, more than 70 dc feedthroughs and a feedthrough for radio frequencies. We achieve a pressure in the low 1e-11mbar range and demonstrate the full functionality of the interface by trapping chains of cold ytterbium ions, which requires all of the signals mentioned above being present. In addition, a versatile multi-channel device for supplying precise time-dependent voltages has been developed.

Delia Kaufmann; Thomas Collath; M. Tanveer Baig; Peter Kaufmann; Eman Asenwar; Michael Johanning; Christof Wunderlich

2011-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

379

Method and apparatus for monitoring the thickness of a coal rib during rib formation  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for monitoring the position of a mining machine cutting a new entry in a coal seam relative to an adjacent, previously cut entry to determine the distance between a near face of the adjacent previously cut entry and a new face adjacent thereto of a new entry being cut by the mining machine which together define the thickness of a coal rib being formed between the new entry and the adjacent previously cut entry during the new entry-cutting operation. The monitoring apparatus; includes a transmit antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly from the new face of the coal rib for transmitting radio energy towards the coal rib so that one portion of the radio energy is reflected by the new face which is defined at an air-coal interface between the new entry and the coal rib and another portion of the radio energy is reflected by the near face of the coal rib which is defined at an air-coal interface between the coal rib and the adjacent previously cut entry. A receive antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly of the new face of the coal rib receives the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face and also receives the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face. A processor determines a first elapsed time period equal to the time required for the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and also determines a second elapsed time period equal to the time required for the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and thereafter calculates the thickness of the coal rib being formed as a function of the difference between the first and second elapsed time periods.

Mowrey, Gary L. (Jefferson Boro, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Monaghan, William D. (Dravosburg, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Manganese trends in a sample of thin and thick disk stars. The origin of Mn  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CONTEXT: Manganese is an iron-peak element and although the nucleosynthesis path that leads to its formation is fairly well understood, it remains unclear which objects, SN II and/or SN Ia, that contribute the majority of Mn to the interstellar medium. It also remains unclear to which extent the supernovae Mn yields depend on the metallicity of the progenitor star or not. AIMS: By using a well studied and well defined sample of 95 dwarf stars we aim at further constraining the formation site(s) of Mn. METHODS: We derive Mn abundances through spectral synthesis of four Mn I lines at 539.4, 549.2, 601.3, and 601.6 nm. Stellar parameters and data for oxygen are taken from Bensby et al. (2003, 2004, 2005). RESULTS: When comparing our Mn abundances with O abundances for the same stars we find that the abundance trends in the stars with kinematics of the thick disk can be explained by metallicity dependent yields from SN II. We go on and combine our data for dwarf stars in the disks with data for dwarf and giant stars in the metal-poor thick disk and halo from the literature. We find that dwarf and giant stars show the same trends, which indicates that neither non-LTE nor evolutionary effects are a major concern for Mn. Furthermore, the [Mn/O] vs [O/H] trend in the halo is flat. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the simplest interpretation of our data is that Mn is most likely produced in SN II and that the Mn yields for such SNae must be metallicity dependent. Contribution from SN Ia in the metal-rich thin disk can not, however, be excluded.

S. Feltzing; M. Fohlman; T. Bensby

2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thick-to-Thin Filament Surface Distance Modulates Cross-Bridge Kinetics in Drosophila Flight Muscle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demembranated (skinned) muscle fiber preparation is widely used to investigate muscle contraction because the intracellular ionic conditions can be precisely controlled. However, plasma membrane removal results in a loss of osmotic regulation, causing abnormal hydration of the myofilament lattice and its proteins. We investigated the structural and functional consequences of varied myofilament lattice spacing and protein hydration on cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment in Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle, using x-ray diffraction to compare the lattice spacing of dissected, osmotically compressed skinned fibers to native muscle fibers in living flies. Osmolytes of different sizes and exclusion properties (Dextran T-500 and T-10) were used to differentially alter lattice spacing and protein hydration. At in vivo lattice spacing, cross-bridge attachment time (t{sub on}) increased with higher osmotic pressures, consistent with a reduced cross-bridge detachment rate as myofilament protein hydration decreased. In contrast, in the swollen lattice, t{sub on} decreased with higher osmotic pressures. These divergent responses were reconciled using a structural model that predicts t{sub on} varies inversely with thick-to-thin filament surface distance, suggesting that cross-bridge rates of force development and detachment are modulated more by myofilament lattice geometry than protein hydration. Generalizing these findings, our results suggest that cross-bridge cycling rates slow as thick-to-thin filament surface distance decreases with sarcomere lengthening, and likewise, cross-bridge cycling rates increase during sarcomere shortening. Together, these structural changes may provide a mechanism for altering cross-bridge performance throughout a contraction-relaxation cycle.

Tanner, Bertrand C.W.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Miller, Mark S. (IIT); (Vermont); (BU)

2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

382

Calculation of shielding door thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities using the ITS Monte Carlo program  

SciTech Connect

Shielding calculations for door thicknesses for megavoltage radiotherapy facilities with mazes are generally straightforward. To simplify the calculations, the standard formalism adopts several approximations relating to the average beam path, scattering coefficients, and the mean energy of the spectrum of scattered radiation. To test the accuracy of these calculations, the Monte Carlo program, ITS, was applied to this problem by determining the dose and energy spectrum of the radiation at the door for 4- and 10-MV bremsstrahlung beams incident on a phantom at isocenter. This was performed for mazes, one termed 'standard' and the other a shorter maze where the primary beam is incident on the wall adjacent to the door. The peak of the photon-energy spectrum at the door was found to be the same for both types of maze, independent of primary beam energy, and also, in the case of the conventional maze, of the primary beam orientation. The spectrum was harder for the short maze and for 10 MV vs. 4 MV. The thickness of the lead door for a short maze configuration was 1.5 cm for 10 MV and 1.2 cm for 4 MV vs. approximately less than 1 mm for a conventional maze. For the conventional maze, the Monte Carlo calculation predicts the dose at the door to be lower than given by NCRP 49 and NCRP 51 by about a factor of 2 at 4 MV but to be the same at 10 MV. For the short maze, the Monte Carlo predicts the dose to be a factor of 3 lower for 4 MV and about a factor of 1.5 lower for 10 MV. Experimental results support the Monte Carlo findings for the short maze.

Biggs, P.J. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} RESONANT PHOTONS EMERGING FROM AN OPTICALLY THICK MEDIUM  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the angular distribution of Ly{alpha} photons scattering or emerging from an optically thick medium. Since the evolution of specific intensity I in frequency space and angular space are coupled with each other, we first develop the WENO numerical solver to find the time-dependent solutions of the integro-differential equation of I in frequency and angular space simultaneously. We first show that the solutions with the Eddington approximation, which assume that I is linearly dependent on the angular variable {mu}, yield similar frequency profiles of the photon flux as those without the Eddington approximation. However, the solutions of the {mu} distribution evolution are significantly different from those given by the Eddington approximation. First, the angular distribution of I is found to be substantially dependent on the frequency of the photons. For photons with the resonant frequency {nu}{sub 0}, I contains only a linear term of {mu}. For photons with frequencies at the double peaks of the flux, the {mu}-distribution is highly anisotropic; most photons are emitted radially forward. Moreover, either at {nu}{sub 0} or at the double peaks, the {mu} distributions actually are independent of the initial {mu} distribution of photons of the source. This is because the photons with frequencies either at {nu}{sub 0} or the double peaks undergo the process of forgetting their initial conditions due to resonant scattering. We also show that the optically thick medium is a collimator of photons at the double peaks. Photons from the double peaks form a forward beam with a very small opening angle.

Yang Yang; Shu Chiwang [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Roy, Ishani [Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering Division, St Thomas Hospital, Kings College London, SE1 7EH (United Kingdom); Fang Lizhi [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

384

Heat Recovery in Building Envelopes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

glass fiber insulation), an exterior plywood sheathing andan interior plywood layer. The cross-section of a

Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

CFD Simulation of Infiltration Heat Recovery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the outer sheathing (plywood) allow air to leak into thefor turbulence. The plywood sheathing is represented as an

Buchanan, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and Resulting Concentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

include wood framing with plywood underlying the floor, twowith low-VOC paint. The plywood subfloor was covered with

Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff, William W.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

On the mechanistic origins of toughness in bone  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MM.   1988.   Twisted  plywood  architecture  of  collagen the existence of a “plywood” type structure, where the 

Launey, Maximilien E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE FACILITY FOR THE TESTINGS OF THE TFTR NEUTRAL BEAM INJECTOR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

similar raised floor of plywood con­ struction extends fromsections of moveable plywood, and there is ready access to

Haughian, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

boot was connected to a plywood sheet that represents thewas pressed against the plywood surround. Two rectangular

Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Visual Acuity of Juvenile Loggerhead Sea Turtles (Caretta caretta): A Behavioral Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

filtered riverwater. A plywood barrier running the width ofcutout sections of the plywood barrier with clips so that

Moein Bartol, Soraya; Mellgren, Roger L.; Musick, John A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

The Order of Dreams [Imaginative Intensity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with a doghouse" on the plywood sheathing. The client cameof framing members and plywood, suggests that house under

Howard, Lucia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Free vibration analysis of complete paraboloidal shells of revolution with variable thickness and solid paraboloids from a three-dimensional theory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A three-dimensional (3-D) method of analysis is presented for determining the free vibration frequencies and mode shapes of solid paraboloids and complete (that is, without a top opening) paraboloidal shells of revolution with variable wall thickness. ... Keywords: Complete paraboloidal shells, Ritz method, Shells of revolution, Solid paraboloids, Thick shell, Three-dimensional analysis, Variable thickness, Vibration

Jae-Hoon Kang; Arthur W. Leissa

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

THE THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF OXYGEN PERMEABILITY IN SOL-GEL DERIVED CGO-COFE2O4 THIN FILMS ON POROUS CERAMIC SUBSTRATES: A SPUTTERED BLOCKING LAYER FOR THICKNESS CONTROL  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mixed conductive oxides are a topic of interest for applications in oxygen separation membranes as well as use in producing hydrogen fuel through the partial oxidation of methane. The oxygen flux through the membrane is governed both by the oxygen ionic conductivity as well as the material's electronic conductivity; composite membranes like Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO)-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) use gadolinium doped ceria oxides as the ionic conducting material combined with cobalt iron spinel which serves as the electronic conductor. In this study we employ {approx} 50 nm sputtered CeO{sub 2} layers on the surface of porous CGO ceramic substrates which serve as solution 'blocking' layers during the thin film fabrication process facilitating the control of film thickness. Films with thickness of {approx} 2 and 4 microns were prepared by depositing 40 and 95 separate sol-gel layers respectively. Oxygen flux measurements indicated that the permeation increased with decreasing membrane thickness; thin film membrane with thickness on the micron level showed flux values an order of magnitude greater (0.03 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2} s) at 800 C as compared to 1mm thick bulk ceramic membranes (0.003 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}).

Brinkman, K

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

394

Bobbin-Tool Friction-Stir Welding of Thick-Walled Aluminum Alloy Pressure Vessels  

SciTech Connect

It was desired to assemble thick-walled Al alloy 2219 pressure vessels by bobbin-tool friction-stir welding. To develop the welding-process, mechanical-property, and fitness-for-service information to support this effort, extensive friction-stir welding-parameter studies were conducted on 2.5 cm. and 3.8 cm. thick 2219 Al alloy plate. Starting conditions of the plate were the fully-heat-treated (-T62) and in the annealed (-O) conditions. The former condition was chosen with the intent of using the welds in either the 'as welded' condition or after a simple low-temperature aging treatment. Since preliminary stress-analyses showed that stresses in and near the welds would probably exceed the yield-strength of both 'as welded' and welded and aged weld-joints, a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging treatment was also examined. Once a suitable set of welding and post-weld heat-treatment parameters was established, the project divided into two parts. The first part concentrated on developing the necessary process information to be able to make defect-free friction-stir welds in 3.8 cm. thick Al alloy 2219 in the form of circumferential welds that would join two hemispherical forgings with a 102 cm. inside diameter. This necessitated going to a bobbin-tool welding-technique to simplify the tooling needed to react the large forces generated in friction-stir welding. The bobbin-tool technique was demonstrated on both flat-plates and plates that were bent to the curvature of the actual vessel. An additional issue was termination of the weld, i.e. closing out the hole left at the end of the weld by withdrawal of the friction-stir welding tool. This was accomplished by friction-plug welding a slightly-oversized Al alloy 2219 plug into the termination-hole, followed by machining the plug flush with both the inside and outside surfaces of the vessel. The second part of the project involved demonstrating that the welds were fit for the intended service. This involved determining the room-temperature tensile and elastic-plastic fracture-toughness properties of the bobbin-tool friction-stir welds after a post-weld solution-treatment, quenching, and aging heat-treatment. These mechanical properties were used to conduct fracture-mechanics analyses to determine critical flaw sizes. Phased-array and conventional ultrasonic non-destructive examination was used to demonstrate that no flaws that match or exceed the calculated critical flaw-sizes exist in or near the friction-stir welds.

Dalder, E C; Pastrnak, J W; Engel, J; Forrest, R S; Kokko, E; Ternan, K M; Waldron, D

2007-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

395

ATR LEU Fuel and Burnable Absorber Neutronics Performance Optimization by Fuel Meat Thickness Variation  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density and high neutron flux research reactor operating in the United States. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting an HEU driven reactor to a low-enriched core. The present work investigates the necessary modifications and evaluates the subsequent operating effects of this conversion. A detailed plate-by-plate MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was developed and validated for a fuel cycle burnup comparison analysis. Using the current HEU U 235 enrichment of 93.0 % as a baseline, an analysis can be performed to determine the low-enriched uranium (LEU) density and U-235 enrichment required in the fuel meat to yield an equivalent K-eff between the HEU core and the LEU core versus effective full power days (EFPD). The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model will be used to optimize the U-235 loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profile between the HEU and LEU core can be minimized. The depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K-eff versus EFPDs in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the LEU cases with foil (U-10Mo) types demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPDs plot is similar to the reference ATR HEU case. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm. In this work, the proposed LEU (U-10Mo) core conversion case with a nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm and the same U-235 enrichment (15.5 wt%) can be used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel plate thickness from 0.254 to 0.457 mm at the inner 4 fuel plates (1-4) and outer 4 fuel plates (16-19). In addition, a 0.7g of burnable absorber Boron-10 was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the inner/outer heat flux more effectively. The optimized LEU relative radial fission heat flux profile is bounded by the reference ATR HEU case. However, to demonstrate that the LEU core fuel cycle performance can meet the Updated Final Safety Analysis Report (UFSAR) safety requirements, additional studies will be necessary to evaluate and compare safety parameters such as void reactivity and Doppler coefficients, control components worth (outer shim control cylinders, safety rods and regulating rod), and shutdown margins between the HEU and LEU cores.

G. S. Chang

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Nuclear matter symmetry energy and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei RID A-2398-2009  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlations between the thickness of the neutron skin in finite nuclei and the nuclear matter symmetry energy are studied in the Skyrme Hartree-Fock model. From the most recent analysis of the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions based on an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model with in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, a value of L = 88 +/- 25 MeV for the slope of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density is extracted, and this imposes stringent constraints on both the parameters in the Skyrme effective interactions and the neutron skin thickness of heavy nuclei. Predicted thickness of the neutron skin is 0.22 +/- 0.04 fm for (208)Pb, 0.29 +/- 0.04 fm for (132)Sn, and 0.22 +/- 0.04 fm for (124)Sn.

Chen, LW; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Development of economical improved thick film solar cell contact. Quarterly report No. 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Materials were surveyed to provide candidates for an all metal electrode paste system. These consisted of a major constituent metal powder, a low melting metal powder suitable for a liquid phase sintering medium, and a powder material suitable as an etchant for silicon dioxide at sintering temperatures. By means of thermal gravimetric analysis a suitable binder was identified for low temperature fired inks. The all metal ink concept was first demonstrated with the silver system to avoid the problems of limited process windows encountered with base metal systems. A number of solid materials capable of selectively etching silicon dioxide at modest temperatures were identified. One of these, silver fluoride, has yielded very good results, wetting the silicon surface after removing a thick (3000 A) silica layer. Silver pastes containing the above materials have been prepared. A paste with silver fluoride was screened onto N-type silicon with 5..cap omega..cm resistivity. The resulting contact pads had excellent adhesion but were not electrically ohmic. Another metal ink paste, incorporating boric acid, gave substantially lower resistances; however, it would not pass a 1-hour boiling DI water immersion without losing scratch resistance.

Ross, B.; Mentley, D.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

An iterative procedure to obtain inverse response functions for thick-target correction of measured charged-particle spectra  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new method for correcting charged-particle spectra for thick target effects is described. Starting with a trial function, inverse response functions are found by an iterative procedure. The variances corresponding to the measured spectrum are treated similiarly and in parallel. Oscillations of the solution are avoided by rebinning the data to finer bins during a correction iteration and back to the original or wider binning after each iteration. This thick-target correction method has been used for data obtained with the MEDLEY facility at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden, and is here presented in detail and demonstrated for two test cases.

S. Pomp; U. Tippawan

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

399

Thermal effects on the characteristic Raman spectrum of molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) of varying thicknesses  

SciTech Connect

In this letter, thermal effects on the Raman spectra of molybdenum disulfide with thicknesses ranging from bulk to monolayer were evaluated. We quantitatively determined the laser-induced heating effects on the peak position and the line-width of the Raman spectrum. We found considerable thickness-dependent red-shifts as well as line-width changes for both E{sub 2g}{sup 1} and A{sub 1g} vibrating modes as laser power was increased. Our results enrich the knowledge of phononic behaviors of this material and demonstrate the important effects of the anharmonic terms in the lattice potential energy.

Najmaei, S.; Liu, Z.; Ajayan, P. M.; Lou, J.

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

400

Pressure-dependent transition from atoms to nanoparticles in magnetron sputtering: Effect on WSi{sub 2} film roughness and stress  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report on the transition between two regimes from several-atom clusters to much larger nanoparticles in Ar magnetron sputter deposition of WSi{sub 2}, and the effect of nanoparticles on the properties of amorphous thin films and multilayers. Sputter deposition of thin films is monitored by in situ x-ray scattering, including x-ray reflectivity and grazing incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The results show an abrupt transition at an Ar background pressure P{sub c}; the transition is associated with the threshold for energetic particle thermalization, which is known to scale as the product of the Ar pressure and the working distance between the magnetron source and the substrate surface. Below P{sub c} smooth films are produced while above P{sub c} roughness increases abruptly, consistent with a model in which particles aggregate in the deposition flux before reaching the growth surface. The results from WSi{sub 2} films are correlated with in situ measurement of stress in WSi{sub 2}/Si multilayers, which exhibits a corresponding transition from compressive to tensile stress at P{sub c}. The tensile stress is attributed to coalescence of nanoparticles and the elimination of nanovoids.

Zhou Lan; Wang Yiping; Zhou Hua; Li Minghao; Headrick, Randall L.; MacArthur, Kimberly; Shi Bing; Conley, Ray; Macrander, Albert T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science Program, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 05405 (United States); Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings were determined using composite specimens of ceramic coated onto stainless steel substrates, tested with the coating in compression and the steel in tension. The strength of the coating was determined from an elastic bi-material analysis of the resulting failure of the coating in compression.(3) Altough initial comparisons of the materials would appear to be straight forward from these results, the results of the aging tests of the materials are necessary to insure that trends in properties remain after long term exposure to a diesel environment. Some comparisons can be made, such as the comparison between for lot-to-lot variation. An axial fatigue test to determine the high cycle fatigue behavior of TTBCs was developed at the University of Illinois under funding from this program.(4) A fatigue test apparatus has been designed and initial work performed which demonstrates the ability to provide a routine method of axial testing of coating. The test fixture replaces the normal load frame and fixtures used to transmit the hydraulic oil loading to the sample with the TTBC specimen itself. The TTBC specimen is a composite metal/coating with stainless steel ends. The coating is sprayed onto a mild steel center tube section onto which the stainless steel ends are press fit. The specimen is then machined. After machining, the specimen is placed in an acid bath which etches the mild steel away leaving the TTBC attached to the the stainless steel ends. Plugs are then installed in the ends and the composite specimen loaded in the test fixture where the hydraulic oil pressurizes each end to apply the load. Since oil transmits the load, bending loads are minimized. This test fixture has been modified to allow piston ends to be attached to the specimen which allows tensile loading as well as compressive loading of the specimen. In addition to the room temperature data, specimens have been tested at 800 Degrees C with the surprising result that at high temperature, the TTBC exhibits much higher fatigue strength. Testing of the TTBC using tension/compression cycling has been con

M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

402

A COMPTON-THICK WIND IN THE HIGH-LUMINOSITY QUASAR, PDS 456  

SciTech Connect

PDS 456 is a nearby (z = 0.184), luminous (L {sub bol} {approx} 10{sup 47} erg s{sup -1}) type I quasar. A deep 190 ks Suzaku observation in 2007 February revealed the complex, broadband X-ray spectrum of PDS 456. The Suzaku spectrum exhibits highly statistically significant absorption features near 9 keV in the quasar rest frame. We show that the most plausible origin of the absorption is from blueshifted resonance (1s-2p) transitions of hydrogen-like iron (at 6.97 keV in the rest frame). This indicates that a highly ionized outflow may be present moving at near relativistic velocities ({approx} 0.25c). A possible hard X-ray excess is detected above 15 keV with the Hard X-ray Detector (at 99.8% confidence), which may arise from high column density gas (N {sub H} > 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) partially covering the X-ray emission, or through strong Compton reflection. Here we propose that the iron K-shell absorption in PDS 456 is associated with a thick, possibly clumpy outflow, covering about 20% of 4{pi} steradian solid angle. The outflow is likely launched from the inner accretion disk, within 15-100 gravitational radii of the black hole. The kinetic power of the outflow may be similar to the bolometric luminosity of PDS 456. Such a powerful wind could have a significant effect on the co-evolution of the host galaxy and its supermassive black hole, through feedback.

Reeves, J. N. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); O'Brien, P. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Braito, V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, N Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Behar, E.; Turner, T. J.; Mushotzky, R. [Astrophysics Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Miller, L. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Kaspi, S. [Department of Physics, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ward, M. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jnr@astro.keele.ac.uk

2009-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

403

High-Tc Superconducting Thin- and Thick-Film-Based Coated Conductors for Energy Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the first epitaxial films of YBCO with high Tc were grown nearly 20 years ago, the understanding and control of the nanostructures responsible for the dissipation-free electrical current transport in high temperature superconductors (HTS) is quite recent. In the last six to seven years, major advances have occurred in the fundamental investigation of low angle grain boundaries, flux-pinning phenomena, growth mode, and atomic-level defect structures of HTS epitaxial films. As a consequence, it has been possible to map and even engineer to some extent the performance of HTS coatings in large regions of the operating H, T, J phase space. With such progress, the future of high temperature superconducting wires looks increasingly promising despite the tremendous challenges offered by these brittle and anisotropic materials. Nevertheless, further performance improvements are necessary for the superconducting technology to become cost-competitive against copper wires and ultimately succeed in revolutionizing the transmission of electricity. This can be achieved by further diminishing the gap between theoretical and experimental values of the critical current density Jc, and/or increasing the thickness of the superconductive layer as much as possible without degrading performance. In addition, further progress in controlling extrinsic and/or intrinsic nano-sized defects within the films is necessary to significantly reduce the anisotropic response of HTS and obtain a nearly constant dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field orientation, which is considered crucial for power applications. This chapter is a review of the challenges still present in the area of superconducting film processing for HTS wires and the approaches currently employed to address them.

Cantoni, Claudia [ORNL; Goyal, Amit [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

OPTICAL TO X-RAY SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES FOLLOWING SHOCK BREAKOUT THROUGH A THICK WIND  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent supernova (SN) observations have motivated renewed interest in SN shock breakouts from stars surrounded by thick winds. In such events the interaction with the wind powers the observed luminosity, and predictions include observable hard X-rays. Wind breakouts on timescales of a day or longer are currently the most probable for detection. Here, we study the signal that follows such events. We start from the breakout of the radiation-mediated shock, finding that the breakout temperature can vary significantly from one event to another (10{sup 4} to 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K) due to possible deviation from thermal equilibrium. In general, events with longer breakout pulse duration, t {sub bo}, are softer. We follow the observed radiation through the evolution of the collisionless shock that forms after the breakout of the radiation-mediated shock. We restrict the study of the collisionless shock evolution to cases where the breakout itself is in thermal equilibrium, peaking in optical/UV. In these cases the post-breakout emission contains two spectral components-soft (optical/UV) and hard (X-rays and possibly soft {gamma}-rays). Right after the breakout pulse X-rays are strongly suppressed, and they carry only a small fraction of the total luminosity. The hard component becomes harder, and its luminosity rises quickly afterward, gaining dominance at {approx}10-50 t {sub bo}. The ratio of the peak optical/UV to the peak X-ray luminosity depends mostly on the breakout time. In early breakouts (t {sub bo} {approx} 80 days for typical parameters) the X-rays become dominant only after the total luminosity has dropped significantly. In terms of prospects for X-ray and soft gamma-ray detections, it is best to observe 100-500 days after explosions with breakout timescales between a week and a month.

Svirski, Gilad; Nakar, Ehud [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Sari, Re'em [Racah Institute for Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

405

Aleksander hrn Discernibility and Rough  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for specific events within the shield material. Furthermore the count rate is low and the resulting poor

406

Draft testimony (very rough start …)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of natural gas, livestock production, and coal mining ... groups have produced reports and recommendations ... Change Science Program report on the ...

2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

407

Draft testimony (very rough start …)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... “Obama Includes Broadband, Smart Grids in Stimulus ... and its Grid Wise Architecture Council (GWAC ... areas of the Smart Grid, including transmission ...

2013-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

408

The Sensitivity of the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice Thickness and Its Dependence on the Surface Albedo Parameterization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, the response of sea ice thickness to changes in the external forcing is investigated and particularly how this response depends on the surface albedo formulation by means of a one-dimensional coupled ocean–ice–atmosphere model. The ...

Göran Björk; Christian Stranne; Karin Borenäs

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The effect of load thickness on Rayleigh-Taylor mitigation in high velocity, annular z pinch implosion  

SciTech Connect

Numerical calculations have been performed to investigate the role that load thickness may play in the performance of fast annular z pinch implosions. In particular, the effects of load thickness on the mitigation of the magnetically-driven Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability and energy coupling between the load and generator are addressed. using parameters representative of the Z accelerator [R.B.Spielman et al., Phys.Plasmas, 5, 2105 (1998)] at Sandia National Laboratories, two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations show that increased shell thickness results in lower amplitude, slightly longer wavelength RT modes. In addition, there appears to be an optimum in load velocity which is directly associated with the thickness of the sheath and subsequent RT growth. Thin, annular loads, which should couple efficiently to the accelerator, show a large reduction in implosion velocity due to extreme RT development and increased load inductance. As a consequence, thicker loads on the order of 5 mm, couple almost as efficiently to the generator since the RT growth is reduced. This suggests that z-pinch loads can be tailored for different applications, depending on the need for uniformity or high powers.

DOUGLAS,MELISSA R.; DEENEY,CHRISTOPHER; RODERICK,NORMAN F.

2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

410

Visualization of heat transport using dimensionless heatfunction for natural convection and conduction in an enclosure with thick solid ceiling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conjugate conduction-(natural)convection problem is numerically studied in order to present the application of dimensionless heatfunction for entire computational domain including solid and fluid regions in an enclosure with thick solid ceiling. The ... Keywords: Conjugate heat transfer, Dimensionless heatfunction, Heat transport, Heatline, Natural convection

Moghtada Mobedi; Hakan F. Oztop

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold of indium-tin oxide films at 1064 nm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Laser-induced-damage characteristics of commercial indium-tin oxide (ITO) films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering deposition on K9 glass substrates as a function of the film thickness have been studied at 1064 nm with a 10 ns laser pulse in the 1-on-1 mode, and the various mechanisms for thickness effect on laser-induced-damage threshold (LIDT) of the film have been discussed in detail. It is observed that laser-damage-resistance of ITO film shows dramatic thickness effect with the LIDT of the 50-nm ITO film 7.6 times as large as the value of 300 nm film, and the effect of depressed carrier density by decreasing the film thickness is demonstrated to be the primary reason. Our experiment findings indicate that searching transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film with low carrier density and high carrier mobility is an efficient technique to improve the laser-damage-resistance of TCO films based on maintaining their well electric conductivity.

Wang Haifeng; Huang Zhimeng; Zhang Dayong; Luo Fei; Huang Lixian; Li Yanglong; Luo Yongquan; Wang Weiping; Zhao Xiangjie [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Crustal shear wave velocity structure of Tanzania from ambient seismic noise tomography and the thicknesses of Karoo and younger basins in Southeastern Tanzania.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The thickness of the Karoo (Permian-Jurassic) sedimentary basins and the Jurassic- Neogene coastal sedimentary basins in southeastern Tanzania are investigated in this study. The Karoo… (more)

Boyle, Katie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Application of pulse compression signal processing techniques to electromagnetic acoustic transducers for noncontact thickness measurements and imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A pair of noncontact Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) has been used for thickness measurements and imaging of metallic plates. This was performed using wide bandwidth EMATs and pulse-compression signal processing techniques, using chirp excitation. This gives a greatly improved signal-to-noise ratio for air-coupled experiments, increasing the speed of data acquisition. A numerical simulation of the technique has confirmed the performance. Experimental results indicate that it is possible to perform noncontact ultrasonic imaging and thickness gauging in a wide range of metal plates. An accuracy of up to 99% has been obtained for aluminum, brass, and copper samples. The resolution of the image obtained using the pulse compression approach was also improved compared to a transient pulse signal from conventional pulser(receiver). It is thus suggested that the combination of EMATs and pulse compression can lead to a wide range of online applications where fast time acquisition is required.

Ho, K.S.; Gan, T.H.; Billson, D.R.; Hutchins, D.A. [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

In situ heat exchanger tube fouling thickness measurements using ultrasonics. Final report on a laboratory feasibility study  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The growth of fouling layers on heat exchanger surfaces and the corrosion of heat exchanger materials exposed to seawater have been recognized since the beginning of OTEC research as basic problems which could render the concept uneconomical. Consequently, a significant effort has been directed toward predicting, measuring, identifying, explaining and solving potential biofouling and corrosion phenomena. To address this problem, the feasibility of establishing a practical microacoustic technique to measure fouling film thickness in situ on typical OTEC heat exchanger tasks was studied. Seven techniques were studied for this application, including velocity measurements, acoustic diffraction, acoustic interferometer, Doppler flow velocity, pulse echo, critical angle, and surface (shear) wave effects. Of these, the latter five were laboratory tested using conventional microacoustic system components in various configuratons. Only the pulse echo technique yielded promising results. On fouled aluminum plates, thin film layers of 40 ..mu..m and greater were measured using a focused 30 MHz ceramic transducer operated at 25 MHz; this represents a resolution of about 2/3 wavelength. Measurements made on the inside of fouled 1'' aluminum pipes yielded film thicknesses of 75 to 125 ..mu..m. The thinnest layer resolved was approximately 1-1/4 wavelength. The resolution of slime layer thicknesses in the magnitudes of OTEC interest (5 to 30 ..mu..m) using pulse echo microacoustics will require transducer development. In particular, a higher operating frequency (150 to 200 MHz) and advanced material construction is recommended for further research.

Hirshman, J; Munier, R S.C.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Optimization of porosity and thickness of a battery electrode by means of a reaction-zone model  

SciTech Connect

If electrode kinetics are fast and concentration gradients can be ignored, the reaction in a battery electrode is confined to a narrow zone, which moves through the electrode as the battery is discharged. During this process, the ohmic resistance increases, and the cutoff potential may signal the end of the discharge. It is desirable to have a matching of the capacity of the electrode (and hence its thickness) with the time t[sub d] of discharge. Assuming that there is a certain specified separator thickness and that the electrolyte of the separator is the same as that permeating the positive electrode, it is possible to obtain the optimum porosity as a compromise between the desire to have active material present and the necessity to have a conduction path through the pores of the electrode. For a system with a foil negative electrode and an open-circuit potential which is independent of state of charge, this optimum value depends on one principal parameter T = U[kappa]t/q[sub +]L[sup 2], one which involves the time of discharge, the open-circuit potential U, the conductivity [kappa], and thickness L of the separator, and the capacity q[sub +] per unit volume of solids in the positive electrode. There is one other parameter: the ratio of the cutoff potential to the open-circuit potential. Other parameters are introduced to account for a more complex structure of the battery.

Newman, J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Division Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Sea Ice Brightness Temperature as a Function of Ice Thickness, Part II: Computed curves for thermodynamically modelled ice profiles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ice thickness is an important variable for climate scientists and is still an unsolved problem for satellite remote sensing specialists. There has been some success detecting the thickness of thin ice from microwave radiometers, and with this in mind this study attempts to model the thickness-radiance relation of sea ice at frequencies employed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) radiometer and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR): between 1.4 and 89 GHz. In the first part of the study, the salinity of the ice was determined by a pair of empirical relationships, while the temperature was determined by a thermodynamic model. Because the thermodynamic model can be used as a simple ice growth model, in this, second part, the salinities are determined by the growth model. Because the model uses two, constant-weather scenarios representing two extremes ("fall freeze-up" and "winter cold snap"), brine expulsion is modelled with a single correction-step founded on mass conservation. The growt...

Mills, Peter

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Performance characteristics of open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator for solar cooling applications. Part I: two dimensional analysis of heat and mass transfer for open flow over rough inclined surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work presents an analytical approach to simulate the combined heat and mass transfer on the interface between wetted collector surface and ambient air. Emphasis was placed on the development of a mathematical model of turbulent natural convection on an inclined rough plate. The effect of surface velocity is also considered. The systems of partial differential equations governing fluid motion, heat and mass transfer along an inclined flat plate were formulated in terms of vorticity transport and stream function equations. One-equation model of turbulence was used to compute the turbulent viscosity. The length scale used in this model was expressed algebraically in terms of the mixing length. A length scale modified function was derived to take into account the bouyancy effects on turbulence. The effect of surface roughness was taken into a account by introducing a characteristic roughness length. A computational technique was developed to solve the resulting elliptic partial differential equations. This technique involved an 'inflow-outflow' scheme to determine the free boundary conditions at the leading and trailing edges of the inclined plate. The validity of this computational technique was tested and confirmed by some testing problems. Among these are (1) laminar natural convection on an inclined isothermal plate (2) turbulent natural convection on a vertical isothermal plate and (3) turbulent natural convection on an inclined constant heat flux flat plate.

Not Available

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components  

SciTech Connect

Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Commercialization of a thick film solar cell. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Initial problems encountered in the screen printing of CdS films related to an undesirable surface texture on the film surface have been resolved by modification of ink rheology. Improvements have been made in CdS films through modification in firing conditions, ink composition, and fluxing. The CdS 13 micron thick films are devoid of through pores and have a resistivity of 1.65 ohm cm. A laser probe technique was developed to determine macro variations in solar cell films.

McDonald, G.D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Outdoor Testing of GaInP2/GaAs Tandem Cells with Top Cell Thickness Varied  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this study, we measure the performance of GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells under direct beam sunlight outdoors in order to quantify their sensitivity to both spectral variation and GaInP2 top-cell thickness. A set of cells with five different top-cell thicknesses was mounted on a two-axis tracker with the incident sunlight collimated to exclude all except the direct beam. Current-voltage (I-V) curves were taken throughout the course of several days, along with measurements of the direct solar spectrum. Our two major conclusions are: (1) GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells designed for either the ASTM G-173 direct (G-173D) spectrum or the "air mass 1.5 global" (AM1.5G) spectrum perform the best, and (2) cells can be characterized indoors and modeled using outdoor spectra with the same result. These results are equally valid for GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells.

McMahon, W. E.; Emergy, K. E.; Friedman, D. J.; Ottoson, L.; Young, M. S.; Ward, J. S.; Kramer, C. M.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S.

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Active probing of cloud multiple scattering, optical depth, vertical thickness, and liquid water content using wide-angle imaging LIDAR.  

SciTech Connect

At most optical wavelengths, laser light in a cloud lidar experiment is not absorbed but merely scattered out of the beam, eventually escaping the cloud via multiple scattering. There is much information available in this light scattered far from the input beam, information ignored by traditional 'on-beam' lidar. Monitoring these off-beam returns in a fully space- and time-resolved manner is the essence of our unique instrument, Wide Angle Imaging Lidar (WAIL). In effect, WAIL produces wide-field (60-degree full-angle) 'movies' of the scattering process and records the cloud's radiative Green functions. A direct data product of WAIL is the distribution of photon path lengths resulting from multiple scattering in the cloud. Following insights from diffusion theory, we can use the measured Green functions to infer the physical thickness and optical depth of the cloud layer, and, from there, estimate the volume-averaged liquid water content. WAIL is notable in that it is applicable to optically thick clouds, a regime in which traditional lidar is reduced to ceilometry. Here we present recent WAIL data oti various clouds and discuss the extension of WAIL to full diurnal monitoring by means of an ultra-narrow magneto-optic atomic line filter for daytime measurements.

Love, Steven P.; Davis, A. B. (Anthony B.); Rohde, C. A. (Charles A.); Tellier, L. L. (Larry L.); Ho, Cheng,

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

424

Micro X-ray Radiography for the Coating Thickness Measurement in the Simulated TRISO-coated Fuel Particle  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

TRISO(Tri-Isotropic)-coated fuel particle is utilized owing to its higher stability at a high temperature and its efficient retention capability for fission products in the HTGR(high temperature gas-cooled reactor). The typical spherical TRISO-coated fuel particle with a diameter of about 1 mm is composed of a nuclear fuel kernel and outer coating layers. The outer coating layers consist of a buffer PyC (pyrolytic carbon) layer, an inner PyC(I-PyC) layer, a SiC layer, and an outer PyC(O-PyC) layer. Most of the inspection items for the TRISO-coated fuel particle depend on the destructive methods. Recently, X-ray radiography or X-ray CT methods are being applied to nondestructively measure the thickness of the coating layers at the relevant research organizations in the world. The destructive method is very accurate, but it is difficult to prepare test samples. Above all, the number of destructive test samples must be minimized during the fabrication process due to the generation of radioactive wastes during the test procedures. The thickness of the coating layers of the TRISO fuel particle can be nondestructively measured by the X-ray radiography without generating radioactive wastes. In this study, the thickness of coating layers for a simulated TRISO-coated fuel particle with a ZrO{sub 2} kernel instead of a UO{sub 2} kernel was measured by using micro-focus X-ray radiography. The used X-ray system is the Harmony 130 developed at DRGEM Corporation in Korea. The maximum tube voltage/current of the X-ray generator is 130 kV/400 {mu}A. The focus spot size of the X-ray generator is 5 {mu}m. The resolution of the used electronic X-ray detector is 48 {mu}m. The number of pixels is 1024 x 1024. And, the intensity resolution of a pixel is 12 bit (4096 gray levels). The tube voltage/current was 40 kV/100 {mu}A under the inspection condition. Here, the distance from the source to the detector was 397 mm, and the distance from the source to the center of the object ranged from 10 to 50 mm. The exposure time was adjusted to acquire images with a good quality of the boundaries. The radiographic image was also enhanced by an image processing technique to acquire clear boundary lines between the coating layers. The boundary lines were detected on the enhanced image. The thickness of the coating layers was computed by measuring the distance between the boundary lines. The thickness of the coating layers was effectively measured by applying the micro-focus X-ray radiography by using the precise X-ray generator and the electronic detector with a high resolution. The inspection process for the TRISO-coated fuel particles will be improved by the developed micro-focus X-ray radiography technology. (authors)

Woong Ki, Kim; Young Woo, Lee; Ji Yeon, Park [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Duk-jin Dong, Yusong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwan Woo, Lee; Jung Byung, Park [DRGEM Corp. 388-1, Asan Medical Center, Songpa, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung Woong, Ra [Chungnam National University, 220 Goong Dong, Yusong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Development of a Global Validation Package for Satellite Oceanic Aerosol Optical Thickness Retrieval Based on AERONET Observations and Its Application to NOAA/NESDIS Operational Aerosol Retrievals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, a global validation package for satellite aerosol optical thickness retrieval using the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations as ground truth is described. To standardize the validation procedure, the optimum time–space ...

Tom X-P. Zhao; Larry L. Stowe; Alexander Smirnov; David Crosby; John Sapper; Charles R. McClain

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Computation of Domain-Averaged Shortwave Irradiance by a One-Dimensional Algorithm Incorporating Correlations between Optical Thickness and Direct Incident Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A one-dimensional radiative transfer algorithm that accounts for correlations between the optical thickness and the incident direct solar radiation is developed to compute the domain-averaged shortwave irradiance profile. It divides the direct ...

Seiji Kato

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals  

SciTech Connect

The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Oxygen Reduction on Well-Defined Core-Shell Nanocatalysts: Particle Size, Facet, and Pt Shell Thickness Effects  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We examined the effects of the thickness of the Pt shell, lattice mismatch, and particle size on specific and mass activities from the changes in effective surface area and activity for oxygen reduction induced by stepwise Pt-monolayer depositions on Pd and Pd{sub 3}Co nanoparticles. The core?shell structure was characterized at the atomic level using Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy coupled with element-sensitive electron energy loss spectroscopy. The enhancements in specific activity are largely attributed to the compressive strain effect based on the density functional theory calculations using a nanoparticle model, revealing the effect of nanosize-induced surface contraction on facet-dependent oxygen binding energy. The results suggest that moderately compressed (111) facets are most conducive to oxygen reduction reaction on small nanoparticles and indicate the importance of concerted structure and component optimization for enhancing core?shell nanocatalysts activity and durability.

Wang, J.X.; Inada, H.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.; Choi, Y.; Liu, P.; Zhou, W.-P.; Adzic, R.R.

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

429

An effect of the networks of the subgrain boundaries on spectral responses of thick CdZnTe detectors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

CdZnTe (CZT) crystals used for nuclear-radiation detectors often contain high concentrations of subgrain boundaries and networks of poligonized dislocations that can significantly degrade the performance of semiconductor devices. These defects exist in all commercial CZT materials, regardless of their growth techniques and their vendor. We describe our new results from examining such detectors using IR transmission microscopy and white X-ray beam diffraction topography. We emphasize the roles on the devices performances of networks of subgrain boundaries with low dislocation densities, such as poligonized dislocations and mosaic structures. Specifically, we evaluated their effects on the gamma-ray responses of thick, >10 mm, CZT detectors. Our findings set the lower limit on the energy resolution of CZT detectors containing dense networks of subgrain boundaries, and walls of dislocations.

Bolotnikov, A.; Butcher, J.; Camarda, G.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, S.; Fochuk, P.; Gul,R.; Hamade, M.; Hossain, A.; Kim, K.; Kopach,O.; Petryk, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Yang, G.; and James, R.B.

2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

430

Determination of filter-cake thicknesses from on-line flow measurements and gas/particle transport modeling  

SciTech Connect

The use of cylindrical candle filters to remove fine ({approx}0.005 mm) particles from hot ({approx}500- 900{degrees}C) gas streams currently is being developed for applications in advanced pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technologies. Successfully deployed with hot-gas filtration, PFBC and IGCC technologies will allow the conversion of coal to electrical energy by direct passage of the filtered gases into non-ruggedized turbines and thus provide substantially greater conversion efficiencies with reduced environmental impacts. In the usual approach, one or more clusters of candle filters are suspended from a tubesheet in a pressurized (P {approx_lt}1 MPa) vessel into which hot gases and suspended particles enter, the gases pass through the walls of the cylindrical filters, and the filtered particles form a cake on the outside of each filter. The cake is then removed periodically by a backpulse of compressed air from inside the filter, which passes through the filter wall and filter cake. In various development or demonstration systems the thickness of the filter cake has proved to be an important, but unknown, process parameter. This paper describes a physical model for cake and pressure buildups between cleaning backpulses, and for longer term buildups of the ``baseline`` pressure drop, as caused by incomplete filter cleaning and/or re-entrainment. When combined with operating data and laboratory measurements of the cake porosity, the model may be used to calculate the (average) filter permeability, the filter-cake thickness and permeability, and the fraction of filter-cake left on the filter by the cleaning backpulse or re-entrained after the backpulse. When used for a variety of operating conditions (e.g., different coals, sorbents, temperatures, etc.), the model eventually may provide useful information on how the filter-cake properties depend on the various operating parameters.

Smith, D.H.; Powell, V. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States); Ibrahim, E. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Ferer, M. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Physics; Ahmadi, G. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

Thick Buildings [Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

STANDARDS The idea of tracts of windowless indoor space hassider U.S. practices and standards? building with four sidesAs these codes and standards change future generations may

Coffin, Christie Johnson

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Thick Buildings [Standards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Occupant Behavior in Buildings, New Directions forSacramento, is a thin building that surrounds an atrium. (Performance of a Green Building," Urban UndQune 1992): 23-

Coffin, Christie Johnson

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Note: Direct measurement of the point-to-point resolution for microns-thick specimens in the ultrahigh-voltage electron microscope  

SciTech Connect

We report on a direct measurement method and results of the point-to-point resolution for microns-thick amorphous specimens in the ultrahigh-voltage electron microscope (ultra-HVEM). We first obtain the ultra-HVEM images of nanometer gold particles with different sizes on the top surfaces of the thick epoxy-resin specimens. Based on the Rayleigh criterion, the point-to-point resolution is then determined as the minimum distance between centers of two resolvable tangent gold particles. Some values of resolution are accordingly acquired for the specimens with different thicknesses at the accelerating voltage of 2 MV, for example, 18.5 nm and 28.4 nm for the 5 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m thick epoxy-resin specimens, respectively. The presented method and results provide a reliable and useful approach to quantifying and comparing the achievable spatial resolution for the thick specimens imaged in the mode of transmission electron including the scanning transmission electron microscope.

Wang Fang; Cao Meng; Zhang Haibo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Nishi, Ryuji; Takaoka, Akio [Research Center for Ultrahigh-Voltage Electron Microscopy, Osaka University, 7-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Intertidal ecology of riprap jetties and breakwaters : marine communities inhabiting anthropogenic structures along the west coast of North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of two pieces of marine plywood, with 12 tiles anchored totiles each. Each piece of plywood was fastened to the rockepoxy. The two pieces of plywood in each array were anchored

Pister, Benjamin Alan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cut out of a piece of plywood that is attached to the inlet.the size of the furnace outlet cut in the plywood. ESLtaped the furnace to the plywood and strapped it in place.

Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Intertidal Ecology of Riprap Jetties and Breakwaters: Marine Communities Inhabiting Anthropogenic Structures along the West Coast of North America  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of two pieces of marine plywood, with 12 tiles anchored totiles each. Each piece of plywood was fastened to the rockepoxy. The two pieces of plywood in each array were anchored

Pister, Benjamin A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Infiltration heat recovery in building walls: Computational fluid dynamics investigations results  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

e.g. , gypsum wallboard or plywood) with space between theproperties are those of plywood: density is 544 kg/m 3 ,a layer of sheathing (plywood) on each side of vertical

Abadie, Marc O.; Finlayson, Elizabeth U.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Evaluation of Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) for Indoor Air Applications: Conversion of Volatile Organic Compounds at Low Part-per-Billion Concentrations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exited through a hole in a plywood panel fit to the doorway.19 m 2 all exposed surfaces), a plywood panel (5.9 m 2surfaces), a decorative plywood panel (5.9 m 2 all exposed

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Demonstrating Modernism: Richard Neutra's Early Model Houses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

88 Richard Neutra, Plywood Demonstration House, Los Angeles,Thomas Hines, “Neutra’s All-Plywood House: A Design for anFigure 32. Richard Neutra, Plywood Demonstration House, Los

Peltakian, Danielle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Ultrasonic methods for rail inspection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Blocks (a) Open Floor with Plywood Protection (b) Ballastthe strong floor was protected with a layer of plywood.With the plywood in place, the rebar cages were placed and

Phillips, Robert Ronald

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

COMBUSTION RESEARCH - FY-1979  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiments; both had plywood on the walls. These two167, and 168 prove that the plywood ceiling was not ignitedExperiment C-170 with plywood on both walls and ceilings

,

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Utilizing a Multi-Technique, Multi-Taxa Approach to Monitoring Wildlife Passageways on the Bennington Bypass in Southern Vermont  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

onto 4’ X 4’ squares of plywood. We concluded overall thatthe sifting of the dust onto plywood. The hard foundationMarble dust placed atop plywood serves as the preferred

Bellis, Mark A; Jackson, Scott D.; Griffin, Curtice R; Warren, Paige S; Thompson, Alan O

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE: DATA INTERPRETATION AND APPARATUS DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6 ft) wall section, made from plywood, extruded polystyrene,to the receiving the plywood laboratory test, sheathing wasto the massive layers of plywood and gypsum board on the two

Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; de Vinuesa, S.G.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Nebraskaphobia and Other Stories  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

through and squares of plywood nailed to cover the windowschamois; there’s bowing plywood shelves against the outsideIn the trench I built a plywood tunnel which I would cover

Harmon, Nicholas Dale

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Techniques for reducing exposures to volatile organic compounds associated with new construction and renovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

applied to gypsum board and plywood substrates. This wasapplied to 1.1-m 2 of plywood. The carpet and vinyl flooringThe SGLPs were applied to plywood. The two non-VOC paints,

Hodgson, A.T.; Shimer, D.A.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Comparison of predicted and derived measures of volatile organic compounds inside four relocatable classrooms due to identified interior finish sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

carpet bonded to the plywood subfloor with a solvent-freebond properly to the plywood, and the carpet was installedlikely derived from the plywood used as the substrate for

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, William J.; Apte, Michael G.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Multiplying the Variations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is a 10-inch-diameter plywood disc onto which Hill attachedpurpose. She came across the plywood discs of Against thecome across a cache of plywood discs, the works using these

Hill, Robin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

TEST OF THE PERFORMANCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A PROTOTYPE INDUCTIVE POWER COUPLING FOR ELECTRIC HIGHWAY SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the pole was 18°C. 1/2 inch plywood 0.75 mm steel sheet \\the pickup resting in the plywood tray that was used forremoving the pickup from the plywood tray and resting it on

Bolger, J.G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Experimental and numerical simulations of explosive loading on structural components : composite sandwich connections  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

gauge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plywood and48 in x 96 in x 0.5 in plywood sheets, which served as thein Figure 3.28. Figure 3.28: Plywood and structural foam

Huson, Peter N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Full Scale Cyclic Testing of Foundation Support Systems for Highway Bridges. Part II: Abutment Backwalls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the push direction. Plywood wing walls hor. LVDT Vert.hor. LVDT Actuator 5 – hor. Plywood wing walls Figure 3.3.backfill. Side panels of plywood were erected to simulate

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Futures Markets and the Reservation Price of Stumpage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are out of date. lumber and plywood prices to adjust theselength 2x4 full of random lumber (or 1/2 1• COX plywood forthe plywood contract) delivered in a specific place,

Berck, Peter; Bible, Thomas

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were constructed with plywood under the wallboard. Theof organic gases 20.4-m 2 plywood floor was covered firstthrough the walls with plywood yields L d = 0.017-0.05 h -

Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

exited through a hole in a plywood panel fit to the doorway.19 m 2 all exposed surfaces), a plywood panel (5.9 m 2surfaces), a decorative plywood panel (5.9 m 2 all exposed

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Energy savings for heat-island reduction strategies in Chicago and Houston (including updates for Baton Rouge, Sacramento, and Salt Lake City)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shingles on a 20 o sloped plywood deck, over a naturallyup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilatedup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unventilated

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Energy Savings Calculations for Heat Island Reduction Strategies in Baton Rouge, Sacramento and Salt Lake City  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

shingles on a 20° sloped plywood deck, over a natur- allyup materials on a flat plywood deck, over an unven- tilated1/4” asphalt shingle 3/4” plywood decking (20° slope) 2“x4”

Konopacki, S.; Akbari, H.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Underfloor vs. overhead: a comparative analysis of air distribution systems using the EnergyPlus simulation software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

======== MATERIAL:REGULAR, BLBD - PLYWOOD 3 / 4 IN, ! - NameVariableR-SubFlr, BLBD - PLYWOOD 3 / 4 IN; ! Name ! OutsideVisible MATERIAL:REGULAR, BLBD - PLYWOOD 1 / 2 IN, ! - Name

Daly, A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Large scale passive force-displacement and dynamic earth pressure experiments and simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

depth (Figure 2.1). Thin plywood lined the sides of thesheeting covered the plywood to minimize friction betweenrammers (Figure 4.6). Plywood and three layers of smooth

Wilson, Patrick Richard

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Empirical Methods in Antitrust Litigation: Review and Critique  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

683 (N.D.Ga. 1991). In re Plywood Antitrust Litigation, 655as is illus­ trated by the Plywood Antitrust Litigation. Theprices for Southern pine plywood harmed competition. A test

Baker, Jonathan B.; Rubinfeld, Daniel L.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Maintaining a Competitive Edge: Dominance Hierarchies, Food Competition and Strategies To Secure Food in Green Anoles (Anolis carolinensis) and Firemouth Cichlids (Thorichthys meeki)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a narrow strip of plywood, was built into the wire meshcover of each tank. The plywood strip ran from the front tothe remaining half. Each plywood strip had a small hole in

Hollis, Karen L.; Blouin, Lisa A.; Romano, Mary C.; Langworthy-Lam, Kristin S.; Siegenthaler, Julie

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Cool roofs as an energy conservation measure for federal buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of ¼” asphalt shingle, ½” plywood, with an attic cavity andbuilt-up roofs with ½ inch plywood, attic space, and an R-11a combination of stucco, plywood, insulation and gypsum, or

Taha, Haider; Akbari, Hashem

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Blast damage mitigation of steel structures from near- contact charges  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

then collapsed onto the plywood base at varying velocities,was placed inside a 3/4” plywood box with the interiordimensions (24” x 24”) as the plywood box that contained the

Wolfson, Janet Crumrine

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS – FINAL REPORT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Development Hardwood Plywood Lawrence Berkeley Nationalconstructed of 1/8-inch plywood with a vinyl or PVC skin orone material, the Cavalier plywood cabinet wall (490 µg m -2

Maddalena, Randy L.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Worker's Participation in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Firm: A Study of Twentv-one Plywood Firms in the Pacifictheory: the case of the plywood firms," in Robert Jackallmost frequently studied are the plywood cooperatives in the

Strauss, George; Hammer, Tove

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Predicted concentrations in new relocatable classrooms of volatile organic compounds emitted from standard and alternate interior finish materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A piece of new ¾-inch (1.9-cm) plywood representative of theapplied to one surface of a plywood square using a 3/16-inchwas determined by weighing the plywood before and after the

Hodgson, Alfred T.; Fisk, William J.; Shendell, Derek G.; Apte, Michael G.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing Project InformatIon: Project name: Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing Partners: Building Science Corporation www.buildingscience.com The Dow Chemical Company www.dow.com James Hardie Building Products www.jameshardie.com Building component: Building envelope component application: New and/or retrofit; Single and/or multifamily Year research conducted: 2011 through 2012 applicable climate Zone(s): All The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal

466

The X-ray spectral signatures from the complex circumnuclear regions in the Compton thick AGN NGC 424  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present the XMM-Newton RGS and EPIC pn spectra of a long (\\simeq 100 ks) observation of one of the soft X-ray brightest Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies, NGC 424. As a first step, we performed a phenomenological analysis of the data to derive the properties of all the spectral components. On the basis of these results, we fitted the spectra with self-consistent photoionisation models, produced with CLOUDY. The high-energy part of the spectrum is dominated by a pure neutral Compton reflection component and a neutral iron K-alpha line, together with K-alpha emission from neutral Ni, suggesting a significant Ni/Fe overabundance. The soft X-ray RGS spectrum comes mostly from line emission from H-like and He-like C, N, O, and Ne, as well as from the Fe L-shell. The presence of narrow RRC from O VIII, O VII, and C VI, the last two with resolved widths corresponding to temperatures around 5-10 eV, is a strong indication of a gas in photoionisation equilibrium, as confirmed by the prevalence of the forbidden compo...

Marinucci, A; Matt, G; Fabian, A C; Iwasawa, K; Miniutti, G; Piconcelli, E

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

On-Sun Comparison of GaInP2/GaAs Tandem Cells with Top Cell Thickness Varied  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study compares the on-sun performance of a set of GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells with different GaInP2 top-cell thicknesses. Because high-efficiency III-V cells are best suited to concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) applications, the cells were mounted on a two-axis tracker with the incident sunlight collimated to exclude all except the direct beam. Current-voltage (I-V) curves were taken throughout the course of several days, along with measurements of the direct solar spectrum. Our two major conclusions are: (1) GaInP2/GaAs tandem cells designed for an ''air mass 1.5 global'' (AM 1.5G) or a ''low aerosol optical depth'' (Low AOD) spectrum perform the best, and (2) cells can be characterized indoors and modeled using outdoor spectra to predict the correct result. These results are equally valid for GaInP2/GaAs/Ge triple-junction cells.

McMahon, W. E.; Emery, K. E.; Friedman, D. J.; Ottoson, L.; Young, M. S.; Ward, J. S.; Kramer, C. M.; Duda, A.; Kurtz, S.

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

PROJECTS FROM FEDERAL REGION IX DOE APPROPRIATE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY PILOT PROGRAM - PART I  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1/2" 4 1 x 8 1 exterior plywood); Construct east and west24" on center, 4' x 8' plywood); Construct south wall with

Case, C.W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Scientific Bibliography on Human Powered Submarines, through 1997  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of wood and consists of a plywood internal framework and abulkheads made of 3/4- inch plywood were added. Floatation

Brueggeman, Peter

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Fear in the Captive-Bred Attwater’s Prairie Chicken as an Indicator of Postrelease Survival  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

walls were constructed of plywood painted white. The front25 cm 3 ) was constructed of plywood. The top of the box was

Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Morrow, Michael E.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

EVOLUTION OF SNOW LINE IN OPTICALLY THICK PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: EFFECTS OF WATER ICE OPACITY AND DUST GRAIN SIZE  

SciTech Connect

Evolution of a snow line in an optically thick protoplanetary disk is investigated with numerical simulations. The ice-condensing region in the disk is obtained by calculating the temperature and the density with the 1+1D approach. The snow line migrates as the mass accretion rate ( M-dot ) in the disk decreases with time. Calculations are carried out from an early phase with high disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -7} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) to a later phase with low disk accretion rates ( M-dot {approx}10{sup -12} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) using the same numerical method. It is found that the snow line moves inward for M-dot {approx}>10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, while it gradually moves outward in the later evolution phase with M-dot {approx}<10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. In addition to the silicate opacity, the ice opacity is taken into consideration. In the inward migration phase, the additional ice opacity increases the distance of the snow line from the central star by a factor of 1.3 for dust grains {approx}< 10 {mu}m in size and of 1.6 for {approx}> 100 {mu}m. It is inevitable that the snow line comes inside Earth's orbit in the course of the disk evolution if the viscosity parameter {alpha} is in the range 0.001-0.1, the dust-to-gas mass ratio is higher than a tenth of the solar abundance value, and the dust grains are smaller than 1 mm. The formation of water-devoid planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region seems to be difficult throughout the disk evolution, which imposes a new challenge to planet formation theory.

Oka, Akinori; Nakamoto, Taishi; Ida, Shigeru, E-mail: akinorioka1@gmail.com, E-mail: nakamoto@geo.titech.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

2011-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

472

Preparation and Properties of High-T\\sub{c} Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O Thick Film Superconductors on YSZ Substrates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An evaluation of four firing profiles was performed to determine the optimum processing conditions for producing high-Tc Bi-PB-SR-Ca-Cu-O thick films on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. Using these four profiles, the effects of sintering temperatures ...

Hooker M. W.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

The Role of Sea Ice in 2×CO2 Climate Model Sensitivity. Part I: The Total Influence of Sea Ice Thickness and Extent  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As a first step in investigating the effects of sea ice changes on the climate sensitivity to doubled atmospheric CO2, the authors use a standard simple sea ice model while varying the sea ice distributions and thicknesses in the control run. ...

D. Rind; R. Healy; C. Parkinson; D. Martinson

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Effects of low-temperature buffer-layer thickness and growth temperature on the SEE sensitivity of GaAs HIGFET circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heavy-ion Single Event Effects (SEE) test results reveal the role of growth temperature and buffer layer thickness in the use of a low-temperature grown GaAs (LT GaAs) buffer layer for suppressing SEE sensitivity in GaAs HIGFET circuits.

Weatherford, T.R.; Fouts, D.J. [Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA (United States); Marshall, P.W. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)]|[SFA, Inc., Largo, MD (United States); Marshall, C.J. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Mathes, B.; LaMacchia, M. [Motorola Government Systems, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Real-time, in situ film thickness metrology in a 10 Torr W chemical vapor deposition process using an acoustic sensor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

analysis to establish a sensor model with an accuracy better than 1%. This was achieved in a 10 Torr W CVD achieving film thickness metrology with a 2% error using mass spectrometry or residual gas analysis scale Ulvac ERA 1000 W CVD cluster tool which is outfitted with water- cooled walls. The WF6 precursor

Rubloff, Gary W.

476

Synthesis of 8YSZ-LSGM Composite Thick Film Ceramics for Solid Electrolyte From Nanopowder Utilizing Local Zircon Prepared Using Sol Gel Process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thick film ceramics of 8% mol Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} doped-ZrO{sub 2}(8YSZ)-La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.2}Mg{sub 0.8}O{sub 3}(LSGM) composite for solid electrolyte have been synthesized from nanopowder. Concentration of LSGM was 0 and 10% weight. A paste for the thick films was made from 8YSZ nanopowder prepared using sol gel method and LSGM powder prepared by solid state reaction. Precursors for the 8YSZ nanopowder preparation were ZrOCl{sub 2{center_dot}}8H{sub 2}O derived from local zircon as byproduct of Tin processing at Bangka Island using caustic fusion method, and Y(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. The thick films were produced by screen printing technique on alumina substrates. The films were sintered at 1500 deg. C for 2 hours in air. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed that the nanopowder of 8YSZ was well produced with broad peaks. The particle size of the 8YSZ powder was about 12 nm as calculated using Debye Scherrer method. The thick films of 8YSZ and 8YSZ-LSGM (90:10 in weight %) composite could be produced, however, the films still contain voids. The ionic conductance of the YSZ-10LSGM films was smaller than that of the YSZ films.

Syarif, Dani Gustaman [Graduate Program in Metallurgical Engineering, ITB, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung, Indonesia 40132 (Indonesia); PTNBR-BATAN, Jl.Tamansari 71, Bandun