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1

The impact of sheared vs. sawn timber in the typical southern pine plywood mill  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE IMPACT OF SHEARED VS' SAWN TIMBER IN THE TYPICAL SOUTHERN PINE PLYWOOD MILL A Thesis by RUSSELL GARRETT SWINNEY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Forestry THE IMPACT OP SHEARED VS. SAWN T1MBER IN THE TYPICAL SOUTHERN PINE PLYWOOD MILI A Thesis by RUSSELL GARRETT SWINNEY Approved as to style and content by: Jease ( hair of mmi Jy...

Swinney, Russell Garrett

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Effects of the roughness characteristics on the wire tool surface for the electrical discharge machining properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) has been investigated to obtain the better discharge machining properties of the removal rate and the surface roughness in a few decades. Recently, it revealed that the rough tool electrodes can improve the WEDM properties for some sort of materials. In this study, the rough wire electrodes using a wet blasting method was developed and evaluated the machining performance for the insulated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} in the WEDM processes. As the results, it could not recognize the advantage of roughness wire electrode under the high-energy condition, but it found that the electro-conductive layer thickness became thinner in comparison with those of normal wires. On the contrary, it could be obtained the better surface roughness in the low energy condition. It was supposed that the roughed wire surface generates the homogeneous dispersion discharges on the workpiece.

Fukuzawa, Yasushi; Yamashita, Masahide; Mamuro, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Ken [Nagaoka University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-2188 (Japan); Ogata, Masayoshi [Macoho Co., Ltd. 525 Kanawa, Isurugi-machi, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2032 JAPAN (Japan)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

3

Soft X-ray reflectometry applied to the evaluation of surface roughness variation during the deposition of thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1645 Soft X-ray reflectometry applied to the evaluation of surface roughness variation during). The surface roughness evolution was calculated as a function of thickness from the soft X-ray reflectance Abstracts 07.60H - 68.20 - 68.55 - 78.65 Introduction. Soft X-ray reflectometry (SXR) was introduced

Boyer, Edmond

4

Electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a numerical framework to model the electrokinetic transport in microchannels with random roughness. The three-dimensional microstructure of the rough channel is generated by a random generation-growth method with three statistical parameters to control the number density, the total volume fraction, and the anisotropy characteristics of roughness elements. The governing equations for the electrokinetic transport are solved by a high-efficiency lattice Poisson?Boltzmann method in complex geometries. The effects from the geometric characteristics of roughness on the electrokinetic transport in microchannels are therefore modeled and analyzed. For a given total roughness volume fraction, a higher number density leads to a lower fluctuation because of the random factors. The electroosmotic flow rate increases with the roughness number density nearly logarithmically for a given volume fraction of roughness but decreases with the volume fraction for a given roughness number density. When both the volume fraction and the number density of roughness are given, the electroosmotic flow rate is enhanced by the increase of the characteristic length along the external electric field direction but is reduced by that in the direction across the channel. For a given microstructure of the rough microchannel, the electroosmotic flow rate decreases with the Debye length. It is found that the shape resistance of roughness is responsible for the flow rate reduction in the rough channel compared to the smooth channel even for very thin double layers, and hence plays an important role in microchannel electroosmotic flows.

Wang, Moran [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

A Rough Logic Formalism for Fuzzy Controllers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Rough Logic Formalism for Fuzzy Controllers: A Hard and Soft Computing View T.Y. Lin Department are the design goal. Several new applications are identified. KEYWORDS: control, fuzzy logic, modal logic, rough process, called rough logic government, is proposed. In this process, fuzzy logic is viewed

Lin, Tsau Young

6

1216 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES, VOL. 57, NO. 5, MAY 2009 Wave Propagation in a Randomly Rough  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the power loss. The derived result is expressed in terms of a double Sommerfeld integral. The double propagation and power loss are illustrated as a function of roughness characteristics and waveguide thickness thickness, the waveguide model shows signif- icantly different power loss as compared to the plane

Tsang, Leung

7

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Water Dynamics at Rough Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use molecular dynamics computer simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments to investigate the dynamics of water at interfaces of molecular roughness and low mobility. We find that, when approaching such interfaces, the structural relaxation of water, i.e., the $\\alpha$ process, slows down even when specific attractive interactions are absent. This prominent effect is accompanied by a smooth transition from Vogel to Arrhenius temperature dependence and by a growing importance of jump events. Consistently, at protein surfaces, deviations from Arrhenius behavior are weak when free water does not exist. Furthermore, in nanoporous silica, a dynamic crossover of liquid water occurs when a fraction of solid water forms near 225 K and, hence, the liquid dynamics changes from bulk-like to interface-dominated. At sufficiently low temperatures, water exhibits a quasi-universal $\\beta$ process, which is characterized by an activation energy of $E_a\\!=\\!0.5$ eV and involves anisotropic reorientation about large angles. As a consequence of its large amplitude, the faster $\\beta$ process destroys essentially all orientational correlation, rendering observation of a possible slower $\\alpha$ process difficult in standard experiments. Nevertheless, we find indications for the existence of structural relaxation down to a glass transition of interfacial water near 185 K. Hydrated proteins show a highly restricted backbone motion with an amplitude, which decreases upon cooling and vanishes at comparable temperatures, providing evidence for a high relevance of water rearrangements in the hydration shell for secondary protein relaxations.

Markus Rosenstihl; Kerstin Kämpf; Felix Klameth; Matthias Sattig; Michael Vogel

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

9

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Nonmonotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before

Kudrolli, Arshad

10

Simplified models for mask roughness induced LER  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ITRS requires < 1.2nm line-edge roughness (LER) for the 22nm half-pitch node. Currently, we can consistently achieve only about 3nm LER. Further progress requires understanding the principle causes of LER. Much work has already been done on how both the resist and LER on the mask effect the final printed LER. What is poorly understood, however, is the extent to which system-level effects such as mask surface roughness, illumination conditions, and defocus couple to speckle at the image plane, and factor into LER limits. Presently, mask-roughness induced LER is studied via full 2D aerial image modeling and subsequent analysis of the resulting image. This method is time consuming and cumbersome. It is, therefore, the goal of this research to develop a useful 'rule-of-thumb' analytic model for mask roughness induced LER to expedite learning and understanding.

McClinton, Brittany; Naulleau, Patrick

2011-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

11

Rough surface reconstruction for ultrasonic NDE simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The reflection of ultrasound from rough surfaces is an important topic for the NDE of safety-critical components, such as pressure-containing components in power stations. The specular reflection from a rough surface of a defect is normally lower than it would be from a flat surface, so it is typical to apply a safety factor in order that justification cases for inspection planning are conservative. The study of the statistics of the rough surfaces that might be expected in candidate defects according to materials and loading, and the reflections from them, can be useful to develop arguments for realistic safety factors. This paper presents a study of real rough crack surfaces that are representative of the potential defects in pressure-containing power plant. Two-dimensional (area) values of the height of the roughness have been measured and their statistics analysed. Then a means to reconstruct model cases with similar statistics, so as to enable the creation of multiple realistic realizations of the surfaces, has been investigated, using random field theory. Rough surfaces are reconstructed, based on a real surface, and results for these two-dimensional descriptions of the original surface have been compared with those from the conventional model based on a one-dimensional correlation coefficient function. In addition, ultrasonic reflections from them are simulated using a finite element method.

Choi, Wonjae; Shi, Fan; Lowe, Michael J. S. [UK Research Centre in NDE, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Skelton, Elizabeth A.; Craster, Richard V. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Refining thick subcategory theorems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use a $K$-theory recipe of Thomason to obtain classifications of triangulated subcategories via refining some standard thick subcategory theorems. We apply this recipe to the full subcategories of finite objects in the derived categories of rings and the stable homotopy category of spectra. This gives, in the derived categories, a complete classification of the triangulated subcategories of perfect complexes over some commutative rings. In the stable homotoy category of spectra we obtain only a partial classification of the triangulated subcategories of the finite $p$-local spectra. We use this partial classification to study the lattice of triangulated subcategories. This study gives some new evidence to a conjecture of Adams that the thick subcategory $\\C_2$ can be generated by iterated cofiberings of the Smith-Toda complex. We also discuss several consequences of these classification theorems.

Sunil K. Chebolu.

13

The effects of the substrate surface roughness on graphene plasmons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate the effects of variation in the gap size between mono-layer graphene and a substrate with a randomly rough surface on the linear response of graphene’s ? electron bands within the approximation of Dirac fermions. We adopt the electrostatic Green’s function developed by Rahman and Maradudin [Phys. Rev. B 21, 2137–2143 (1980)] for the surface of a dielectric medium, which exhibits a Gaussian distributed height profile and combine it with the polarization function of graphene described as a zero-thickness planar layer at a fixed distance from the mean position of the substrate surface. We specifically consider the effects of a random gap size on the two-dimensional sheet plasmon mode in heavily doped graphene, both on its dispersion relation in the long-wavelength limit and its broadening due to Landau damping in the continuum of inter-band electron-hole excitations at shorter wavelengths.

Lyon, Keenan A.; Miskovic, Zoran L. [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, N2L 3G1, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

2014-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide Membrane of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide...

15

ROUGHNESS LENGTHS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface roughness values for the areas surrounding the H, D and N-Area meteorological towers were computed from archived 2010 meteorological data. These 15-minute-averaged data were measured with cup anemometers and bidirectional wind vanes (bivanes) 61 m above the surface. The results of the roughness calculation using the standard deviation of elevation angle {sigma}{sub E}, and applying the simple formula based on tree canopy height, gave consistent estimates for roughness around the H-Area tower in the range of 1.76 to 1.86 m (95% confidence interval) with a mean value of 1.81 m. Application of the {sigma}{sub E} method for the 61-m level at D and N-Areas gave mean values of 1.71 and 1.81 with confidence ranges of 1.62-1.81 and 1.73-1.88 meters, respectively. Roughness results are azimuth dependent, and thus are presented as averages over compass sectors spanning 22.5 degrees. Calculated values were compared to other methods of determining roughness, including the standard deviation of the azimuth direction, {sigma}{sub A}, and standard deviation of the wind speed, {sigma}{sub U}. Additional data was obtained from a sonic anemometer at 61-m on the H-Area tower during a period of a few weeks in 2010. Results from the sonic anemometer support our use of {sigma}{sub E} to calculate roughness. Based on the H-Area tower results, a surface roughness of 1.8 m using is recommended for use in dispersion modeling applications that consider the impacts of a contaminant release to individuals along the Site boundary. The canopy surrounding the H-Area tower is relatively uniform (i.e., little variance in roughness by upwind direction), and data supplied by the U.S. Forest Service at Savannah River show that the canopy height and composition surrounding the H-Area tower is reasonably representative of forested areas throughout the SRS reservation. For dispersion modeling analyses requiring assessments of a co-located worker within the respective operations area, recommended area-specific values range from 0.3 m for E Area to 0.7 m for A Area at the Savannah River National Laboratory. These area-specific values, summarized in Table 4-1, were determined using the Environmental Protection Agency's AERSURFACE computer algorithm.

Hunter, C.

2012-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography using bottom pressure sensors to measure form and mixing U0 Form drag pressure Tidal energy conversion Form drag causes: - internal wave generation - eddy Sound, WA Point Three Tree Previous work McCabe et al., 2006 > Measured the internal form drag

Warner, Sally

17

Correlating toughness and roughness in ductile fracture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three dimensional calculations of ductile crack growth under mode I plane strain, small scale yielding conditions are carried out using an elastic-viscoplastic constitutive relation for a progres- sively cavitating plastic solid with two populations of void nucleating second phase particles. Full field solutions are obtained for three dimensional material microstructures characterized by ran- dom distributions of void nucleating particles. Crack growth resistance curves and fracture surface roughness statistics are calculated using standard procedures. The range of void nucleating particle volume fractions considered give rise to values of toughness, JIC, that vary by a factor of four. For all volume fractions considered, the computed fracture surfaces are self-affine over a size range of about two orders of magnitude with a roughness exponent of 0.54 $\\pm$ 0.03. For small void nucleating particle volume fractions, the mean large particle spacing serves as a single dominant length scale. In this regime, the c...

Ponson, Laurent; Osovski, Shmulik; Bouchaud, Elisabeth; Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Smith-Purcell Radiation from Rough Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation of a charged particle moving parallel to a inhomogeneous surface is considered. Within a single formalism periodic and random gratings are examined. For the periodically inhomogeneous surface we derive new expressions for the dispersion relation and the spectral-angular intensity. In particular, for a given observation direction two wavelengths are emitted instead of one wavelength of the standard Smith-Purcell effect. For a rough surface we show that the main contribution to the radiation intensity is given by surface polaritons induced on the interface between two media. These polaritons are multiply scattered on the roughness of surface and convert into real photons. The spectral-angular intensity is calculated and its dependence on different parameters is revealed.

Gevorkian, Zh S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

A fast direct numerical simulation method for characterising hydraulic roughness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We describe a fast direct numerical simulation (DNS) method that promises to directly characterise the hydraulic roughness of any given rough surface, from the hydraulically smooth to the fully rough regime. The method circumvents the unfavourable computational cost associated with simulating high-Reynolds-number flows by employing minimal-span channels (Jimenez & Moin 1991). Proof-of-concept simulations demonstrate that flows in minimal-span channels are sufficient for capturing the downward velocity shift, that is, the Hama roughness function, predicted by flows in full-span channels. We consider two sets of simulations, first with modelled roughness imposed by body forces, and second with explicit roughness described by roughness-conforming grids. Owing to the minimal cost, we are able to conduct DNSs with increasing roughness Reynolds numbers while maintaining a fixed blockage ratio, as is typical in full-scale applications. The present method promises a practical, fast and accurate tool for character...

Chung, Daniel; MacDonald, Michael; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Speed Map for Autonomous Rovers over Rough Terrain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Grid Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .considered obstacles [27] Grid Map showing Tile Size, Cellspeed map. It also covers grid maps and terrain roughness,

Loh, Jonathan Edau

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Rough-Fuzzy MLP: Modular Evolution, Rule Generation, and Evaluation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terms--Soft computing, knowledge-based fuzzy networks, rough sets, genetic algorithms, pattern recently for pattern classification, is such an example combining both rough sets and fuzzy setsRough-Fuzzy MLP: Modular Evolution, Rule Generation, and Evaluation Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE

Mitra, Sushmita

22

Surface roughness of anodized titanium coatings.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of grade five 6Al4V titanium alloy were coated with two commercial fluoropolymer anodizations (Tiodize and Canadize) and compared. Neither coating demonstrates significant outgassing. The coatings show very similar elemental analysis, except for the presence of lead in the Canadize coating, which may account for its lower surface friction in humid environments. Surface roughness has been compared by SEM, contact profilometry, optical profilometry, power spectral density and bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF). The Tiodize film is slightly smoother by all measurement methods, but the Canadize film shows slightly less scatter at all angles of incidence. Both films exhibited initial friction coefficients of 0.2 to 0.4, increasing to 0.4 to 0.8 after 1000 cycles of sliding due to wear of the coating and ball. The coatings are very similar and should behave identically in most applications.

Dugger, Michael Thomas; Chinn, Douglas Alan

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

The role of an interface on Ni film removal and surface roughness after irradiation by femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have observed thin film removal from glass substrates after the irradiation of Ni films with femtosecond laser pulses in air. It was found that the material removal threshold and laser-induced morphology are dependent on film thickness. With decreasing thickness, material removal transitions from intra-film separation to removal at the Ni-glass interface. The Gaussian energy distribution of the laser pulse allows for intra-film separation in the annular region of the crater and interface separation in the center. We propose a model to explain these data as well as the observed increased surface roughness in the interfacial removal regions.

Murphy, Ryan D. [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Torralva, Ben [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Yalisove, Steven M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

24

System for measuring film thickness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

The effect of roughness on aerosol deposition in tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

all of the experiments conducted for this study. I admire his practicality, kind gestures, and work ethic. I will treasure all those times spent at Riverside campus and the WIPP site. I thank Mr. William Vance Payne for all of his help. His.... 50 55 63 66 VI IMPLICATION FOR WIPP 75 Pressure Drop and Roughness . . Sampling Line and Shrouded Probe Cleaning Interval. . . . . Roughness Measurement Procedure 75 80 87 VII CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . 88 Roughness...

Chavez, Mario Cesar

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metal/insulator Interfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Work Function. Effects of Atomic Scale Roughness at Metalinsulator Interfaces on Metal Work Function. Abstract: We evaluate the performance of different van der Waals (vdW)...

27

Fuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the main subjects in machine learning and pattern recognition, with applications in fields like spam theory to improve the FNN classifier. Fuzzy rough set theory was designed to model imperfect knowledgeFuzzy Rough Positive Region based Nearest Neighbour Classification Nele Verbiest, Chris Cornelis

Gent, Universiteit

28

Case Generation Using Rough Sets with Fuzzy Representation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, granular computing, rough-fuzzy hybridization, soft computing, pattern recognition, data mining. æ 1 for case generation. Fuzzy set theory is used for linguistic representation of patterns, thereby producing a fuzzy granulation of the feature space. Rough set theory is used to obtain dependency rules which model

Mitra, Pabitra

29

Counterintuitive MCNPX Results for Scintillator Surface Roughness Effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have reported on our recent MCNPX simulation results of energy deposition for a group of 8 scintillation detectors, coupled with various rough surface patterns. The MCNPX results generally favored the detectors with various rough surface patterns. The observed MCNPX results are not fully explained by this work.

None

2012-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

30

FRACTAL DESCRIPTION OF ROUGH SURFACES FOR HAPTIC DISPLAY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRACTAL DESCRIPTION OF ROUGH SURFACES FOR HAPTIC DISPLAY A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT system using fractals. A background on traditional methods for describing surface roughness is given. Fractals are used to characterize one- dimensional surface profiles using two parameters, the amplitude

Stanford University

31

Measurement of normal contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effects of roughness and fractality on the normal contact stiffness of rough surfaces. Samples of isotropically roughened aluminium surfaces are considered. The roughness and fractal dimension were altered through blasting using different sized particles. Subsequently, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) was applied to the surfaces in order to modify the surface at the microscale. The surface topology was characterised by interferometry based profilometry. The normal contact stiffness was measured through nanoindentation with a flat tip utilising the partial unloading method. We focus on establishing the relationships between surface stiffness and roughness, combined with the effects of fractal dimension. The experimental results, for a wide range of surfaces, showed that the measured contact stiffness depended very closely on surfaces' root mean squared (RMS) slope and their fractal dimension, with correlation coefficients of around 90\\%, whilst a relatively weak correlation coefficient of 57\\% was found between the contact stiffness and RMS roughness.

Chongpu Zhai; Sébastien Bevand; Yixiang Gan; Dorian Hanaor; Gwénaëlle Proust; Bruno Guelorget; Delphine Retraint

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

32

High Temperature Superconducting Thick Films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An article including a substrate, a layer of an inert oxide material upon the surface of the substrate, (generally the inert oxide material layer has a smooth surface, i.e., a RMS roughness of less than about 2 nm), a layer of an amorphous oxide or oxynitride material upon the inert oxide material layer, a layer of an oriented cubic oxide material having a rock-salt-like structure upon the amorphous oxide material layer is provided together with additional layers such as at least one layer of a buffer material upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer or a HTS top-layer of YBCO directly upon the oriented cubic oxide material layer. With a HTS top-layer of YBCO upon at least one layer of a buffer material in such an article, Jc's of 1.4×106 A/cm2 have been demonstrated with projected Ic's of 210 Amperes across a sample 1 cm wide.

Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Groves, James R. (Los Alamos, NM); Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

33

Surface forces: Surface roughness in theory and experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method of incorporating surface roughness into theoretical calculations of surface forces is presented. The model contains two chief elements. First, surface roughness is represented as a probability distribution of surface heights around an average surface height. A roughness-averaged force is determined by taking an average of the classic flat-surface force, weighing all possible separation distances against the probability distributions of surface heights. Second the model adds a repulsive contact force due to the elastic contact of asperities. We derive a simple analytic expression for the contact force. The general impact of roughness is to amplify the long range behaviour of noncontact (DLVO) forces. The impact of the elastic contact force is to provide a repulsive wall which is felt at a separation between surfaces that scales with the root-mean-square (RMS) roughness of the surfaces. The model therefore provides a means of distinguishing between “true zero,” where the separation between the average centres of each surface is zero, and “apparent zero,” defined by the onset of the repulsive contact wall. A normal distribution may be assumed for the surface probability distribution, characterised by the RMS roughness measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Alternatively the probability distribution may be defined by the histogram of heights measured by AFM. Both methods of treating surface roughness are compared against the classic smooth surface calculation and experimental AFM measurement.

Parsons, Drew F., E-mail: Drew.Parsons@anu.edu.au; Walsh, Rick B.; Craig, Vincent S. J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Applied Mathematics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

34

Transport Theory for Shallow Water Propagation with Rough Boundaries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At frequencies of about 1 kHz and higher, forward scattering from a rough sea surface (and/or a rough bottom) can strongly affect shallow water propagation and reverberation. The need exists for a fast, yet accurate method for modeling such propagation where multiple forward scattering occurs. A transport theory method based on mode coupling is described that yields the first and second moments of the field. This approach shows promise for accurately treating multiple forward scattering in one-way propagation. The method is presently formulated in two space dimensions, and Monte-Carlo rough surface PE simulations are used for assessing the accuracy of transport theory results.

Thorsos, Eric I.; Henyey, Frank S.; Elam, W. T.; Hefner, Brian T.; Reynolds, Stephen A.; Yang Jie [Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th Street, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)

2010-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

35

Effect of Surface Roughness on Wind Turbine Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wind farm operators observe production deficits as machines age. Quantifying deterioration on individual components is difficult, but one potential explanation is accumulation of blade surface roughness. Historically, wind turbine airfoils were...

Ehrmann, Robert Schaefer

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

36

Hypersonic Measurements of Roughness-Induced Transient Growth  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effects of surface roughness on boundary-layer disturbance growth and laminar-to-turbulent transition are not well understood, especially in hypersonic boundary layers. The transient growth mechanism that produces algebraic growth of stream wise...

Sharp, Nicole Susanne

2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

37

Ice friction: The effects of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of surface roughness, structure, and hydrophobicity on ice friction is studied systematically over a wide range of temperature and sliding speeds using several metallic interfaces. Hydrophobicity in combination with controlled roughness at the nanoscale is achieved by femtosecond laser irradiation to mimic the lotus effect on the slider's surface. The controlled roughness significantly increases the coefficient of friction at low sliding speeds and temperatures well below the ice melting point. However, at temperatures close to the melting point and relatively higher speeds, roughness and hydrophobicity significantly decrease ice friction. This decrease in friction is mainly due to the suppression of capillary bridges in spite of the presence of surface asperities that facilitate their formation. Finally, grooves oriented in the sliding direction also significantly decrease friction in the low velocity range compared to scratches and grooves randomly distributed over a surface.

Kietzig, Anne-Marie; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.; Englezos, Peter [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z3 (Canada)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

Yovanovich, M. Michael

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROPAGATION OF SINGULARITIES FOR ROUGH METRICS HART F. SMITH Abstract. We use a wave packet the Simons Foundation (# 266371 to Hart Smith). 1 #12;2 HART F. SMITH H¨ormander's theorem [9] on propagation

Smith, Hart F.

40

Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

The thermal Casimir effect for rough metallic plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a new theory of thermal Casimir effect, holding for the experimentally important case of metallic surfaces with a roughness having a spatial scale smaller than the skin depth. The theory is based on a simple phenomenological model for a rough conductor, that explicitly takes account of the fact that ohmic conduction in the immediate vicinity of the surface of a conductor is much impeded by surface roughness, if the amplitude of roughness is smaller than the skin depth. As a result of the new model, we find that surface roughness strongly influences the magnitude of the thermal correction to the Casimir force, independently of the plates separation. Our model, while consistent with recent accurate measurements of the Casimir force in the submicron range, leads to a new prediction for the not yet observed thermal correction to the Casimir force at large plates separation. Besides the thermal Casimir problem, our model is relevant for the correct theoretical interpretation of current experiments probing other proximity effects between conductors, like radiative heat transfer and quantum friction.

G. Bimonte

2007-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

42

Inhomogeneous Cooling of the Rough Granular Gas in Two Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the inhomogeneous clustered regime of a freely cooling granular gas of rough particles in two dimensions using large-scale event driven simulations and scaling arguments. During collisions, rough particles dissipate energy in both the normal and tangential directions of collision. In the inhomogeneous regime, translational kinetic energy and the rotational energy decay with time $t$ as power-laws $t^{-\\theta_T}$ and $t^{-\\theta_R}$. We numerically determine $\\theta_T \\approx 1$ and $\\theta_R \\approx 1.6$, independent of the coefficients of restitution. The inhomogeneous regime of the granular gas has been argued to be describable by the ballistic aggregation problem, where particles coalesce on contact. Using scaling arguments, we predict $\\theta_T=1$ and $\\theta_R=1$ for ballistic aggregation, $\\theta_R$ being different from that obtained for the rough granular gas. Simulations of ballistic aggregation with rotational degrees of freedom are consistent with these exponents.

Sudhir N. Pathak; Dibyendu Das; R. Rajesh

2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

43

ANALYZING SURFACE ROUGHNESS DEPENDENCE OF LINEAR RF LOSSES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Topographic structure on Superconductivity Radio Frequency (SRF) surfaces can contribute additional cavity RF losses describable in terms of surface RF reflectivity and absorption indices of wave scattering theory. At isotropic homogeneous extent, Power Spectrum Density (PSD) of roughness is introduced and quantifies the random surface topographic structure. PSD obtained from different surface treatments of niobium, such Buffered Chemical Polishing (BCP), Electropolishing (EP), Nano-Mechanical Polishing (NMP) and Barrel Centrifugal Polishing (CBP) are compared. A perturbation model is utilized to calculate the additional rough surface RF losses based on PSD statistical analysis. This model will not consider that superconductor becomes normal conducting at fields higher than transition field. One can calculate the RF power dissipation ratio between rough surface and ideal smooth surface within this field range from linear loss mechanisms.

Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [JLAB, W& M College; Xu, Chen [JLAB, W& M College

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness over Snow and Sea Ice In Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the aerodynamic roughness, z0, is the artificial height  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Title: Aerodynamic and Scalar Roughness over Snow and Sea Ice Abstract: In Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, the aerodynamic roughness, z0, is the artificial height above the surface at which the wind speed the theory and measurement of the aerodynamic and scalar roughness lengths over snow and sea ice. The data

45

Friction of a slider on a granular layer: Non-monotonic thickness dependence and effect of boundary conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the effective friction encountered by a mass sliding on a granular layer as a function of bed thickness and boundary roughness conditions. The observed friction has minima for a small number of layers before it increases and saturates to a value which depends on the roughness of the sliding surface. We use an index-matched interstitial liquid to probe the internal motion of the grains with fluorescence imaging in a regime where the liquid has no significant effect on the measured friction. The shear profiles obtained as a function of depth show decrease in slip near the sliding surface as the layer thickness is increased. We propose that the friction depends on the degree of grain confinement relative to the sliding surfaces.

Saloome Siavoshi; Ashish V. Orpe; Arshad Kudrolli

2005-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

46

Studies of the 3D surface roughness height  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nowadays nano-coatings occupy more and more significant place in technology. Innovative, functional coatings acquire new aspects from the point of view of modern technologies, considering the aggregate of physical properties that can be achieved manipulating in the production process with the properties of coatings’ surfaces on micro- and nano-level. Nano-coatings are applied on machine parts, friction surfaces, contacting parts, corrosion surfaces, transparent conducting films (TCF), etc. The equipment available at present for the production of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) coatings with highest quality is based on expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) material; therefore cheaper alternatives are being searched for. One such offered alternative is zink oxide (ZnO) nano-coatings. Evaluating the TCF physical and mechanical properties and in view of the new ISO standard (EN ISO 25178) on the introduction of surface texture (3D surface roughness) in the engineering calculations, it is necessary to examine the height of 3D surface roughness, which is one of the most significant roughness parameters. The given paper studies the average values of 3D surface roughness height and the most often applied distribution laws are as follows: the normal distribution and Rayleigh distribution. The 3D surface is simulated by a normal random field.

Avisane, Anita; Rudzitis, Janis; Kumermanis, Maris [Institute of Mechanical Engineering, Riga Technical University, Ezermalas str. 6k, Riga (Latvia)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

47

Calculating Very Rough Market Share Using the Canadian Business Database  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Calculating Very Rough Market Share Using the Canadian Business Database If you cannot find market market share using the company information provided in the Canadian Business Database (CBD), an online - it should be considered a last resort for this information. STEP 1: ACCESS THE CANADIAN BUSINESS DATABASE 1a

Thompson, Michael

48

BAYESIAN METHOD FOR SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGES IN ROUGH TERRAIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BAYESIAN METHOD FOR SEGMENTATION OF SAR IMAGES IN ROUGH TERRAIN Marco Caparrini1 , Klaus Seidel1 are the basis for radiometric correction. Considering SAR images, the huge amount of processing for geographic and geometric calibration and registration that is needed prior to analysis is well established. Nonetheless

Oldenburg, Carl von Ossietzky Universität

49

Large deviations for rough paths of fractional Brownian motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

limit theorem. Stochastic modeling deals basically with rough path controls. Indeed, the ground-breaking It^o's theory on stochastic differential equations is based on Brownian motion, which has almost surely nowhere differentiable sam- ple paths but only -H¨older continuous ones, with ]0, 1 2 [. Note

Millet, Annie

50

Heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the heat transfer between elastic solids with randomly rough surfaces. We include both the heat transfer from the area of real contact, and the heat transfer between the surfaces in the noncontact regions. We apply a recently developed contact mechanics theory, which accounts for the hierarchical nature of the contact between solids with roughness on many different length scales. For elastic contact, at the highest (atomic) resolution the area of real contact typically consists of atomic (nanometer) sized regions, and we discuss the implications of this for the heat transfer. For solids with very smooth surfaces, as is typical in many modern engineering applications, the interfacial separation in the non-contact regions will be very small, and for this case we show the importance of the radiative heat transfer associated with the evanescent electromagnetic waves which exist outside of all bodies.

B. N. J. Persson; B. Lorenz; A. I. Volokitin

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

51

Turbine airfoil with outer wall thickness indicators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and including a depth indicator for determining outer wall blade thickness. The airfoil may include an outer wall having a plurality of grooves in the outer surface of the outer wall. The grooves may have a depth that represents a desired outer surface and wall thickness of the outer wall. The material forming an outer surface of the outer wall may be removed to be flush with an innermost point in each groove, thereby reducing the wall thickness and increasing efficiency. The plurality of grooves may be positioned in a radially outer region of the airfoil proximate to the tip.

Marra, John J; James, Allister W; Merrill, Gary B

2013-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

52

Distributed Roughness Receptivity in a Flat Plate Boundary Layer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- Distributed Receptivity . . . . . 6 2. FACILITY DESCRIPTION - THE KLEBANOFF–SARIC WIND TUNNEL 11 2.1 Test Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.2 Fan and Motor... of this dissertation describes the Klebanoff–Saric Wind Tunnel facility, which was used for this experiment. Section 3 describes the experimental setup (roughness design and the flat plate model) and defines the metrics by which the flow field is decomposed...

Kuester, Matthew Scott

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

53

Dimensional variation and roughness of LIGA fabricated microstructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have measured the dimensional variation and sidewall roughness of features on PMMA micro- components fabricated by deep x-ray lithography in order to assess the effect of dimensional variation on subsequent assembly operations. Dimensional measurements were made using a stylus profilometer with a repeatability in step height of better than 0.01 {mu}m. Roughness measurements were made with the same profilometer scanning in a direction perpendicular to the length of the parts. 22 {mu}m and 54 {mu}m features exhibited dimensional variations described by a Gaussian distribution with standard deviations of 0.202 {mu}m and 0.381 {mu}m, respectively. This corresponds to a maximum relative variation of between 0.6% and 0.9%. Sidewall roughnesses were found to be in the range of 0.02 {mu}m to 0. 03 {mu}m, an insignificant contribution to the total variation when compared to overall dimensional variation. Several potential sources of this variation are discussed, but no single cause was identified as the source of the significant dimensional variation observed here.

Egert, C.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Wood, R. [Microelectronics Center of North Carolina, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Malek, C.K. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

MonolayerThickness of Block Copolymer Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.47 · Index of ref. for PS-PEHMA 1.51 #12;Annealing the films · Tg 22nm 24nm Height Images #12;AFM 12-33 26nm 28nm 30nm Bi-continuous #12;12-33Area% 13.08 31.55 41 Area % Thickness (nm) Monolayer: 18.86nm Bilayer: 37.72nm #12;Monolayer thickness 12

Petta, Jason

55

Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability, and porosity on the boiling critical heat flux  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on the critical heat flux (CHF) of water were examined using engineered surfaces. Values explored were 0, 5, 10, and 15??m for Rz (roughness), <5°, ?75°, ...

O'Hanley, Harry

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - angle deposited nano-rough Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nano-rough Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: angle deposited nano-rough Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Advanced techniques for glancing...

57

Characterization of thick 4H-SiC hot-wall CVD layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Epitaxial 4H-SiC layers suitable for high power devices have been grown in a hot-wall chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) system. These layers were subsequently characterized for many parameters important in device development and production. The uniformity of both thickness and doping is presented. Doping trends vs. temperature and growth rate is shown for the p-type dopant used. The n-type dopant drops in concentration with increasing temperature or increasing growth rate. In contrast, the p-type dopant increases in concentration with decreasing temperature or increasing growth rate. A simple descriptive model for this behavior is presented. The outcome from capacitance-voltage and SIMS measurements demonstrate that transitions from n to n{sup {minus}}, or p to p{sup {minus}}, and even n to p levels can be made quickly without adjustment to growth conditions. The ability to produce sharp transitions without process changes avoids degrading the resulting surface morphology or repeatability of the process. Avoiding process changes is particularly important in growth of thick layers since surface roughness tends to increase with layer thickness. Device results from diodes producing two different blocking voltages in excess of 5 kV is also shown. The higher voltage diodes exhibited a breakdown behavior which was near the theoretical limit for the epitaxial layer thickness and doping level grown.

Paisley, M.J.; Irvine, K.G.; Kordina, O.; Singh, R.; Palmour, J.W.; Carter, C.H. Jr.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of hydraulic roughness on surface textures of gravel-bed rivers John M. Buffington1 that bed-surface grain size is responsive to hydraulic roughness caused by bank irregularities, bars condition of low hydraulic roughness. For a given 0bf , channels with progressively greater hydraulic

59

Scaling laws governing the roughness of the swash edge line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The physics of swash i.e. a layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken is complicated and intriguing. It includes perplexed hydrodynamic and sediment transport events. In our paper we address to the roughness of the moving swash boundary at which a beach, water and air meet. We treat the behavior of this boundary as an interfacial phenomenon, without going into details of formation of edge waves and beach cusps, covered broadly in literature. This "crude" approach turns out to be productive and revealing the resemblance of the swash line with a broad diversity of effects arising from the random pinning of moving boundaries.

Ed. Bormashenko; A. Musin; R. Grynuov

2014-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

60

Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

Salzer, L.J.; Bergren, D.A.

1987-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Wall thickness measuring method and apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for measuring the wall thickness of a nonmagnetic article having a housing supporting a magnet and a contiguous supporting surface. The tubular article and the housing are releasably secured to the supporting surface and a support member of an optical comparator, respectively. To determine the wall thickness of the article at a selected point, a magnetically responsive ball is positioned within the tubular article over said point and retained therein by means of a magnetic field produced by the magnet. Thereafter, an optical comparator is employed to project a magnified image of the ball on a screen and the wall thickness at the selected point is calculated by using a ball surface measurement taken with the comparator in conjunction with a previously determined base line measurement.

Salzer, Leander J. (Los Alamos, NM); Bergren, Donald A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Systematic Evaluation of Jc Decrease in Thick Film Coated Conductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Address both thickness dependence of Jc, in thick film YBCO coated conductors through an application of a suite of new measurement techniques to thick film wire samples produced by commercially viable coated conductor technologies.

Alex Ignatiev; Dr. Amit Goyal

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

63

Gas turbine bucket wall thickness control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A core for use in casting a turbine bucket including serpentine cooling passages is divided into two pieces including a leading edge core section and a trailing edge core section. Wall thicknesses at the leading edge and the trailing edge of the turbine bucket can be controlled independent of each other by separately positioning the leading edge core section and the trailing edge core section in the casting die. The controlled leading and trailing edge thicknesses can thus be optimized for efficient cooling, resulting in more efficient turbine operation.

Stathopoulos, Dimitrios (Glenmont, NY); Xu, Liming (Greenville, SC); Lewis, Doyle C. (Greer, SC)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties of Titanium Nitride Nano-Coatings. Effect of Thickness on the Structure, Composition and Properties of Titanium...

65

Free Energy of thick Center Vortices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The free energy of thick center vortices is calculated in continuum Yang-Mills theory in one-loop approximation using the proper time regularization. The vortices are represented by Abelian gauge field configurations on the torus which satisfy twisted boundary conditions.

Ch. Korn; H. Reinhardt; T. Tok

2005-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

66

Thickness and drainage of perfluoropolyethers under compression  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Surface Forces Apparatus was used to study the compression and drainage of perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) between two flat parallel mica surfaces. In the case of Zdols and Demnum-SA, the PFPE can be squeezed out during slow compression to a final residual film one gyration diameter in thickness. This thickness remained constant up to the highest applied pressure of (is similar to)10 MPa. The residual thickness for Demnum-SA, with one active end group, was found to be approximately 40% larger than that for Zdol of the same molecular weight, with two active end groups. In contrast, Z03, with no active end groups, could be displaced completely from the contact. The dynamics of expulsion were studied by monitoring the variation of the gap width as a function of time after fast (a few milliseconds) step increase in the compressive load. It was found that Zdol behaves as the bulk liquid down to gap widths of 4 equivalent gyration diameters. A viscosity increase of more than 10 times was observed when the gap width was between 4 and 2 gyration diameters. Finally, slow compression to the maximum achievable pressure (approximately 10 MPa) led to a residual layer one gyration diameter in thickness trapped between the mica surfaces.

Xu, Lei; Ogletree, D Frank; Salmeron, Miquel; Tang, Huan; Gui, Jing

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

IMPACT OF DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS ON THE REFLECTIVITY OF 3C-SiC WAFERS WITH A ROUGH SURFACE MORPHOLOGY IN THE RESTSTRAHLEN REGION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A layer-on-substrate model is used to obtain the infrared reflectance for 3C-SiC with a rough surface morphology. The effect of varying dielectric parameters of the “damaged layer” on the observed reflectivity of the 3C-SiC in the reststrahlen region is assessed. Different simulated reflectance spectra are obtained to those if the dielectric parameters of the “substrate” were varied. Most notable changes in the shape of the simulated reststrahlen peak are observed for changes in the high frequency dielectric constant, the phonon damping constant, the phonon frequencies and “thickness” of damaged surface layer.

J.A.A. Engelbrecht; E. Janzén; A. Henry; I.J. van Rooyen

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Strain relaxation of thick (11–22) semipolar InGaN layer for long wavelength nitride-based device  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the properties of thick stress-relaxed (11–22) semipolar InGaN layers were investigated. Owing to the inclination of growth orientation, misfit dislocations (MDs) occurred at the heterointerface when the strain state of the (11–22) semipolar InGaN layers reached the critical point. We found that unlike InGaN layers based on polar and nonpolar growth orientations, the surface morphologies of the stress-relaxed (11–22) semipolar InGaN layers did not differ from each other and were similar to the morphology of the underlying GaN layer. In addition, misfit strain across the whole InGaN layer was gradually relaxed by MD formation at the heterointerface. To minimize the effect of surface roughness and defects in GaN layers on the InGaN layer, we conducted further investigation on a thick (11–22) semipolar InGaN layer grown on an epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN template. We found that the lateral indium composition across the whole stress-relaxed InGaN layer was almost uniform. Therefore, thick stress-relaxed (11–22) semipolar InGaN layers are suitable candidates for use as underlying layers in long-wavelength devices, as they can be used to control strain accumulation in the heterostructure active region without additional influence of surface roughness.

Kim, Jaehwan; Min, Daehong; Jang, Jongjin; Lee, Kyuseung; Chae, Sooryong; Nam, Okhyun, E-mail: ohnam@kpu.ac.kr [Advanced Photonics Research Center/LED Technology Center, Department of Nano-Optical Engineering, Korea Polytechnic University, 237, Sangidaehak-ro, Siheung-si, Gyeonggi-do 429-793 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

69

" Rotating, In Plane Magnetization and Magneto-Optic Imaging of Cracks in Thick-Section Steel Under Stainless-Steel Cladding".  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The nondestructive inspection (NDI) of thick-section steel nuclear reactor pressure vessels (RPV'S) is rendered difficult by rough stainless steel cladding. Because the cladding condition is poorly known in most RPV's, an NDI technique that is unaffected by cladding roughness would be a major advance. Magneto-optic imaging is one such technique. The purpose of this project was to develop a novel method to induce rotating, in-plane magnetization, and to combine this capability with magneto-optic imaging to produce a self-contained inspection system. Imaging of cracks under thick cladding (0.250 inches) was demonstrated using a system capable, in principle, of performing robotic inspections, both inside & outside a typical boiling water reactor (BWR) RPV. This report, together publications listed, constitutes a comprehensive account of this work.

Gerald Fitzpatrick & Richard Skaugset

2000-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

70

Thin, thick and dark discs in LCDM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a LCDM cosmology, the Milky Way accretes satellites into the stellar disc. We use cosmological simulations to assess the frequency of near disc plane and higher inclination accretion events, and collisionless simulations of satellite mergers to quantify the final state of the accreted material and the effect on the thin disc. On average, a Milky Way-sized galaxy has 3 subhalos with vmax>80km/s; 7 with vmax>60km/s; and 15 with vmax>40km/s merge at redshift z>1. Assuming isotropic accretion, a third of these merge at an impact angle 20 degrees) are twice as likely as low inclination ones. These lead to structures that closely resemble the recently discovered inner/outer stellar halos. They also do more damage to the Milky Way stellar disc creating a more pronounced flare, and warp; both long-lived and consistent with current observations. The most massive mergers (vmax>80km/s) heat the thin disc enough to produce a thick disc. These heated thin disc stars are essential for obtaining a thick disc as massive as that seen in the Milky Way; they likely comprise some ~50-90% of the thick disc stars. The Milky Way thin disc must reform from fresh gas after z=1 [abridged].

J. I. Read; G. Lake; O. Agertz; Victor P. Debattista

2008-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

71

Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light trapping in solar cells allows for increased current and voltage, as well as reduced materials cost. It is known that in geometrical optics, a maximum 4n^2 absorption enhancement factor can be achieved by randomly texturing the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption enhancement limit only holds when the thickness of the solar cell is much greater than the optical wavelength. In sub-wavelength thin films, the fundamental questions remain unanswered: (1) what is the sub-wavelength absorption enhancement limit and (2) what surface texture realizes this optimal absorption enhancement? We turn to computational electromagnetic optimization in order to design nanoscale textures for light trapping in sub-wavelength thin films. For high-index thin films, in the weakly absorbing limit, our optimized surface textures yield an angle- and frequency-averaged enhancement factor ~39. They perform roughly 30% better than randomly textured structures, but they fall...

Ganapati, Vidya; Yablonovitch, Eli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Lyapunov instability of rough hard-disk fluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamical instability of rough hard-disk fluids in two dimensions is characterized through the Lyapunov spectrum and the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, $h_{KS}$, for a wide range of densities and moments of inertia $I$. For small $I$ the spectrum separates into translation-dominated and rotation-dominated parts. With increasing $I$ the rotation-dominated part is gradually filled in at the expense of translation, until such a separation becomes meaningless. At any density, the rate of phase-space mixing, given by $h_{KS}$, becomes less and less effective the more the rotation affects the dynamics. However, the degree of dynamical chaos, measured by the maximum Lyapunov exponent, is only enhanced by the rotational degrees of freedom for high-density gases, but is diminished for lower densities. Surprisingly, no traces of Lyapunov modes were found in the spectrum for larger moments of inertia. The spatial localization of the perturbation vector associated with the maximum exponent however persists for any $I$.

Jacobus A. van Meel; Harald A. Posch

2009-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

73

Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the limiting aerodynamic roughness of the ocean in very strong winds M. A. Donelan,1 B. K. Haus January 2004; accepted 13 August 2004; published 28 September 2004. [1] The aerodynamic friction between, the ``aerodynamic roughness'') increases with the wind speed. Can one merely extrapolate this wind speed tendency

Saltzman, Eric

75

Maximum Class Separability for Rough-Fuzzy C-Means Based Brain MR Image Segmentation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maximum Class Separability for Rough-Fuzzy C-Means Based Brain MR Image Segmentation Pradipta Maji of brain MR images. The RFCM algorithm comprises a judicious integration of the of rough sets, fuzzy sets with vagueness and incompleteness in class definition of brain MR images, the membership function of fuzzy sets

Pal, Sankar Kumar

76

EFFECT OF CONTACT VISCOSITY AND ROUGHNESS ON INTERFACE STIFFNESS AND WAVE PROPAGATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EFFECT OF CONTACT VISCOSITY AND ROUGHNESS ON INTERFACE STIFFNESS AND WAVE PROPAGATION Anil Misra1 and asperity properties compete in determining the stiffness behavior, and consequently, the wave propagation widely used to investigate plane wave propagation through contacts between two rough solids [see

Boyer, Edmond

77

A FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Resources, Roughness, Coastal Sea Areas, Waves, Rødsand 1 INTRODUCTION Large offshore wind farms are beingA FETCH DEPENDENT MODEL OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has to compensate the additional

Heinemann, Detlev

78

Near-field heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a rough surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this work we focus on the surface roughness correction to the near-field radiative heat transfer between a nanoparticle and a material with a rough surface utilizing a direct perturbation theory up to second order in the surface profile. We discuss the different distance regimes for the local density of states above the rough material and the heat flux analytically and numerically. We show that the heat transfer rate is larger than that corresponding to a flat surface at short distances. At larger distances it can become smaller due to surface polariton scattering by the rough surface. For distances much smaller than the correlation length of the surface profile, we show that the results converge to a proximity approximation, whereas in the opposite limit the rough surface can be replaced by an equivalent surface layer.

Svend-Age Biehs; Jean-Jacques Greffet

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

79

Global Sediment Thickness Dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Sediment Thickness Dataset updated for the Australian-Antarctic Southern Ocean Joanne author: jo.whittaker@utas.edu.au Key Points - Global minimum sediment thickness compilation updated for Australia Antarctica - Sediment thicknesses computed from seismic reflection and refraction data - Sediment

Müller, Dietmar

80

Mapping crustal thickness using marine gravity data: Methods and uncertainties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of petroleum systems within passive margins. However, direct measurements of crustal thickness are sparse geophysical data, to estimate crustal thickness. We evaluated alternative gravity inversion methodol- ogies, but economic considerations make gravity modeling a more practical approach for mapping crustal thickness over

Müller, Dietmar

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Radioactive waste disposal in thick unsaturated zones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Portions of the Great Basin are undergoing crustal extension and have unsaturated zones as much as 600 meters thick. These areas contain multiple natural barriers capable of isolating solidified toxic wastes from the biosphere for tens of thousands to perhaps hundreds of thousands of years. An example of the potential utilization of such arid zone environments for toxic waste isolation is the burial of transuranic radioactive wastes at relatively shallow depths (15 to 100 meters) in Sedan Crater, Yucca Flat, Nevada. The volume of this man-made crater is several times that of the projected volume of such wastes to the year 2000. Disposal in Sedan Crater could be accomplished at a savings on the order of $0.5 billion, in comparison with current schemes for burial of such wastes in mined repositories at depths of 600 to 900 meters, and with an apparently equal likelihood of waste isolation from the biosphere. 4 figures.

Winograd, I.J.

1981-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

82

Ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultrasonic thickness measuring and imaging system uses an ultrasonic fsed beam probe for measuring thickness of an object, such as a wall of a tube, a computer for controlling movement of the probe in a scanning pattern within the tube and processing an analog signal produced by the probe which is proportional to the tube wall thickness in the scanning pattern, and a line scan recorder for producing a record of the tube wall thicknesses measured by the probe in the scanning pattern. The probe is moved in the scanning pattern to sequentially scan circumferentially the interior tube wall at spaced apart adjacent axial locations. The computer processes the analog signal by converting it to a digital signal and then quantifies the digital signal into a multiplicity of thickness points with each falling in one of a plurality of thickness ranges corresponding to one of a plurality of shades of grey. From the multiplicity of quantified thickness points, a line scan recorder connected to the computer generates a pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses with each quantified thickness point thus being obtained from a minute area, e.g. 0.010 inch by 0.010 inch, of tube wall and representing one pixel of the pictorial map. In the pictorial map of tube wall thicknesses, the pixels represent different wall thicknesses having different shades of grey.

Bylenok, Paul J. (Clifton Park, NY); Patmos, William M. (Schenectady, NY); Wagner, Thomas A. (Bronswick, NY); Martin, Francis H. (Melrose, NY)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

The effect of ice crystal surface roughness on the retrieval of ice cloud microphysical and optical properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effect of the surface roughness of ice crystals is not routinely accounted for in current cloud retrieval algorithms that are based on pre-computed lookup libraries. In this study, we investigate the effect of ice crystal surface roughness...

Xie, Yu

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

84

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Sound characteristics of a pipe with dynamically rough A. Romanova, K. V. Horoshenkov and S. J. Tait  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sound characteristics of a pipe with dynamically rough boundary A. Romanova, K. V. Horoshenkov the acoustic field in the pipe above a dynamically rough water surface can provide a better understanding interacting with pipe wall roughness. This work presents results from a novel experimental setup, which allows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Reduction of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to decrease/suppress Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Suppression is required when fluid-structure interaction becomes destructive as in VIM of flexible cylinders or rigid cylinders on elastic support, such as underwater pipelines, marine risers, tubes in heat exchangers, nuclear fuel rods, cooling towers, SPAR offshore platforms.

Bernitsas, Michael M; Raghavan, Kamaldev

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Thermoelectric characteristic of the rough InN/GaN core-shell nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis to model the thermoelectric (TE) effects of the rough InN/GaN core-shell nanowires (NWs) with wire diameter ranging from 25?nm to 100?nm is proposed. The elastic continuum model is employed to calculate the phonon dispersion relation curves and the related phonon group velocity. Within the framework of Boltzmann transport equations and relaxation time approximation, the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, electronic thermal conductivity, and the lattice thermal conductivity is obtained. Simulation results indicate that TE properties of the rough InN/GaN core-shell NWs are strongly affected by the surface roughness and the diameter of NWs. The optimized condition of the proposed rough InN/GaN core-shell TE NWs is studied in this paper and the highest ZT obtained in the calculation is 0.8598 at 300?K and 1.713 at 1000?K.

Wu, Chao-Wei; Wu, Yuh-Renn, E-mail: yrwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

On Sea Surface Roughness Parameterization and Its Effect on Tropical Cyclone Structure and Intensity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Sea Surface Roughness Parameterization and Its Effect on Tropical Cyclone Structure and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 Yihong Duan National 10, 2009 (Revised) Dateline Revised for Advances in Atmospheric Sciences Corresponding author

Wang, Yuqing

89

Enhancement of vortex induced forces and motion through surface roughness control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Roughness is added to the surface of a bluff body in a relative motion with respect to a fluid. The amount, size, and distribution of roughness on the body surface is controlled passively or actively to modify the flow around the body and subsequently the Vortex Induced Forces and Motion (VIFM). The added roughness, when designed and implemented appropriately, affects in a predetermined way the boundary layer, the separation of the boundary layer, the level of turbulence, the wake, the drag and lift forces, and consequently the Vortex Induced Motion (VIM), and the fluid-structure interaction. The goal of surface roughness control is to increase Vortex Induced Forces and Motion. Enhancement is needed in such applications as harnessing of clean and renewable energy from ocean/river currents using the ocean energy converter VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy).

Bernitsas, Michael M. (Saline, MI); Raghavan, Kamaldev (Houston, TX)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

The Galactic thick and thin disks: differences in evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent observations demonstrate that the thin and thick disks of the Galaxy have different chemical abundance trends and evolution timescales. The relative abundances of $\\alpha$-elements in the thick Galactic disk are increased relative to the thin disk. Our goal is to investigate the cause of such differences in thick and thin disk abundances. We investigate the chemical evolution of the Galactic disk in the framework of the open two-zone model with gas inflow. The Galactic abundance trends for $\\alpha$-elements (Mg, Si, O) and Fe are predicted for the thin and thick Galactic disks. The star formation histories of the thin and thick disks must have been different and the gas infall must have been more intense during the thick disk evolution that the thin disk evolution.

T. V. Nykytyuk; T. V. Mishenina

2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

91

Thickness dependent self limiting 1-D tin oxide nanowire arrays...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

dependent self limiting 1-D tin oxide nanowire arrays by nanosecond pulsed laser irradiation. Thickness dependent self limiting 1-D tin oxide nanowire arrays by nanosecond pulsed...

92

ag thick film: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

applied. Yagi, Kazuyuki 2006-01-01 23 In situ Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Thin Film Thickness with Ultrasonic Techniques Engineering Websites Summary: In situ...

93

artery wall thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(CCA-IMT) were measured using ultrasonography. Gait 22 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING. Physics Websites Summary: to reduce...

94

Film Growth and Surface Roughness with Fluctuating Covalent Bonds in Evaporating Aqueous Solution of Reactive Hydrophobic and Polar Groups: A Computer Simulation Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A computer simulation model is proposed to study film growth and surface roughness in aqueous ($A$) solution of hydrophobic ($H$) and hydrophilic ($P$) groups on a simple three dimensional lattice of size $L_x \\times L_y \\times L_z$ with an adsorbing substrate. Each group is represented by a particle with appropriate characteristics occupying a unit cube (i.e., eight sites). The Metropolis algorithm is used to move each particle stochastically. The aqueous constituents are allowed to evaporate while the concentration of $H$ and $P$ is constant. Reactions proceed from the substrate and bonded particles can hop within a fluctuating bond length. The film thickness ($h$) and its interface width ($W$) are examined for hard-core and interacting particles for a range of temperature ($T$). Simulation data show a rapid increase in $h$ and $W$ is followed by its non-monotonic growth and decay before reaching steady-state equilibrium ($h_s, W_s$) in asymptotic time step limit. The growth can be described by power-laws, e.g., $h \\propto t^{\\gamma}, W \\propto t^{\\beta}$ with a typical value of $\\gamma \\approx 2, \\beta \\approx 1$ in initial time regime followed by $\\gamma \\approx 1.5, \\beta \\approx 0.8$ at $T = 0.5$. For hard-core system, the equilibrium film thickness ($h_s$) and surface roughness ($w_s$) seem to scale linearly with the temperature, i.e., $h_s = 6.206 + 0.302 T, W_s = 1,255 + 0.425 T$ at low $T$ and $h_s = 6.54 + 0.198 T, W_s = 1.808 + 0.202 T$ at higher $T$. For interacting functional groups in contrast, $h_s$ and $W_s$ decay rapidly followed by a slow increase on raising the temperature.

Shihai Yang; Adam Seyfarth; Sam Bateman; Ras B. Pandey

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

95

Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics: Nano Structured Scalable Thick-Film Magnetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ADEPT Project: Magnetic components are typically the largest components in a power converter. To date, however, researchers haven't found an effective way to reduce their size without negatively impacting their performance. And, reducing the size of the converter's other components isn't usually an option because shrinking them can also diminish the effectiveness of the magnetic components. GE is developing smaller magnetic components for power converters that maintain high performance levels. The company is building smaller components with magnetic films. These films are created using the condensation of a vaporized form of the magnetic material. It's a purely physical process that involves no chemical reactions, so the film composition is uniform. This process makes it possible to create a millimeter-thick film deposition over a wide surface area fairly quickly, which would save on manufacturing costs. In fact, GE can produce 1-10 millimeter-thick films in hours. The magnetic components that GE is developing for this project could be used in a variety of applications, including solar inverters, electric vehicles, and lighting.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

M AERIAUXMAGNETIQUES POUR HYPERFREQUENCES THICK FERRITE FILMS BY CHEMICAL TRANSPORT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M AERIAUXMAGNETIQUES POUR HYPERFREQUENCES THICK FERRITE FILMS BY CHEMICAL TRANSPORT A. I. BRAGINSKI-Mn ferrite and ferrochrornite films by Chemical Transport Deposi- tion (CTD) [I, 21. This method properties obtained. CTD now appears to be a valuable tool in laboratory preparation of thick ferrite layers

Boyer, Edmond

97

A model for variable thickness superconducting thin lms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model for variable thickness superconducting thin #12;lms S. J. Chapman #3; Mathematical for Applied Mathematics Virginia Tech Blacksburg VA 24061-0531, USA Abstract A model for superconductivity. When the #12;lm is of uniform thickness the model is identical to a model for superconducting cylinders

Chapman, Jon

98

The impact assessment of eccentric installation and roughness change in piping on the orifice flow measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In orifice flowmeters used in nuclear power plants, requirements for the inner surface roughness of upstream piping and eccentric installation exist depending on certain standards. If these cannot be satisfied based on the installation condition, an appropriate error margin must be considered, although this remains to be clarified. In this research, quantitative data concerning the relative error of orifice flowmeters were obtained during experiments with the parameters of the inner surface roughness of upstream piping and the installation eccentricity of the orifice hole. The maximum Reynolds number of the experimental facility is about 1.6x10{sup 6}. In orifice flowmeters, the flow rate is calculated based on the differential pressure between upstream and downstream orifices and the peculiar discharge coefficient C. The latter value shows an upward trend with increasing roughness of piping, while change of 0.3% of C was observed in terms of roughness (case 2), which approaches the limits of the JIS standard. With significant roughness (Case 3) that exceeds five times the JIS standard, C is shown to have increased by about 1%. No influence was observed by varying the direction of eccentric installation, hence this was fixed and the amount of eccentricity was considered. Change in C of about 0.25% was observed when around twice the standard level of eccentricity was applied. The error margin data under conditions exceeding the JIS standard for the orifice flowmeter was obtained. (authors)

Nishi, Y.; Eguchi, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Kanai, T.; Kondo, M. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry CRIEPI, 2-11-1 Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Validity of the thin mask approximation in extreme ultraviolet mask roughness simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the case of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, modeling has shown that reflector phase roughness on the lithographic mask is a significant concern due to the image plan speckle it causes and the resulting line-edge roughness on imaged features. Modeling results have recently been used to determine the requirements for future production worthy masks yielding the extremely stringent specification of 50 pm rms roughness. Owing to the scale of the problem in terms of memory requirements, past modeling results have all been based on the thin mask approximation. EUV masks, however, are inherently three dimensional in nature and thus the question arises as to the validity of the thin mask approximation. Here we directly compare image plane speckle calculation results using the fast two dimensional thin mask model to rigorous finite-difference time-domain results and find the two methods to be comparable.

Naulleau, Patrick; George, Simi

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

100

The friction factor of two-dimensional rough-boundary turbulent soap film flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use momentum transfer arguments to predict the friction factor $f$ in two-dimensional turbulent soap-film flows with rough boundaries (an analogue of three-dimensional pipe flow) as a function of Reynolds number Re and roughness $r$, considering separately the inverse energy cascade and the forward enstrophy cascade. At intermediate Re, we predict a Blasius-like friction factor scaling of $f\\propto\\textrm{Re}^{-1/2}$ in flows dominated by the enstrophy cascade, distinct from the energy cascade scaling of $\\textrm{Re}^{-1/4}$. For large Re, $f \\sim r$ in the enstrophy-dominated case. We use conformal map techniques to perform direct numerical simulations that are in satisfactory agreement with theory, and exhibit data collapse scaling of roughness-induced criticality, previously shown to arise in the 3D pipe data of Nikuradse.

Nicholas Guttenberg; Nigel Goldenfeld

2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Surface roughness of stainless-steel mirrors for focusing soft x rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x rays in grazing-incidence reflection. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface,polished and coated with gold, is discussed in detail. A comparison is made to a polished,gold-coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. We used the surface height distributions, measured with an interferometric microscope and complemented by atomic-force microscope measurements, to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity were verified by soft-x-ray measurements.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi, Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

102

Apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for measuring the thickness of a coating adhered to a substrate. An electromagnetic acoustic transducer is used to induce surface waves into the coating. The surface waves have a selected frequency and a fixed wavelength. Interpolation is used to determine the frequency of surface waves that propagate through the coating with the least attenuation. The phase velocity of the surface waves having this frequency is then calculated. The phase velocity is compared to known phase velocity/thickness tables to determine the thickness of the coating.

Carlson, Nancy M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Johnson, John A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Tow, David M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Walter, John B (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Reactor physics assessment of thick silicon carbide clad PWR fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High temperature tolerance, chemical stability and low neutron affinity make silicon carbide (SiC) a potential fuel cladding material that may improve the economics and safety of light water reactors (LWRs). "Thick" SiC ...

Bloore, David A. (David Allan)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Study of pipe thickness loss using a neutron radiography method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this preliminary work is to study for thickness changes in objects using neutron radiography. In doing the project, the technique for the radiography was studied. The experiment was done at NUR-2 facility at TRIGA research reactor in Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Malaysia. Test samples of varying materials were used in this project. The samples were radiographed using direct technique. Radiographic images were recorded using Nitrocellulose film. The films obtained were digitized to processed and analyzed. Digital processing is done on the images using software Isee!. The images were processed to produce better image for analysis. The thickness changes in the image were measured to be compared with real thickness of the objects. From the data collected, percentages difference between measured and real thickness are below than 2%. This is considerably very low variation from original values. Therefore, verifying the neutron radiography technique used in this project.

Mohamed, Abdul Aziz; Wahab, Aliff Amiru Bin [Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jalan IKRAM-UNITEN, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yazid, Hafizal B.; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid B. Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi B.; Azman, Azraf B.; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Md; Idris, Faridah Mohamad [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

105

SLUG TESTING IN WELLS WITH FINITE-THICKNESS SKIN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the slug test in a well surrounded by an annulus of altered material, which is treated as a skin of finite thickness. By assuming the skin has a thickness, the storage capacity of the altered material is included in the analysis. The problem is solved in the Laplace domain. The solution is found in terms of well-bore storage and the thickness, hydraulic conductivity, and specific storage of the skin. Type curves are generated by numerical inversion of the Laplace transform solution. We find that standard methods of analysis, involving a skin of infinitesimal thickness, are adequate for open-well or drill-stem tests. However, for pressurized tests the response may differ markedly from standard slug-test solutions.

Moench, A.F.; Hsieh

1985-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

106

airway wall thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING. Physics Websites Summary: to reduce...

107

Coherent radar ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We developed two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders for ice thickness measurements over the Greenland ice sheet. We developed one of these using connectorized components and the other using radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs). Both...

Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Braaten, David A.; Leuschen, C.; Legarsky, J.; Kanagaratnam, P.; Stiles, J.; Allen, C.; Jezek, K.; Akins, T.

2001-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

108

Rough Set Dependency Analysis in Evaluation Studies An Application in the Study of Repeated Heart Attacks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of repeated heart attacks. 1 Introduction In many cases it is not possible to obtain complete ­ or certain analysis can be applied to an investi- gation into the causes of repeated heart attacks con- ductedRough Set Dependency Analysis in Evaluation Studies ­ An Application in the Study of Repeated Heart

Düntsch, Ivo

109

Numerical simulation of noise generated by multi asperity contact between rough surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The validation of the method is then discussed by comparison with the finite element software Abaqus and someNumerical simulation of noise generated by multi asperity contact between rough surfaces V.H. Dang at the interface that convert a part of the kinetic energy of the sliding solid into acoustical energy. 1

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

110

Rough-Fuzzy C-Medoids Algorithm and Selection of Bio-Basis for Amino Acid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of protein data sets. Index Terms--Pattern recognition, data mining, c-medoids algorithm, fuzzy sets, rough Pradipta Maji and Sankar K. Pal, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--In most pattern recognition algorithms, amino acids pattern recognition algorithms to analyze these biological subsequences is that they cannot recognize

Pal, Sankar Kumar

111

Soft data mining, computational theory of perceptions, and rough-fuzzy approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is described from pattern recognition point of view along with the relevance of soft computing. Key features of the computational theory of perceptions and its significance in pattern recognition and knowledge dis- covery, and its modeling through rough-fuzzy integration are discussed. Merits of fuzzy granular computation

Pal, Sankar Kumar

112

Class-dependent rough-fuzzy granular space, dispersion index and classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

granular computing Soft computing Pattern recognition Remote sensing a b s t r a c t A new rough-fuzzy model for pattern classification based on granular computing is described in the present article. In this model, we propose the formulation of class-dependent granules in fuzzy environment. Fuzzy membership

Pal, Sankar Kumar

113

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Roughly one out of every four accidents (25%) involves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Roughly one out of every four accidents (25%) involves at an unsafe speed · Failure to check mirrors often Fleet Safety: Backing Accidents Safety Tip #2 Accidents hurt-- safety doesn't. All backing accidents are preventable. The key is to plan ahead to avoid backing

Minnesota, University of

114

Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydro-thermal flow in a rough fracture EC Contract SES6-CT-2003-502706 PARTICIPANT ORGANIZATION NAME: CNRS Synthetic 2nd year report Related with Work Package............ HYDRO-THERMAL FLOW in the influence of a realistic geometry of the fracture on its hydro-thermal response. Several studies have

Schmittbuhl, Jean

115

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FRICTION FACTOR IN HIGH PRESSURE NATURAL GAS PIPELINES FROM ROUGHNESS MEASUREMENTS DETERMINATION DU and Technology, Norway ABSTRACT Pressure drop experiments on natural gas flow at 80 to 120 bar pressure and high of natural gas at typical operating pressures (100-180 bar). At such Reynolds numbers the classical Colebrook

Gudmundsson, Jon Steinar

116

Geometrical and transport properties of single fractures: influence of the roughness of the fracture  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geometrical and transport properties of single fractures: influence of the roughness of the fracture walls H. Auradou Univ Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, Univ Paris-Sud, CNRS, F-91405. Lab FAST, Bat reviews the main features of the transport properties of single fractures. A particular attention paid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

117

Development of a Hybrid Powered 2D Biped Walking Machine Designed for Rough Terrain Locomotion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has built a three legged 2D biped walking machine to be used as a test stand for studying rough terrain walking. The specific aim of this research is to investigate how biped walkers can best maintain walking stability when acted upon by small...

Baker, Bryce C.

2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

118

Atmospheric Momentum Roughness Applied to Stage-Discharge Relationships in Flood Plains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

­Weisbach formula is modified to account for vegetative resistance by application of surface roughness lengths appropriate friction factors. Schlicting 1955 reviews the relationship between the Ni- kuradsse's equivalent 1996 developed and calibrated procedures to estimate flow resistance based on the Colebrook

119

Importance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sites. The first large offshore wind farms are currently being built in several countries in EuropeImportance of thermal effects and sea surface roughness for offshore wind resource assessment National Laboratory, Roskilde, Denmark Abstract The economic feasibility of offshore wind power utilisation

Heinemann, Detlev

120

Annealing temperature and thickness dependence of magnetic properties in epitaxial L1{sub 0}-Mn{sub 1.4}Ga films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Mn{sub 1.4}Ga films with high perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and high crystalline quality were grown on MgO substrates with Cr buffer layer using molecular beam epitaxy. The crystalline structure and the surface morphology of the films have been systematically investigated as functions of in-situ annealing temperature (T{sub a}) and film thickness. It is found that the magnetic properties can be largely tuned by adjusting T{sub a}. As T{sub a} increases, both saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and uniaxial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant (K{sub u}) increase to the maximum values of 612?emu/cc and 18?Merg/cc at 300?°C, respectively, and then decrease. The morphology also changes with T{sub a}, showing a minimum roughness of 2.2?Å at T{sub a}?=?450?°C. On the other hand, as the thickness increases, M{sub s} and K{sub u} increase while coercivity decreases, which indicates there is a magnetic dead layer with a thickness of about 1.5?nm at the interfaces. The detailed examination on the surface morphology of the films with various thicknesses shows a complicated film growth process, which can be understood from the relaxation mechanism of the interfacial strain.

Zheng, Y. H., E-mail: elezheng@nus.edu.sg; Lu, H.; Teo, K. L. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Han, G. C. [Data Storage Institute, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117608 (Singapore)

2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Estimation of the aerodynamic roughness length in arid and semi-arid regions over the globe with the ERS scatterometer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of the aerodynamic roughness length in arid and semi-arid regions over the globe 2005. [1] Estimates of the aerodynamic roughness lengths z0 in arid and semi-arid regions: Prigent, C., I. Tegen, F. Aires, B. Marticorena, and M. Zribi (2005), Estimation of the aerodynamic

Aires, Filipe

122

486 IEEE MICROWAVE AND WIRELESS COMPONENTS LETTERS, VOL. 17, NO. 7, JULY 2007 Estimation of Roughness-Induced Power Absorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it to predict the roughness effect on power loss. Index Terms--Power absorption, power spectral density (PSD significant additional power loss that can be detrimental for insertion loss limited designs. We recently interconnect surfaces and use it to estimate corresponding roughness-induced power loss. The 2-D PSD

Tsang, Leung

123

X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from structurally and magnetically rough interfaces in multilayered systems. I. Specular reflectivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray resonant magnetic scattering from structurally and magnetically rough interfaces formulation of x-ray resonant magnetic scattering from rough surfaces and interfaces is given for specular/Fe multilayer. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.224409 PACS number s : 75.70.Cn, 61.10.Kw I. INTRODUCTION X-ray

Haskel, Daniel

124

Electrochemical machining process for forming surface roughness elements on a gas turbine shroud  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The back side recessed cooling surface of a shroud defining in part the hot gas path of a turbine is electrochemically machined to provide surface roughness elements and spaces therebetween to increase the heat transfer coefficient. To accomplish this, an electrode with insulating dielectric portions and non-insulating portions is disposed in opposition to the cooling surface. By passing an electrolyte between the cooling surface and electrode and applying an electrical current between the electrode and a shroud, roughness elements and spaces therebetween are formed in the cooling surface in opposition to the insulating and non-insulating portions of the electrode, hence increasing the surface area and heat transfer coefficient of the shroud.

Lee, Ching-Pang (Cincinnati, OH); Johnson, Robert Alan (Simpsonville, SC); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY); Wang, Hsin-Pang (Rexford, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method and apparatus for thickness measurement using microwaves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The method for measuring the thickness of a material which transmits a detectable amount of microwave radiation includes irradiating the material with coherent microwave radiation tuned over a frequency range. Reflected microwave radiation is detected, the reflected radiation having maxima and minima over the frequency range as a result of coherent interference of microwaves reflected from reflecting surfaces of the material. The thickness of the material is determined from the period of the maxima and minima along with knowledge of the index of refraction of the material.

Woskov, Paul (Bedford, MA) [Bedford, MA; Lamar, David A. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Process for manufacture of thick film hydrogen sensors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thick film process for producing hydrogen sensors capable of sensing down to a one percent concentration of hydrogen in carrier gasses such as argon, nitrogen, and air. The sensor is also suitable to detect hydrogen gas while immersed in transformer oil. The sensor includes a palladium resistance network thick film printed on a substrate, a portion of which network is coated with a protective hydrogen barrier. The process utilizes a sequence of printing of the requisite materials on a non-conductive substrate with firing temperatures at each step which are less than or equal to the temperature at the previous step.

Perdieu, Louisa H. (Overland Park, KS)

2000-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

127

Energy production rates in fluid mixtures of inelastic rough hard spheres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this work is to explore the combined effect of polydispersity and roughness on the partial energy production rates and on the total cooling rate of a granular fluid mixture. We consider a mixture of inelastic rough hard spheres of different number densities, masses, diameters, moments of inertia, and mutual coefficients of normal and tangential restitution. Starting from the first equation of the BBGKY hierarchy, the collisional energy production rates associated with the translational and rotational temperatures ($T_i^\\text{tr}$ and $T_i^\\text{rot}$) are expressed in terms of two-body average values. Next, those average values are estimated by assuming a velocity distribution function based on maximum-entropy arguments, allowing us to express the energy production rates and the total cooling rate in terms of the partial temperatures and the parameters of the mixture. Finally, the results are applied to the homogeneous cooling state of a binary mixture and the influence of inelasticity and roughness on the temperature ratios $T_1^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{rot}$, $T_2^\\text{tr}/T_1^\\text{tr}$, and $T_2^\\text{rot}/T_1^\\text{rot}$ is analyzed.

Andrés Santos; Gilberto M. Kremer; Vicente Garzó

2010-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

X-ray spectra transmitted through Compton-thick absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray spectra transmitted through matter which is optically thick to Compton scattering are computed by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Applications to the BeppoSAX data of the Seyfert 2 galaxy in Circinus, and to the spectral modeling of the Cosmic X-ray Background, are discussed.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

129

LBNL 59017 JArt 1 Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL 59017 JArt 1 Improved Spatial Resolution in Thick, Fully- Depleted CCDs with Enhanced Red developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Because they can be over-depleted, the LBNL measure an rms diffusion of 3.7 ± 0.2 m. Lateral charge diffusion in LBNL CCDs will meet the SNAP

130

Thermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermal barrier coating for high temperature applications, a discrete layer of ceramic material is bondedThermally Induced Stresses in Functionally Graded Thick Tubes Senthil S. Vel and Rajeev Baskiyar method to obtain the temperature, displacements and thermal stresses. In addition to the thermal

Vel, Senthil

131

Ecology of Plants and Light CAM plants have thick,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

orientation to maximize light exposure. Species Adaptations-Sun Solar tracking by leaves increases light1 Ecology of Plants and Light CAM plants have thick, succulent tissues to allow for organic acid and Light Some CAM plants not obligated to just CAM Can use C3 photosynthesis during day if conditions

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

132

Sensing roller for in-process thickness measurement  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for processing materials by sensing roller, in which the sensing roller has a plurality of conductive rings (electrodes) separated by rings of dielectric material. Sensing capacitances or impedances between the electrodes provides information on thicknesses of the materials being processed, location of wires therein, and other like characteristics of the materials. 6 figs.

Novak, J.L.

1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

133

Thru-thickness bending stress distribution at elevated temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the plate??s thickness decreased when the fabrication process was carried out at elevated temperatures. When steel exceeds a strain of 10 to 16 percent during the fabrication process, the plate becomes susceptible to cracking. This strain limit was exceeded...

Christian, Lee Conner

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

134

Through-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the form of bark, wood chips, sawdust, cotton gin trash, rice hulls, and sugar ba- gasse (Kleit et al. 1994. It was found that the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) was positively related to particulate sizeThrough-thickness ultrasonic characterization of wood and agricultural fiber composites Ronnie Y

135

Measurement of Paint Layer Thickness with Photothermal Infrared Radiometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- try [1, 2]. As input for remote control systems, thickness information has to be supplied in realtime. Data acquisition has to be perfomed in a non-contact man- ner. Not only non-destructive and remote a periodical heat source on, respectively within, the sample then we waste a lot of information if only the #12

Louis, Alfred K.

136

The Museum Theorem: Thick Face-Paths and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Museum Theorem: Thick Face-Paths and Hamiltonian-Connectedness in Plane Graphs Xiaoyun Lu #12;Visiting a Museum The Problem: The entrance and exit of a museum are fixed. You insist on visiting room F. The pieces of what you skip should be somehow "small". #12;Visiting a Museum The Problem

West, Douglas B.

137

Abundances of metal-weak thick-disc candidates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High resolution spectra of 5 candidate metal-weak thick-disc stars suggested by Beers & Sommer-Larsen (1995) are analyzed to determine their chemical abundances. The low abundance of all the objects has been confirmed with metallicity reaching [Fe/H]=-2.9. However, for three objects, the astrometric data from the Hipparcos catalogue suggests they are true halo members. The remaining two, for which proper-motion data are not available, may have disc-like kinematics. It is therefore clear that it is useful to address properties of putative metal-weak thick-disc stars only if they possess full kinematic data. For CS 22894-19 the abundance pattern similar to those of typical halo stars is found, suggesting that chemical composition is not a useful discriminant between thick-disc and halo stars. CS 29529-12 is found to be C enhanced with [C/Fe]=+1.0; other chemical peculiarities involve the s process elements: [Sr/Fe]=-0.65 and [Ba/Fe]=+0.62, leading to a high [Ba/Sr] considerably larger than what is found in more metal-rich carbon-rich stars, but similar to LP 706-7 and LP 625-44 discussed by Norris et al (1997a). Hipparcos data have been used to calculate the space velocities of 25 candidate metal-weak thick-disc stars, thus allowing us to identify 3 bona fide members, which support the existence of a metal-poor tail of the thick-disc, at variance with a claim to the contrary by Ryan & Lambert (1995).

P. Bonifacio; M. Centurion; P. Molaro

1999-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

138

Single-layer MoS{sub 2} roughness and sliding friction quenching by interaction with atomically flat substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We experimentally study the surface roughness and the lateral friction force in single-layer MoS{sub 2} crystals deposited on different substrates: SiO{sub 2}, mica, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Roughness and sliding friction measurements are performed by atomic force microscopy. We find a strong dependence of the MoS{sub 2} roughness on the underlying substrate material, being h-BN the substrate which better preserves the flatness of the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The lateral friction also lowers as the roughness decreases, and attains its lowest value for MoS{sub 2} flakes on h-BN substrates. However, it is still higher than for the surface of a bulk MoS{sub 2} crystal, which we attribute to the deformation of the flake due to competing tip-to-flake and flake-to-substrate interactions.

Quereda, J. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Castellanos-Gomez, A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Agraït, N. [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto Madrileño de Estudios Avanzados en Nanociencia, IMDEA-Nanociencia, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Rubio-Bollinger, G., E-mail: gabino.rubio@uam.es [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid E-28049 (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Campus de Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

139

Decline in ice thickness from sub data 1 10/16/07 The decline in arctic sea-ice thickness: separating the spatial, annual, and1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Decline in ice thickness from sub data 1 10/16/07 The decline in arctic sea-ice thickness/14/07 & 10/16/079 10 11 #12;Decline in ice thickness from sub data 2 10/16/07 Abstract11 Naval submarines have collected operational data of sea-ice draft (90% of thickness) in the12 Arctic Ocean since 1958

Percival, Don

140

ARM: 1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

1-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

ARM: 10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Newsom, Rob; Goldsmith, John

142

Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical simulations of welds of thick steel pieces of interest for the thermonuclear fusion ITER machine

Carmignani, B

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Anomalous scaling and super-roughness in the growth of CdTe polycrystalline films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CdTe films grown on glass substrates covered by fluorine doped tin oxide by Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) were studied through the interface dynamical scaling theory. Direct measures of the dynamical exponent revealed an intrinsically anomalous scaling characterized by a global roughness exponent $\\alpha$ distinct from the local one (the Hurst exponent $H$), previously reported [Ferreira \\textit{et al}., Appl. Phys. Lett. \\textbf{88}, 244103 (2006)]. A variety of scaling behaviors was obtained with varying substrate temperature. In particular, a transition from a intrinsically anomalous scaling regime with $H\

Angélica S. Mata; Silvio C. Ferreira, Jr.; Igor R. B. Ribeiro; Sukarno O. Ferreira

2011-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

144

EFFECTS OF GRAPHITE SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON BYPASS FLOW COMPUTATIONS FOR AN HTGR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bypass flow in a prismatic high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) occurs between graphite blocks as they sit side by side in the core. Bypass flow is not intentionally designed to occur in the reactor, but is present because of tolerances in manufacture, imperfect installation and expansion and shrinkage of the blocks from heating and irradiation. It is desired to increase the knowledge of the effects of such flow, which has been estimated to be as much as 20% of the total helium coolant flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations can provide estimates of the scale and impacts of bypass flow. Previous CFD calculations have examined the effects of bypass gap width, level and distribution of heat generation and effects of shrinkage. The present contribution examines the effects of graphite surface roughness on the bypass flow for different relative roughness factors on three gap widths. Such calculations should be validated using specific bypass flow measurements. While such experiments are currently underway for the specific reference prismatic HTGR design for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) program of the U. S. Dept. of Energy, the data are not yet available. To enhance confidence in the present calculations, wall shear stress and heat transfer results for several turbulence models and their associated wall treatments are first compared for flow in a single tube that is representative of a coolant channel in the prismatic HTGR core. The results are compared to published correlations for wall shear stress and Nusselt number in turbulent pipe flow. Turbulence models that perform well are then used to make bypass flow calculations in a symmetric onetwelfth sector of a prismatic block that includes bypass flow. The comparison of shear stress and Nusselt number results with published correlations constitutes a partial validation of the CFD model. Calculations are also compared to ones made previously using a different CFD code. Results indicate that increasing surface roughness increases the maximum fuel and helium temperatures as do increases in gap width. However, maximum coolant temperature variation due to increased gap width is not changed by surface roughness.

Rich Johnson; Yu-Hsin Tung; Hiroyuki Sato

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Turbulent Friction in Rough Pipes and the Energy Spectrum of the Phenomenological Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The classical experiments on turbulent friction in rough pipes were performed by J. Nikuradse in the 1930's. Seventy years later, they continue to defy theory. Here we model Nikuradse's experiments using the phenomenological theory of Kolmog\\'orov, a theory that is widely thought to be applicable only to highly idealized flows. Our results include both the empirical scalings of Blasius and Strickler, and are otherwise in minute qualitative agreement with the experiments; they suggest that the phenomenological theory may be relevant to other flows of practical interest; and they unveil the existence of close ties between two milestones of experimental and theoretical turbulence.

G. Gioia; Pinaki Chakraborty

2005-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

146

Investigation of wall friction in noncircular ducts with a rough liner  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Civil ~Rn i , I nd , p. 166, P h Ay, 1DDD 2. R k'*1, R M * i, M*ch d I' G 1 ti A~n 1 Viley and. Sons, Inc. , New York, p. 66, 1950, H *I ci er, P. G. , ~atd, P~, d Ai. ~G* d't'* 19: 127(19rr. 7). O; Johnaon, Guy, Jr. , Determination oi' the ~pandit...INVESTIGATION OZ 7('ALL FRICTION IN NONCIHCULAR DUCTS VIITH A ROUGH LINEH A Thesis John Charles Tyler Submitted. to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

Tyler, John Charles

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Terahertz inline wall thickness monitoring system for plastic pipe extrusion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conventional and commercially available inline wall thickness monitoring systems for pipe extrusion are usually based on ultrasonic or x-ray technology. Disadvantages of ultrasonic systems are the usual need of water as a coupling media and the high damping in thick walled or foamed pipes. For x-ray systems special safety requirements have to be taken into account because of the ionizing radiation. The terahertz (THz) technology offers a novel approach to solve these problems. THz waves have many properties which are suitable for the non-destructive testing of plastics. The absorption of electrical isolators is typically very low and the radiation is non-ionizing in comparison to x-rays. Through the electromagnetic origin of the THz waves they can be used for contact free measurements. Foams show a much lower absorption in contrast to acoustic waves. The developed system uses THz pulses which are generated by stimulating photoconductive switches with femtosecond laser pulses. The time of flight of THz pulses can be determined with a resolution in the magnitude of several ten femtoseconds. Hence the thickness of an object like plastic pipes can be determined with a high accuracy by measuring the time delay between two reflections on materials interfaces e.g. at the pipe's inner and outer surface, similar to the ultrasonic technique. Knowing the refractive index of the sample the absolute layer thickness from the transit time difference can be calculated easily. This method in principle also allows the measurement of multilayer systems and the characterization of foamed pipes.

Hauck, J., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Stich, D., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Heidemeyer, P., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Bastian, M., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de; Hochrein, T., E-mail: j.hauck@skz.de, E-mail: d.stich@skz.de, E-mail: p.heidemeyer@skz.de, E-mail: m.bastian@skz.de, E-mail: t.hochrein@skz.de [SKZ - German Plastics Center, Wuerzburg (Germany)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Turbine blade having a constant thickness airfoil skin  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A turbine blade is provided for a gas turbine comprising: a support structure comprising a base defining a root of the blade and a framework extending radially outwardly from the base, and an outer skin coupled to the support structure framework. The skin has a generally constant thickness along substantially the entire radial extent thereof. The framework and the skin define an airfoil of the blade.

Marra, John J

2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

149

Alternatives to lumber and plywood in home construction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The diminished supply and unstable price of lumber is compelling designers, builders, and developers to explore alternative materials for residential construction. The report discusses several commercially available alternative materials or building systems that may be used in framing and sheathing, including: engineered wood products; laminated fiberboard that can be used for sheathing walls; light-gauge structural steel components for floors, walls and roof systems; foam core structure sandwich panels for walls and roofs; and a variety of concrete and concrete block systems, many of which include insulation material.

Lund, E.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Vibration of circular plates, of several thicknesses, with three supports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ o ~ ~ i Prccedure and DeeoriPt'alen Of APPSXat'aua ~ ~ e ~ a ~ 0 ~ ~ i EmPirioal Ccrrelabicn Of Dataa ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ~ 01 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i Kathemat, ical Theory of Thin Plates ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 ~ a ~ ~ ~ Heeultaa ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a... (cps) e M = symmetric mode, ie. 1, 2, 3, and 4. h= thickness of circular plate, in, Vhen there are mox'e than-thoro variables involved in the x esult, s of an experimental research, an empirical xelat, ionsh1p concerning the several variables may...

Ballentine, John Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

151

Thick brane models in generalized theories of gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work deals with thick braneworld models, in an environment where the Ricci scalar is changed to accommodate the addition of two extra terms, one depending on the Ricci scalar itself, and the other, which takes into account the trace of the energy-momentum tensor of the scalar field that sources the braneworld scenario. We suppose that the scalar field engenders standard kinematics, and we show explicitly that the gravity sector of this new braneworld scenario is linearly stable. We illustrate the general results investigating two distinct models, focusing on how the brane profile is changed in the modified theories.

Bazeia, D; Menezes, R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

A comparison of thick film and thin film traffic stripes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Striys. . . Pigmented Bitusmn Stripes . Asphalt %uilt-Upa Striye vith Pigmented Portland Cement Mortar Cover Course 38 . ~ 41 Thin Film Stripes Used for Comparison Results of Comparing Thick Film Stripes and Thin Film Paint Stripes . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 43... was aspbaltio oonorets. The pavement in Test Areas 2y 3p and 4 vas portland cesmnh ooncrete, Two test areas (3 and 4) vere located in such manner as to provide uninterrupted flow of traffic over tbs entire length of the test area. The other two test areas (1...

Keese, Charles J

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Improved detection of rough defects for ultrasonic NDE inspections based on finite element modeling of elastic wave scattering  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Defects which posses rough surfaces greatly affect ultrasonic wave scattering behaviour, often reducing the magnitude of reflected signals. Ultrasonic inspections rely upon this response for detecting and sizing flaws. For safety critical components reliable characterisation is crucial. Therefore, providing an accurate means to predict reductions in signal amplitude is essential. An extension of Kirchhoff theory has formed the basis for the UK power industry inspection justifications. However, it is widely recognised that these predictions are pessimistic owing to analytical approximations. A numerical full field modelling approach does not fall victim to such limitations. Here, a Finite Element model is used to aid in setting a non-conservative reporting threshold during the inspection of a large pressure vessel forging that might contain embedded rough defects. The ultrasonic response from multiple rough surfaces defined by the same statistical class is calculated for normal incident compression waves. The approach is validated by comparing coherent scattering with predictions made by Kirchhoff theory. At lower levels of roughness excellent agreement is observed, whilst higher values confirm the pessimism of Kirchhoff theory. Furthermore, the mean amplitude in the specular direction is calculated. This represents the information obtained during an inspection, indicating that reductions due to increasing roughness are significantly less than the coherent component currently being used.

Pettit, J. R. [Rolls-Royce Nuclear, PO BOX 2000, Derby, UK, DE21 7XX and Research Centre for NDE, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Walker, A. [Rolls-Royce Nuclear, PO BOX 2000, Derby DE21 7XX (United Kingdom); Lowe, M. J. S. [Research Centre for NDE, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

154

Organic photosensitive cells grown on rough electrode with nano-scale morphology control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An optoelectronic device and a method for fabricating the optoelectronic device includes a first electrode disposed on a substrate, an exposed surface of the first electrode having a root mean square roughness of at least 30 nm and a height variation of at least 200 nm, the first electrode being transparent. A conformal layer of a first organic semiconductor material is deposited onto the first electrode by organic vapor phase deposition, the first organic semiconductor material being a small molecule material. A layer of a second organic semiconductor material is deposited over the conformal layer. At least some of the layer of the second organic semiconductor material directly contacts the conformal layer. A second electrode is deposited over the layer of the second organic semiconductor material. The first organic semiconductor material is of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to the second organic semiconductor material, which is of the other material type.

Yang, Fan (Piscataway, NJ); Forrest, Stephen R. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2011-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

155

Light scattering by a rough surface of human skin. 1. The luminance factor of reflected light  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Based on the analytical solution of Maxwell's equations, we have studied the angular structure of the luminance factor of light reflected by the rough skin surface with large-scale relief elements, illuminated by a directed radiation beam incident at an arbitrary angle inside or outside the medium. The parameters of the surface inhomogeneities are typical of human skin. The calculated angular dependences are interpreted from the point of view of the angular distribution function of micro areas. The results obtained can be used for solving direct and inverse problems in biomedical optics, in particular for determining the depth of light penetration into a biological tissue, for studying the light action spectra on tissue chromophores under the in vivo conditions, for developing diagnostic methods of structural and biophysical parameters of a medium, and for optimising the mechanisms of interaction of light with biological tissues under their noninvasive irradiation through skin. (biomedical optics)

Barun, V V [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, Minsk (Belarus); Ivanov, A P [B.I.Stepanov Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Water-waves modes trapped in a canal by a body with the rough surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem about a body in a three dimensional infinite channel is considered in the framework of the theory of linear water-waves. The body has a rough surface characterized by a small parameter $\\epsilon>0$ while the distance of the body to the water surface is also of order $\\epsilon$. Under a certain symmetry assumption, the accumulation effect for trapped mode frequencies is established, namely, it is proved that, for any given $d>0$ and integer $N>0$, there exists $\\epsilon(d,N)>0$ such that the problem has at least $N$ eigenvalues in the interval $(0,d)$ of the continuous spectrum in the case $\\epsilon\\in(0,\\epsilon(d,N)) $. The corresponding eigenfunctions decay exponentially at infinity, have finite energy, and imply trapped modes.

G. Cardone; T. Durante; S. A. Nazarov

2009-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

157

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

158

Light emitting diode with high aspect ratio submicron roughness for light extraction and methods of forming  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The surface morphology of an LED light emitting surface is changed by applying a reactive ion etch (RIE) process to the light emitting surface. High aspect ratio, submicron roughness is formed on the light emitting surface by transferring a thin film metal hard-mask having submicron patterns to the surface prior to applying a reactive ion etch process. The submicron patterns in the metal hard-mask can be formed using a low cost, commercially available nano-patterned template which is transferred to the surface with the mask. After subsequently binding the mask to the surface, the template is removed and the RIE process is applied for time duration sufficient to change the morphology of the surface. The modified surface contains non-symmetric, submicron structures having high aspect ratio which increase the efficiency of the device.

Li, Ting

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

159

The fragmentation of expanding shells II: Thickness matters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study analytically the development of gravitational instability in an expanding shell having finite thickness. We consider three models for the radial density profile of the shell: (i) an analytic uniform-density model, (ii) a semi-analytic model obtained by numerical solution of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, and (iii) a 3D hydrodynamic simulation. We show that all three profiles are in close agreement, and this allows us to use the first model to describe fragments in the radial direction of the shell. We then use non-linear equations describing the time-evolution of a uniform oblate spheroid to derive the growth rates of shell fragments having different sizes. This yields a dispersion relation which depends on the shell thickness, and hence on the pressure confining the shell. We compare this dispersion relation with the dispersion relation obtained using the standard thin-shell analysis, and show that, if the confining pressure is low, only large fragments are unstable. On the other hand, if the...

Wunsch, Richard; Palous, Jan; Whitworth, Anthony P

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Oil shale ash-layer thickness and char combustion kinetics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Hot-Recycled-Solids (HRS) oil shale retort is being studied at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In the HRS process, raw shale is heated by mixing it with burnt retorted shale. Retorted shale is oil shale which has been heated in an oxygen deficient atmosphere to pyrolyze organic carbon, as kerogen into oil, gas, and a nonvolatile carbon rich residue, char. In the HRS retort process, the char in the spent shale is subsequently exposed to an oxygen environment. Some of the char, starting on the outer surface of the shale particle, is burned, liberating heat. In the HRS retort, the endothermic pyrolysis step is supported by heat from the exothermic char combustion step. The rate of char combustion is controlled by three resistances; the resistance of oxygen mass transfer through the gas film surrounding the solid particle, resistance to mass transfer through a ash layer which forms on the outside of the solid particles as the char is oxidized and the resistance due to the intrinsic chemical reaction rate of char and oxygen. In order to estimate the rate of combustion of the char in a typical oil shale particle, each of these resistances must be accurately estimated. We begin by modeling the influence of ash layer thickness on the over all combustion rate of oil shale char. We then present our experimental measurements of the ash layer thickness of oil shale which has been processed in the HRS retort.

Aldis, D.F.; Singleton, M.F.; Watkins, B.E.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.

1992-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Surface Roughness of Stainless Steel Bender Mirrors for FocusingSoft X-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have used polished stainless steel as a mirror substrate to provide focusing of soft x-rays in grazing incidence reflection. The substrate is bent to an elliptical shape with large curvature and high stresses in the substrate require a strong elastic material. Conventional material choices of silicon or of glass will not withstand the stress required. The use of steel allows the substrates to be polished and installed flat, using screws in tapped holes. The ultra-high-vacuum bender mechanism is motorized and computer controlled. These mirrors are used to deliver focused beams of soft x-rays onto the surface of a sample for experiments at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). They provide an illumination field that can be as small as the mirror demagnification allows, for localized study, and can be enlarged, under computer control,for survey measurements over areas of the surface up to several millimeters. The critical issue of the quality of the steel surface, polished and coated with gold, which limits the minimum achievable focused spot size is discussed in detail. Comparison is made to a polished, gold coated, electroless nickel surface, which provides a smoother finish. Surface measurements are presented as power spectral densities, as a function of spatial frequency. The surface height distributions measured with an interferometric microscope, and complemented by atomic force microscope measurements, are used to compute power spectral densities and then to evaluate the surface roughness. The effects of roughness in reducing the specular reflectivity are verified by soft x-ray measurements.

Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Howells, Malcolm R.; Irick, Steve C.; MacDowell, Alastair A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Salmassi,Farhad; Warwick, Tony; Metz, James P.; Tonnessen, Thomas W.

2005-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

162

Digital in-line holography in thick optical systems: application to visualization in pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Digital in-line holography in thick optical systems: application to visualization in pipes N@coria.fr In this paper we apply digital in-line holography to image opaque objects through a thick plano-concave pipe to deal with various pipe shape and thickness and compensates for the lack of versatility of classical DIH

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

163

Sea-ice thickness measurement based on the dispersion of ice swell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-azimuth angles. The parameterization, that includes finding the best modeled ice thickness, is performed by usingSea-ice thickness measurement based on the dispersion of ice swell David Marsana) ISTerre, CNRS propagating in the Arctic sea ice cover is exploited in order to locally measure the ice thickness

164

Application of FLake for the prediction of ice thickness for inland waters in the Netherlands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Application of FLake for the prediction of ice thickness for inland waters in the Netherlands Cisco in the Netherlands. In cold spells numerous ditches, canals and lakes get frozen and many people go out for ice in the Netherlands. in ice thickness predictions. KNMI issues ice thickness predictions, based on a model of De Bruin

Stoffelen, Ad

165

Optically Thick Outflows of Supercritical Accretion Discs: Radiative Diffusion Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Highly supercritical accretion discs are probable sources of dense optically thick axisymmetric winds. We introduce a new approach based on diffusion approximation radiative transfer in a funnel geometry and obtain an analytical solution for the energy density distribution inside the wind assuming that all the mass, momentum and energy are injected well inside the spherization radius. This allows to derive the spectrum of emergent emission for various inclination angles. We show that self-irradiation effects play an important role altering the temperature of the outcoming radiation by about 20% and the apparent X-ray luminosity by a factor of 2-3. The model has been successfully applied to two ULXs. The basic properties of the high ionization HII-regions found around some ULXs are also easily reproduced in our assumptions.

P. Abolmasov; S. Karpov; Taro Kotani

2008-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

166

Fracture toughness of thick section dissimilar electron beam weld joints  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microstructural investigations as well as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness test based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics were performed on single pass, full penetration similar and dissimilar electron beam (EB) welds of 40 mm thick 316L type austenitic steel and high alloyed fine tempered martensitic 9Cr 1Mo Nb V (P91 -ASTM A213) steel. The latter modified steel has been developed to fill up the gap between 12Cr steel and austenitic stainless steels with respect to the high temperature properties and better weldability. Furthermore, it shows a small thermal expansion coefficient and is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking like the austenitic steel. The weldment properties were evaluated by microstructural analysis, microhardness, Charpy V- notch impact, and by newly developed flat microtensile specimens (0.5 mm thick). The dissimilar EB weld metal and HAZ of P91 steel has been shown to be microstructurally and mechanically distinct from both austenitic and martenistic parent metals. The use of microsized rectangular tensile specimens provides unique solution to the problem of the mechanical property determination of the narrow EB weld joint. The HAZ of the 9Cr1Mo steel exhibits extremely poor CTOD toughness properties in as-welded condition at room temperature. The CTOD values obtained were believed to be represent the intrinsic property of this zone, since the distance of the crack tip to the austenitic steel part was too large to receive a stress relaxation effect from low strength side on the crack tip (by accommodating the applied strains in the high toughness, lower strength 316L plate).

Kocak, M.; Junghans, E.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Thick Pixelated CZT Detectors With Isolated Steering Grids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the possibility to improve the performance of 0.5 cm thick Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors with the help of steering grids on the anode side of the detectors. Steering grids can improve the energy resolution of CZT detectors by enhancing the small pixel effect; furthermore, they can increase their detection efficiency by steering electrons to the anode pixels which otherwise would drift to the area between pixels. Previously, the benefit of steering grids had been compromised by additional noise associated with currents between the steering grids and the anode pixels. We use thin film deposition techniques to isolate the steering grid from the CZT substrate by a 150 nm thick layer of the isolator Aluminiumoxide. While the thin layer does not affect the beneficial effect of the steering grid on the weighting potentials and the electric field inside the detector, it suppresses the currents between the steering grid and the anode pixels. In this contribution, we present first results from a 2 x 2 x 0.5 cm CZT detector with 8 x 8 pixels that we tested before and after deposition of an isolated steering grid. The steering grid improves the 662 keV energy resolution of the detector by a factor of 1.3 (from about 2% to about 1.5%), while not reducing the detection efficiency. To gain further insights into the detector response in the region between pixels, we measured energy spectra with a collimated Cs137 source. The collimator measurements can be used to enhance our understanding of energy spectra measured under flood illumination of the detectors.

I. Jung; A. B. Garson; J. S. Perkins; H. Krawczynski; J. Matteson; R. T. Skelton; A. Burger; M. Groza

2005-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

168

Fringe biasing: A variance reduction technique for optically thick meshes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fringe biasing is a stratified sampling scheme applicable to Monte Carlo thermal radiation transport codes. The thermal emission source in optically thick cells is partitioned into separate contributions from the cell interiors (where the likelihood of the particles escaping the cells is virtually zero) and the 'fringe' regions close to the cell boundaries. Thermal emission in the cell interiors can now be modelled with fewer particles, the remaining particles being concentrated in the fringes so that they are more likely to contribute to the energy exchange between cells. Unlike other techniques for improving the efficiency in optically thick regions (such as random walk and discrete diffusion treatments), fringe biasing has the benefit of simplicity, as the associated changes are restricted to the sourcing routines with the particle tracking routines being unaffected. This paper presents an analysis of the potential for variance reduction achieved from employing the fringe biasing technique. The aim of this analysis is to guide the implementation of this technique in Monte Carlo thermal radiation codes, specifically in order to aid the choice of the fringe width and the proportion of particles allocated to the fringe (which are interrelated) in multi-dimensional simulations, and to confirm that the significant levels of variance reduction achieved in simulations can be understood by studying the behaviour for simple test cases. The variance reduction properties are studied for a single cell in a slab geometry purely absorbing medium, investigating the accuracy of the scalar flux and current tallies on one of the interfaces with the surrounding medium. (authors)

Smedley-Stevenson, R. P. [AWE PLC, Aldermaston Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

EHL OIL FILM THICKNESS UNDER ROLLING-SLIDING CONTACT 2 W  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oil film Abstract: The Elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) minimum oil film thickness is theoretically investigated under rolling with sliding contact. The effects of contact pressure, rolling speed and slip ratio on the EHL minimum oil film thickness are calculated numerically. It is found that for a range of contact pressure from 0.5 to 3.5 GPa, the minimum oil film thickness gradually decreases with the increase in contact pressure. As the rolling speed increases from 3500 to 4500 rpm, oil film thickness is increased. It is also found that the oil film thickness is not much influenced by the slip ratio. 1

D. M. Nuruzzaman; M. A. A. Sheikh

170

Variation of urban momentum roughness length with land use in the upwind source area, as observed in two UK cities.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in two UK cities. G.G.Rooney (gabriel.rooney@metoffice.com), I.D.Longley and J.F.Barlow Met Office Field fraction of different cover types, Birmingham 20 4 roughness lengths against wind direction, Salford 21 5 in building wakes to its blended final state at some height above the urban canopy, for a real city, tests

Reading, University of

171

Linear Algebra Research Project Rough Draft Nick Davis Camera Transformations in OpenGL ES 2.0  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Linear Algebra Research Project Rough Draft Nick Davis Camera Transformations in OpenGL ES 2.0 Since the advent of the analog computer the power of visual display has played an integral part graphical output, including components designed solely for calculating graphics (Graphics Processing Units

Marzuola, Jeremy

172

Lattice Boltzmann simulations in microfluidics: probing the no-slip boundary condition in hydrophobic, rough, and surface nanobubble laden microchannels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this contribution we review recent efforts on investigations of the effect of (apparent) boundary slip by utilizing lattice Boltzmann simulations. We demonstrate the applicability of the method to treat fundamental questions in microfluidics by investigating fluid flow in hydrophobic and rough microchannels as well as over surfaces covered by nano- or microscale gas bubbles.

Jens Harting; Christian Kunert; Jari Hyväluoma

2009-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) Cost Estimate Summary (Leveraged NDC Case).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, based on leveraging a fully funded, Sandia executed NDC Modernization project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

Harris, James M.; Prescott, Ryan; Dawson, Jericah M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

An atomic force microscopy-based method for line edge roughness measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With the constant decrease of semiconductor device dimensions, line edge roughness (LER) becomes one of the most important sources of device variability and needs to be controlled below 2 nm for the future technological nodes of the semiconductor roadmap. LER control at the nanometer scale requires accurate measurements. We introduce a technique for LER measurement based upon the atomic force microscope (AFM). In this technique, the sample is tilted at about 45 Degree-Sign and feature sidewalls are scanned along their length with the AFM tip to obtain three-dimensional images. The small radius of curvature of the tip together with the low noise level of a laboratory AFM result in high resolution images. Half profiles and LER values on all the height of the sidewalls are extracted from the 3D images using a procedure that we developed. The influence of sample angle variations on the measurements is shown to be small. The technique is applied to the study of a full pattern transfer into a simplified gate stack. The images obtained are qualitatively consistent with cross-section scanning electron microscopy images and the average LER values agree with that obtained by critical dimension scanning electron microscopy. In addition to its high resolution, this technique presents several advantages such as the ability to image the foot of photoresist lines, complex multi-layer stacks regardless of the materials, and deep re-entrant profiles.

Fouchier, M.; Pargon, E.; Bardet, B. [CNRS/UJF-Grenoble1/CEA LTM, 17 avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

175

Systematic analysis of Persson's contact mechanics theory of randomly rough elastic surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We systematically check explicit and implicit assumptions of Persson's contact mechanics theory. It casts the evolution of the pressure distribution ${\\rm Pr}(p)$ with increasing resolution of surface roughness as a diffusive process, in which resolution plays the role of time. The tested key assumptions of the theory are: (a) the diffusion coefficient is independent of pressure $p$, (b) the diffusion process is drift-free at any value of $p$, (c) the point $p=0$ acts as an absorbing barrier, i.e., once a point falls out of contact, it never reenters again, (d) the Fourier component of the elastic energy is only populated if the appropriate wave vector is resolved, and (e) it no longer changes when even smaller wavelengths are resolved. Using high-resolution numerical simulations, we quantify deviations from these approximations and find quite significant discrepancies in some cases. For example, the drift becomes substantial for small values of $p$, which typically represent points in real space close to a contact line. On the other hand, there is a significant flux of points reentering contact. These and other identified deviations cancel each other to a large degree, resulting in an overall excellent description for contact area, contact geometry, and gap distribution functions. Similar fortuitous error cancellations cannot be guaranteed under different circumstances, for instance when investigating rubber friction. The results of the simulations may provide guidelines for a systematic improvement of the theory.

Wolf B. Dapp; Nikolay Prodanov; Martin H. Müser

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

176

Lithium in very metal poor thick disk stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A search for lithium is performed on seven metal poor dwarfs with metallicities ranging from [Fe/H]=-1.5 down to [Fe/H]=-3.0 but showing disk-like kinematics. These stars belong to the metal poor tail of the Galactic thick disk and they may be also the result of an accretion event (Beers and Sommer-Larsen 1995). The Li 6707.8 A line is present in all the seven dwarfs. The weighted average of the Li abundance for the stars is A(Li)=2.20 (+/-0.06) and is consistent within the errors with the plateau Li abundance of A(Li)=2.24(+/- 0.012) found in genuine halo stars in the same range of metallicities (Bonifacio and Molaro 1997). One of the stars, CS 22182-24, shows somewhat lower Li abundance (A(Li)=1.6(+/-0.40)) and is a candidate to being a Li-poor star. Whether this group of stars belongs to the oldest stars in the disk or to the old population of an external galaxy accreted by the Milky Way, the present observations provide support to the universality of a pre-Galactic Li abundance as is observed in the Galactic halo stars.

P. Molaro; P. Bonifacio; L. Pasquini

1997-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

177

Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of wood-framed walls and mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation on the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits, including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased airtightness and improved water management. For thick layers of exterior insulation (more than 1.5 in.), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. Although the approach has proven effective, there is significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved in the development of the vertical displacement resistance capacity. In addition, the long-term in-service performance of the system has been questioned due to potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of the cladding and effects of varying environmental conditions. In addition, the current International Building Code (IBC) and International Residential Code (IRC) do not have a provision that specifically allows this assembly.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Rotary union for use with ultrasonic thickness measuring probe  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A rotary union for rotatably supporting an ultrasonic probe operable to nondestructively measure the thickness of steam generator tubes to determine the amount of corrosion experienced by the tubes includes a stationary body having a bore therethrough and an outlet drain, and a fitting rotatably mounted within the upper end of the body. The fitting has a bore aligned with the bore of the body. An electrical cable positioned within a water supply tube in an annular arrangement passes through the bore of the body and the bore of the fitting. This annular arrangement, in turn, is positioned within a connector element which extends outwardly from the fitting bore and is connected to the ultrasonic probe. An elastomeric lower bushing seals the annular arrangement to the lower end of the rotary union body and an elastomeric upper bushing seals the connector element to the fitting to permit the connector element and the ultrasonic probe connected thereto to rotate with the fitting relative to the body. The lower and upper bushings permit water to be passed through the annular arrangement and into the ultrasonic probe and thereafter discharged between the annular arrangement and the connector element to the outlet drain of the rotary union body. 5 figs.

Nachbar, H.D.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Colloid deposition on non-ideal porous media: The influences of collector shape and roughness on the single-collector efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Colloid deposition on non-ideal porous media: The influences of collector shape and roughness on the single-collector efficiency James E. Saiers School of Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven changes in mineral-grain shape and surface roughness influence the single-collector contact efficiency (h

Saiers, James

180

Effects of grit roughness and pitch oscillations on the NACA 4415 airfoil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A NACA 4415 airfoil model was tested in The Ohio State University Aeronautical and Astronautical Research Laboratory 3 x 5 subsonic wind tunnel under steady state and unsteady conditions. The test defined baseline conditions for steady state angles of attack from {minus}10{degree} to +40{degree} and examined unsteady behavior by oscillating the model about its pitch axis for three mean angles, three frequencies, and two amplitudes. For all cases, Reynolds numbers of 0.75, 1, 1.25, and 1.5 million were used. In addition, these were repeated after the application of leading edge grit roughness (LEGR) to determine contamination effects on the airfoil performance. Steady state results of the NACA 4415 testing at Reynolds number of 1.25 million showed a baseline maximum lift coefficient of 1.30 at 12.3{degree} angle of attack. The application of LEGR reduced the maximum lift coefficient by 20% and increased the 0.0090 minimum drag coefficient value by 62%. The zero lift pitching moment of {minus}0.0967 showed a 13% reduction in magnitude to {minus}0.0842 with LEGR applied. Data were also obtained for two pitch oscillation amplitudes: {+-}5.5{degree} and {+-}10{degree}. The larger amplitude consistently gave a higher maximum lift coefficient than the smaller amplitude, and both unsteady maximum lift coefficients were greater than the steady state values. Stall is delayed on the airfoil while the angle of attack is increasing, thereby causing an increase in maximum lift coefficient. A hysteresis behavior was exhibited for all the unsteady test cases. The hysteresis loops were larger for the higher reduced frequencies and for the larger amplitude oscillations. As in the steady case, the effect of LEGR in the unsteady case was to reduce the lift coefficient at high angles of attack. In addition, with LEGR, the hysteresis behavior persisted into lower angles of attack than for the clean case.

Hoffmann, M.J.; Reuss Ramsay, R.; Gregorek, G.M. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Thin-thick hydrogen target for nuclear physics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In spectroscopic studies of unstable nuclei, hydrogen targets are of key importance. The CHyMENE Project aims to provide to the nuclear physics community a thin and pure solid windowless hydrogen or deuterium target. CHyMENE project must respond to this request for the production of solid Hydrogen. The solid hydrogen target is produced in a continuous flow (1 cm/s) by an extrusion technique (developed with the PELIN laboratory) in a vacuum chamber. The shape of the target is determined by the design of the nozzle at the extrusion process. For the purpose, the choice is a rectangular shape with a width of 10 mm and a thickness in the range of 30-50 microns necessary for the physics objectives. The cryostat is equipped with a GM Cryocooler with sufficient power for the solidification of the hydrogen in the lower portion of the extruder. In the higher part of the cryostat, the hydrogen gas is first liquefied and partially solidified. It is then compressed at 100 bars in the cooled extruder before expulsion of the film through the nozzle at the center of the reaction vacuum chamber. After the previous step, the solid hydrogen ribbon falls by gravity into a dedicated chamber where it sublimes and the gas is pumped and evacuated in a exhaust line. This paper deals with the design of the cryostat with its equipment, with the sizing of the thermal bridge (Aluminum and copper), with the results regarding the contact resistance as well as with the vacuum computations of the reaction and recovery hydrogen gas chambers.

Gheller, J.-M.; Juster, F.-P.; Authelet, G. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SACM, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Vinyar, I. [PELIN Limited Liability Company 27 A, Gzhatskaya Str, office 103 St. Petersbourg 195220 (Russian Federation); Relland, J. [CEA Saclay, Irfu/SIS, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France); Commeaux, C. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, campus Universitaire-Bat 103, 91406 Orsay cedex (France)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

An experimental investigation of silicon wafer surface roughness and its effect on the full strength of plated metals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plated silicon wafers with surface roughness ranging from 0.4 to 130 microinches were subjected to tensile pull strength tests. Electroless Ni/electroless Cu/electroplated Cu and electroless Ni/electroplated Cu were the two types of plate contacts tested. It was found that smoother surfaces had higher pull strength than rougher, chemically etched surfaces. The presence of the electroless Cu layer was found to be important to adhesion. The mode of fracture of the contact as it left the silicon was studied, and it was found that in almost all cases separation was due to fracture of the bulk silicon phase. The correlation between surface roughness and mode of contact failure is presented and interpreted.

Spiers, G.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Atomic intermixing and interface roughness in short-period InAs/GaSb superlattices for infrared photodetectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A set of advanced characterization methods, including high-resolution X-ray diffraction (measurements and simulations), cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy is applied to quantify the interface roughness and atomic intermixing (in both cation and anion sub-lattices) in short period (6–7?nm) InAs/GaSb superlattices intended for mid-wavelength (M) and long-wavelength (L) infrared detectors. The undesired atomic intermixing and interface roughness in the L-samples were found to be considerably lower than in the M-samples. In all specimens, anion intermixing is much higher than that in the cation sub-lattice. Possible origins of these findings are discussed.

Ashuach, Y.; Lakin, E.; Kaufmann, Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Saguy, C. [Solid State Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zolotoyabko, E., E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Solid State Institute, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

2014-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

184

Coating thickness measurement by XRF in vacuum strip steel metallizing plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Devised for use in vacuum equipment of PVD strip steel coaters is a multichannel counting technique for the continuous XRF measurement of the coating thickness. This XRF coating thickness gage is used in a batch-type strip steel coater. It measures the thickness of single-side, double-side and alloy coatings (element contents included). The new XRF method operates without etalons. It is also possible to measure adjacent elements in the periodic law of chemical elements without difficulty. With only minor deviations from the nominal value the new XRF measuring system allows to keep the coating thickness practically constant.

Wenzel, D. [Von Ardenne Anlagentechnik GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Esche, H.J.; Pilz, J. [Amtec AnalysenmeBtechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

185

Thick-Target Neutron Yield from the 19F(alpha,n) Reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thick-target neutron yields from the 19F(alpha,n) reaction are reported for E(alpha) = 3.5 - 10.0 MeV.

E. B. Norman; T. E. Chupp; K. T. Lesko; G. L. Woodruff; P. J. Grant

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Antarctica (MOA) image map: Digital media, National Snow andmodel of Antarctica: Digital media, National Snow and IceThickness, 2009–2011: Digital media, NASA Distributed Active

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Development of the Robotic Touch foot Sensor for 2D walking Robot, for Studying Rough Terrain Locomotion By HUNWOO LEE Submitted to the graduate degree program in Mechanical Engineering and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas... ________________________________ Professor Robert Umholtz Date Defended: June 5, 2012 ii The Thesis Committee for HUNWOO LEE certifies that this is the approved version of the following thesis: Development of the Robotic Touch Foot Sensor for 2D Walking Robot...

Lee, Hunwoo

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

ARM: 10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

10-minute TEMPORARY Raman Lidar: aerosol extinction profiles and aerosol optical thickness, from first Ferrare algorithm

Sivaraman, Chitra; Flynn, Connor

189

JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. ???, XXXX, DOI:10.1029/, Smoluchowski Coagulation Models Of Sea Ice Thickness1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with thickness. This tail characterises the range of ice thickness produced4 by mechanical redistribution of ice Of Sea Ice Thickness1 Distribution Dynamics2 D. Godlovitch,1 R. Illner,2 and A. Monahan,1 D. Godlovitch ICE Abstract. Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential de-3 crease

Illner, Reinhard

190

Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

Lau, W. S., E-mail: liuweicheng@zju.edu.cn; Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, J. [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China)] [Zhejiang University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Luo, J. K. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China) [Zhejiang University, Department of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, No. 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute of Renewable Energy and Environment Technology, Bolton University, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5 AB (United Kingdom)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

191

High-resolution estimates of lithospheric thickness from Missouri to Massachusetts, USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-dimensional (3-D) model, NA00, of the S-velocity of the upper mantle beneath North America. The model differs. The seismic lithosphere is 180 km thick below Missouri and Illinois, 200 km thick below Indiana, Ohio by fitting the waveforms of broadband seismic S and surface waves recorded by the MOMA array and inverting

van der Lee, Suzan

192

Parabolic equation solution of seismo-acoustics problems involving variations in bathymetry and sediment thickness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and sediment thickness Jon M. Collisa and William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute110 8th Street within elastic sediment layers. When these methods are implemented together, the parabolic equation method can be applied to problems involving variations in bathymetry and the thickness of sediment layers

193

Ice Mass Balance Buoy: An Instrument to Measure and Attribute Changes in Ice Thickness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice Mass Balance Buoy: An Instrument to Measure and Attribute Changes in Ice Thickness Jacqueline A the Ice Mass Balance buoy (IMB) in response to the need for monitoring changes in the thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover. The IMB is an autonomous, ice-based system. IMB buoys provide a time series of ice

Geiger, Cathleen

194

Ultrasonic thickness measurements on corroded steel members: a statistical analysis of error  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with measuring the wall thickness of a corroded tubular member and 2) determining how the strength calculations are affected by an error in a wall thickness measurement. This thesis is based on the first phase of a research project funded by Mineral Management...

Konen, Keith Forman

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

UTL CONSOLIDATION AND OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE CURING OF THICK COMPOSITE STRUCTURES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 M00-022 UTL CONSOLIDATION AND OUT-OF-AUTOCLAVE CURING OF THICK COMPOSITE STRUCTURES John Player fabrication of complex composite structures, but significant thickness reduction may occur during cure due fiber/Hexcel 8552 thermoset prepreg. KEY WORDS: Composite Structures, Cure Modeling, Ultrasonics

Roylance, David

196

An Affordable Approach for Robust Design of Thick Laminated Composite Structure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An Affordable Approach for Robust Design of Thick Laminated Composite Structure Wei Chen* Assistant of thick laminated composite structures. Our approach integrates the principles of the Robust Concept-level optimization procedure for managing the complexity of composite structure optimization. Foundational

Chen, Wei

197

Coating of a stainless steel tube-wall catalytic reactor with thermally treated polysiloxane thick films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coating of a stainless steel tube-wall catalytic reactor with thermally treated polysiloxane thick stainless steel by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition process. Thicknesses up to 10µm were developed glass-like silicon oxide but cannot be related to an amorphous silica structure. At 1273K the steel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Optimal phosphor thickness for portal imaging Jean-Pierre Bissonnette 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal phosphor thickness for portal imaging Jean-Pierre Bissonnette 1 a), 2 b) London Regional this approach to determine which of eight phosphor screen thicknesses ranging between 67 and 947 mg/cm2 modest improvements in the indices of image quality for phosphor screens thicker than 350­400 mg/cm2

Cunningham, Ian

199

2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 2009 ASME WIND ENERGY SYMPOSIUM Static and Fatigue Testing of Thick Adhesive Joints for Wind as wind blade size has increased. Typical blade joints use paste adhesives several millimeters thick aircraft, which are also of relevance to wind blades in many instances. The strengths of lap-shear and many

200

Density dependence of the symmetry energy from neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density dependence of the symmetry energy, characterized by the parameter L, is studied using information provided by the neutron skin thickness in finite nuclei. An estimate of L is obtained from experimental data of antiprotonic atoms. We also discuss the ability of parity violating electron scatering to obtain information about the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb.

Vinas, X.; Centelles, M.; Roca-Maza, X.; Warda, M. [Departament d'Estructura i Conastituents de la Materia and Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos, Facultat de Fisica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028, Barcelona (Spain); Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano , Via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Katedra Fizyki Teoretycznej, Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Skodowskiej ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/analyzed the incident reflected waves to identify and measure the total transit time of the sound wave (of known wave-speed1 FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS T. W. Ng/disadvantages of many known liquid film thickness sensing devices (viz. conductivity probes, reflectance based fiber

Narain, Amitabh

202

On the effective plate thickness of monolayer graphene from flexural wave propagation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On the effective plate thickness of monolayer graphene from flexural wave propagation Sung Youb Kim utilize classical molecular dynamics to study flexural, or transverse wave propagation in monolayer) mode of wave propagation in a thin plate with plate thickness of h ¼ 0:104 nm. Finally, we find

Lin, Xi

203

A Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

....................................................................................................................................................14 Figures 1. Image of oil emulsion from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico offA Method for Quantitative Mapping of Thick Oil Spills Using Imaging Spectroscopy By Roger N. Clark (AVIRIS) Team, 2010, A method for quantitative mapping of thick oil spills using imaging spectroscopy: U

Torgersen, Christian

204

Effective elastic thickness of South America and its implications for intracontinental deformation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective elastic thickness of South America and its implications for intracontinental deformation. Within cratonic South America, Te variations are observed at regional scale: relatively lower Te occurs.y. Components: 13,516 words, 8 figures. Keywords: elastic thickness; South America; lithospheric structure

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

205

Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Rescue Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel -NOAA/GLERL (Emeritus)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Rescue Primary Investigator: Raymond Assel - NOAA/GLERL (Emeritus) Overview Ice cover is an important environmental factor affecting physical and biological processes in the coastal region of the Great Lakes. However, computerized ice thickness data along the shores of the Great

206

MCM LTER METADATA FILE TITLE: Lake ice thickness in the McMurdo Dry Valleys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MCM LTER METADATA FILE TITLE: Lake ice thickness in the McMurdo Dry Valleys ABSTRACT: Ice thickness was measured from the bottom of the ice cover to the piezometric water level and to the top of the ice cover-2360 achiuchiolo@montana.edu VARIABLES: Location Name, Location Code, Limno Run, Collection Date, z-water, z-ice, z

Priscu, John C.

207

Separate effects of surface roughness, wettability and porosity on boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux and optimization of boiling surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The separate effects of surface wettability, porosity, and roughness on critical heat flux (CHF) and heat transfer coefficient (HTC) were examined using carefully-engineered surfaces. All test surfaces were prepared on ...

O'Hanley, Harrison Fagan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15??m thick. Using a 0.1?mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1?mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

209

Frequency-Rank Correlations of Rhodopsin Mutations with Tuned Hydropathic Roughness Based on Self-Organized Criticality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The behavior of disease-linked mutations of membrane proteins is especially simple in rhodopsin, where they are well-studied, as they are responsible for retinitis pigmentosa, RP (retinal degeneration). Here we show that the frequency of occurrence of single RP mutations is strongly influenced by their posttranslational survival rates, and that this survival correlates well (82%) with a long-range, non-local hydropathic measure of the roughness of the water interfaces of ex-membrane rhodopsin based on self-organized criticality (SOC). It is speculated that this concept may be generally useful in studying survival rates of many mutated proteins.

J. C. Phillips

2012-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

210

ORIGIN OF CHEMICAL AND DYNAMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We adopt a scenario in which the Galactic thick disk was formed by minor merging between the first generation of the Galactic thin disk (FGTD) and a dwarf galaxy about {approx}9 Gyr ago and thereby investigate chemical and dynamical properties of the Galactic thick disk. In this scenario, the dynamical properties of the thick disk have long been influenced both by the mass growth of the second generation of the Galactic thin disk (i.e., the present thin disk) and by its non-axisymmetric structures. On the other hand, the early star formation history and chemical evolution of the thin disk was influenced by the remaining gas of the thick disk. Based on N-body simulations and chemical evolution models, we investigate the radial metallicity gradient, structural and kinematical properties, and detailed chemical abundance patterns of the thick disk. Our numerical simulations show that the ancient minor merger event can significantly flatten the original radial metallicity gradient of the FGTD, in particular, in the outer part, and also can be responsible for migration of inner metal-rich stars into the outer part (R > 10 kpc). The simulations show that the central region of the thick disk can develop a bar due to dynamical effects of a separate bar in the thin disk. Whether or not rotational velocities (V{sub {phi}}) can correlate with metallicities ([Fe/H]) for the simulated thick disks depends on the initial metallicity gradients of the FGTDs. The simulated orbital eccentricity distributions in the thick disk for models with higher mass ratios ({approx}0.2) and lower orbital eccentricities ({approx}0.5) of minor mergers are in good agreement with the corresponding observations. The simulated V{sub {phi}}-|z| relation of the thick disk in models with low orbital inclination angles of mergers are also in good agreement with the latest observational results. The vertical metallicity gradient of the simulated thick disk is rather flat or very weakly negative in the solar neighborhood. Our Galactic chemical evolution models show that if we choose two distinctive timescales for star formation in the thin and thick disks, then the models can explain both the observed metallicity distribution functions and correlations between [Mg/Fe] and [Fe/H] for the two disks in a self-consistent manner. We discuss how the early star formation history and chemical evolution of the Galactic thin disk can be influenced by the pre-existing thick disk.

Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Roughness analysis applied to niobium thin films grown on MgO(001) surfaces for superconducting radio frequency cavity applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes surface studies to address roughness issues inherent to thin film coatings deposited onto superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. This is particularly relevant for multilayered thin film coatings that are being considered as a possible scheme to overcome technical issues and to surpass the fundamental limit of ?50??MV/m accelerating gradient achievable with bulk niobium. In 2006, a model by Gurevich [ Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 012511 (2006)] was proposed to overcome this limit that involves coating superconducting layers separated by insulating ones onto the inner walls of the cavities. Thus, we have undertaken a systematic effort to understand the dynamic evolution of the Nb surface under specific deposition thin film conditions onto an insulating surface in order to explore the feasibility of the proposed model. We examine and compare the morphology from two distinct Nb/MgO series, each with its own epitaxial registry, at very low growth rates and closely examine the dynamical scaling of the surface features during growth. Further, we apply analysis techniques such as power spectral density to the specific problem of thin film growth and roughness evolution to qualify the set of deposition conditions that lead to successful SRF coatings.

D. B. Beringer, W. M. Roach, C. Clavero, C. E. Reece, R. A. Lukaszew

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Measuring Tail Thickness under GARCH and an Application to Extremal Exchange Rate Changes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

relations and Extremes of a GARCH(1,1) Process, Annals ofMeasuring Tail Thickness under GARCH And an Application todistribution functions including GARCH and propose a model-

Wagner, Niklas; Marsh, Terry A.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Thickness Measurement of Fracture Fluid Gel Filter Cake after Static Build Up and Shear Erosion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Despite proven economic benefit, the hydraulic fracture fluid damages the producing formation and the propped fracture. To analyze the gel damage effect quantitatively, the filter cake thickness is used as a parameter that has not been measured before...

Xu, Ben

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

214

Analysis of Antarctic Sea Ice Thickness: A Newly Created Database for 2000-2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Observations of Antarctic sea ice thickness are sporadic in space and time, hindering knowledge of its variability. A proxy based on stage of development data from the National Ice Center (NIC) weekly operational charts is used to create a high...

Morgan, Benjamin Patrick

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

215

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coextruded Polyethylene and Wood-Flour Composite: Effect of Shell Thickness, Wood Loading, and Core recycled polyethylene and wood-flour composites with core­shell structure were manufactured using a pilot

216

A determination of the effective thickness of a liquid deuterium target for a quasielastic scattering experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The effective thickness of a liquid deuterium target was determined by measuring the yield of the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering cross section. The flux of incident neutrons was determined by a fission ionization ...

Turkewitz, Jared Ripley

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminum alloy thick Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: aluminum alloy thick Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Introduction Within the course of the last two years...

218

Thick and Thin Film Polymer CNT Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Energy Conversion and Transparent Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thick and Thin Film Polymer ­ CNT Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Energy Conversion gradient. Thermoelectric materials harvest electricity from waste heat or any temperature gradient]. The PDDA/(SWNT+DOC) system produced transparent (> 82% visible light transmittance) and electrically

Fisher, Frank

219

Thickness estimation of subsurface layers in asphalt pavement using monstatic ground penetrating radar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering THICKNESS ESTIMATION OF SUBSURFACE LAYERS IN ASPHALT PAVEMENT USING MONSTATIC GROUND PENETRATING RADAR A Thesis CHUN LOK LAU Approved as to style and content by... ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. LIST OF FIGURES. . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION. 1. 1 Importance of pavement profile data. 1. 2 Principle of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) . . . 1. 3 Subsurface layer thickness measurement method. . . . . . II GPR ANTENNA AND SYSTEM CALIBRATION...

Lau, Chun Lok

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Association of coal metamorphism and hydrothermal mineralization in Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District, Western Kentucky  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ambient coal rank (metamorphism) of the Carboniferous coals in the Western Kentucky coalfield ranges from high volatile A bituminous (vitrinite maximum reflectance up to 0.75% R/sub max/) in the Webster syncline (Webster and southern Union Counties) to high volatile C bituminous (0.45 to 0.60% R/sub max/) over most of the remainder of the area. Anomalous patterns of metamorphism, however, have been noted in coals recovered from cores and mines in fault blocks of the Rough Creek fault zone and Fluorspar District. Coals in Gil-30 borehole (Rough Creek faults, Bordley Quadrangle, Union County) vary with no regard for vertical position, from high volatile C(0.55% R/sub max/) to high volatile A (0.89%R/sub max) bituminous. Examination of the upper Sturgis Formation (Missourian/Virgilian) coals revealed that the higher rank (generally above 0.75% R/sub max/) coals had vein mineral assemblages of sphalerite, twinned calcite, and ferroan dolomite. Lower rank coals had only untwinned calcite. Several sites in Webster County contain various coals (Well (No. 8) to Coiltwon (No. 14)) with vitrinite reflectances up to 0.83% R/sub max/ and associated sphalerite mineralization. Mississippian and Lower Pennsylvanian (Caseyville Formation Gentry coal) coals in the mineralized Fluorspar District have ranks to nearly medium volatile bituminous (1.03% R/sub max/). The regional rank trend exhibited by the fualt zones is generally higher rank than the surrounding areas. Sphalerite mineralization in itself is not unique within Illinois basin coals, but if it was partly responsible for the metamorphism of these coals, then the fluid temperature must have been higher within the above mentioned fault complexes.

Hower, J.C.; Fiene, F.L.; Trinkle, E.J.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Extraplanar Dust: a Tracer of Cold Dense Gas in the Thick Disks of Spiral Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The interstellar thick disks of galaxies contain not only gas, but significant quantities of dust. Most of our knowledge of extraplanar dust in disk galaxies comes from direct broadband optical imaging of these systems, wherein the dust is identified due to the irregular extinction it produces against the thick disk and bulge stars. This observational technique is sensitive to only the most dense material, and we argue much of the material identified in this way traces a cold phase of the interstellar thick disks in galaxies. The presence of a cold, dense phase likely implies the interstellar pressures in the thick disks of spiral galaxies can be quite high. This dense phase of the interstellar medium may also fueling thick disk star formation, and H-alpha observations are now revealing H II regions around newly-formed OB stars associations in several galaxies. We argue that the large quantities of dust and the morphologies of the structures traced by the dust imply that much of the extraplanar material in disk galaxies must have been expelled from the underlying thin disk.

J. Christopher Howk

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

222

Thick adherent dielectric films on plastic substrates and method for depositing same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thick adherent dielectric films deposited on plastic substrates for use as a thermal barrier layer to protect the plastic substrates from high temperatures which, for example, occur during laser annealing of layers subsequently deposited on the dielectric films. It is desirable that the barrier layer has properties including: a thickness of 1 .mu.m or greater, adheres to a plastic substrate, does not lift-off when cycled in temperature, has few or no cracks and does not crack when subjected to bending, resistant to lift-off when submersed in fluids, electrically insulating and preferably transparent. The thick barrier layer may be composed, for example, of a variety of dielectrics and certain metal oxides, and may be deposited on a variety of plastic substrates by various known deposition techniques. The key to the method of forming the thick barrier layer on the plastic substrate is maintaining the substrate cool during deposition of the barrier layer. Cooling of the substrate maybe accomplished by the use of a cooling chuck on which the plastic substrate is positioned, and by directing cooling gas, such as He, Ar and N.sub.2, between the plastic substrate and the cooling chucks. Thick adherent dielectric films up to about 5 .mu.m have been deposited on plastic substrates which include the above-referenced properties, and which enable the plastic substrates to withstand laser processing temperatures applied to materials deposited on the dielectric films.

Wickboldt, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA); Ellingboe, Albert R. (Fremont, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Thickness measurement system for transparent plates using dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A low-cost high-precision thickness measurement system for transparent plates that uses dual digital versatile disc (DVD) pickups is proposed. The two DVD pickups are used as the transmitter and the receiver in the measurement system, respectively. One of the DVD pickups emits a laser to the other DVD pickup (receiver) and projects on the photodiode integrated circuit of the receiver. The transparent plate is placed in the optical path to change the focused point that will affect the focusing error signal (FES) of the receiver. Using the FES, a mathematical model for thickness measurement based on the geometric optical method is developed. The experimental results show that the accuracy is 1.5 {mu}m, and the uncertainty is estimated to be {+-}1.37 {mu}m for the measured thickness of 150{mu}m.

Liu, Chien-Hung; Yeh, Shien-Chang; Huang, Hsueh-Liang

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Permeability-thickness determination from transient production response at the southeast geysers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fetkovich production decline curve analysis method was extended for application to vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs for the purpose of estimating the permeability-thickness product (kh) from the transient production response. The analytic dimensionless terms for pressure, production rate, decline rate, and decline time were derived for saturated steam using the real gas potential and customary geothermal production units of pounds-mass per hour. The derived terms were numerically validating using ``Geysers-line`` reservoir properties at initial water saturation of 0 and at permeabilities of 1, 10, and 100 mD. The production data for 48 wells in the Southeast Geysers were analyzed and the permeability-thickness products determined from the transient production response using the Fetkovich production decline type curve. The kh results were in very good agreement with the published range at the Southeast Geysers and show regions of high permeability-thickness.

Faulder, D.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Physicochemical controls on absorbed water film thickness in unsaturated geological media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Adsorbed water films commonly coat mineral surfaces in unsaturated soils and rocks, reducing flow and transport rates. Therefore, it is important to understand how adsorbed film thickness depends on matric potential, surface chemistry, and solution chemistry. Here, the problem of adsorbed water film thickness is examined through combining capillary scaling with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Novel aspects of this analysis include determining capillary influences on film thicknesses, and incorporating solution chemistry-dependent electrostatic potential at air-water interfaces. Capillary analysis of monodisperse packings of spherical grains provided estimated ranges of matric potentials where adsorbed films are stable, and showed that pendular rings within drained porous media retain most of the 'residual' water except under very low matric potentials. Within drained pores, capillary contributions to thinning of adsorbed films on spherical grains are shown to be small, such that DLVO calculations for flat surfaces are suitable approximations. Hamaker constants of common soil minerals were obtained to determine ranges of the dispersion component to matric potential-dependent film thickness. The pressure component associated with electrical double layer forces was estimated using the compression and linear superposition approximations. The pH-dependent electrical double layer pressure component is the dominant contribution to film thicknesses at intermediate values of matric potential, especially in lower ionic strength solutions (< 10 mol m{sup -3}) on surfaces with higher magnitude electrostatic potentials (more negative than - 50 mV). Adsorbed water films are predicted to usually range in thickness from 1 to 20 nm in drained pores and fractures of unsaturated environments.

Tokunaga, T.

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

226

Engineering guides for estimating cover material thickness and volume for uranium mill tailings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five nomographs have been prepared that facilitate the estimation of cover thickness and cover material volume for the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action Program. Key parameters determined include the cover thickness with either a surface radon flux or a boundary radon air concentration criterion and the total volume of cover material required for two different treatments of the edge slopes. Also included in the engineering guide are descriptions and representative values for the radon source term, the diffusion coefficients and the key meteorological parameters. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Rogers, V.C.; Nielson, K.K.; Merrell, G.B.

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thickness dependent exchange bias in martensitic epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thickness dependent exchange bias in the low temperature martensitic state of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Sn thin films is found. The effect can be retained down to very small thicknesses. For a Ni{sub 50}Mn{sub 32}Sn{sub 18} thin film, which does not undergo a martensitic transformation, no exchange bias is observed. Our results suggest that a significant interplay between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic regions, which is the origin for exchange bias, is only present in the martensite. The finding is supported by ab initio calculations showing that the antiferromagnetic order is stabilized in the phase.

Behler, Anna [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany) [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Department of Physics, Institute for Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Teichert, Niclas; Auge, Alexander; Hütten, Andreas [Department of Physics, Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)] [Department of Physics, Thin Films and Physics of Nanostructures, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Dutta, Biswanath; Hickel, Tilmann [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut für Eisenforschung, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Waske, Anja [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany)] [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany) [IFW Dresden, Institute for Complex Materials, P.O. Box 27 01 16, 01171 Dresden (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Dresden University of Technology, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of minute hollow spherical shells  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Method and apparatus for determining diameter and wall thickness of hollow microspheres or shells wherein terminal velocities of shells traveling in fluid-filled conduits of differing diameters are measured. A wall-effect factor is determined as a ratio of the terminal velocities, and shell outside diameter may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of wall-effect factor. For shells of known outside diameter, wall thickness may then be ascertained as a predetermined empirical function of terminal velocity in either conduit.

Steinman, D.A.

1980-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

229

Is cartilage thickness different in young subjects with and without patellofemoral pain?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Stanford, CA, USA { Rehabilitation R&D Center, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA Summary factor in the development of pain in the female population. ª 2006 OsteoArthritis Research Society in the osteoarthritic population21,24e26 . Cartilage thickness may also play a role in patellofemoral pain because

Delp, Scott

230

Processing Effects for Integrated PZT: Residual Stress, Thickness, and Dielectric Properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Processing Effects for Integrated PZT: Residual Stress, Thickness, and Dielectric Properties Ryan J (PZT) films integrated onto Pt/Ti/SiO2//Si substrates are reported. Sol­gel synthesis and deposition orientation (nominally (111) fiber tex- tured), and measured residual stress. The Stoney method, using laser

Sottos, Nancy R.

231

Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness Tanya M. Smith a,*, Anthony J. Olejniczak a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Variation in hominoid molar enamel thickness Tanya M. Smith a,*, Anthony J. Olejniczak a , Lawrence; fax: C49 341 35 50 399. E-mail addresses: tsmith@eva.mpg.de (T.M. Smith), aolejnic@ic.sunysb.edu (A has been commonly assessed as a linear measurement of enamel visible in worn or naturally fractured

Smith, Tanya M.

232

Radar Measurements of Ice Sheet Thickness of Outlet Glaciers in Greenland D. Braaten+  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radar Measurements of Ice Sheet Thickness of Outlet Glaciers in Greenland D. Braaten+ and S of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 U.S.A. Abstract ­ We have conducted airborne measurements over the Greenland the mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet, the University of Kansas has been operating an airborne radio

Kansas, University of

233

Evaluation of the Quality of Thick Fibre Composites Using Immersion and Air-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaluation of the Quality of Thick Fibre Composites Using Immersion and Air- Coupled Ultrasonic. Two ultrasonic through-transmission techniques were evaluated: immersion and air-coupled technique. The immersion system was used for frequencies from 1 MHz to 10 MHz. The frequency range for the air

234

Temperature effects on failure thickness and deflagration-to-detonation transition in PBX 9502 and TATB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) behavior of TATB has been investigated at high temperatures and severe confinement. comparison is made to other common explosives under similar confinement. TATB did not DDT under these conditions. The failure thickness of PBX 9502 at 250{degrees}C has also been determined. Two mm appears to be the limiting value at this temperature.

Asay, B.W.; McAfee, J.B.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Temperature effects on failure thickness and deflagration-to-detonation transition in PBX 9502 and TATB  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deflagration-to-detonation (DDT) behavior of TATB has been investigated at high temperatures and severe confinement. comparison is made to other common explosives under similar confinement. TATB did not DDT under these conditions. The failure thickness of PBX 9502 at 250[degrees]C has also been determined. Two mm appears to be the limiting value at this temperature.

Asay, B.W.; McAfee, J.B.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

The Influence of Specimen Thickness on the High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of CMSX-4 during  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In order to quantify these effects, thin-walled specimens of different thickness (t = 100Ã?500 lm) were used for gas turbine blades due to its excellent mechanical properties combined with high-temperature oxidation resistance. In service, particular in the case of aero engines, the blades are exposed to thermal

Boyer, Edmond

237

Terahertz Sensor for Non-Contact Thickness and Quality Measurement of Automobile Paints of Varying Complexity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to resolve coating layers down to a thickness of 18 $mu{hbox{m}}$ and was validated for both single- and multi-layer automobile paint samples. Results of the terahertz measurements were benchmarked against other techniques that are currently used for non...

Su, Ke; Shen, Yao-Chun; Zeitler, J. Axel

2014-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

238

THE MOTION OF SUPERCONDUCTING VORTICES IN THIN FILMS OF VARYING THICKNESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with superconductor/vacuum interfaces is considered. A vortex is #12;rst shown to intersect such an interface normallyTHE MOTION OF SUPERCONDUCTING VORTICES IN THIN FILMS OF VARYING THICKNESS S.J. CHAPMAN #3; D.R. HERON y MATHEMATICAL INSTITUTE OXFORD OX1 3LB UK Abstract. The interaction of superconducting vortices

Chapman, Jon

239

Commercialization of thick film solar cell. Final technical report, 9/15/79-9/14/80  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Films of cadmium sulfide and cadmium telluride have been produced by screen printing and sintering. Cadmium sulfide films ten microns thick had a resistivity in the 10 ohm-cm range. A technique was developed for forming a cadmium telluride layer on top of a cadmium sulfide layer. Process control and device preparation are areas requiring further study.

None

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Thickness limitations in carbon nanotube reinforced silicon nitride coatings synthesized by vapor infiltration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chemical vapor infiltration is a convenient method for synthesizing carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced ceramic coatings. The thickness over which infiltration is relatively uniform is limited by gas phase diffusion in the pore structure. These effects were investigated in two types of silicon nitride matrix composites. With CNTs that were distributed uniformly on the substrate surface dense coatings were limited to thicknesses of several microns. With dual structured CNT arrays produced by photolithography coatings up to 400 gm thick were obtained with minimal residual porosity. Gas transport into these dual structured materials was facilitated by creating micron sized channels between "CNT pillars" (i.e. each pillar consisted of a large number of individual CNTs). The experimental results are consistent with basic comparisons between the rates of gas diffusion and silicon nitride growth in porous structures. This analysis also provides a general insight into optimizing infiltration conditions during the fabrication of thick CNT-reinforced composite coatings. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Eres, Gyula [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Embedding metal electrodes in thick active layers for ITO-free plasmonic organic solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Embedding metal electrodes in thick active layers for ITO-free plasmonic organic solar cells%) in optical absorption over both a conventional ITO organic solar cell and a conventional plasmonic organic solar cell with top-loaded metallic grating is predicted in the proposed structure. Optimal positioning

Park, Namkyoo

243

Effects of nanoscale thickness and elastic nonlinearity on measured mechanical properties of polymeric films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of polymeric films B. Oommen, K.J. Van Vliet Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts the mechanical properties of nanoscale, compliant material volumes such as polymeric films and bio materials of semi-infinite thickness fails to accurately predict the nominal elastic modulus E for polymeric

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

244

INVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL SEA-ICE THICKNESS VARIABILITY IN THE ROSS SEA Beth A. Schellenberg  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

routinely produced weekly ice charts since the 1970's. From the period of 1995 to 2000, classificationINVESTIGATION OF SEASONAL SEA-ICE THICKNESS VARIABILITY IN THE ROSS SEA Beth A. Schellenberg P1.23 1. INTRODUCTION A number of studies suggest a connections between sea-ice variability

Geiger, Cathleen

245

Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light Trapping Textures Designed by Electromagnetic Optimization for Sub-Wavelength Thick Solar Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory July 23, 2013 Abstract Light trapping in solar the surface of the solar cell, where n is the material refractive index. This ray-optics absorption

California at Irvine, University of

246

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF A HEMP CONCRETE WALL: IMPACT OF THICKNESS AND COATING. Sylvie PRETOT, this study concerns the LCA of an environmentally friendly material used for building construction, hemp construction materials, hemp concrete has a low impact on environment. Moreover, hemp concrete contributes

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

247

Lanthanum silicate gate dielectric stacks with subnanometer equivalent oxide thickness utilizing an interfacial silica consumption reaction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lanthanum silicate gate dielectric stacks with subnanometer equivalent oxide thickness utilizing-8087 Received 13 April 2005; accepted 6 June 2005; published online 26 July 2005 A silicate reaction between process route to interface elimination, while producing a silicate dielectric with a higher temperature

Garfunkel, Eric

248

Improvement of radar ice-thickness measurements of Greenland outlet glaciers using SAR processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extensive aircraft-based radar ice-thickness measurements over the interior and outlet-glacier regions of the Greenland ice sheet have been obtained by the University of Kansas since 1993, with the latest airborne surveys conducted in May 2001...

Braaten, David A.; Gogineni, S. Prasad; Tammana, Dilip; Namburi, Saikiran; Paden, John; Gurumoorthy, Krishna K.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

water, and ice conspire with the prevailing environmental conditions 52 to produce macroscopic ice by Henry (2000). The first comprehensive and tractable model 57 for ice lens growth was produced by O1 Microscopic and environmental controls on the spacing and thickness of segregated 2 ice lenses 3

Rempel, Alan W.

250

FLOW CONDITIONING DESIGN IN THICK LIQUID PROTECTION S.G. Durbin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

issuing downwards from nozzles of thickness (small dimension) = 1 cm into ambient air for Reynolds conditioner was studied. As the flow conditioning element immediately upstream of the nozzle inlet, fine, and that free-surface fluctuations are strongly affected by changes in flow conditioner design, even in the near

California at San Diego, University of

251

Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forensic Anthropology Population Data Facial reconstruction: Soft tissue thickness values for South African black females D. Cavanagh, M. Steyn * Forensic Anthropology Research Centre, Department of Anatomy, University of Pretoria, P.O. Box 2034, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 1. Introduction Forensic facial

Frey, Pascal

252

D etailed m odeling ofreactive flow s th rough geologicm edia is necessary to understand a num ber of environm entalproblem s of national  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fluids and geologic seq uestration of CO2 in deep reservoirs. Such problem s generally req uire sim s to th e surface , for e xam ple , th rough abandone d w e lls and fracture s in cap rock s. Accurate

Mills, Richard

253

Discrepancy between Subcritical and Fast Rupture Roughness: A Cumulant Analysis N. Mallick, P.-P. Cortet, S. Santucci,* S. G. Roux, and L. Vanel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discrepancy between Subcritical and Fast Rupture Roughness: A Cumulant Analysis N. Mallick, P the slow (subcritical) and the fast growth regime. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.255502 PACS numbers: 62, crack growth starts in a subcritical regime where the growth is slow (v 10ÿ5­10ÿ2 m sÿ1) and reaches

Roux, Stephane

254

COMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1), Jrgen Hjstrup(2), Sren Larsen(2), Rebecca Barthelmie(2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large offshore wind farms are being built in several countries in Europe. The economic viabilityCOMPARISON OF SEA SURFACE ROUGHNESS MODELS FOR OFFSHORE WIND POWER UTILISATION Bernhard Lange(1 of such projects depends on the favourable wind conditions of offshore sites, since the higher energy yield has

Heinemann, Detlev

255

Review of the margins for ASME code fatigue design curve - effects of surface roughness and material variability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code provides rules for the construction of nuclear power plant components. The Code specifies fatigue design curves for structural materials. However, the effects of light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments are not explicitly addressed by the Code design curves. Existing fatigue strain-vs.-life ({var_epsilon}-N) data illustrate potentially significant effects of LWR coolant environments on the fatigue resistance of pressure vessel and piping steels. This report provides an overview of the existing fatigue {var_epsilon}-N data for carbon and low-alloy steels and wrought and cast austenitic SSs to define the effects of key material, loading, and environmental parameters on the fatigue lives of the steels. Experimental data are presented on the effects of surface roughness on the fatigue life of these steels in air and LWR environments. Statistical models are presented for estimating the fatigue {var_epsilon}-N curves as a function of the material, loading, and environmental parameters. Two methods for incorporating environmental effects into the ASME Code fatigue evaluations are discussed. Data available in the literature have been reviewed to evaluate the conservatism in the existing ASME Code fatigue evaluations. A critical review of the margins for ASME Code fatigue design curves is presented.

Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.; Energy Technology

2003-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

256

Probing the electronic structure of graphene sheets with various thicknesses by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The electronic structure of an aggregation of graphene sheets with various thicknesses was probed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy. A uniform oxidation of the graphene sheets in the flat area was observed regardless of the thickness, while in the folded area the result could be strongly affected by the geometry. Moreover, thick parts of the aggregation showed strong angle-dependence to the incident X-ray, while thin parts showed less angle-dependence, which might be related to the surface wrinkles and ripples. The electronic structure differences due to the geometry and thickness suggest a complicated situation in the aggregation of graphene sheets.

Bai, Lili; Liu, Jinyin; Zhao, Guanqi; Gao, Jing; Sun, Xuhui, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn; Zhong, Jun, E-mail: xhsun@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: jzhong@suda.edu.cn [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)] [Soochow University-Western University Centre for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials Laboratory (FUNSOM) and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

257

MAPPING THE STELLAR STRUCTURE OF THE MILKY WAY THICK DISK AND HALO USING SEGUE PHOTOMETRY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We map the stellar structure of the Galactic thick disk and halo by applying color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting to photometric data from the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) survey. The SEGUE imaging scans allow, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of Milky Way structure at both high and low latitudes using uniform Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Incorporating photometry of all relevant stars simultaneously, CMD fitting bypasses the need to choose single tracer populations. Using old stellar populations of differing metallicities as templates, we obtain a sparse three-dimensional map of the stellar mass distribution at |Z|>1 kpc. Fitting a smooth Milky Way model comprising exponential thin and thick disks and an axisymmetric power-law halo allows us to constrain the structural parameters of the thick disk and halo. The thick-disk scale height and length are well constrained at 0.75 {+-} 0.07 kpc and 4.1 {+-} 0.4 kpc, respectively. We find a stellar halo flattening within {approx}25 kpc of c/a = 0.88 {+-} 0.03 and a power-law index of 2.75 {+-} 0.07 (for 7 kpc {approx_lt}R{sub GC} {approx_lt} 30 kpc). The model fits yield thick-disk and stellar halo densities at the solar location of {rho}{sub thick,sun} = 10{sup -2.3{+-}0.1} M{sub sun} pc{sup -3} and {rho}{sub halo,sun} = 10{sup -4.20{+-}0.05} M{sub sun} pc{sup -3}, averaging over any substructures. Our analysis provides the first clear in situ evidence for a radial metallicity gradient in the Milky Way's stellar halo: within R {approx_lt} 15 kpc the stellar halo has a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.6, which shifts to [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -2.2 at larger radii, in line with the two-component halo deduced by Carollo et al. from a local kinematic analysis. Subtraction of the best-fit smooth and symmetric model from the overall density maps reveals a wealth of substructures at all latitudes, some attributable to known streams and overdensities, and some new. A simple warp cannot account for the low latitude substructure, as overdensities occur simultaneously above and below the Galactic plane.

De Jong, Jelte T. A.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Beers, Timothy C., E-mail: dejong@mpia.d [Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Ferroelectric polymer-ceramic composite thick films for energy storage applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have successfully fabricated large area free standing polyvinylidene fluoride -Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PVDF-PZT) ferroelectric polymer-ceramic composite (wt% 80–20, respectively) thick films with an average diameter (d) ?0.1 meter and thickness (t) ?50 ?m. Inclusion of PZT in PVDF matrix significantly enhanced dielectric constant (from 10 to 25 at 5 kHz) and energy storage capacity (from 11 to 14 J/cm{sup 3}, using polarization loops), respectively, and almost similar leakage current and mechanical strength. Microstructural analysis revealed the presence of ? and ? crystalline phases and homogeneous distribution of PZT crystals in PVDF matrix. It was also found that apart from the microcrystals, well defined naturally developed PZT nanocrystals were embedded in PVDF matrix. The observed energy density indicates immense potential in PVDF-PZT composites for possible applications as green energy and power density electronic elements.

Singh, Paritosh; Borkar, Hitesh; Singh, B. P.; Singh, V. N.; Kumar, Ashok, E-mail: ashok553@nplindia.org [CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

259

Fermion resonances on a thick brane with a piecewise warp factor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we mainly investigate the problems of resonances of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) fermions on a single scalar constructed thick brane with a piecewise warp factor matching smoothly. The distance between two boundaries and the other parameters are determined by one free parameter through three junction conditions. For the generalized Yukawa coupling {eta}{Psi}{phi}{sup k{Psi}} with odd k=1,3,5,..., the mass eigenvalue m, width {Gamma}, lifetime {tau}, and maximal probability P{sub max} of fermion resonances are obtained. Our numerical calculations show that the brane without internal structure also favors the appearance of resonant states for both left- and right-handed fermions. The scalar-fermion coupling and the thickness of the brane influence the resonant behaviors of the massive KK fermions.

Li Haitao; Liu Yuxiao; Zhao Zhenhua; Guo Heng [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

260

Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High efficiency proton beam generation through target thickness control in femtosecond laser-plasma interactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bright proton beams with maximum energies of up to 30?MeV have been observed in an experiment investigating ion sheath acceleration driven by a short pulse (<50 fs) laser. The scaling of maximum proton energy and total beam energy content at ultra-high intensities of ?10{sup 21} W cm{sup ?2} was investigated, with the interplay between target thickness and laser pre-pulse found to be a key factor. While the maximum proton energies observed were maximised for ?m-thick targets, the total proton energy content was seen to peak for thinner, 500?nm, foils. The total proton beam energy reached up to 440 mJ (a conversion efficiency of 4%), marking a significant step forward for many laser-driven ion applications. The experimental results are supported by hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations.

Green, J. S., E-mail: james.green@stfc.ac.uk; Robinson, A. P. L.; Booth, N.; Carroll, D. C.; Rusby, D.; Wilson, L. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Dance, R. J. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P. [SUPA, Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Murphy, C. D. [SUPA, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

2014-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

262

Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

Wang, Qi (Littleton, CO); Stradins, Paul (Golden, CO); Teplin, Charles (Boulder, CO); Branz, Howard M. (Boulder, CO)

2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

263

Tunneling density of states as a function of thickness in superconductor/ strong ferromagnet bilayers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have made an experimental study of the tunneling density of states (DOS) in strong ferromagnetic thin films (CoFe) in proximity with a thick superconducting film (Nb) as a function of d{sub F}, the ferromagnetic thickness. Remarkably, we find that as d{sub F} increases, the superconducting DOS exhibits a scaling behavior in which the deviations from the normal-state conductance have a universal shape that decreases exponentially in amplitude with characteristic length d* {approx} 0.4 nm. We do not see oscillations in the DOS as a function of d{sub F}, as expected from predictions based on the Usadel equations, although an oscillation in T{sub c}(d{sub F}) has been seen in the same materials.

Reymond, S.

2010-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

264

Neutron-skin thickness from the study of the anti-analog giant dipole resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {gamma}-decay of the anti-analog of the giant dipole resonance (AGDR) to the isobaric analog state has been measured following the p({sup 124}Sn,n) reaction at a beam energy of 600 MeV/nucleon. The energy of the transition was also calculated with state-of-the-art self-consistent relativistic random-phase approximation (RPA) and turned out to be very sensitive to the neutronskin thickness ({Delta}R{sub pn}). By comparing the theoretical results with the measured one, the {Delta}R{sub pn} value for {sup 124}Sn was deduced to be 0.21 {+-} 0.07 fm, which agrees well with the previous results. The present method offers new possibilities for measuring the neutron-skin thicknesses of very exotic isotopes.

Krasznahorkay, A.; Stuhl, L.; Csatlos, M.; Algora, A. [Inst. of Nucl. Res. of the Hungarian Acad. of Sci. (ATOMKI), H-4001 Debrecen, P.O. Box 51 (Hungary); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb (Croatia); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); and others

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

265

Atmospheric pressure spatial atomic layer deposition web coating with in situ monitoring of film thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spectral reflectometry was implemented as a method for in situ thickness monitoring in a spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) system. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films were grown on a moving polymer web substrate at 100?°C using an atmospheric pressure ALD web coating system, with film growth of 0.11–0.13?nm/cycle. The modular coating head design and the in situ monitoring allowed for the characterization and optimization of the trimethylaluminum and water precursor exposures, purge flows, and web speed. A thickness uniformity of ±2% was achieved across the web. ALD cycle times as low as 76?ms were demonstrated with a web speed of 1?m/s and a vertical gap height of 0.5?mm. This atmospheric pressure ALD system with in situ process control demonstrates the feasibility of low-cost, high throughput roll-to-roll ALD.

Yersak, Alexander S.; Lee, Yung C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, 1045 Regent Drive, 422 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0422 (United States); Spencer, Joseph A.; Groner, Markus D., E-mail: mgroner@aldnanosolutions.com [ALD NanoSolutions, Inc., 580 Burbank Street, Unit 100, Broomfield, Colorado 80020 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Post-cast EDM method for reducing the thickness of a turbine nozzle wall  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A post-cast EDM process is used to remove material from the interior surface of a nozzle vane cavity of a turbine. A thin electrode is passed through the cavity between opposite ends of the nozzle vane and displaced along the interior nozzle wall to remove the material along a predetermined path, thus reducing the thickness of the wall between the cavity and the external surface of the nozzle. In another form, an EDM process employing a profile as an electrode is disposed in the cavity and advanced against the wall to remove material from the wall until the final wall thickness is achieved, with the interior wall surface being complementary to the profile surface.

Jones, Raymond Joseph (Duanesburg, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Schenectady, NY); Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence (Galway, NY); Schotsch, Margaret Jones (Clifton Park, NY); Rajan, Rajiv (Guilderland, NY); Wei, Bin (Mechanicville, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Thickness measurement of aluminum, titanium, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films by x-ray fluorescence  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has received a great deal of attention in the last few years as a quantitative means of determining both the stoichiometry and thickness of many different kinds of films. Examples include Ag and Cu films on mica substrates, Sn-Pb alloys on steel substrates, Al-Ti multilayers on Cu substrates and oxide films on silicon substrates. In XRF the sample is irradiated with x-rays which in turn cause x-rays to be given off by the sample. These x-rays that are given off by the sample can then be analyzed both for energy and intensity. The energy of the x-rays is characteristic of the elemental makeup of the sample and the intensity of the x-rays is dependent on how much of the particular element is present. The intensity then can be related to the thickness of a film if the stoichiometry of the film can be assumed constant. With the increased interest in silicides and more recently, the self-aligned silicide (salicide) process (8-10) for VLSI applications, in-line process monitoring of silicide film thickness has become important to integrated circuit manufacturing. In this study, the number of x-ray photons given of by Al, Ti, titanium silicide, and tungsten silicide films on silicon-based substrates was quantified so that a film thickness for an unknown sample could then be determined easily. In addition, XRF is a more accurate technique, limited principally by the accuracy technique, limited principally by the accuracy of the reference used and the amount of time the x-ray photons are counted.

Ernst, S.; Lee, C.O.; Lee, J.J. (Motorola, Inc., Advanced Products Research and Development Lab., Austin, TX (US))

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Infrared Imaging of the Nanometer-Thick Accumulation Layer in Organic Field-Effect Transistors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on infrared (IR) spectro-microscopy of the electronic excitations in nanometer-thick accumulation layers in FET devices based on poly(3-hexylthiophene). IR data allows us to explore the charge injection landscape and uncovers the critical role of the gate insulator in defining relevant length scales. This work demonstrates the unique potential of IR spectroscopy for the investigation of physical phenomena at the nanoscale occurring at the semiconductor-insulator interface in FET devices.

Z. Q. Li; G. M. Wang; N. Sai; D. Moses; M. C. Martin; M. Di Ventra; A. J. Heeger; D. N. Basov

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

269

Unique Challenges Accompany Thick-Shell CdSe/nCdS (n > 10) Nanocrystal Synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thick-shell CdSe/nCdS (n {ge} 10) nanocrystals were recently reported that show remarkably suppressed fluorescence intermittency or 'blinking' at the single-particle level as well as slow rates of Auger decay. Unfortunately, whereas CdSe/nCdS nanocrystal synthesis is well-developed up to n {le} 6 CdS monolayers (MLs), reproducible syntheses for n {ge} 10 MLs are less understood. Known procedures sometimes result in homogeneous CdS nucleation instead of heterogeneous, epitaxial CdS nucleation on CdSe, leading to broad and multimodal particle size distributions. Critically, obtained core/shell sizes are often below those desired. This article describes synthetic conditions specific to thick-shell growth (n {ge} 10 and n {ge} 20 MLs) on both small (sub2 nm) and large (>4.5 nm) CdSe cores. We find added secondary amine and low concentration of CdSe cores and molecular precursors give desired core/shell sizes. Amine-induced, partial etching of CdSe cores results in apparent shell-thicknesses slightly beyond those desired, especially for very-thick shells (n {ge} 20 MLs). Thermal ripening and fast precursor injection lead to undesired homogeneous CdS nucleation and incomplete shell growth. Core/shells derived from small CdSe (1.9 nm) have longer PL lifetimes and more pronounced blinking at single-particle level compared with those derived from large CdSe (4.7 nm). We expect our new synthetic approach will lead to a larger throughput of these materials, increasing their availability for fundamental studies and applications.

Guo, Y; Marchuk, K; Abraham, R; Sampat, S; Abraham, R.; Fang, N; Malko, AV; Vela, J

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

270

A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

Thickness-based adaptive mesh refinement methods for multi-phase flow simulations with thin regions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In numerical simulations of multi-scale, multi-phase flows, grid refinement is required to resolve regions with small scales. A notable example is liquid-jet atomization and subsequent droplet dynamics. It is essential to characterize the detailed flow physics with variable length scales with high fidelity, in order to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, two thickness-based mesh refinement schemes are developed based on distance- and topology-oriented criteria for thin regions with confining wall/plane of symmetry and in any situation, respectively. Both techniques are implemented in a general framework with a volume-of-fluid formulation and an adaptive-mesh-refinement capability. The distance-oriented technique compares against a critical value, the ratio of an interfacial cell size to the distance between the mass center of the cell and a reference plane. The topology-oriented technique is developed from digital topology theories to handle more general conditions. The requirement for interfacial mesh refinement can be detected swiftly, without the need of thickness information, equation solving, variable averaging or mesh repairing. The mesh refinement level increases smoothly on demand in thin regions. The schemes have been verified and validated against several benchmark cases to demonstrate their effectiveness and robustness. These include the dynamics of colliding droplets, droplet motions in a microchannel, and atomization of liquid impinging jets. Overall, the thickness-based refinement technique provides highly adaptive meshes for problems with thin regions in an efficient and fully automatic manner.

Chen, Xiaodong [The State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yang, Vigor, E-mail: vigor.yang@aerospace.gatech.edu [School of Aerospace Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0150 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

272

Effect of Substrate Thickness on Oxide Scale Spallation for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the effect of the ferritic substrate's thickness on the delamination/spallation of the oxide scale was investigated experimentally and numerically. At the high-temperature oxidation environment of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), a combination of growth stress with thermal stresses may lead to scale delamination/buckling and eventual spallation during SOFC stack cooling, even leading to serious degradation of cell performance. The growth stress is induced by the growth of the oxide scale on the scale/substrate interface, and thermal stress is induced by a mismatch of the coefficient of thermal expansion between the oxide scale and the substrate. The numerical results show that the interfacial shear stresses, which are the driving force of scale delamination between the oxide scale and the ferritic substrate, increase with the growth of the oxide scale and also with the thickness of the ferritic substrate; i.e., the thick ferritic substrate can easily lead to scale delamination and spallation. Experimental observation confirmed the predicted results of the delamination and spallation of the oxide scale on the ferritic substrate.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Thickness controlled sol-gel silica films for plasmonic bio-sensing devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasmonics has recently received considerable interest due to its potentiality in many fields as well as in nanobio-technology applications. In this regard, various strategies are required for modifying the surfaces of plasmonic nanostructures and to control their optical properties in view of interesting application such as bio-sensing, We report a simple method for depositing silica layers of controlled thickness on planar plasmonic structures. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as silica precursor. The control of the silica layer thickness was obtained by optimizing the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, in particular by properly tuning different parameters such as pH, solvent concentration, and withdrawal speed. The resulting films were characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Furthermore, by performing the analysis of surface plasmon resonances before and after the coating of the nanostructures, it was observed that the position of the resonance structures could be properly shifted by finely controlling the silica layer thickness. The effect of silica coating was assessed also in view of sensing applications, due to important advantages, such as surface protection of the plasmonic structure.

Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Artizzu, Flavia, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Saba, Michele, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Marongiu, Daniela, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Cagliari, S.P. Km 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Floris, Francesco; Marabelli, Franco; Patrini, Maddalena; Fornasari, Lucia [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Pellacani, Paola; Valsesia, Andrea [Plasmore S.r.l. -Via Grazia Deledda 4, I-21020 Ranco (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

274

The effect of mix on capsule yields as a function of shell thickness and gas fill  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of direct drive capsules with different shell thicknesses and gas fills was conducted to examine the amount of shock induced (Richtmyer-Meshkov) mix versus Rayleigh-Taylor mix from deceleration of the implosion. The RAGE (Eulerian) code with a turbulent mix model was used to model these capsules for neutron yields along with time-dependent mix amounts. The amount of Richtmyer-Meshkov induced mix from the shock breaking out of the shell is about 0.1??g (0.15??m of shell material), while the Rayleigh-Taylor mix is of order 1??g and determines the mixed simulation yield. The simulations were able to calculate a yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) between 0.5 and 1.0 for capsules with shell thicknesses ranging from 7.5 to 20??m and with gas fills between 3.8 and 20?atm of D{sub 2} or DT. The simulated burn averaged T{sub ion} values typically lie with 0.5?keV of the data, which is within the measurement error. For capsules with shell thicknesses >25??m, the YOM values drop to 0.10?±?0.05, suggesting that some unmodeled effect needs to be accounted for in the thickest capsules.

Bradley, P. A., E-mail: pbradley@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Localization and mass spectra of fermions on symmetric and asymmetric thick branes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A three-parameter (positive odd integer s, thickness factor {lambda}, and asymmetry factor a) family of asymmetric thick brane solutions in five dimensions were constructed from a two-parameter (s and {lambda}) family of symmetric ones in by R. Guerrero, R. O. Rodriguez, and R. Torrealba in [Phys. Rev. D 72, 124012 (2005).]. The values s=1 and s{>=}3 correspond to single branes and double branes, respectively. These branes have very rich inner structure. In this paper, by presenting the mass-independent potentials of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the corresponding Schroedinger equations, we investigate the localization and mass spectra of fermions on the symmetric and asymmetric thick branes in an anti-de Sitter background. In order to analyze the effect of gravity-fermion interaction (i.e., the effect of the inner structure of the branes) and scalar-fermion interaction to the spectrum of fermion KK modes, we consider three kinds of typical kink-fermion couplings. The spectra of left chiral fermions for these couplings consist of a bound zero mode and a series of gapless continuous massive KK modes, some discrete bound KK modes including zero mode (exist mass gaps), and a series of continuous massive KK modes, infinite discrete bound KK modes, respectively. The structures of the spectra are investigated in detail.

Liu Yuxiao; Fu, C.-E; Zhao Li; Duan Yishi [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

276

Analysis Procedures for Double-Shell Target Concentricity and Wall Thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LLNL Target Fabrication Team (TFT) asked the Center for Non-Destructive Characterization (CNDC) to use CNDC's KCAT or Xradia's Micro computed tomography (CT) system to collect three-dimensional (3D) tomographic data of a set of double-shell targets and determine, among other items, the following: (1) the concentricity of the outer surface of the inner shell with respect to the inner surface of the outer shell with an accuracy of 1-2 micrometers, and (2) the wall thickness uniformity of the outer shell with an accuracy of 1-2 micrometers. The CNDC used Xradia's Micro CT system to collect the data. Bill Brown performed the concentricity analysis, and John Sain performed the wall thickness uniformity analysis. Harry Martz provided theoretical guidance, and Dan Schneberk contributed technical (software) support. This document outlines the analysis procedures used in each case. The double-shell targets, as shown in Figures 1 and 2, consist of an inner shell (or capsule), a two-piece spherical aerogel intermediary shell, and a two-piece spherical outer shell. The three elements are designed and fabricated to be concentric--with the aerogel shell acting as a spacer between the inner shell and outer shell--with no to minimum air gaps in the final assembly. The outer diameters of the aerogel and outer shells are 444 and 550 micrometers, respectively, so the wall thickness of the outer shell is 53 micrometers.

Sain, J D; Brown, W D; Martz, H E; Schneberk, D J

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

277

Thickness monitoring of graphene on SiC using low-energy electron diffraction P. J. Fisher  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Thickness monitoring of graphene on SiC using low-energy electron diffraction P. J. Fisher IBM T of epitaxial graphene on SiC is monitored in-situ using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The possibility of using LEED as an in-situ thickness monitor of the graphene is examined. The ratio of primary diffraction

Feenstra, Randall

278

Thickness-dependent changes in the optical properties of PPV-and PF-based polymer light emitting diodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the thickness-dependent optical properties of single layer polymer light emitting diodes for two materials, poly the electronic and optical properties of these materials in light emitting diode LED structures.2 OurThickness-dependent changes in the optical properties of PPV- and PF-based polymer light emitting

Carter, Sue

279

Thickness of the rim of an expanding lamella near the splash threshold Jolet de Ruiter,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and agricultural applications including spray coating and cooling,1 ink-jet printing,2,3 fuel combustion,4 viscosity of the liquid and t is the time after impact.8­12 This same idea has also been used for film thickness after impact on a thin liquid film.13 A functional form for the lamella thickness is also

Koehl, Mimi

280

Triplet pair correlations and nonmonotonic supercurrent decay with Cr thickness in Nb/Cr/Fe/Nb Josephson devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

roughness and interdiffusion, an antiferromagnetic spin density wave (SDW) state can still form in Cr close to the interface. Here, we show evidence for triplet pair correlations in Josephson junctions with Cr/Fe and Cr/Fe/Cr barriers. Although the exact...

Robinson, J. W. A.; Banerjee, N.; Blamire, M. G.

2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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281

Electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices controlled by the thickness of paraelectric layer in a wide temperature range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As functions of the paraelectric layer thickness, misfit strain and temperature, the electrocaloric properties of ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices are investigated using a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau thermodynamic model. Ferroelectric phase transition driven by the relative thickness of the superlattice is found to dramatically impact the electrocaloric response. Near the phase transition temperature, the magnitude of the electrocaloric effect is maximized and shifted to lower temperatures by increasing the relative thickness of paraelectric layer. Theoretical calculations also imply that the electrocaloric effect of the superlattices depends not only on the relative thickness of paraelectric layer but also on misfit strain. Furthermore, control of the relative thickness of paraelectric layer and the misfit strain can change availably both the magnitude and the temperature sensitivity of the electrocaloric effect, which suggests that ferroelectric-paraelectric superlattices may be promising candidates for use in cooling devices in a wide temperature range.

Ma, D. C.; Lin, S. P. [Sino-French Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, W. J.; Zheng, Yue, E-mail: zhengy35@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Xiong, W. M. [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Micro and Nano Physics and Mechanics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Biao, E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

In-situ Measurement of Low-Z Material Coating Thickness on High Z Substrate for Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rutherford backscattering (RBS) of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 ?m thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 hours of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm^2 thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

Mueller, D [PPPL; Roquemore, A L [PPPL; Jaworski, M [PPPL; Skinner, C H [PPPL; Miller, J [PPPL; Creely, A [PPPL; Raman, P [2University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA; Ruzic, D [2University of Illinois, Champaign, IL, USA

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Carbon, nitrogen and $\\alpha$-element abundances determine the formation sequence of the Galactic thick and thin disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using the DR12 public release of APOGEE data, we show that thin and thick disk separate very well in the space defined by [$\\alpha$/Fe], [Fe/H] and [C/N]. Thick disk giants have both higher [C/N] and higher [$\\alpha$/Fe] than do thin disk stars with similar [Fe/H]. We deduce that the thick disk is composed of lower mass stars than the thin disk. Considering the fact that at a given metallicity there is a one-to-one relation between stellar mass and age, we are then able to infer the chronology of disk formation. Both the thick and the thin disks - defined by [$\\alpha$/Fe] -- converge in their dependance on [C/N] and [C+N/Fe] at [Fe/H]$\\approx$-0.7. We conclude that 1) the majority of thick disk stars formed earlier than did the thin disk stars 2) the formation histories of the thin and thick disks diverged early on, even when the [Fe/H] abundances are similar 3) that the star formation rate in the thin disk has been lower than in the thick disk, at all metallicities. Although these general conclusions remain ...

Masseron, T

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

HST SPECTRAL MAPPING OF L/T TRANSITION BROWN DWARFS REVEALS CLOUD THICKNESS VARIATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Most directly imaged giant exoplanets are fainter than brown dwarfs with similar spectra. To explain their relative underluminosity, unusually cloudy atmospheres have been proposed. However, with multiple parameters varying between any two objects, it remained difficult to observationally test this idea. We present a new method, sensitive time-resolved Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared spectroscopy, to study two rotating L/T transition brown dwarfs (2M2139 and SIMP0136). The observations provide spatially and spectrally resolved mapping of the cloud decks of the brown dwarfs. The data allow the study of cloud structure variations while other parameters are unchanged. We find that both brown dwarfs display variations of identical nature: J- and H-band brightness variations with minimal color and spectral changes. Our light curve models show that even the simplest surface brightness distributions require at least three elliptical spots. We show that for each source the spectral changes can be reproduced with a linear combination of only two different spectra, i.e., the entire surface is covered by two distinct types of regions. Modeling the color changes and spectral variations together reveal patchy cloud covers consisting of a spatially heterogeneous mix of low-brightness, low-temperature thick clouds and brighter, thin, and warm clouds. We show that the same thick cloud patches seen in our varying brown dwarf targets, if extended to the entire photosphere, predict near-infrared colors/magnitudes matching the range occupied by the directly imaged exoplanets that are cooler and less luminous than brown dwarfs with similar spectral types. This supports the models in which thick clouds are responsible for the near-infrared properties of these ''underluminous'' exoplanets.

Apai, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Radigan, Jacqueline; Jayawardhana, Ray [Department of Astronomy, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto M5S 3H4 (Canada); Buenzli, Esther [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 105 Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Reid, Iain Neill, E-mail: apai@as.arizona.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21212 (United States)

2013-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

285

Harmonic QPOs and Thick Accretion Disk Oscillations in BL Lac Object AO 0235+164  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Periodic outbursts are observed in many AGNs and usually explained with a supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) scenario. However, multiple periods are observed in some AGNs and cannot be explained with it. Here we analyze the periodicity of the radio light curves of AO 0235+164 at multi-frequencies and report the discovery of six QPOs in integer ratio 1:2:3:4:5:6 of QPO frequencies, of which the second with period $P_2 = (5.46 \\pm 0.47) {\\rm yr}$ is the strongest. We fit the radio light curves and show that the initial phases of six QPOs have zero or $\\pi$ differences relative to each other. We suggest a harmonic relationship of QPOs. The centroid frequency, relative strength, harmonic relationship and relative initial phases of QPOs are independent of radio frequency. The harmonic QPOs are likely due to the quasi-periodic injection of plasma from an oscillating accretion disk into the jet. We estimate the supermassive black hole mass $M_{\\rm BH} \\simeq (4.72\\pm 2.04) \\times 10^8 M_\\odot$ and the accretion rate $\\dot{m}\\simeq 0.007$. With the knowledge of accretion disk, it implies that the inner region of accretion disk of AO 0235+164 is a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The oscillation accretion is due to the p-mode oscillation of the thick disk probably excited by a SMBHB. The theoretical predications of fundamental oscillation frequency and the harmonics are well consistent with the observations. Harmonic QPOs would be absent when the thick disk becomes geometrically thin due to the increase of accretion rate. We discuss the observations of AO 0235+164 basing on the SMBHB-thick disk oscillation scenario.

F. K. Liu; G. Zhao; Xue-Bing Wu

2006-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

286

Coal-bench architecture as a means of understanding regional changes in coal thickness and quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysis of the Fire Creek (Westphalian B), Pond Creek (lower Westphalian B), and Stockton (Westphalian B) coals, three of the most heavily mined coals in the Central Appalachian Basin, shows that all have a similar multiple-bench architecture of at least two benches split by a regional clastic parting or durain. Coal benches beneath regionally extensive partings are generally less continuous, thinner, more palynologically variable, higher in ash yield, and higher in sulfur content than coal benches above regional partings in all three coals. Where thick, benches above regional partings tend to exhibit temporal palynological changes from lycopod- to fern-dominant. Where inertinite-rich/fern-dominant benches are overlain by additional benches, the upper benches are limited in extent, variable in thickness, high in sulfur content and ash yield, and split away from the coal. The multiple-bench architecture exhibited by these coals is interpreted to represent a cyclic mire succession that was common in the Middle Pennsylvanian. Peats began as planar mires infilling an irregular topography during rising base level. When the topography was infilled, unconfined flooding was possible and resulted in widespread partings. Ponding above these clay-rich flood deposits led to re-establishment of new planar mires with greater continuity than the underlying mires. The extent of these mires provided buffers to clastic influx and, in many cases, allowed domed conditions to develop. Doming resulted in thick, high-quality coal benches. In some cases, a third stage of planar peats, with similar characteristics to the planar peats at the base of the beds, developed on the unevenly distributed clastics that buried underlying mires during continued base-level rise.

Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F. [Kentucy Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States); Hower, J.C. [Center for Applied Research, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Constraining the symmetry energy from the neutron skin thickness of Tin isotopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show in the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock approach that unambiguous correlations exist between observables of finite nuclei and nuclear matter properties. Using this correlation analysis to existing data on the neutron skin thickness of Sn isotopes, we find important constraints on the value E_{sym}(rho_0) and density slope L of the nuclear symmetry energy at saturation density. Combining these constraints with those from recent analyses of isospin diffusion and double neutron/proton ratio in heavy ion collisions leads to a value of L=58\\pm 18 MeV approximately independent of E_{sym}(\\rho_0).

Lie-Wen Chen; Che Ming Ko; Jun Xu; Bao-An Li

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

288

Determination of thickness and composition of high-k dielectrics using high-energy electrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the application of high-energy elastic electron backscattering to the analysis of thin (2–20 nm) HfO{sub 2} overlayers on oxidized Si substrates. The film composition and thickness are determined directly from elastic scattering peaks characteristic of each element. The stoichiometry of the films is determined with an accuracy of 5%–10%. The experimental results are corroborated by medium energy ions scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements, and clearly demonstrate the applicability of the technique for thin-film analysis. Significantly, the presented technique opens new possibilities for nm depth profiling with high spatial resolution in scanning electron microscopes.

Grande, P. L. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Venkatachalam, D. K.; Elliman, R. G. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)] [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Nandi, S. K. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia) [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2611 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)

2013-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

289

Magnetic vortices in a distributed Josephson junction with electrodes of finite thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A distributed Josephson junction with electrodes of finite thickness is considered in the case of high critical current density when the Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub {ital j}} is less than the London depth {lambda}{sub {ital L}}. A nonlinear nonlocal equation for steady-state distributions of phase difference {ital cphi} across the junction is derived. In the asymptotical case of thin electrodes an exact nonlinear solution for this equation which corresponds to an isolated at-rest Josephson vortex is found. A numerical investigation of the equation derived is carried out and some static and dynamic characteristics of vortices in such a Josephson junction are represented.

Alfimov, G.L.; Popkov, A.F. [F. V. Lukin`s Research Institute of Physicsl Problems, Zelenograd, Moscow, 103460 (Russian Federation)] [F. V. Lukin`s Research Institute of Physicsl Problems, Zelenograd, Moscow, 103460 (Russian Federation)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Monitoring Morphological Changes in 2D Monolayer Semiconductors Using Atom-Thick Plasmonic Nanocavities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coupled modes. One weaker mode corresponds to transverse dipolar charge oscillations inside the NP alone (𝑇𝑇).7,9–11 However, the dominant modes shift to the red due to longitudinal coupling between the NP and its image in the mirror surface, forming... -ion-beam milling, mounted on a TEM grid using a nanomanipulator and polished down to a thickness of ~100nm. DF-STEM imaging was performed in a Hitachi S-5500 SEM at 30kV acceleration voltage. Theory simulations: Exact simulations are carried out using...

Sigle, Daniel O.; Mertens, Jan; Herrmann, Lars O.; Bowman, Richard W.; Ithurria, Sandrine; Dubertret, Benoit; Shi, Yumeng; Yang, Hui Ying; Tserkezis, Christos; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

291

The characterization of Lamb and Rayleigh waves in plates with ramp-like changes in thickness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-up 12 FIG. 2. 4. Sample pulse duration of Q-switched Nd: YAG laser 14 FIG. 2, 5. Acoustic wave detection set-up . FIG. 2. 6. A standard Fizeau interferometer 17 18 FIG. 2. 8. A typical bandpass filter . 23 FIG. 2. 9. The complete TAP-NDE... I INTRODUCTION In recent years, significant advances have been made in the area of non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Much of this progress involves interrogation techniques utilizing Rayleigh waves in thick structures, and Lamb waves in thin...

Uzzell, Christopher Tinsley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

292

Sensitivity of the electric dipole polarizability to the neutron skin thickness in {sup 208}Pb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The static dipole polarizability, {alpha}{sub D}, in {sup 208}Pb has been recently measured with highresolution via proton inelastic scattering at the Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP) [1]. This observable is thought to be intimately connected with the neutron skin thickness, r{sub skin}, of the same nucleus and, more fundamentally, it is believed to be associated with the density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of r{sub skin} on {alpha}{sub D} in {sup 208}Pb is investigated and discussed on the basis of a large and representative set of relativistic and non-relativistic nuclear energy density functionals (EDF) [2].

Roca-Maza, X.; Agrawal, B. K.; Colo, G.; Nazarewicz, W.; Paar, N.; Piekarewicz, J.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Vretenar, D. [INFN, sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States) and Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia); Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik II, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Croatia)

2012-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

293

The effect of stratum thickness ratio on crossflow in a stratified petroleum reservoir  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the effect of stratum thickness ratio and viscosity ratio on crossflow were studied. REVIEW OF LITERATURE The possible importance of permeability stratification in a reservoir being waterflooded was first mentioned in a paper by 1 . Lester C. Uren in f... States, API (1950) p. 160-174. 4, Dyes, A. B. and Braun, P. H. : "Sweepout Patterns in De- pleted and Stratified Reservoirs, " Producers Monthl (1954) 19, No. 2, p, 24-30. 5. Gaucher, D. H. and Lindley, D. C. : "Waterflood Performance in a Stratified...

Kereluk, Michael Joseph

1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms andmodeling and experimental capabilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For thick liquid wall concepts, it is important to understand the different mechanisms affecting the chamber dynamics and the state of the chamber prior to each shot a compared with requirements from the driver and target. These include ablation mechanisms, vapor transport and control, possible aerosol formation, as well as protective jet behavior. This paper was motivated by a town meeting on this subject which helped identify the major issues, assess the latest results, review the capabilities of existing modeling and experimental facilities with respect to addressing remaining issues, and helping guide future analysis and R&D efforts; the paper covers these exact points.

Raffray, A.R.; Meier, W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Bonazza, R.; Calderoni, P.; Debonnel, C.S.; Dragojlovic, Z.; El-Guebaly, L.; Haynes,D.; Latkowski, J.; Olson, C.; Peterson, P.F.; Reyes, S.; Sharpe, P.; Tillack, M.S.; Zaghloul, M.

2005-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

295

Formation of Thick, Large-Area Nanoparticle Superlatices in Lithographically Defined Geometries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superlattices of colloidal nanocrystals hold the promise of new nanomaterials with tunable properties. The positioning and size of these structures are often poorly controlled after self-assembly from the solution phase, making studies of their properties difficult. We report the fabrication of {approx}100 layer thick, three-dimensional superlattices on a substrate with controlled lateral placement. This novel fabrication technique generates long-range order over the micrometer scale and controlled placement by employing lithographic patterning and microfluidic flow. Keywords: Nanoparticles; superlattice; self assembly; microfluidics; ordered array.

Akey, A.; Yang, L.; Lu, C.; Herman, I.P.

2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

296

1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer as the ultimate copper diffusion barrier  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We demonstrate the thinnest ever reported Cu diffusion barrier, a 1-nm-thick graphene tri-layer. X-ray diffraction patterns and Raman spectra show that the graphene is thermally stable at up to 750?°C against Cu diffusion. Transmission electron microscopy images show that there was no inter-diffusion in the Cu/graphene/Si structure. Raman analyses indicate that the graphene may have degraded into a nanocrystalline structure at 750?°C. At 800?°C, the perfect carbon structure was damaged, and thus the barrier failed. The results of this study suggest that graphene could be the ultimate Cu interconnect diffusion barrier.

Nguyen, Ba-Son [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Jen-Fin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Perng, Dung-Ching, E-mail: dcperng@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Microelectronics and Electrical Engineering Department, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

297

A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dielectric function, band gap, and exciton binding energies of ultrathin ZnO films as a function of film thickness have been obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry. As the film thickness decreases, both real (?{sub 1}) and imaginary (?{sub 2}) parts of the dielectric function decrease significantly, and ?{sub 2} shows a blue shift. The film thickness dependence of the dielectric function is shown related to the changes in the interband absorption, discrete-exciton absorption, and continuum-exciton absorption, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect on both the band gap and exciton binding energies.

Li, X. D.; Chen, T. P., E-mail: echentp@ntu.edu.sg; Liu, P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Y. [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu 610054 (China); Liu, Z. [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Leong, K. C. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Singapore Pte Ltd, 738406 Singapore (Singapore)

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

298

Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing material toxicity. Indium phosphide (InP) offers a 'green' alternative to the traditional cadmium-based NQDs, but suffers from extreme susceptibility to oxidation. Coating InP cores with more stable shell materials significantly improves nanocrystal resistance to oxidation and photostability. We have investigated several new InP-based core-shell compositions, correlating our results with theoretical predictions of their optical and electronic properties. Specifically, we can tailor the InP core-shell QDs to a type-I, quasi-type-II, or type-II bandgap structure with emission wavelengths ranging from 500-1300 nm depending on the shell material used (ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe) and the thickness of the shell. Single molecule microscopy assessments of photobleaching and blinking are used to correlate NQD properties with shell thickness.

Dennis, Allison M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mangum, Benjamin D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Piryatinski, Andrei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Young-Shin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

299

The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV {le} E{sub {alpha}} {le} 10 MeV. The {gamma}-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the {alpha}-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the {alpha}-induced direct production {gamma}-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

Heaton, R.K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Constraints on neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and density-dependent symmetry energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accurate knowledge about the neutron skin thickness $\\Delta R_{np}$ in $^{208}$Pb has far-reaching implications for different communities of nuclear physics and astrophysics. Yet, the novel Lead Radius Experiment (PREX) did not yield stringent constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$ recently. We employ a more practicable strategy currently to probe the neutron skin thickness of $^{208}$Pb based on a high linear correlation between the $\\Delta R_{np}$ and $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$, where $J$ and $a_{\\text{sym}}$ are the symmetry energy (coefficient) of nuclear matter at saturation density and of $^{208}$Pb. An accurate $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ thus places a strong constraint on the $\\Delta R_{np}$. Compared with the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{\\text{PV}}$ in the PREX, the reliably experimental information on the $J-a_{\\text{sym}}$ is much more easily available attributed to a wealth of measured data on nuclear masses and on decay energies. The density dependence of the symmetry energy is also well constrained with the $J-a_{\\...

Dong, Jianmin; Gu, Jianzhong

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Collisionless Shocks and TeV Neutrinos before Supernova Shock Breakout from an Optically Thick Wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During a supernova explosion, a radiation-dominated shock (RDS) travels through its progenitor. A collisionless shock (CS) is usually assumed to replace it during shock breakout (SB). We demonstrate here that for some realistic progenitors enshrouded in optically thick winds, such as possibly SN 2008D, a CS forms deep inside the wind, soon after the RDS leaves the core, and therefore significantly before SB. The RDS does not survive the transition from the core to the thick wind when the wind close to the core is not sufficiently dense to compensate for the $r^{-2}$ dilution of photons due to shock curvature. This typically happens when the shock velocity is $\\lesssim 0.1 {\\rm c} \\, (\\frac{u_{\\rm w}}{10\\,{\\rm km/s}}) (\\frac{\\dot{M}}{5 \\cdot 10^{-4} \\, {\\rm M}_\\odot {\\rm /yr}})^{-1} (\\frac{r_\\ast}{10^{13}\\,{\\rm cm}})$, where $u_{\\rm w}$, $\\dot{M}$ and $r_\\ast$ are respectively the wind velocity, mass-loss rate and radius of the progenitor star. The radiative CS results in a hard spectrum of the photon flash at...

Giacinti, G

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 {at} 20 C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. < 15{sup o}) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow.

R Castelli; P Persans; W Strohmayer; V Parkinson

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Thickness Dependence of Oxygen Reduction Reaction Kinetics on Strontium-Substituted Lanthanum Manganese Perovskite Thin-Film Microelectrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) kinetics was investigated on dense La?.?Sr?.?MnO? microelectrodes as a function of temperature and microelectrode thickness using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The surface oxygen ...

la O’, G. J.

304

A new sensor concept for simultaneous measurement of pressure, temperature and thickness of plate structures using modified wave propagation theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-Acousto Photonic Non-Destructive Evaluation (TAP-NDE) is employed to remotely initiate and acquire interrogating ultrasonic waves. Parameters including pressure, temperature and plate thickness are determined through exploring the dispersion features...

Lo, Tzu-Wei

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Development of automated welding process for field fabrication of thick walled pressure vessels. (First quarterly report, FY 1981)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The choice of sets of root welding parameters is discussed. Thick field demonstration/qualification welds will be performed. A welding procedure handbook which will be prepared is mentioned. (DLC)

Schneider, U.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

The determination of the turbulent intensities in a transitional flow from a smooth to a rough wall with zero pressure gradient in a two-dimensional channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE DETERMINATION OF THE TURBULENT INTENSITIES IN A TRANSITIONAL FLOW FROM A SMOOTH TO A ROUGH WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO-DIMENSIONAL CHANNEL A Thesis By Ol3AIDU I. ISLAM Submitted to the Graduate School of. tire Agricultural... WALL WITH ZERO PRESSURE GRADIENT IN A TWO DIMENSIONAL. GHANNEL A Thesis By OBAIDUL ISLAM Approved as to style and content by: F / F Ghairma p'f mm tg Head of Department May 1963 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Grateful acknowledgment is made to the Texas...

Islam, Obaidul

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Oscillations with Co and Cu thickness of the current-perpendicular-to-plane giant magnetoresistance of a Co/Cu/Co,,001... trilayer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

located at the ferromagnet/spacer inter- faces interfacial roughness . However, a fully quantitative current-in-plane geom- etry, the dimensions of the sample in the direction of the current are always

Umerski, Andrey

308

Ice Thickness Measurements of the Southwest Greenland 2000-m Contour Line J. J. Legarsky, S.P. Gogineni, P. Kanagaratnam, T. L. Akins and Y. C. Wong  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice Thickness Measurements of the Southwest Greenland 2000-m Contour Line J. J. Legarsky, S Laborato~ performed ice thickness measurements along several flights in the southern part of Greenland. We of the Greenland. INTRODUCTION Since 1993, we have been performing radar ice thickness measurements as a part

Kansas, University of

309

Estimation of the thin ice thickness and heat flux for the Chukchi Sea Alaskan coast polynya from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager data,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of the thin ice thickness and heat flux for the Chukchi Sea Alaskan coast polynya from shows that the SSM/I thicknesses and heat fluxes are valid for ice thicknesses less than 10­20 cm, comparison with other numerical and satellite estimates of the ice production shows that although our ice

Washington at Seattle, University of

310

Wavelength- and thickness-independent optical coatings for integrated circuit metallization layers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed measurements have been made of the optical properties of sputtered tantalum silicide films on aluminum layers used in integrated circuit fabrication. This new multicomponent conductor (TaSi/sub x/ on aluminum), which is currently in use because of its exceptional electrical, physical, and chemical properties, was also found to have superior optical properties compared to aluminum alone. The addition of the thin silicide layers reduces both the total hemispherical and diffuse reflectance properties by up to 45% over the 265--800-nm wavelength range with almost no dependence on film thickness. Unlike other optical coatings used on metal layers in integrated circuit manufacturing, the silicide films do not need to be removed after photolithography and pattern transfer processes are completed: aluminum wire bonding from the completed circuit (with silicide coating) to the package is highly reliable and reproducible.

Draper, B.L.; Mahoney, A.R.; Bailey, G.A.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Extension of thickness-dependent dielectric breakdown law on adiabatically compressed ferroelectric materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is experimentally found that the E{sub b}(d) = {gamma} {center_dot} d{sup -{xi}} law describing the thickness-dependent breakdown electric field for solid dielectrics at ambient conditions can be extended for dielectrics in other thermodynamic states. It follows from the experimental results reported herein that the breakdown field, E{sub b}(d), of Pb(Zr{sub 0.95}Ti{sub 0.05})O{sub 3} (PZT 95/5) and Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT 52/48) ferroelectrics subjected to explosive adiabatic compression obeys the above-mentioned law in a wide range of voltages, up to 150 kV.

Shkuratov, Sergey I. [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)] [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Baird, Jason [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States) [Loki Incorporated, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States); Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409-0450 (United States); Talantsev, Evgueni F. [Pulsed Power LLC, Lubbock, Texas 79416 (United States)] [Pulsed Power LLC, Lubbock, Texas 79416 (United States)

2013-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

313

Fluorescence measurements for evaluating the application of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laser-induced fluorescence measurements of cuvette-contained laser dye mixtures are made for evaluation of multivariate analysis techniques to optically thick environments. Nine mixtures of Coumarin 500 and Rhodamine 610 are analyzed, as well as the pure dyes. For each sample, the cuvette is positioned on a two-axis translation stage to allow the interrogation at different spatial locations, allowing the examination of both primary (absorption of the laser light) and secondary (absorption of the fluorescence) inner filter effects. In addition to these expected inner filter effects, we find evidence that a portion of the absorbed fluorescence is re-emitted. A total of 688 spectra are acquired for the evaluation of multivariate analysis approaches to account for nonlinear effects.

Reichardt, Thomas A.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann; Jones, Howland D. T.; Sickafoose, Shane M.; Schmitt, Randal L.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nonlinear signal transformation in thickness gauging with multiple ionizing-radiation detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A maximum signal-to-noise ratio criterion has been established for the conversion of information weights for summed signals in a multidetector device for thickness gauging on sheet materials using a beam of monoenergetic photons with a given attenuation coefficient and a set of detectors with a given configuration. The source field in the detector zone is taken as uniform in the absence of the absorber. A secant transformation is used in the source use factor. The advantage of this optimal conversion is estimated. In using the multidetector system in sheet material gauging to obtain corrections for composition variations the source requirement is either a nuclide with a compound photon spectrum or a set of nuclides such as Am 241 and Co 57.

Nedavnii, O.I.

1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Design of thick aperture for fine-resolution neutron penumbral imaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Compact sources of 14-MeV neutrons have been imaged with a penumbral-coded aperture at a two-point resolution of 80{mu}m. We desire to improve the penumbral-aperture microscope to obtain resolutions as fine as 10{mu}m. In penumbral-coded-aperture imaging, the resolution is ultimately limited by the sharpness of the aperture point-spread function. I present a design for a thick penumbral aperture that provides the desired sharpness over a field of view of 150{mu}m. The point-spread function of these apertures is sufficiently isoplanatic and distortion-free to allow linear reconstruction of complex source distributions. The designs is generally appropriate for similar imaging techniques, such as fine-resolution neutron or gamma-ray pinhole imaging. 5 refs., 5 figs.

Ress, D.

1989-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

316

Correspondence Between Magnetoresistance and Magnetization in Co/Cu Multilayers Studied at Higher Spacer Layer Thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of [Cu(t{sub Cu})/Co(25 A)]{sub 25} multilayers at higher spacer layer thickness have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering. Magnetoresistance (MR) measurements have been carried out at different temperatures. MR curves showed hysteresis by displaying peaks at magnetic field H{sub p}. The field values exhibiting the maximum resistance in the magnetoresistance curve (H{sub p}) were greater than the coercivity (H{sub c}). The correspondence between the shape of the MR curve and that of the magnetization curve has been established and observed peak splitting in MR curves is attributed to a hardening in the magnetization reversal of some magnetic grains.

Patil, P. B.; Kumar, M. Senthil [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K. [Technical Physics and Prototype Engineering Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

Atac, Muzaffer (Wheaton, IL); McKay, Timothy (Ann Arbor, MI)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Calculation of shielding door thicknesses for radiation therapy facilities using the ITS Monte Carlo program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shielding calculations for door thicknesses for megavoltage radiotherapy facilities with mazes are generally straightforward. To simplify the calculations, the standard formalism adopts several approximations relating to the average beam path, scattering coefficients, and the mean energy of the spectrum of scattered radiation. To test the accuracy of these calculations, the Monte Carlo program, ITS, was applied to this problem by determining the dose and energy spectrum of the radiation at the door for 4- and 10-MV bremsstrahlung beams incident on a phantom at isocenter. This was performed for mazes, one termed 'standard' and the other a shorter maze where the primary beam is incident on the wall adjacent to the door. The peak of the photon-energy spectrum at the door was found to be the same for both types of maze, independent of primary beam energy, and also, in the case of the conventional maze, of the primary beam orientation. The spectrum was harder for the short maze and for 10 MV vs. 4 MV. The thickness of the lead door for a short maze configuration was 1.5 cm for 10 MV and 1.2 cm for 4 MV vs. approximately less than 1 mm for a conventional maze. For the conventional maze, the Monte Carlo calculation predicts the dose at the door to be lower than given by NCRP 49 and NCRP 51 by about a factor of 2 at 4 MV but to be the same at 10 MV. For the short maze, the Monte Carlo predicts the dose to be a factor of 3 lower for 4 MV and about a factor of 1.5 lower for 10 MV. Experimental results support the Monte Carlo findings for the short maze.

Biggs, P.J. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston (United States))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Method and apparatus for monitoring the thickness of a coal rib during rib formation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for monitoring the position of a mining machine cutting a new entry in a coal seam relative to an adjacent, previously cut entry to determine the distance between a near face of the adjacent previously cut entry and a new face adjacent thereto of a new entry being cut by the mining machine which together define the thickness of a coal rib being formed between the new entry and the adjacent previously cut entry during the new entry-cutting operation. The monitoring apparatus; includes a transmit antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly from the new face of the coal rib for transmitting radio energy towards the coal rib so that one portion of the radio energy is reflected by the new face which is defined at an air-coal interface between the new entry and the coal rib and another portion of the radio energy is reflected by the near face of the coal rib which is defined at an air-coal interface between the coal rib and the adjacent previously cut entry. A receive antenna mounted on the mining machine and spaced inwardly of the new face of the coal rib receives the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face and also receives the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face. A processor determines a first elapsed time period equal to the time required for the one portion of the radio energy reflected by the new face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and also determines a second elapsed time period equal to the time required for the another portion of the radio energy reflected by the near face to travel between the transmit antenna and the receive antenna and thereafter calculates the thickness of the coal rib being formed as a function of the difference between the first and second elapsed time periods.

Mowrey, Gary L. (Jefferson Boro, PA); Ganoe, Carl W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Monaghan, William D. (Dravosburg, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Lightweight plywood construction assembly : a lightweight approach to the elegant utilitarian form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What will be the fundamental aspect and concern of today's good design? As global energy reserves deplete over the coming decades, a strategy of reduced consumption will be essential to the production of furniture and ...

Kwong, Edmund Ming Yip

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Spray polyurethane foams (SPFs) have advantages over alternative insulation methods because they provide air sealing in complex assemblies, particularly roofs. Spray foam can provide the thermal, air, and vapor control layers in both new and retrofit construction. Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell SPF insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990s to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated incidents of failures (either sheathing rot or SPF delamination) that raise some general concerns about the hygrothermal performance and durability of these systems. The primary risks for roof systems are rainwater leaks, condensation from diffusion and air leakage, and built-in construction moisture. This project directly investigated rain and indirectly investigated built-in construction moisture and vapor drives. Research involved both hygrothermal modeling of a range of rain water leakage scenarios and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Other variables considered were climate zone, orientation, interior relative humidity, and the vapor permeance of the coating applied to the interior face of open cell SPF.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and Oriented Strand Board Roof Sheathing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Unvented roof strategies with open cell and closed cell spray polyurethane foam insulation sprayed to the underside of roof sheathing have been used since the mid-1990's to provide durable and efficient building enclosures. However, there have been isolated moisture related incidents reported anecdotally that raise potential concerns about the overall hygrothermal performance of these systems. The incidents related to rainwater leakage and condensation concerns. Condensation concerns have been extensively studied by others and are not further discussed in this report. This project involved hygrothermal modeling of a range of rainwater leakage and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs using spray foam insulation. All of the roof assemblies modeled exhibited drying capacity to handle minor rainwater leakage. All field evaluation locations of in-service residential roofs had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. Explorations of eleven in-service roof systems were completed. The exploration involved taking a sample of spray foam from the underside of the roof sheathing, exposing the sheathing, then taking a moisture content reading. All locations had moisture contents well within the safe range for wood-based sheathing. One full-roof failure was reviewed, as an industry partner was involved with replacing structurally failed roof sheathing. In this case the manufacturer's investigation report concluded that the spray foam was installed on wet OSB based on the observation that the spray foam did not adhere well to the substrate and the pore structure of the closed cell spray foam at the ccSPF/OSB interface was indicative of a wet substrate.

Grin, A.; Smegal, J.; Lstiburek, J.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Impact of surface roughness on the electrical parameters of industrial high efficiency NaOH-NaOCl textured multicrystalline silicon solar cell  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution (1:1 ratio by volume) based texturization process at 80-82 C is an easy, low cost and comparatively new and convenient option for fabrication of any multicrystalline silicon (mC-Si) solar cell. In the present study atomic force microscope is used to observe the intragrain surface in a miniscule area (3 {mu}m x 3 {mu}m) of NaOH-NaOCl textured surface by two and three dimensional analysis, roughness analysis and section analysis. The r.m.s value of the surface parameter of 7.0 nm ascertains the smoothness of the textured surface and further the surface reflectivity is minimized to 4-6% in the 500-1000 nm wavelength range by a proper silicon nitride anti-reflection coating. Comparing with the standard HF-HNO{sub 3}-CH{sub 3}COOH acid textured cell, the NaOH-NaOCl textured cell shows a comparatively lower value of series resistance of 7.17 m{omega}, higher value of shunt resistance of 18.4 {omega} to yield a fill factor of 0.766 leading to more than 15% cell efficiency in the industrial cell processing line. This AFM study yields different surface roughness parameters for the NaOH-NaOCl textured wafers which can be used as a reference standard for optimized texturing. (author)

Basu, P.K. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Pujahari, R.M. [Department of Physics, Echelon Institute of Technology, Faridabad 121002, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Kaur, Harpreet [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Institute of Technology and Management, Palwal 121105, Haryana (India); Singh, Devi [Department of Physics, Manav Rachna International University, Faridabad 121001, Haryana (India); Varandani, D.; Mehta, B.R. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Critical thickness and strain relaxation in molecular beam epitaxy-grown SrTiO{sub 3} films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the study of the critical thickness and the strain relaxation in epitaxial SrTiO{sub 3} film grown on (La{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 0.7})(Al{sub 0.65}Ta{sub 0.35})O{sub 3} (001) (LSAT) substrate using the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach. No change in the film's lattice parameter (both the in-plane and the out-of-plane) was observed up to a film thickness of 180 nm, which is in sharp contrast to the theoretical critical thickness of ?12 nm calculated using the equilibrium theory of strain relaxation. For film thicknesses greater than 180 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was found to decrease hyperbolically in an excellent agreement with the relaxation via forming misfit dislocations. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which the elastic strain energy can be accommodated prior to forming misfit dislocations leading to such anomalously large critical thickness.

Wang, Tianqi; Ganguly, Koustav; Marshall, Patrick; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)] [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

2013-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

325

The effect of fiber coating thickness on the interfacial properties of a continuous fiber ceramic matrix composite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The interfacial properties (coefficient of friction, residual clamping stress, residual axial stress, and debond stress) of a continuous fiber ceramic composite were determined by means of single-fiber push-out tests. The composite consisted of Nicalon{trademark} fibers, that had been coated prior to matrix infiltration with carbon layers ranging in thickness from 0.03 to 1.2 {mu}m, and a SiC matrix. It was found that the effective interfacial frictional stress decreased as the thickness of the carbon layer increased, from 24.6 {plus_minus} 9.9 MPa for a thickness of 0.03 Jim to 5.8 {plus_minus} 1.4 MPa for a thickness of 1.25 {mu}m. It was also found that both the coefficient of friction and the residual clamping stress decreased as the thickness of the carbon layer increased. These results are explained in terms of the state of residual stresses in this composite and the role of the fiber surface topography during fiber sliding.

Lara-Curzio, E.; Ferber, M.K.; Lowden, R.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Free radially expanding liquid sheet in air: time- and space-resolved measurement of the thickness field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The collision of a liquid drop against a small target results in the formation of a thin liquid sheet that extends radially until it reaches a maximum diameter. The subsequent retraction is due to the air-liquid surface tension. We have used a time- and space-resolved technique to measure the thickness field of this class of liquid sheet, based on the grey level measurement of the image of a dyed liquid sheet recorded using a fast camera. This method enables a precise measurement of the thickness in the range $(10-450) \\, \\mathrm{\\mu m}$, with a temporal resolution equal to that of the camera. We have measured the evolution with time since impact, $t$, and radial position, $r$, of the thickness, $h(r,t)$, for various drop volumes and impact velocities. Two asymptotic regimes for the expansion of the sheet are evidenced. The scalings of the thickness with $t$ and $r$ measured in the two regimes are those that were predicted in \\citet{Rozhkov2004} fort the short-time regime and \\citet{Villermaux2011} for the long time regime, but never experimentally measured before. Interestingly, our experimental data also evidence the existence of a maximum of the film thickness $h_{\\rm{max}}(r)$ at a radial position $r_{\\rm{h_{max}}}(t)$ corresponding to the crossover of these two asymptotic regimes. The maximum moves with a constant velocity of the order of the drop impact velocity, as expected theoretically. Thanks to our visualization technique, we also evidence an azimuthal thickness modulation of the liquid sheets.

Clara Vernay; Laurence Ramos; Christian Ligoure

2014-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

327

In situ measurement of the bonded film thickness of Z-Tetraol lubricant on magnetic recording media  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Currently, the bonded film thickness of perfluoropolyether lubricant on top of magnetic recording media is measured by a two-step process. First, the media disk has to be rinsed thoroughly using a fluorocarbon solvent (for instance, Vetrel) to remove the mobile lubricant. Second, the thickness of the remaining lubricant on the media surface which is regarded as the bonded lubricant thickness is then measured either by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) or electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. As the total lubricant thickness approaches single molecular dimension ({approx}10 A), current methods face tremendous challenge on the accuracy and sensitivity of the measurement. We studied the spectral characteristics responding to the lubricant bonding with the carbon overcoat by the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectra and proposed to use the peak area ratio (C{sub 3}H{sub 2}F/C{sub 3}H{sub 5}O and C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}) to characterize the bonded Z-Tetraol lubricant that produces a direct bonded lubricant thickness measurement without the need to remove the mobile lubricant with a solvent. After taking the background signal of disks prior to bonding by UV irradiation into account, this method becomes independent of the total lubricant thickness as well as shows good correlation linearity (R{sup 2{approx}}87%) with the current FTIR method for the ratio of C{sub 4}H{sub 10}O/C{sub 3}H{sub 6}O{sub 2}.

Zhu Lei; Li Feng [Material Science Laboratory, Recording Media Operation, Seagate Technology International, 16 Woodlands Loop, Singapore 738340 (Singapore)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Surface figure and roughness tolerances for NIF optics and the interpretation of the gradient, P-V wavefront and RMS specifications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a high energy laser system such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the ability to focus light into as small a spot as possible at the highest possible fluence is highly dependent on the quality of the optics used in the system. Typically, surface form errors and transmitted and reflected wavefront errors are specified in terms of a peak-to-valley wavefront error (P-V), or occasionally in terms of an RMS wavefront error (RMS) 1 . It has been shown, however, that the parameter that most closely correlates with beam focusability is neither of these, but the RMS of the gradients of the wavefront error (RMS Gradient). Further, the spatial frequency of the wavefront error plays a significant role in the way that a given error effects the performance of the laser system, so careful attention must be paid to how the spatial filtering is both specified and accomplished. Since ISO 10110 has no specific provisions for a gradient specification, LLNL has developed its own notation and procedures for these critical specifications. In evaluating surface figure errors as specified by the NIF drawings, modern phase modulating interferometers (PMI) will be used. In addition to performing QA testing of the optics, LLNL intends to utilize the software capabilities of the instruments to obtain the information to model the wavefront of the 131 passes through various optical elements comprising the NIF front end. Tests will be performed and documented after coating and as installed in the specified mechanical mounts. This paper describes the evaluation of the wavefront error for NIF small optics including specifications over a given spatial period callout, the proper low pass filtering of the data and the allowable filtering and settings that can be applied to obtain proper wavefront data. This paper also describes the origin and evolution of other NIF wavefront and roughness specifications, and gives examples. Since the wavefront requirements and hence the specifications vary for the different systems in the NIF, we will focus on one system, the injection laser system (ILS) or ''front end''. Also discussed will be the metrology and data manipulation requirements for the large aperture optics. Finally, clarification will be given to the differences between various versions of the RMS wavefront and roughness specifications allowed in ISO 10110, and how they contrast to the RMS roughness specifications used in ANSI-Y14.5.

Aikens, D M; English, R E; House, W; Lawson, J K; Nichols, M A; Whistler, W T

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thickness effects on fracture toughness of ultra-high-molecular- weight polyethylene via the J-integral  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thickness of the specimen sets ranged from 4. 11 mm to 62. 64 mm. Initiation toughness, Jq, was identified visually, semiempirically and with the ASTM offset. Morphological anisotropy of the UHMW-PE plate was also assessed and its effect on Jq evaluated. A... of 80 percent in Jq with increasing specimen thickness between 4. 11 and 37. 84 mm is suggested using a semiempirically derived blunting line. A tentative plane strain fracture toughness, Jtc, of 2. 53 kJ/m2 is also suggested using these measured...

Lehmann, Jarvis Craig

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Adaptive Projection Subspace Dimension for the Thick-Restart Lanczos Method  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Thick-Restart Lanczos (TRLan) method is an effective method for solving large-scale Hermitian eigenvalue problems. However, its performance strongly depends on the dimension of the projection subspace. In this paper, we propose an objective function to quantify the effectiveness of a chosen subspace dimension, and then introduce an adaptive scheme to dynamically adjust the dimension at each restart. An open-source software package, nu-TRLan, which implements the TRLan method with this adaptive projection subspace dimension is available in the public domain. The numerical results of synthetic eigenvalue problems are presented to demonstrate that nu-TRLan achieves speedups of between 0.9 and 5.1 over the static method using a default subspace dimension. To demonstrate the effectiveness of nu-TRLan in a real application, we apply it to the electronic structure calculations of quantum dots. We show that nu-TRLan can achieve speedups of greater than 1.69 over the state-of-the-art eigensolver for this application, which is based on the Conjugate Gradient method with a powerful preconditioner.

Yamazaki, Ichitaro; Bai, Zhaojun; Simon, Horst; Wang, Lin-Wang; Wu, K.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Localization and quasilocalization of spin-$1/2$ fermion field on two-field thick braneworld  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Localization of a spin-$1/2$ fermion on the braneworld is an important and interesting problem. It is well known that a five-dimensional free massless fermion $\\Psi$ minimally coupled to gravity cannot be localized on the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. In order to trap such a fermion, the coupling between the fermion and bulk scalar fields should be introduced. In this paper, localization and quasilocalization of a bulk fermion on the thick braneworld generated by two scalar fields (a kink scalar $\\phi$ and a dilaton scalar $\\pi$) are investigated. Two types of couplings between the fermion and two scalars are considered. One coupling is the usual Yukawa coupling $-\\eta\\bar{\\Psi}\\phi\\Psi$ between the fermion and kink scalar, another one is $\\lambda\\bar{\\Psi}\\Gamma^{M}\\partial_{M}\\pi\\gamma^{5}\\Psi$ between the fermion and dilaton scalar. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane, and both the left- and right-chiral fermion massive Kaluza-Klein modes may be localized or quasilocalized. Hence the four-dimensional massless left-chiral fermion and massive Dirac fermions, whose lifetime is infinite or finite, can be obtained on the brane.

Heng Guo; Qun-Ying Xie; Chun-E. Fu

2014-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

332

Fracture assessment of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fracture analysis was applied to full-thickness clad beam specimens containing shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) at beginning of life. The beam specimens were fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include gradients of material properties and residual stresses due to welding and cladding applications. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from load vs load-line displacement and load vs crack-mouth-opening displacement data using finite-element methods and estimation schemes based on the {eta}-factor method. One of the beams experienced a significant amount of precleavage stable ductile tearing. Effects of precleavage tearing on estimates of fracture toughness were investigated using continuum damage models. Fracture toughness results from the clad beam specimens were compared with other deep- and shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) data generated previously from A533 Grade B plate material. Range of scatter for the clad beam data is consistent with that from the laboratory-scale SENB specimens tested at the same temperature.

Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Influence of neutron-skin thickness on $?^{-}/?^{+}$ ratio in Pb+Pb collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Within an isospin- and momentum-dependent transport model IBUU11 using as an input nucleon density profiles from Hartree-Fock calculations based on a modified Skyrme-like (MSL) model, we study the influence of the uncertainty of the neutron skin thickness on the $\\pi^{-}/\\pi^{+}$ ratio in both central and peripheral Pb+Pb collisions at beam energies of 400 MeV/nucleon and 1000 MeV/nucleon. Within the current experimental uncertainty range of neutron skin in $^{208}$Pb, while the neutron skin effect on the \\rpi ratio is negligible in central reactions at both energies, it increases gradually with increasing impact parameter and becomes comparable with or even larger than the symmetry energy effect in peripheral collisions especially at 400 MeV/nucleon. Moreover, we found that while the \\rpi ratio is larger with a softer \\esym in central collisions, above certain impact parameters depending on the size of the neutron skin, a stiffer \\esym can lead to a larger \\rpi ratio as most of the pions are produced at densities below the saturation density in these peripheral reactions. Thus, a clear impact parameter selection is important to extract reliable information about the \\esym at suprasaturation densities (size of neutron skin) from the $\\pi^-/\\pi^+$ ratio in central (peripheral) heavy-ion collisions.

Gao-Feng Wei; Bao-An Li; Jun Xu; Lie-Wen Chen

2015-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

Effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a saltstone vault  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the Savannah River Site, low-level radioactive decontaminated salt solution is mixed with slag, flyash, and cement to form a grout-like material called ``Saltstone.`` The Saltstone is poured into concrete vaults constructed at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SDF is designed for the release of contaminants in a slow, controlled manner over thousands of years. The impact of SDF on groundwater has been studied in a radiological performance assessment (PA). Groundwater models were used to predict the fluid flow and contaminant transport at SDF. The models predicted a spatial contaminant concentration distribution in groundwater as a function of time. This study focuses on the roof configuration of Saltstone vault, with special interests in cost-effectiveness. We conducted a study to evaluate the effect of roof slope and thickness on the performance of a Saltstone vault. Four roof configurations were simulated. The tool used for the simulation was ECLIPSE, a finite-difference petroleum reservoir engineering code with an environmental tracer option. Nitrate was used as the ``tracer`` contaminant. In this study, ECLIPSE solves the two-phase two-dimensional flow and transport problem up to 10,000 years. This paper describes a modeling study used to evaluate roof design options for the Saltstone vault.

Yu, A.D.; Lam, Poh-Sang; Hsu, R.H.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Exploration Of Activity Measurements And Equilibrium Checks For Sediment Dating Using Thick-Window Germanium Detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activity measurements on sediment samples for trapped-charge geological dating using gamma-ray spectroscopy are an important verification of the field-site dose rate determination. Furthermore gamma-ray spectroscopy can check if the natural decay series are in secular equilibrium which is a crucial assumption in such dating. Typically the activities of leading members of the Thorium and Uranium decay series are measured, which requires Germanium detectors with thin windows and good energy resolution in order to effectively detect the associated low energy gamma-rays. Such equipment is not always readily available. The potential of conventional Germanium detectors with thick entrance window has been explored towards routine gamma-ray spectroscopy of sediment samples using higher energy gamma-rays. Alternative isotopes, such as Ac-228 and Pb-212 for the Thorium series, and Pa-234m, Ra-226 and Bi-214 for the Uranium series, have been measured in order to determine the mass-specific activity for the respective series and possibly provide a check of secular equilibrium. In addition to measurements of the K-40 activity, with the alternative approach, the activities of both decay series can be accurately determined. The secular equilibrium condition may be tested for the Thorium series. Measurement accuracy for Pa-234m is, however, not sufficient to permit also a reliable check of equilibrium for the Uranium series.

Warner, Jacob A.; Gladkis, Laura G.; Timmers, Heiko [School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences, University of New South Wales at the Australian Defence Force Academy, Canberra ACT 2602 (Australia); Fitzsimmons, Kathryn E. [Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Reynolds, Eva M. [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Ice Mass Balance Buoys: A tool for measuring and attributing changes in the thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ice Mass Balance Buoys: A tool for measuring and attributing changes in the thickness of the Arctic sea ice cover Jacqueline A. Richter-Menge1 , Donald K. Perovich1 , Bruce C. Elder1 , Keran Claffey1 Abstract Recent observational and modeling studies indicate that the Arctic sea ice cover is undergoing

Rigor, Ignatius G.

337

Observations of ice thickness and frazil ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya from satellite imagery, upward looking sonar, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oceanography: General: Remote sensing and electromagnetic processes (0689); 4540 Oceanography: Physical: Ice and growth of frazil and thin ice in polynyas play a critical role in the linkage of the atmospheric heatObservations of ice thickness and frazil ice in the St. Lawrence Island polynya from satellite

Washington at Seattle, University of

338

Effect of Pt film thickness on PtSi formation and film surface morphology Jinghua Yina,*, Wei Caib  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Platinum silicide (PtSi) has been one of the most widely used metal silicides in Si based microelectronic film thickness on the formation of platinum silicide (PtSi) phase, distribution of silicides in the literature [9­12]. According to the annealing conditions, the different silicide structures can be observed

Zheng, Yufeng

339

Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly,,3-hexylthiophene...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based spectroscopy on the P3HT:PCBM films to explain the effect of thermal annealing. By keeping the optimized shown the possibility of putting them into practical applica- tions. Polymeric solar cells based

340

AN ADJUSTABLE THICKNESS Li/Be TARGET FOR FRAGMENTATION OF 3-kW HEAVY ION BEAMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the target and is carried away by the recirculating liquid lithium loop. It is designed for high power beams in the mass range from oxygen to calcium. Tapered beryllium windows combined with a uniform thickness lithium power of up to 3 kW is currently under construction for use with beams from oxygen to calcium

Harilal, S. S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Tooling Factor Calculation In order to yield a more accurate indication of a deposited film's thickness, the rate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tooling Factor Calculation In order to yield a more accurate indication of a deposited film's thickness, the rate monitor's tooling factor attempts to compensate for necessary differences member before changing an established tooling factor. 1. Position a sample, masked on a half

Kim, Philip

342

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL SUBSTRATES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT AMORPHOUS SILICON SOLAR CELLS DEPOSITED OIN 7.5pn-1 THICK STAINLESS STEEL specific power for space application, we deposited a-Si thin film solar cells on ultra-thin stainless steel-thin stainless steel (SS) substrates (down to 7.5 pm) for space power applications. In this paper, we report our

Deng, Xunming

343

Thickness distribution of a cooling pyroclastic flow deposit on Augustine Volcano, Alaska: Optimization using InSAR,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thickness distribution of a cooling pyroclastic flow deposit on Augustine Volcano, Alaska of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 150 (2006) 186­201 www.elsevier.com/locate/jvolgeores #12;imagery have al., 2001), poroelastic rebound (Peltzer et al., 1996), cooling lava (Stevens et al., 2001

344

Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic fatigue characteristics of silica fibers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hybrid glass coatings for optical fibers: effect of coating thickness on strength and dynamic. Wojcik c , A. Walewski c a Hybrid Glass Technologies, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852, USA b Rutgers coatings. Recently developed sol-gel derived inorganic- organic hybrid materials called hybrid glass

Matthewson, M. John

345

Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings were determined using composite specimens of ceramic coated onto stainless steel substrates, tested with the coating in compression and the steel in tension. The strength of the coating was determined from an elastic bi-material analysis of the resulting failure of the coating in compression.(3) Altough initial comparisons of the materials would appear to be straight forward from these results, the results of the aging tests of the materials are necessary to insure that trends in properties remain after long term exposure to a diesel environment. Some comparisons can be made, such as the comparison between for lot-to-lot variation. An axial fatigue test to determine the high cycle fatigue behavior of TTBCs was developed at the University of Illinois under funding from this program.(4) A fatigue test apparatus has been designed and initial work performed which demonstrates the ability to provide a routine method of axial testing of coating. The test fixture replaces the normal load frame and fixtures used to transmit the hydraulic oil loading to the sample with the TTBC specimen itself. The TTBC specimen is a composite metal/coating with stainless steel ends. The coating is sprayed onto a mild steel center tube section onto which the stainless steel ends are press fit. The specimen is then machined. After machining, the specimen is placed in an acid bath which etches the mild steel away leaving the TTBC attached to the the stainless steel ends. Plugs are then installed in the ends and the composite specimen loaded in the test fixture where the hydraulic oil pressurizes each end to apply the load. Since oil transmits the load, bending loads are minimized. This test fixture has been modified to allow piston ends to be attached to the specimen which allows tensile loading as well as compressive loading of the specimen. In addition to the room temperature data, specimens have been tested at 800 Degrees C with the surprising result that at high temperature, the TTBC exhibits much higher fatigue strength. Testing of the TTBC using tension/compression cycling has been con

M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

346

Acceptance testing of the eddy current probes for measurement of aluminum hydroxide coating thickness on K West Basin fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During a recent visual inspection campaign of fuel elements stored in the K West Basin, it was noted that fuel elements contained in sealed aluminum canisters had a heavy translucent type coating on their surfaces (Pitner 1997a). Subsequent sampling of this coating in a hot cell (Pitner 1997b) and analysis of the material identified it as aluminum hydroxide. Because of the relatively high water content of this material, safety related concerns are raised with respect to long term storage of this fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). A campaign in the basin is planned to demonstrate whether this coating can be removed by mechanical brushing (Bridges 1998). Part of this campaign involves before-and-after measurements of the coating thickness to determine the effectiveness of coating removal by the brushing machine. Measurements of the as-deposited coating thickness on multiple fuel elements are also expected to provide total coating inventory information needed for MCO safety evaluations. The measurement technique must be capable of measuring coating thicknesses on the order of several mils, with a measurement accuracy of 0.5 mil. Several different methods for quantitatively measuring these thin coatings were considered in selecting the most promising approach. Ultrasonic measurement was investigated, but it was determined that due to the thin coating depth and the high water content of the material, the signal would likely pass directly through to the cladding without ever sensing the coating surface. X-ray fluorescence was also identified as a candidate technique, but would not work because the high gamma background from the irradiated fuel would swamp out the low energy aluminum signal. Laser interferometry could possibly be applied, but considerable development would be required and it was considered to be high risk on a short term basis. The consensus reached was that standard eddy current techniques for coating thickness measurement had the best chance for success in this endeavor. If proper placement and alignment of the eddy current measurement probe on the coating could be achieved, the thickness of this non-conductive coating over the conductive fuel cladding (Zircaloy 2) should be measurable based on magnetic stand-off aspects. Eddy current devices are routinely used to measure paint coating thicknesses on metal surfaces in this regard. The purpose of this report is to document the development and acceptance testing of the eddy current system conducted to qualify its use for the measurement of aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses on fuel stored in the K West Basin.

Pitner, A.L.

1998-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

347

Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutron energy spectrum from 120 GeV protons on a thick copper target was measured at the Meson Test Beam Facility (MTBF) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The data allows for evaluation of neutron production process implemented in theoretical simulation codes. It also helps exploring the reasons for some disagreement between calculation results and shielding benchmark data taken at high energy accelerator facilities, since it is evaluated separately from neutron transport. The experiment was carried out using a 120 GeV proton beam of 3E5 protons/spill. Since the spill duration was 4 seconds, proton-induced events were counted pulse by pulse. The intensity was maintained using diffusers and collimators installed in the beam line to MTBF. The protons hit a copper block target the size of which is 5cm x 5cm x 60 cm long. The neutrons produced in the target were measured using NE213 liquid scintillator detectors, placed about 5.5 m away from the target at 30^{\\circ} and 5 m 90^{\\circ} with respect to the proton beam axis. The neutron energy was determined by time-of-flight technique using timing difference between the NE213 and a plastic scintillator located just before the target. Neutron detection efficiency of NE213 was determined on basis of experimental data from the high energy neutron beam line at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The neutron spectrum was compared with the results of multi-particle transport codes to validate the implemented theoretical models. The apparatus would be applied to future measurements to obtain a systematic data set for secondary particle production on various target materials.

Nobuhiro Shigyo; Toshiya Sanami; Tsuyoshi Kajimoto; Yosuke Iwamoto; Masayuki Hagiwara; Kiwamu Saito; Kenji Ishibashi; Hiroshi Nakashima; Yukio Sakamoto; Hee-Seock Lee; Erik Ramberg; Aria A. Meyhoefer; Rick Coleman; Doug Jensen; Anthony F. Leveling; David J. Boehnlein; Nikolai V. Mokhov

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

348

Lamellar thickness and stretching temperature dependency of cavitation in semicrystalline polymers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polybutene-1 (PB-1), a typical semicrystalline polymer, in its stable form I shows a peculiar temperature dependent strain-whitening behavior when being stretched at different temperatures where the extent of strain-whitening weakens with the increasing of stretching temperature reaching a minima value followed by an increase at higher stretching temperatures. Correspondingly, a stronger strain-hardening phenomenon was observed at higher stretching temperatures. The strain-whitening phenomenon in semicrystalline polymers has its origin of cavitation process during stretching. In this work, the effect of crystalline lamellar thickness and stretching temperature on the cavitation process in PB-1 has been investigated by means of combined synchrotron ultrasmall-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering techniques. It was found that, with respect to the cavitation process, three modes of cavitation during the stretching process can be identified, namely no cavitation for sample with the thinnest lamellae where only shear yielding occurred, cavitation with reorientation for the samples stretched at lower temperatures and samples with thicker lamellae, and cavitation without reorientation for samples with thinner lamellae stretched at higher temperatures. The mode cavitation with reorientation occurs before yield point where the plate-like cavities start to be generated within the lamellar stacks with normal perpendicular to the stretching direction due to the blocky substructure of the crystalline lamellae and reorient gradually to the stretching direction after strain-hardening. The mode of cavitation without reorientation appears after yield point where ellipsoidal shaped cavities are generated in those lamellae stacks with normal parallel to the stretching direction followed by an improvement of their orientation at larger strains.

Yaotao Wang; Zhiyong Jiang; Lianlian Fu; Ying Lu; Yongfeng Men

2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

349

CORONAL THICK TARGET HARD X-RAY EMISSIONS AND RADIO EMISSIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A distinctive class of hard X-ray (HXR) sources located in the corona was recently found, which implies that the collisionally thick target model (CTTM) applies even to the corona. We investigated whether this idea can be independently verified by microwave radiations which have been known as the best companion to HXRs. This study is conducted on the GOES M2.3 class flare which occurred on 2002 September 9 and was observed by the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and the Owens Valley Solar Array. Interpreting the observed energy-dependent variation of HXR source size under the CTTM, the coronal density should be as high as 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} over a distance of up to 12''. To explain the cutoff feature of the microwave spectrum at 3 GHz, however, we require a density no higher than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}. Additional constraints must be placed on the temperature and magnetic field of the coronal source in order to reproduce the microwave spectrum as a whole. First, a spectral feature called the Razin suppression requires a magnetic field in a range of 250-350 G along with high viewing angles around 75 Degree-Sign . Second, to avoid excess fluxes at high frequencies due to the free-free emission that was not observed, we need a high temperature {>=}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K. These two microwave spectral features, Razin suppression and free-free emissions, become more significant at regions of high thermal plasma density and are essential for validating and determining additional parameters of the coronal HXR sources.

Lee, Jeongwoo [Physics Department, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States); Lim, Daye; Choe, G. S.; Kim, Kap-Sung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Minhwan [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

350

Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.1.5 IMPACT OF THE REAR SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON INDUSTRIAL-TYPE PERC SOLAR CELLS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-generation industrial solar cells as stated in the International Technology Roadmap [3]. An industrial PERC process flow27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, Germany, 24-28 September 2012, 2AO.1.5 IMPACT OF THE REAR SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON INDUSTRIAL-TYPE PERC SOLAR CELLS C.Kranz1 , S. Wyczanowski1 , S

352

Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law, these are supposed to cover only "novel" and "nonobvious" inventions, but an average  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1347 Roughly 15,000 patents a month are issued by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO).1 By law­20 hours of patent examiner time,2 and a substantial proportion of the few patents later fully evaluated the issuance of many ques- tionable patents. Responding to such concerns, the Supreme Court recently made

Sadoulet, Elisabeth

353

Influence of CdTe thickness on structural and electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of CdTe thickness on structural and electrical properties of CdTe/CdS solar cells A a b s t r a c ta r t i c l e i n f o Available online xxxx Keywords: Solar cells CdCl2 CdTe Thin absorbers Due to its high scalability and low production cost, CdTe solar cells have shown a very strong

Romeo, Alessandro

354

High quality Y-type hexaferrite thick films for microwave applications by an economical and environmentally benign crystal growth technique  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thick barium hexaferrite Ba{sub 2}Zn{sub 2}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22} (i.e., Zn{sub 2}Y) films having thicknesses of ?100??m were epitaxially grown on MgO (111) substrates using an environmentally benign ferrite-salt mixture by vaporizing the salt. X-ray diffraction pole figure analyses showed (00l) crystallographic alignment with little in plane dispersion confirming epitaxial growth. Saturation magnetization, 4?M{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 2.51?±?0.1?kG with an out of plane magnetic anisotropy field H{sub A} of 8.9?±?0.1?kOe. Ferromagnetic resonance linewidth, as the peak-to-peak power absorption derivative at 9.6?GHz, was measured to be 62?Oe. These properties demonstrate a rapid, convenient, cost-effective, and nontoxic method of growing high quality thick crystalline ferrite films which could be used widely for microwave device applications.

Hu, Bolin; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Gillette, Scott; Su, Zhijuan; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Wolf, Jason; McHenry, Michael E. [Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2014-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

355

In situ heat exchanger tube fouling thickness measurements using ultrasonics. Final report on a laboratory feasibility study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The growth of fouling layers on heat exchanger surfaces and the corrosion of heat exchanger materials exposed to seawater have been recognized since the beginning of OTEC research as basic problems which could render the concept uneconomical. Consequently, a significant effort has been directed toward predicting, measuring, identifying, explaining and solving potential biofouling and corrosion phenomena. To address this problem, the feasibility of establishing a practical microacoustic technique to measure fouling film thickness in situ on typical OTEC heat exchanger tasks was studied. Seven techniques were studied for this application, including velocity measurements, acoustic diffraction, acoustic interferometer, Doppler flow velocity, pulse echo, critical angle, and surface (shear) wave effects. Of these, the latter five were laboratory tested using conventional microacoustic system components in various configuratons. Only the pulse echo technique yielded promising results. On fouled aluminum plates, thin film layers of 40 ..mu..m and greater were measured using a focused 30 MHz ceramic transducer operated at 25 MHz; this represents a resolution of about 2/3 wavelength. Measurements made on the inside of fouled 1'' aluminum pipes yielded film thicknesses of 75 to 125 ..mu..m. The thinnest layer resolved was approximately 1-1/4 wavelength. The resolution of slime layer thicknesses in the magnitudes of OTEC interest (5 to 30 ..mu..m) using pulse echo microacoustics will require transducer development. In particular, a higher operating frequency (150 to 200 MHz) and advanced material construction is recommended for further research.

Hirshman, J; Munier, R S.C.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Fourier Transform-Plasmon Waveguide Spectroscopy: A Nondestructive Multifrequency Method for Simultaneously Determining Polymer Thickness and Apparent Index of Refraction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fourier transform (FT)-plasmon waveguide resonance (PWR) spectroscopy measures light reflectivity at a waveguide interface as the incident frequency and angle are scanned. Under conditions of total internal reflection, the reflected light intensity is attenuated when the incident frequency and angle satisfy conditions for exciting surface plasmon modes in the metal as well as guided modes within the waveguide. Expanding upon the concept of two-frequency surface plasmon resonance developed by Peterlinz and Georgiadis [ Opt. Commun. 1996, 130, 260], the apparent index of refraction and the thickness of a waveguide can be measured precisely and simultaneously by FT-PWR with an average percent relative error of 0.4%. Measuring reflectivity for a range of frequencies extends the analysis to a wide variety of sample compositions and thicknesses since frequencies with the maximum attenuation can be selected to optimize the analysis. Additionally, the ability to measure reflectivity curves with both p- and s-polarized light provides anisotropic indices of refraction. FT-PWR is demonstrated using polystyrene waveguides of varying thickness, and the validity of FT-PWR measurements are verified by comparing the results to data from profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM).

Bobbitt, Jonathan M [Ames Laboratory; Weibel, Stephen C [GWC Technologies Inc; Elshobaki, Moneim [Iowa State University; Chaudhary, Sumit [Iowa State University; Smith, Emily A.

2014-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

357

3-D Deep Penetration Neutron Imaging of Thick Absorgin and Diffusive Objects Using Transport Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A current area of research interest in national security is to effectively and efficiently determine the contents of the many shipping containers that enter ports in the United States. This interest comes as a result of the 9/11 Commission Act passed by Congress in 2007 that requires 100% of inbound cargo to be scanned by 2012. It appears that this requirement will be achieved by 2012, but as of February of 2009 eighty percent of the 11.5 million inbound cargo containers were being scanned. The systems used today in all major U.S. ports to determine the presence of radioactive material within cargo containers are Radiation Portal Monitors (RPM). These devices generally exist in the form of a gate or series of gates that the containers can be driven through and scanned. The monitors are effective for determining the presence of radiation, but offer little more information about the particular source. This simple pass-fail system leads to many false alarms as many everyday items emit radiation including smoke detectors due to the Americium-241 source contained inside, bananas, milk, cocoa powder and lean beef due to the trace amounts of Potassium-40, and fire brick and kitty litter due to their high clay content which often contains traces of uranium and thorium. In addition, if an illuminating source is imposed on the boundary of the container, the contents of the container may become activated. These materials include steel, aluminum and many agricultural products. Current portal monitors also have not proven to be that effective at identifying natural or highly enriched uranium (HEU). In fact, the best available Advanced Spectroscopic Portal Monitors (ASP) are only capable of identifying bare HEU 70-88% of the time and masked HEU and depleted uranium (DU) only 53 percent of the time. Therefore, a better algorithm that uses more information collected from better detectors about the specific material distribution within the container is desired. The work reported here explores the inverse problem of optical tomography applied to heterogeneous domains. The neutral particle transport equation was used as the forward model for how neutral particles stream through and interact within these heterogeneous domains. A constrained optimization technique that uses Newtons method served as the basis of the inverse problem. Optical tomography aims at reconstructing the material properties using (a) illuminating sources and (b) detector readings. However, accurate simulations for radiation transport require that the particle (gamma and/or neutron) energy be appropriate discretize in the multigroup approximation. This, in turns, yields optical tomography problems where the number of unknowns grows (1) about quadratically with respect to the number of energy groups, G, (notably to reconstruct the scattering matrix) and (2) linearly with respect to the number of unknown material regions. As pointed out, a promising approach could rely on algorithms to appropriately select a material type per material zone rather than G2 values. This approach, though promising, still requires further investigation: (a) when switching from cross-section values unknowns to material type indices (discrete integer unknowns), integer programming techniques are needed since derivative information is no longer available; and (b) the issue of selecting the initial material zoning remains. The work reported here proposes an approach to solve the latter item, whereby a material zoning is proposed using one-group or few-groups transport approximations. The capabilities and limitations of the presented method were explored; they are briefly summarized next and later described in fuller details in the Appendices. The major factors that influenced the ability of the optimization method to reconstruct the cross sections of these domains included the locations of the sources used to illuminate the domains, the number of separate experiments used in the reconstruction, the locations where measurements were collected, the optical thickness of the domain, the amount of sign

Jean Ragusa; Wolfgang Bangerth

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

A new ice thickness and bedrock data set for the Greenland ice sheet. R.L. Layberry, J.L. Bamber,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combined with data collected by the Technical University of Denmark in the 1970's to produce a new iceA new ice thickness and bedrock data set for the Greenland ice sheet. R.L. Layberry, J.L. Bamber of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045, 785/864-2700, U.S. Abstract - Ice thickness data collected between 1993

Kansas, University of

359

Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the course of this grant, we perfected emissivity and accommodation coefficient measurements on polymer ICF shells in the temperature range 250 to 350 K. Values for polystyrene shells are generally between 10{sup -2} and 10{sup -3}, which are very advantageous for ICF at cryogenic temperatures. Preliminary results on Br doped target shells indicate an accommodation coefficient, presumably associated with surface roughness on an atomic scale, about an order of magnitude larger than for ordinary polystyrene target shells. We also constructed apparatus with optical access for low temperature tensile strength and emissivity measurements, and made preliminary tests on this system. Magnetic shells were obtained both from GDP coating and from doping styrene with 10 manometer size ferromagnetic particles. The magnetic properties were measured through electron spin resonance (ESR). These experiments confirm the applicability of the Curie law, and establish the validity of using ESR measurements to determine shell temperature in the low temperature regime from 4K to 250K, thus complementing our presently accessible range. The high electron spin densities (> 10{sup 20}/CM{sup 3}) suggest magnetic levitation should be feasible at cryogenic temperatures. This work has resulted in two conference presentations, a Technical Report, a paper to be published in Fusion Technology, and a Master`s Thesis.

Honig, A.

1995-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

360

Rough Paths Theory Fabrice Baudoin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

set of lifted paths x? : [0,1] ? GN (Rd) with respect to the distance in p-variation ... as we will see, admits a canonical lift in ?p ..... esV etV = esV +tV = etV esV .

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Fundamental Mechanisms of Interface Roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Publication quality results were obtained for several experiments and materials systems including: (i) Patterning and smoothening of sapphire surfaces by energetic Ar+ ions. Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiments were performed in the system at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) X21 beamline. Ar+ ions in the energy range from 300 eV to 1000 eV were used to produce ripples on the surfaces of single-crystal sapphire. It was found that the ripple wavelength varies strongly with the angle of incidence of the ions, which increase significantly as the angle from normal is varied from 55° to 35°. A smooth region was found for ion incidence less than 35° away from normal incidence. In this region a strong smoothening mechanism with strength proportional to the second derivative of the height of the surface was found to be responsible for the effect. The discovery of this phase transition between stable and unstable regimes as the angle of incidence is varied has also stimulated new work by other groups in the field. (ii) Growth of Ge quantum dots on Si(100) and (111). We discovered the formation of quantum wires on 4° misoriented Si(111) using real-time GISAXS during the deposition of Ge. The results represent the first time-resolved GISAXS study of Ge quantum dot formation. (iii) Sputter deposition of amorphous thin films and multilayers composed of WSi2 and Si. Our in-situ GISAXS experiments reveal fundamental roughening and smoothing phenomena on surfaces during film deposition. The main results of this work is that the WSi2 layers actually become smoother during deposition due to the smoothening effect of energetic particles in the sputter deposition process.

Randall L. Headrick

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

362

Improvements in Low-Frequency, Ultrasonic Phased-Array Evaluation for Thick Section Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Piping Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research is being conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to assess the effectiveness and reliability of advanced nondestructive examination (NDE) methods for the inspection of light water reactor (LWR) components. A primary objective of this work is to evaluate various NDE methods to assess their ability to detect, localize, and size cracks in coarse-grained steel components. This particular study focused on the evaluation of custom-designed, low-frequency (500 kHz) phased-array (PA) probes for examining welds in thick-section cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) piping. In addition, research was conducted to observe ultrasonic sound field propagation effects from known coarse-grained microstructures found in parent CASS material. The study was conducted on a variety of thick-wall, coarse-grained CASS specimens that were previously inspected by an older generation 500-kHz PA-UT probe and acquisition instrument configuration. This comparative study describes the impact of the new PA probe design on flaw detection and sizing in a low signal-to-noise environment. The set of Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group (PWROG) CASS specimens examined in this study are greater than 50.8-mm (2.0-in.) thick with documented flaws and microstructures. These specimens are on loan to PNNL from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) NDE Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. The flaws contained within these specimens are thermal fatigue cracks (TFC) or mechanical fatigue cracks (MFC) and range from 13% to 42% in through-wall extent. In addition, ultrasonic signal continuity was evaluated on two CASS parent material ring sections by examining the edge-of-pipe response (corner geometry) for regions of signal loss.

Anderson, Michael T.; Crawford, Susan L.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Moran, Traci L.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The hard X-ray spectrum of Compton-thick Seyfert 2 galaxies and the synthesis of the XRB  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A synthesis model for the cosmic X-ray Background (XRB) is presented, which includes a proper treatment of Compton scattering in the absorbing matter for type 2 AGN. Evidence for a decrease of the relative importance of type 2 AGN at high redshift is found, which may be due either to a decrease of the relative number of obscured sources, or (more plausibly) to an increase of the fraction of Compton-thick absorbed sources. The XRB spectrum, soft X-rays and hard X-rays source counts can be simultaneously fitted only if the XRB normalization as derived from BeppoSAX/MECS measurements is adopted.

Giorgio Matt; Fulvio Pompilio; Fabio La Franca

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

364

Laser-ultrasound spectroscopy apparatus and method with detection of shear resonances for measuring anisotropy, thickness, and other properties  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for detecting shear resonances includes structure and steps for applying a radiation pulse from a pulsed source of radiation to an object to generate elastic waves therein, optically detecting the elastic waves generated in the object, and analyzing the elastic waves optically detected in the object. These shear resonances, alone or in combination with other information, may be used in the present invention to improve thickness measurement accuracy and to determine geometrical, microstructural, and physical properties of the object. At least one shear resonance in the object is detected with the elastic waves optically detected in the object. Preferably, laser-ultrasound spectroscopy is utilized to detect the shear resonances.

Levesque, Daniel (Terrebonne, CA); Moreau, Andre (St-Bruno-de-Montarville, CA); Dubois, Marc (Montreal, CA); Monchalin, Jean-Pierre (Montreal, CA); Bussiere, Jean (St-Bruno, CA); Lord, Martin (Beloeil, CA); Padioleau, Christian (Montreal, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Investigation of the effect of water content, thickness and optical properties on laser ablation of biological tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Polyacrylamide gel was used as an experimental model for biological tissue in the thickness experiments using the Er:YAG laser. The mass of the gel was measured before and after ablation. The front diameter of ablation was also monitored. The ablation rate... was studied as a function of gel position. By moving the polyacrylamide gel away from the biconvex lens, the beam diameter of the Er:YAG laser was increased. The ablation rate decreased almost exponentially with increasing beam diameter as did the energy...

Vaidyanathan, Varadarajan

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

"Instantaneous superluminality" in a bimetallic wire consisting of a superconducting aluminum wire plated with a thick copper covering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Maxwell's equations applied to a superconducting wire (aluminum) covered with a thick nonsuperconducting sheath (copper), in combination with the superfluid velocity equation for Cooper pairs which obeys DeWitt's minimal coupling rule, implies an instantaneous streamline flow that leads to the phenomenon of "instantaneous superluminality," in which a Cooper pair can disappear from the left end of the wire and instantaneously reappear at the right end of the wire. Relativistic causality is not violated by this superluminal phenomenon, which involves analytic, finite bandwidth waveforms whose spectrum lies below the BCS gap frequency. Experiments are proposed to test these ideas.

R. Y. Chiao

2010-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

Thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy in thin Ni films electrodeposited onto the (011) and (001) surfaces of n-GaAs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Brillouin light scattering from thermal spin waves has been exploited to investigate the thickness dependence of magnetic anisotropy of Ni films, with thickness in the range 7-35 nm, grown by electrodeposition onto either (011)- or (001)-GaAs substrates. In the former case, Ni films exhibit a well-defined in-plane uniaxial anisotropy induced by the symmetry of the substrate. In the case of the (001)-GaAs substrate, instead, the magnetic anisotropy results from a combination of both a fourfold and a twofold contribution. The physical mechanisms responsible for the observed anisotropy, as well as its dependence on film thickness, are discussed in detail.

Gubbiotti, G.; Carlotti, G.; Tacchi, S.; Liu, Y.-K.; Scheck, C.; Schad, R.; Zangari, G. [INFM CRS-SOFT, c/o Universita di Roma 'La Sapienza', I-00185, Rome (Italy); INFM UdR-Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); INFM-National Center for nanoStructures and bioSystem at Surfaces (S3) Modena, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); IINFM UdR-Perugia, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa Alabama 35401 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Center for Electrochemical Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Dependence of the efficiency of a CdS/CdTe solar cell on the absorbing layer's thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On the basis of the continuity equation, the spatial distribution of photogenerated excess electrons in the neutral region of the CdTe layer in a CdS/CdTe heterostructure is analyzed taking into account recombination at the rear surface of the layer. It is demonstrated that, owing to diffusion, excess electrons penetrate deep into the CdTe layer at distances far exceeding the effective penetration length for solar radiation. Calculations of the short-circuit current indicate that, for electron lifetimes of 10{sup -10}-10{sup -9} s, typical of thin-film CdS/CdTe solar cells, recombination losses are insignificant if the CdTe layer's thickness amounts to 3-4 {mu}m but increase dramatically if the thickness is below 1-1.5 {mu}m. In order to eliminate recombination losses in more efficient solar cells where the electron lifetime is {>=}10{sup -8} s the absorbing CdTe layer needs to be much thicker.

Kosyachenko, L. A., E-mail: lakos@chv.ukrpack.net; Savchuk, A. I.; Grushko, E. V. [Chernivtsi National University (Ukraine)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Viscoelastic fluid flow in a 2D channel bounded above by a deformable finite thickness elastic wall  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steady flow of three viscoelastic fluids (Oldroyd-B, FENE-P, and Owens model for blood) in a two-dimensional channel, partly bound by a deformable, finite thickness neo-Hookean solid, is computed. The limiting Weissenberg number beyond which computations fail to converge is found to increase with increasing dimensionless solid elasticity parameter {\\Gamma}, following the trend Owens > FENE- P > Oldroyd-B. The highly shear thinning nature of Owens model leads to the elastic solid always collapsing into the channel, for the wide range of values of {\\Gamma} considered here. In the case of the FENE-P and Oldroyd-B models, however, the fluid-solid interface can be either within the channel, or bulge outwards, depending on the value of {\\Gamma}. This behaviour differs considerably from predictions of earlier models that treat the deformable solid as a zero-thickness membrane, in which case the membrane always lies within the channel. The capacity of the solid wall to support both pressure and shear stress, in c...

Chakraborty, Debadi

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Spatial variation of void ratio and shear band thickness in sand using X-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of spatial variation of void ratio and shear band thickness measurements is presented in this paper. A prismatic sand specimen that initially measured 57{center_dot}4 mm wide x 120{center_dot}5 mm long x 182{center_dot}1 mm high was sheared under plane-strain (biaxial) loading conditions. The specimen was prepared at a relative density of 79% using F-75 Ottawa sand. X-ray computed tomography was used to scan the specimen before shearing and after the onset of the shear band. The specimen failed through a single shear band with an inclination angle of 65{center_dot}6{sup o} measured from the direction of the minor principal stress. Computer algorithms were developed to calibrate CT images and quantify void ratio (e) variation within the specimen. CT data analysis revealed cross-sectional spatial variation in void ratio where density is higher in regions close to the edges of the specimen due to membrane effects and confining pressure with no significant variation in void ratio in the axial direction (top to bottom) before shearing. The shear band was easily identified from the CT images, and analysis of void ratio showed a noticeable jump in void ratio profile across the shear band. A detailed statistical summary of the thickness of the shear band and variation of void ratio across the shear band is presented and discussed.

Alshibli, K.A.; Hasan, A. (LSU)

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Liquid crystal films as on-demand, variable thickness (50–5000?nm) targets for intense lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have developed a new type of target for intense laser-matter experiments that offers significant advantages over those currently in use. The targets consist of a liquid crystal film freely suspended within a metal frame. They can be formed rapidly on-demand with thicknesses ranging from nanometers to micrometers, where the particular value is determined by the liquid crystal temperature and initial volume as well as by the frame geometry. The liquid crystal used for this work, 8CB (4?-octyl-4-cyanobiphenyl), has a vapor pressure below 10{sup ?6}?Torr, so films made at atmospheric pressure maintain their initial thickness after pumping to high vacuum. Additionally, the volume per film is such that each target costs significantly less than one cent to produce. The mechanism of film formation and relevant physics of liquid crystals are described, as well as ion acceleration data from the first shots on liquid crystal film targets at the Ohio State University Scarlet laser facility.

Poole, P. L., E-mail: poole.134@osu.edu; Andereck, C. D.; Schumacher, D. W.; Daskalova, R. L.; Feister, S.; George, K. M.; Willis, C.; Akli, K. U.; Chowdhury, E. A. [Physics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 209Bi, natPb, 197Au, 181Ta, 169Tm, natIn, 93Nb, 64Zn, 65Cu, 63Cu, 59Co, 19F, and 12C samples and in 121 27Al samples. All the samples were aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples were placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al(p,x)7Be monitor reaction. The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

Yu. E. Titarenko; V. F. Batyaev; A. Yu. Titarenko; M. A. Butko; K. V. Pavlov; R. S. Tikhonov; S. N. Florya; S. G. Mashnik; W. Gudowski

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

373

Thickness-modulated optical dielectric constants and band alignments of HfO{sub x}N{sub y} gate dielectrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thickness-modulated optical dielectric constants and band alignments of HfO{sub x}N{sub y} films grown by sputtering have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Based on SE measurements, it has been noted that an increase in optical dielectric constant and band gap has been observed as a function of the film thickness. Analyses of thickness-dependent band alignment of the HfO{sub x}N{sub y}/Si system indicate that the valence band offset increases, but only slight change in the conduction band offset, resulting from the thickness-induced change in the structure. The suitable optical dielectric constants and band offsets relative to Si make sputtering-derived HfO{sub x}N{sub y} film a promising candidate for high-k gate dielectrics.

He, G.; Zhang, L. D.; Liu, M.; Zhang, J. P.; Wang, X. J. [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Anhui Key Laboratory of Nanomaterials and Nanostructure, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhen, C. M. [Department of Physics, Hebei Advanced Thin Films Laboratory, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050016 (China)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Patient perceptions of 595 nm pulsed dye laser through glass compression in the treatment of thick port wine stains and superficial venous malformations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

23. PubMed 2. Boffa MJ. Pulsed dye laser treatment of thick/Patient perceptions of 595 nm pulsed dye laser through glasswith the 595 nm pulse dye laser, we have sometimes

Klapman, Marvin H; Sosa, Valentina B; Mattson-Gates, Gail F; Baker, Cynthia N; Ong, Victor L; Yao, Janis F

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Flight of the Fruit Fly There comes a time in each of our lives where we grab a thick section of the morning paper, roll it up  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flight of the Fruit Fly There comes a time in each of our lives where we grab a thick section questions. I will begin by describing our automated apparatus for recording the free flight of fruit flies

Goldberg, Bennett

376

Influence of compensator thickness, field size, and off-axis distance on the effective attenuation coefficient of a cerrobend compensator for intensity-modulated radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be performed by using compensators. To make a compensator for an IMRT practice, it is required to calculate the effective attenuation coefficient (?{sub eff}) of its material, which is affected by various factors. We studied the effect of the variation of the most important factors on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} of the cerrobend compensator for 6-MV photon beams, including the field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis distance. Experimental measurements were carried out at 100 cm source-to-surface distance and 10 cm depth for the 6-MV photon beams of an Elekta linac using various field size, compensator thickness, and off-axis settings. The field sizes investigated ranged from 4 × 4 to 25 × 25 cm{sup 2} and the cerrobend compensator thicknesses from 0.5–6 cm. For a fixed compensator thickness, variation of the ?{sub eff} with the field size ranged from 3.7–6.8%, with the highest value attributed to the largest compensator thickness. At the reference field size of 10 × 10 cm{sup 2}, the ?{sub eff} varied by 16.5% when the compensator thickness was increased from 0.5–6 cm. However, the variation of the ?{sub eff} with the off-axis distance was only 0.99% at this field size, whereas for the largest field size, it was more significant. Our results indicated that the compensator thickness and field size have the most significant effect on the calculation of the compensator ?{sub eff} for the 6-MV photon beam. Therefore, it is recommended to consider these parameters when calculating the compensator thickness for an IMRT practice designed for these beams. The off-axis distance had a significant effect on the calculation of the ?{sub eff} only for the largest field size. Hence, it is recommended to consider the effect of this parameter only for field sizes larger than 25 × 25 cm{sup 2}.

Haghparast, Abbas [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eivazi, Mohammad Taghi [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Theoretical comparison of multiple quantum wells and thick-layer designs in InGaN/GaN solar cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This theoretical work analyzes the photovoltaic effect in non-polar InGaN/GaN solar cells. Our electronic transport model considers quantum behaviors related to confinement, tunneling, electron-phonon, and electron-photon scatterings. Based on this model, we compare a multiple quantum wells cell with its thick-layer counterpart. We show that the structure of multiple quantum wells is a promising design providing better compromise between photon-absorption and electronic transport. This balance is necessary since these two phenomena are shown to be antagonist in nanostructure based solar cells. In these devices, we also show that phonon absorption increases the short-circuit current, while phonon emission reduces the open-circuit voltage.

Cavassilas, Nicolas; Michelini, Fabienne; Bescond, Marc [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13384 Marseille (France)

2014-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

378

Effect of antiferromagnetic layer thickness on exchange bias, training effect, and magnetotransport properties in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic antidot arrays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer on exchange bias (EB), training effect, and magnetotransport properties in ferromagnetic (FM) /AFM nanoscale antidot arrays and sheet films Ag(10?nm)/Co(8?nm)/NiO(t{sub NiO})/Ag(5?nm) at 10?K is studied. The AFM layer thickness dependence of the EB field shows a peak at t{sub NiO}?=?2?nm that is explained by using the random field model. The misalignment of magnetic moments in the three-dimensional antidot arrays causes smaller decrease of EB field compared with that in the sheet films for training effect. The anomalous magnetotransport properties, in particular positive magnetoresistance (MR) for antidot arrays but negative MR for sheet films are found. The training effect and magnetotransport properties are strongly affected by the three-dimensional spin-alignment effects in the antidot arrays.

Gong, W. J.; Liu, W., E-mail: wliu@imr.ac.cn; Feng, J. N.; Zhang, Z. D. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Kim, D. S.; Choi, C. J. [Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 531 Changwon- daero, Changwon 631-831 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

379

Electric dipole response of 208Pb from proton inelastic scattering: constraints on neutron skin thickness and symmetry energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electric dipole (E1) response of 208Pb has been precisely determined by measuring Coulomb excitation induced by proton scattering at very forward angles. The electric dipole polarizability, defined as inverse energy-weighted sum rule of the E1 strength, has been extracted as 20.1+-0.6 fm^3. The data can be used to constrain the neutron skin thickness of 208Pb to 0.168(+-0.009)_expt(+-0.013)_theo(+-0.021)_est fm, where the subscript "expt" refers to the experimental uncertainty, "theor" to the theoretical confidence band and "est" to the uncertainty associated with the estimation of the symmetry energy at the saturation density. In addition, a constraint band has been extracted in the plane of the symmetry energy (J) and its slope parameter (L) at the saturation density.

A. Tamii; P. von Neumann-Cosel; I. Poltoratska

2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

380

Formation of solar cells based on Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) ferroelectric thick film  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Growth of Ba{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (BST) 1 M thick films are conducted with variation of annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours at a constant temperature of 850 °C on p-type Si (100) substrate using sol-gel method then followed by spin coating process at 3000 rpm for 30 seconds. The BST thick film electrical conductivity is obtained to be 10{sup ?5} to 10{sup ?4} S/cm indicate that the BST thick film is classified as semiconductor material. The semiconductor energy band gap value of BST thick film based on annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours, and 29 hours are 2.58 eV, 3.15 eV, 3.2 eV and 2.62 eV, respectively. The I-V photovoltaic characterization shows that the BST thick film is potentially solar cell device, and in accordance to annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, 22 hours and 29 hours have respective solar cell energy conversion efficiencies of 0.343%, 0.399%, 0.469% and 0.374%, respectively. Optical spectroscopy shows that BST thick film solar cells with annealing hold time of 8 hours, 15 hours, and 22 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ? 700 nm. BST film samples with annealing hold time of 29 hours absorb effectively light energy at wavelength of ? 700 nm. The BST thick film refraction index is between 1.1 to 1.8 at light wavelength between ±370 to 870 nm.

Irzaman,, E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Syafutra, H., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Arif, A., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com; Alatas, H., E-mail: irzaman@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, FMIPA Bogor Agricultural Unversity, Campus Darmaga Gedung Wing S Bogor (Indonesia); Hilaluddin, M. N.; Kurniawan, A.; Iskandar, J.; Dahrul, M.; Ismangil, A.; Yosman, D.; Aminullah [Department of Biophysics, FMIPA Bogor Agricultural Unversity (Indonesia); Prasetyo, L. B. [Department of Forest Resources Conservation, FAHUTAN, Bogor Agricultural Unversity, Campus Darmaga Bogor (Indonesia); Yusuf, A.; Kadri, T. M. [LAPAN Rancabungur Ciampea Bogor (Indonesia)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thick Buildings [Standards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Occupant Behavior in Buildings, New Directions forSacramento, is a thin building that surrounds an atrium. (Performance of a Green Building," Urban UndQune 1992): 23-

Coffin, Christie Johnson

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Wind tunnel simulation of wind effects and associated displacement hazards on flat surface construction materials such as plywood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and converted to velocity using the dynamic pressure conversion equation (developed in Appendix A) Q I = 0. 00256 V (2) The individual pressures measured at the ports were averaged across the area represented by each port to yield an integrated pressure... layer undergoes a transition to turbulent. The Reynolds number for laminar flow on a flat plate varies from approximately 3. 2 x 10' to 3. 0 x 10 depending on the relative smoothness of the plate surface [Parker, 1974]. The data for these tests were...

Madeley, Jack T.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Critical shell thickness for InAs-Al{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As(P) core-shell nanowires  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

InAs nanowires with Al{sub x}In{sub 1-x}P or Al{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As shells were grown on GaAs substrates by the Au-assisted vapour-liquid-solid method in a gas source molecular beam epitaxy system. Core diameters and shell thicknesses were measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These measurements were then related to selected area diffraction patterns to verify either interface coherency or relaxation through misfit dislocations. A theoretical strain model is presented to determine the critical shell thickness for given core diameters. Zincblende stiffness parameters are transformed to their wurtzite counterparts via a well known tensor transformation. An energy criterion is then given to determine the shell thickness, at which coherency is lost and dislocations become favourable. Our model only considers axial strain relieved by edge dislocations since they were the only type of dislocation observed directly by TEM.

Haapamaki, C. M.; LaPierre, R. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, Centre for Emerging Device Technologies, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada); Baugh, J. [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

384

ALMA 690 GHz OBSERVATIONS OF IRAS 16293-2422B: INFALL IN A HIGHLY OPTICALLY THICK DISK  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present sensitive, high angular resolution ({approx}0.''2) submillimeter continuum and line observations of IRAS 16293-2422B made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array. The 0.45 mm continuum observations reveal a single and very compact source associated with IRAS 16293-2422B. This submillimeter source has a deconvolved angular size of about 400 mas (50 AU) and does not show any inner structure inside of this diameter. The H{sup 13}CN, HC{sup 15}N, and CH{sub 3}OH line emission regions are about twice as large as the continuum emission and reveal a pronounced inner depression or ''hole'' with a size comparable to that estimated for the submillimeter continuum. We suggest that the presence of this inner depression and the fact that we do not see an inner structure (or a flat structure) in the continuum are produced by very optically thick dust located in the innermost parts of IRAS 16293-2422B. All three lines also show pronounced inverse P-Cygni profiles with infall and dispersion velocities larger than those recently reported from observations at lower frequencies, suggesting that we are detecting faster and more turbulent gas located closer to the central object. Finally, we report a small east-west velocity gradient in IRAS 16293-2422B that suggests that its disk plane is likely located very close to the plane of the sky.

Zapata, Luis A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Hernandez-Hernandez, Vicente [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Takahashi, Satoko; Trejo, Alfonso [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Parise, Berengere [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

385

Welding for testability: An approach aimed at improving the ultrasonic testing of thick-walled austenitic and dissimilar metal welds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Austenitic and dissimilar welds in thick walled components show a coarse grained, dendritic microstructure. Therefore, ultrasonic testing has to deal with beam refraction, scattering and mode conversion effects. As a result, the testing techniques typically applied for isotropic materials yield dissatisfying results. Most approaches for improvement of ultrasonic testing have been based on modeling and improved knowledge of the complex wave propagation phenomena. In this paper, we discuss an alternative approach: is it possible to use a modified welding technology which eliminates the cause of the UT complications, i.e. the large-grained structure of the weld seams? Various modification parameters were tested, including: TIG current pulsing, additional DC and AC magnetic fields, and also additional external vibrations during welding. For all welds produced under different conditions, the grain structure of the weld seam was characterized by optical and GIUM microstructure visualizations on cross sections, wave field propagation measurements, and ultrasonic tests of correct detectability of flaws. The mechanical properties of the welds were also tested.

Wagner, Sabine; Dugan, Sandra [Materials Testing Institute University of Stuttgart (MPA), Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Barth, Martin; Schubert, Frank; Köhler, Bernd [Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing, Dresden Branch (IZFP-D), Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, 01109 Dresden (Germany)

2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

386

Predicting the steady state thickness of passive films with the Point Defect Model in fretting corrosion experiments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Some implants have approximately a lifetime of 15 years. The femoral stem, for example, should be made of 316L/316LN stainless steel. Fretting corrosion, friction under small displacements, should occur during human gait, due to repeated loadings and un-loadings, between stainless steel and bone for instance. Some experimental investigations of fretting corrosion have been practiced. As well known, metallic alloys and especially stainless steels are covered with a passive film that prevents from the corrosion and degradation. This passive layer of few nanometers, at ambient temperature, is the key of our civilization according to some authors. This work is dedicated to predict the passive layer thicknesses of stainless steel under fretting corrosion with a specific emphasis on the role of proteins. The model is based on the Point Defect Model (micro scale) and an update of the model on the friction process (micro-macro scale). Genetic algorithm was used for finding solution of the problem. The major results a...

Geringer, Jean; Taylor, Mathew L

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Formation and optical properties of CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures with different CdTe thicknesses grown on Si (100) substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out to investigate the formation and the optical properties of CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures with various CdTe thicknesses grown on Si (100) substrates by using molecular beam epitaxy and atomic layer epitaxy. AFM images showed that uniform CdTe/ZnTe quantum dots with a CdTe layer thickness of 2.5 ML (monolayer) were formed on Si (100) substrates. The excitonic peaks corresponding to transitions from the ground electronic subband to the ground heavy-hole band in the CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures shifted to a lower energy with increasing thickness of the CdTe layer. The activation energies of the carriers confined in the CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures grown on Si (100) substrates were obtained from the temperature-dependent PL spectra. The present observations can help improve understanding of the formation and the optical properties in CdTe/ZnTe nanostructures with different CdTe thicknesses grown on Si (100) substrates.

Lee, H. S.; Park, H. L.; Lee, I.; Kim, T. W. [Department of Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Semiconductor Research Center, Division of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

388

Experimental study of blade thickness effects on the overall and local performances of a Controlled Vortex Designed axial-flow fan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of thick blades could lead to a good compromise between aerodynamic and acoustic performances, on a wider af- fect both their overall and acoustical performances. An example of one parameter for actuators then implies thicker blades. The rotomoulding process -- previously tested for wind turbine blades

Boyer, Edmond

389

3. A. A. Sadovoi and N. M. Chulkov, "Distribution of kinetic energy dissipation into thermal energy over a spherical shell thickness because of viscosity," in: Calculation Algorithms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3. A. A. Sadovoi and N. M. Chulkov, "Distribution of kinetic energy dissipation into thermal energy over a spherical shell thickness because of viscosity," in: Calculation Algorithms of Engineering and N. M. Chulkov, "Inertial convergence of cylindrical and spherical shells of incompressible

Alexandrov, Victor

390

Heat Transfer -2 A heat generating ( ) flat plate fuel element of thickness 2L is covered with flat plate steel cladding of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with flat plate steel cladding of thickness b. The heat generated is removed by a fluid at T, which adjoins on both sides On the sketch show regions where dT/dx is zero, constant and increasing. T , h x LL bb SteelSteel

Virginia Tech

391

The significant effect of the thickness of Ni film on the performance of the Ni/Au Ohmic contact to p-GaN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The significant effect of the thickness of Ni film on the performance of the Ohmic contact of Ni/Au to p-GaN is studied. The Ni/Au metal films with thickness of 15/50?nm on p-GaN led to better electrical characteristics, showing a lower specific contact resistivity after annealing in the presence of oxygen. Both the formation of a NiO layer and the evolution of metal structure on the sample surface and at the interface with p-GaN were checked by transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that a too thin Ni film cannot form enough NiO to decrease the barrier height and get Ohmic contact to p-GaN, while a too thick Ni film will transform into too thick NiO cover on the sample surface and thus will also deteriorate the electrical conductivity of sample.

Li, X. J.; Zhao, D. G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, D. S.; Liu, Z. S.; Chen, P.; Zhu, J. J.; Le, L. C.; Yang, J.; He, X. G. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S. M.; Zhang, B. S.; Liu, J. P. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yang, H. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

392

Surface barrier height for different Al compositions and barrier layer thicknesses in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we present a physics based analytical model for the calculation of surface barrier height for given values of barrier layer thicknesses and Al mole fractions. An explicit expression for the two dimensional electron gas density is also developed incorporating the change in polarization charges for different Al mole fractions.

Goyal, Nitin, E-mail: goyalnitin.iitr@gmail.com; Fjeldly, Tor A. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Iniguez, Benjamin [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

393

High resolution cortical thickness measurement from clinical CT data G.M. Treece, A.H. Gee, P.M. Mayhew and K.E.S. Poole  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) methods of assessing hip structure, most notably with multi-detector computed tomography, MDCT (Bouxsein and technically limited by thresholding errors caused by relatively low resolution data sets. Ideally, we wouldHigh resolution cortical thickness measurement from clinical CT data G.M. Treece, A.H. Gee, P

Drummond, Tom

394

IEEETRANSACTIONS ON SONICS AND ULTRASONICS,VOL. SU-30, NO. 4, JULY 1983 231 ln Vivo Measurement of Thickness or of Speed of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and for in vivo thickness measurement of the mitral valve andin viiro measurementof the aorticand tricuspid valves, many othertissues of interest which also canbe thinner than the range resolution length suchas valves. The reflection coefficient R and the transmission coefficient T,expressed in decibels, for the ex- tended media

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

395

formation of the main deposit. At lower current densities, it is possible to deposit only this extremely thin tin film: it is 5 nm thick  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Whereas the 200-nm copper and 300-nm tin films in Fig. 4 have a thickness close to that predicted. We propose the following mechan- istic explanation of this effect. First, in thin cells problems of Li rechargeable batteries. Indeed, cycling efficiency of Li batteries is drastically reduced

Stocker, Thomas

396

Anomalous thickness-dependent strain states and strain-tunable magnetization in Zn-doped ferrite epitaxial films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 3?x}O{sub 4} (ZFO, x?=?0.4) thin films were epitaxially deposited on single-crystal (001)-SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The anomalous thickness-dependent strain states of ZFO films were found, i.e., a tensile in-plane strain exists in the thinner ZFO film and which monotonously turns into compressive in the thicker films. Considering the lattice constant of bulk ZFO is bigger than that of STO, this strain state cannot be explained in the conventional framework of lattice-mismatch-induced strain in the hetero-epitaxial system. This unusual phenomenon is proposed to be closely related to the Volmer-Weber film growth mode in the thinner films and incorporation of the interstitial atoms into the island's boundaries during subsequent epitaxial growth of the thicker films. The ZFO/STO epitaxial film is found in the nature of magnetic semiconductor by transport measurements. The in-plane magnetization of the ZFO/STO films is found to increase as the in-plane compressive strain develops, which is further proved in the (001)-ZFO/PMN-PT film where the film strain state can be in situ controlled with applied electric field. This compressive-strain-enhanced magnetization can be attributed to the strain-mediated electric-field-induced in-plane magnetic anisotropy field enhancement. The above results indicate that strain engineering on magnetic oxide semiconductor ZFO films is promising for novel oxide-electronic devices.

Yang, Y. J.; Bao, J.; Gao, C., E-mail: zlluo@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Yang, M. M.; Luo, Z. L., E-mail: zlluo@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: cgao@ustc.edu.cn; Hu, C. S.; Chen, X. C.; Pan, G. Q. [National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Huang, H. L. [CAS Key Laboratory of Materials for Energy Conversion, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, S.; Wang, J. W.; Li, P. S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. G. [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics, Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Jiang, T.; Liu, Y. K.; Li, X. G. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science, Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

397

Investigation on edge fringing effect and oxide thickness dependence of inversion current in metal-oxide-semiconductor tunneling diodes with comb-shaped electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A particular edge-dependent inversion current behavior of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) tunneling diodes was investigated utilizing square and comb-shaped electrodes. The inversion tunneling current exhibits the strong dependence on the tooth size of comb-shaped electrodes and oxide thickness. Detailed illustrations of current conduction mechanism are developed by simulation and experimental measurement results. It is found that the electron diffusion current and Schottky barrier height lowering for hole tunneling current both contribute on inversion current conduction. In MOS tunneling photodiode applications, the photoresponse can be improved by decreasing SiO{sub 2} thickness and using comb-shaped electrodes with smaller tooth spacing. Meantime, the high and steady photosensitivity can also be approached by introducing HfO{sub 2} into dielectric stacks.

Lin, Chien-Chih; Hsu, Pei-Lun; Lin, Li; Hwu, Jenn-Gwo, E-mail: jghwu@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

398

Optical-resolution photoacoustic imaging through thick tissue with a thin capillary as a dual optical-in acoustic-out waveguide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrate the ability to guide high-frequency photoacoustic waves through thick tissue with a water-filled silica-capillary (150 \\mu m inner diameter and 30 mm long). An optical-resolution photoacoustic image of a 30 \\mu m diameter absorbing nylon thread was obtained by guiding the acoustic waves in the capillary through a 3 cm thick fat layer. The transmission loss through the capillary was about -20 dB, much lower than the -120 dB acoustic attenuation through the fat layer. The overwhelming acoustic attenuation of high-frequency acoustic waves by biological tissue can therefore be avoided by the use of a small footprint capillary acoustic waveguide for remote detection. We finally demonstrate that the capillary can be used as a dual optical-in acoustic-out waveguide, paving the way for the development of minimally invasive optical-resolution photoacoustic endoscopes free of any acoustic or optical elements at their imaging tip.

Simandoux, Olivier; Gateau, Jerome; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Moser, Christophe; Psaltis, Demetri; Bossy, Emmanuel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

The frequency of tropopause-level thick and thin cirrus clouds as observed by CALIPSO and the relationship to relative humidity and outgoing longwave radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

schematic of the location of the SPCZ and the ITCZ in the Pacific Ocean................................................... 40 3 Three month average of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) for DJF provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD... THE FREQUENCY OF TROPOPAUSE-LEVEL THICK AND THIN CIRRUS CLOUDS AS OBSERVED BY CALIPSO AND THE RELATIONSHIP TO RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND OUTGOING LONGWAVE RADIATION A Thesis by ALLISON L. CARDONA Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

Cardona, Allison Leanne

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

400

Effect of Thick Film Firing Conditions on the Solderability and Structure of Au-Pt-Pd Conductor for Low-Temperature, Co-Fired Ceramic Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature, co-fired ceramics (LTCC) are the substrate material-of-choice for a growing number of multi-chip module (MCM) applications. Unlike the longer-standing hybrid microcircuit technology based upon alumina substrates, the manufacturability and reliability of thick film solder joints on LTCC substrates have not been widely studied. An investigation was undertaken to fully characterize such solder joints. A surface mount test vehicle with Daisy chain electrical connections was designed and built with Dupont{trademark} 951 tape. The Dupont{trademark} 4569 thick film ink (Au76-Pt21 -Pd3 wt.%) was used to establish the surface conductor pattern. The conductor pattern was fired onto the LTCC substrate in a matrix of process conditions that included: (1) double versus triple prints, (2) dielectric frame versus no frame, and (3) three firing temperatures (800 C, 875 C and 950 C). Pads were examined from the test vehicles. The porosity of the thick film layers was measured using quantitative image analysis in both the transverse and short transverse directions. A significant dependence on firing temperature was recorded for porosity. Solder paste comprised of Sn63-Pb37 powder with an RMA flux was screen printed onto the circuit boards. The appropriate components, which included chip capacitors of sizes 0805 up to 2225 and 50 mil pitch, leadless ceramic chip carriers having sizes of 16 I/O to 68 I/O, were then placed on the circuit boards. The test vehicles were oven reflowed under a N{sub 2} atmosphere. The solderability of the thick film pads was also observed to be sensitive to the firing conditions. Solderability appeared to degrade by the added processing steps needed for the triple print and dielectric window depositions. However, the primary factor in solderability was the firing temperature. Solderability was poorer when the firing temperature was higher.

Hernandez, C.L; Vianco, P.T.

1999-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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401

buffer Layer Growth, the Thickness Dependence of Jc in Coated Conductors, Local Identification of Current Limiting Mechanisms and Participation in the Wire Development Group  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary thrusts of our work were to provide critical understanding of how best to enhance the current-carrying capacity of coated conductors. These include the deconstruction of Jc as a function of fim thickness, the growth of in situ films incorporating strong pinning centers and the use of a suite of position-sensitive tools that enable location and analysis of key areas where current-limiting occurs.

Larbalestier, David; Hellstron, Eric; Abraimov, Dmytro

2011-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

402

Expression of proliferative and inflammatory markers in a full-thickness human skin equivalent following exposure to the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sulfur mustard is a potent vesicant that induces inflammation, edema and blistering following dermal exposure. To assess molecular mechanisms mediating these responses, we analyzed the effects of the model sulfur mustard vesicant, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, on EpiDerm-FT{sup TM}, a commercially available full-thickness human skin equivalent. CEES (100-1000 {mu}M) caused a concentration-dependent increase in pyknotic nuclei and vacuolization in basal keratinocytes; at high concentrations (300-1000 {mu}M), CEES also disrupted keratin filament architecture in the stratum corneum. This was associated with time-dependent increases in expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker of cell proliferation, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and phosphorylated histone H2AX, markers of DNA damage. Concentration- and time-dependent increases in mRNA and protein expression of eicosanoid biosynthetic enzymes including COX-2, 5-lipoxygenase, microsomal PGE{sub 2} synthases, leukotriene (LT) A{sub 4} hydrolase and LTC{sub 4} synthase were observed in CEES-treated skin equivalents, as well as in antioxidant enzymes, glutathione S-transferases A1-2 (GSTA1-2), GSTA3 and GSTA4. These data demonstrate that CEES induces rapid cellular damage, cytotoxicity and inflammation in full-thickness skin equivalents. These effects are similar to human responses to vesicants in vivo and suggest that the full thickness skin equivalent is a useful in vitro model to characterize the biological effects of mustards and to develop potential therapeutics.

Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Hayden, Patrick J. [MatTek Corporation, Ashland, MA (United States); Casillas, Robert P. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Health Sciences, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Gerecke, Donald R. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.ed [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Synthesis and characterization of 10?nm thick piezoelectric AlN films with high c-axis orientation for miniaturized nanoelectromechanical devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The scaling of piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) is challenged by the synthesis of ultrathin and high quality piezoelectric films on very thin electrodes. We report the synthesis and characterization of the thinnest piezoelectric aluminum nitride (AlN) films (10?nm) ever deposited on ultrathin platinum layers (2–5?nm) using reactive sputtering. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and fast Fourier transform analyses confirmed the proper crystal orientation, fine columnar texture, and the continuous lattice structure within individual grains in the deposited AlN nanometer thick films. The average extracted d{sub 31} piezoelectric coefficient for the synthesized films is ?1.73 pC/N, which is comparable to the reported values for micron thick and highly c-axis oriented AlN films. The 10?nm AlN films were employed to demonstrate two different types of optimized piezoelectric nanoactuators. The unimorph actuators exhibit vertical displacements as large as 1.1??m at 0.7?V for 25??m long and 30?nm thick beams. These results have a great potential to realize miniaturized NEMS relays with extremely low voltage, high frequency resonators, and ultrasensitive sensors.

Zaghloul, Usama, E-mail: uzheiba@andrew.cmu.edu [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Microelectronics Department, Electronics Research Institute, 33 El Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza (Egypt); Piazza, Gianluca [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

404

Epitaxial growth of 100-?m thick M-type hexaferrite crystals on wide bandgap semiconductor GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thick barium hexaferrite BaFe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (BaM) films having thicknesses of ?100??m were epitaxially grown on GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates from a molten-salt solution by vaporizing the solvent. X-ray diffraction measurement verified the growth of BaM (001) textured growth of thick films. Saturation magnetization, 4?M{sub s}, was measured for as-grown films to be 4.6 ± 0.2 kG and ferromagnetic resonance measurements revealed a microwave linewidth of ?100?Oe at X-band. Scanning electron microscopy indicated clear hexagonal crystals distributed on the semiconductor substrate. These results demonstrate feasibility of growing M-type hexaferrite crystal films on wide bandgap semiconductor substrates by using a simple powder melting method. It also presents a potential pathway for the integration of ferrite microwave passive devices with active semiconductor circuit elements creating system-on-a-wafer architectures.

Hu, Bolin; Su, Zhijuan; Bennett, Steve; Chen, Yajie, E-mail: y.chen@neu.edu; Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

405

Thickness Effect of Al-Doped ZnO Window Layer on Damp Heat Stability of CuInGaSe2 Solar Cells: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the damp heat (DH) stability of CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells as a function of thickness of the Al-doped ZnO (AZO) window layer from the 'standard' 0.12 ?m to a modest 0.50 ?m over an underlying 0.10-?m intrinsic ZnO buffer layer. The CIGS cells were prepared with external electrical contact using fine Au wire to the tiny 'standard' Ni/Al (0.05 ?m/3 ?m) metal grid contact pads. Bare cell coupons and sample sets encapsulated in a specially designed, Al-frame test structure with an opening for moisture ingress control using a TPT backsheet were exposed to DH at 85oC and 85% relative humidity, and characterized by current-voltage (I-V), quantum efficiency (QE), and (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (ECIS). The results show that bare cells exhibited rapid degradation within 50-100 h, accompanied by film wrinkling and delamination and corrosion of Mo and AlNi grid, regardless of AZO thickness. In contrast, the encapsulated cells did not show film wrinkling, delamination, and Mo corrosion after 168 h DH exposure; but the trend of efficiency degradation rate showed a weak correlation to the AZO thickness.

Pern, F. J.; Mansfield, L.; DeHart, C.; Glick, S. H.; Yan, F.; Noufi, R.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Effect of firing conditions on thick film microstructure and solder joint strength for low-temperature, co-fired ceramic substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low-temperature, co-fired ceramics (LTCC) are the substrate material-of-choice for a growing number of multi-chip module (MCM) applications. Unlike the longer-standing hybrid microcircuit technology based upon alumina substrates, the manufacturability and reliability of thick film solder joints on LTCC substrates have not been widely studied. An investigation was undertaken to fully characterize solder joints on these substrates. A surface mount test vehicle with Daisy chain electrical connections was designed and built with Dupont{trademark} 951 tape. The Dupont{trademark} 4569 thick film ink (Au76-Pt21-Pd3 wt.%) was used to establish the surface conductor pattern. The conductor pattern was fired onto the LTCC substrate in a matrix of processing conditions that included: (1) double versus triple prints, (2) dielectric window versus no window, and (3) three firing temperatures (800 C, 875 C and 950 C). Sn63-Pb37 solder paste with an RMA flux was screen printed onto the circuit boards. The appropriate packages, which included five sizes of chip capacitors and four sizes of leadless ceramic chip carriers, were placed on the circuit boards. The test vehicles were oven reflowed under a N{sub 2} atmosphere. Nonsoldered pads were removed from the test vehicles and the porosity of their thick film layers was measured using quantitative image analysis in both the transverse and short transverse directions. A significant dependence on firing temperature was recorded for porosity. The double printed substrates without a dielectric window revealed a thick film porosity of 31.2% at 800 C, 26.2% at 875 C and 20.4% at 950 C. In contrast, the thick film porosity of the triple printed substrates with a dielectric window is 24.1% at 800 C, 23.2% at 875 C and 17.6% at 950 C. These observations were compared with the shear strength of the as-fabricated chip capacitor solder joints to determine the effect of firing conditions on solder joint integrity. The denser films from the higher firing temperatures had correspondingly higher shear strengths. The 0805 chip capacitor had a shear strength of 12.6 {+-} 1.4 lbs. at 800 C, 13.3 {+-} 1.9 lbs. at 875 C and 13.6 {+-} 1.4 lbs. at 950 C for the triple printed substrates with a dielectric window. The trend was similar for the larger capacitors; the 1912's exhibiting shear strengths of 20.5 {+-} 4.8 lbs. at 800 C, 26.2 {+-} 1.7 lbs, at 875 C and 29.0 {+-} 0.2 lbs. at 950 C.

Hernandez, C.L.; Vianco, P.T.; Rejent, J.A.

2000-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

407

Measurements of delayed neutrons yields and time spectra from 1 GeV protons interacting with thick {sup nat}Pb targets  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the preliminary results on measured delayed neutron (DN) yields and time spectra from 1 GeV protons interacting with thick {sup nat}Pb targets. In parallel, the MCNPX and PHTTS codes were used to predict the DN precursors and construct the theoretical DN tables. Different model parameters are examined and show significant dependence on the choice of the intra-nuclear cascade and fission-evaporation models used. These data and modeling are of great importance for the new generation spallation neutron sources based on liquid metal technologies where a significant amount of the DN precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. (authors)

Ridikas, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Barzakh, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Blideanu, V.; David, J. C.; Dore, D. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fedorov, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Ledoux, X. [CEA Bruyeres, DIF/DPTA, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Moroz, F.; Panteleev, V. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Plukis, A.; Plukiene, R. [Inst. of Physics, Savanoriu pr. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Prevost, A. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Shcherbakov, O.; Vorobyev, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., Leningrad district, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

The thick-target {sup 9}Be(d,n) neutron spectra for deuteron energies between 2.6 and 7.0-MeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The measurement of the zero deg. neutron spectra and yields from deuterons incident on thick beryllium metal targets is described. {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fission ion chambers were used as neutron detectors to span the neutron energy range above 0.05-MeV with a time resolution of {le} 3 nanosec. Measurements were made for incident deuteron energies from 2.6 to 7.0-MeV, at 0.4-MeV intervals, using time-of-flight techniques with flight paths of 2.7 and 6.8 meters. The results are presented in graphical form and in tables.

Meadows, J.W.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The thick-target sup 9 Be(d,n) neutron spectra for deuteron energies between 2. 6 and 7. 0-MeV  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The measurement of the zero deg. neutron spectra and yields from deuterons incident on thick beryllium metal targets is described. {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U fission ion chambers were used as neutron detectors to span the neutron energy range above 0.05-MeV with a time resolution of {le} 3 nanosec. Measurements were made for incident deuteron energies from 2.6 to 7.0-MeV, at 0.4-MeV intervals, using time-of-flight techniques with flight paths of 2.7 and 6.8 meters. The results are presented in graphical form and in tables.

Meadows, J.W.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Annealing temperature and barrier thickness effect on the structural and optical properties of silicon nanocrystals/SiO{sub 2} superlattices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the annealing temperature and the SiO{sub 2} barrier thickness of silicon nanocrystal (NC)/SiO{sub 2} superlattices (SLs) on their structural and optical properties is investigated. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the SL structure is maintained for annealing temperatures up to 1150?°C, with no variation on the nanostructure morphology for different SiO{sub 2} barrier thicknesses. Nevertheless, annealing temperatures as high as 1250?°C promote diffusion of Si atoms into the SiO{sub 2} barrier layers, which produces larger Si NCs and the loss of the NC size control expected from the SL approach. Complementary Raman scattering measurements corroborated these results for all the SiO{sub 2} and Si-rich oxynitride layer thicknesses. In addition, we observed an increasing crystalline fraction up to 1250?°C, which is related to a decreasing contribution of the suboxide transition layer between Si NCs and the SiO{sub 2} matrix due to the formation of larger NCs. Finally, photoluminescence measurements revealed that the emission of the superlattices exhibits a Gaussian-like lineshape with a maximum intensity after annealing at 1150?°C, indicating a high crystalline degree in good agreement with Raman results. Samples submitted to higher annealing temperatures display a progressive emission broadening, together with an increase in the central emission wavelength. Both effects are related to a progressive broadening of the size distribution with a larger mean size, in agreement with TEM observations. On the other hand, whereas the morphology of the Si NCs is unaffected by the SiO{sub 2} barrier thickness, the emission properties are slightly modified. These observed modifications in the emission lineshape allow monitoring the precipitation process of Si NCs in a direct non-destructive way. All these experimental results evidence that an annealing temperature of 1150?°C and 1-nm SiO{sub 2} barrier can be reached whilst preserving the SL structure, being thus the optimal structural SL parameters for their use in optoelectronics.

López-Vidrier, J., E-mail: jlopezv@el.ub.edu; Hernández, S.; López-Conesa, L.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B. [MIND–IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E–08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hiller, D.; Gutsch, S.; Zacharias, M. [IMTEK, Faculty of Engineering, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Georges-Köhler-Allee 103, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Estradé, S. [MIND–IN2UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E–08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM–MAT, CCiT–UB, Scientific and Technological Center - University of Barcelona, Solé i Sabarís 1, E–08028 Barcelona (Spain)

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

Pull strength evaluation of Sn-Pb solder joints made to Au-Pt-Pd and Au thick film structures on low-temperature co-fired ceramic -final report for the MC4652 crypto-coded switch (W80).  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study was performed that examined the microstructure and mechanical properties of 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) solder joints made to thick film layers on low-temperature co-fired (LTCC) substrates. The thick film layers were combinations of the Dupont{trademark} 4596 (Au-Pt-Pd) conductor and Dupont{trademark} 5742 (Au) conductor, the latter having been deposited between the 4596 layer and LTCC substrate. Single (1x) and triple (3x) thicknesses of the 4596 layer were evaluated. Three footprint sizes were evaluated of the 5742 thick film. The solder joints exhibited excellent solderability of both the copper (Cu) lead and thick film surface. In all test sample configurations, the 5742 thick film prevented side wall cracking of the vias. The pull strengths were in the range of 3.4-4.0 lbs, which were only slightly lower than historical values for alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) substrates. General (qualitative) observations: (a) The pull strength was maximized when the total number of thick film layers was between two and three. Fewer that two layers did not develop as strong of a bond at the thick film/LTCC interface; more than three layers and of increased footprint area, developed higher residual stresses at the thick film/LTCC interface and in the underlying LTCC material that weakened the joint. (b) Minimizing the area of the weaker 4596/LTCC interface (e.g., larger 5742 area) improved pull strength. Specific observations: (a) In the presence of vias and the need for the 3x 4596 thick film, the preferred 4596:5742 ratio was 1.0:0.5. (b) For those LTCC components that require the 3x 4596 layer, but do not have vias, it is preferred to refrain from using the 5742 layer. (c) In the absence of vias, the highest strength was realized with a 1x thick 5742 layer, a 1x thick 4596 layer, and a footprint ratio of 1.0:1.0.

Uribe, Fernando; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

Ocko, B.M.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Enhanced thermoelectric performance of rough silicon nanowires  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chen2 *, Raul Diaz Delgado1 , Wenjie Liang1 , Erik C. Garnett1 , Mark Najarian3 , Arun Majumdar2 used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Here we report the electrochemical

Yang, Peidong

414

Micromechanical modeling of rough interface behavior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is highly nonlinear and does not follow the Hertz power law. It was also shown that the shear behavior of the interfaces under constant normal stress exhibits two distinct regimes during shear loading. In the small shear displacement regime, the smooth...

Huang, Shiping

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

415

A Rough Road Leads To The Stars  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β-ResearchNew MethodAlp ofA Review

416

Behavior of the Diamond Difference and Low-Order Nodal Numerical Transport Methods in the Thick Diffusion Limit for Slab Geometry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to investigate the thick diffusion limit of various spatial discretizations of the one-dimensional, steady-state, monoenergetic, discrete ordinates neutron transport equation. This work specifically addresses the two lowest order nodal methods, AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1, as well as reconsiders the asymptotic limit of the Diamond Difference method. The asymptotic analyses of the AHOT-N0 and AHOT-N1 nodal methods show that AHOT-N0 does not possess the thick diffusion limit for cell edge or cell average fluxes except under very limiting conditions, which is to be expected considering the AHOT-N0 method limits to the Step method in the thick diffusion limit. The AHOT-N1 method, which uses a linear in-cell representation of the flux, was shown to possess the thick diffusion limit for both cell average and cell edge fluxes. The thick diffusion limit of the DD method, including the boundary conditions, was derived entirely in terms of cell average scalar fluxes. It was shown that, for vacuum boundaries, only when {sigma}{sub t}, h, and Q are constant and {sigma}{sub a} = 0 is the asymptotic limit of the DD method close to the finite-differenced diffusion equation in the system interior, and that the boundary conditions between the systems will only agree in the absence of an external source. For a homogeneous medium an effective diffusion coefficient was shown to be present, which was responsible for causing numeric diffusion in certain cases. A technique was presented to correct the numeric diffusion in the interior by altering certain problem parameters. Numerical errors introduced by the boundary conditions and material interfaces were also explored for a two-region problem using the Diamond Difference method. A discrete diffusion solution which exactly solves the one-dimensional diffusion equation in a homogeneous region with constant cross sections and a uniform external source was also developed and shown to be equal to the finite-differenced diffusion discretization for c = 1 in the system interior, where again the boundary conditions again only agree in the absence of an external source. It was also shown that for c < 1 the exact discrete diffusion solution is written in terms of hyperbolic functions, with expressions which limit to the exact solution for the c = 1 case as c {yields} 1. Finally, a transport discretization is developed which reproduces the exact S2 solution for the case of a purely scattering homogeneous region with vacuum boundary conditions, and an extension to the discretization for the case of c < 1 is found by considering a Taylor series expansion of the exact answer centered at c = 0.

Gill DF

2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

417

Demonstrating 1 nm-oxide-equivalent-thickness HfO{sub 2}/InSb structure with unpinning Fermi level and low gate leakage current density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the band alignment, interface, and electrical characteristics of HfO{sub 2}/InSb metal-oxide-semiconductor structure have been investigated. By using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the conduction band offset of 1.78 ± 0.1 eV and valence band offset of 3.35 ± 0.1 eV have been extracted. The transmission electron microscopy analysis has shown that HfO{sub 2} layer would be a good diffusion barrier for InSb. As a result, 1 nm equivalent-oxide-thickness in the 4 nm HfO{sub 2}/InSb structure has been demonstrated with unpinning Fermi level and low leakage current of 10{sup ?4} A/cm{sup ?2}. The D{sub it} value of smaller than 10{sup 12} eV{sup ?1}cm{sup ?2} has been obtained using conduction method.

Trinh, Hai-Dang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Lin, Yueh-Chin; Nguyen, Hong-Quan; Luc, Quang-Ho [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Nguyen, Minh-Thuy; Duong, Quoc-Van; Nguyen, Manh-Nghia [Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)] [Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Wang, Shin-Yuan [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Chiao Tung University 1001, University Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)] [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Chiao Tung University 1001, University Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Yi Chang, Edward [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, National Chiao Tung University 1001, University Rd., Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

Method and apparatus to produce and maintain a thick, flowing, liquid lithium first wall for toroidal magnetic confinement DT fusion reactors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fusion reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

Woolley, Robert D. (Hillsborough, NJ)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Method and Apparatus to Produce and Maintain a thick, flowing, Liquid Lithium first wall for Toroidal Magnetic Confinement DT Fusion Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A system for forming a thick flowing liquid metal, in this case lithium, layer on the inside wall of a toroid containing the plasma of a deuterium-tritium fission reactor. The presence of the liquid metal layer or first wall serves to prevent neutron damage to the walls of the toroid. A poloidal current in the liquid metal layer is oriented so that it flows in the same direction as the current in a series of external magnets used to confine the plasma. This current alignment results in the liquid metal being forced against the wall of the toroid. After the liquid metal exits the toroid it is pumped to a heat extraction and power conversion device prior to being reentering the toroid.

Woolley, Robert D.

1998-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Applying Infrared Thermography as a Quality-Control Tool for the Rapid Detection of Proton-Electrolyte-Membrane-Fuel-Cell Catalyst-Layer-Thickness Variations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As fuel cells become more prominent, new manufacturing and production methods are needed to enable increased volumes with high quality. One necessary component of this industrial growth will be the accurate measurement of the variability of a wide range of material properties during the manufacturing process. In this study, a method to detect defects in fuel cell catalyst layers is investigated through experiment and mathematical simulation. The method uses infrared thermography and direct-current electronic-excitation methods to detect variations in platinum-containing catalyst-layer thickness with high spatial and temporal resolution. Data analysis, operating-condition impacts, and detection limits are explored, showing the measurement of defects on the millimeter length scale. Overall, the experimental and modeling results demonstrate great potential of this technique as a nondestructive method to measure defects that is amenable to use on roll-to-roll manufacturing lines.

Aieta, N. V.; Das, P. K.; Perdue, A.; Bender, G.; Herring, A. M.; Weber, A. Z.; Ulsh, M. J.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

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421

Structural, magnetic, and mechanical properties of 5 {mu}m thick SmCo films suitable for use in microelectromechanical systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

5 {mu}m thick SmCo films were deposited onto Si substrates using triode sputtering. A study of the influence of deposition temperature (T{sub dep}{<=}600 deg. C) on the structural, magnetic, and mechanical properties has shown that optimum properties [highest degree of in-plane texture, maximum in-plane coercivity and remanence (1.3 and 0.8 T, respectively), and no film peel-off] are achieved for films deposited at the relatively low temperature of 350 deg. C. This temperature is compatible with film integration into microelectromechanical systems. The deposition rate was increased from 3.6 to 18 {mu}m/h by increasing the surface area of the target from 7 to 81 cm{sup 2} while keeping the target potential fixed. Mechanically intact films could be prepared by deposition onto prepatterned films or deposition through a mask.

Walther, A. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA Leti-MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Givord, D.; Dempsey, N. M. [Institut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 rue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Khlopkov, K.; Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute of Metallic Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

Recovery Act: Novel Kerf-Free PV Wafering that provides a low-cost approach to generate wafers from 150um to 50um in thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The technical paper summarizes the project work conducted in the development of Kerf-Free silicon wafering equipment for silicon solar wafering. This new PolyMax technology uses a two step process of implantation and cleaving to exfoliate 50um to 120um wafers with thicknesses ranging from 50um to 120um from a 125mm or 156mm pseudo-squared silicon ingot. No kerf is generated using this method of wafering. This method of wafering contrasts with the current method of making silicon solar wafers using the industry standard wire saw equipment. The report summarizes the activity conducted by Silicon Genesis Corporation in working to develop this technology further and to define the roadmap specifications for the first commercial proto-type equipment for high volume solar wafer manufacturing using the PolyMax technology.

Fong, Theodore E.

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

423

Thick psychophysiology for empathic design  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Over the course of six years, I brought ambulatory psychophysiology into a variety of industries as a means of conducting design research. I looked at the stress of children in occupational therapy, the frustration of ...

Hedman, Elliott B. (Elliot Bruce)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Method and apparatus for measuring casing wall thickness using a flux generating coil with radial sensing coils and flux leakage sensing coils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a casing wall inspection device controlled at an earth surface position for continual testing of well casing, comprising: a main coil axially aligned with the casing axis; means for energizing the main coil with an alternating current voltage to produce a primary flux distribution enveloping the casing adjacent the main coil; a plurality of radial sensing coils disposed in equi-spaced circumfery with each radial sensing coil placed radially outward from the main coil and providing a radial output; a plurality of flux leakage sensing coils supported in equal spacing in surround of the radial sensing coils and spring-urged against the casing wall with each providing a flux leakage output; transmitter means receiving input of the plural radial outputs and plural flux leakage outputs and transmitting a signal containing the radial and flux leakage outputs; and control means at the earth surface position for receiving the signal for processing to derive a continual evaluation of casing wall thickness.

Dew, E.G.

1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

426

On the LINER nuclear obscuration, Compton-thickness and the existence of the dusty torus; Clues from Spitzer/IRS spectra  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most of the optically classified low ionisation narrow emission-line regions (LINERs) nuclei host an active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, how they fit into the unified model (UM) of AGN is still an open question. The aims of this work are to study at mid-infrared (mid-IR) (1) the Compton-thick nature of LINERs; and (2) the disappearance of the dusty torus in LINERs predicted from theoretical arguments. We have compiled all the available low spectral resolution mid-IR spectra of LINERs from the IRS/Spitzer (40 LINERs). We have complemented this sample with Spitzer/IRS spectra of PGQSOs, S1s, S2s, and SBs nuclei. We have studied the AGN versus the starburst content in our sample using different indicators: the EW(PAH 6.2um), the strength of the silicate feature at 9.7um, and the steepness of the mid-IR spectra. In 25 out of the 40 LINERs (i.e., 62.5%) the mid-IR spectra are not SB-dominated, similar to the comparison S2 sample (67.7%). The average spectra of both SB-dominated LINERs and S2s are very similar t...

Gonzalez-Martin, O; Marquez, I; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J M; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Ramos-Almeida, C; Dultzin, D; Hernandez-Garcia, L; Ruschel-Dutra, D; Alonso-Herrero, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Effect of active layer thickness on differential quantum efficiency of 1. 3 and 1. 55. mu. m InGaAsP injection lasers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of differential quantum efficiency (eta/sub d/) on active layer thickness (d) for 1.3 and 1.55 ..mu..m InGaAsP buried crescent (BC) injection lasers has been measured. A comparison of the results shows that eta/sub d/ for 1.55 ..mu..m lasers increases more rapidly with decreasing d than eta/sub d/ for 1.3 ..mu..m lasers. The significantly different dependence of eta/sub d/ on d in BC lasers suggests that the optical absorption in the active region of InGaAsP lasers is strongly wavelength dependent. This gives the important practical conclusion that the eta/sub d/ for 1.55 ..mu..m lasers can be significantly improved by reducing d, whereas the eta/sub d/ for 1.3 ..mu..m lasers can only be slightly improved by reducing d. As a result of eta/sub d/ vs d investigation, we have obtained high performance 1.3 and 1.55 ..mu..m BC lasers which exhibit threshold currents as low as 9 mA at 25 /sup 0/C, high-temperature operation (up to 100 /sup 0/C), and eta/sub d/ over 65% (1.3 ..mu..m) and 45% (1.55 ..mu..m).

Cheng, W.H.; Su, C.B.; Renner, D.

1987-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

428

Effect of Roughness Geometry on Wetting and Dewetting of Rough PDMS Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was studied as model for print surfaces used in additive manufacturing and printed electronics. A smooth PDMS on decline for over a decade,9 printing has evolved and has become a manufacturing technology for flexible are keys to a successful implementation of ink printing in manufacturing. Arias et al.4 showed that balance

Daniel, Susan

429

Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3--Logistical Challenges to SmartTransmission Company:Facilities

430

Electron yield XAFS study of evaporated Co/Pd multilayers with various thickness ratios of Co to Pd sublayers: Simulations of the Co K-edge XAFS and fourier transforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron-yield XAFS measurements using the NSLS were made on e-beam evaporated Co/Pd multilayers with various sublayer thicknesses and different thickness ratios of Co to Pd sublayers. The Co K-edge and the Pd K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the Co/Pd multilayers with sublayer thicknesses of 3{Angstrom}/ 4{Angstrom}, 15{Angstrom}/4{Angstrom}, 3{Angstrom}/15{Angstrom}, 2.1{Angstrom}/13.5{Angstrom}, and 2.2{Angstrom}/4.5{Angstrom}. Fourier transforms of Co K XAFS for most samples show a splitting of major peak, and the magnitude ratio of these split peaks varies systematically with the thickness ratio of the Pd sublayer to the Co sublayer, whereas the Fourier transforms of the Pd K XAFS for the same samples do not show a splitting of peaks. As a preliminary analysis, the Co K XAFS and the split peaks in the Fourier transform for the Co/Pd(3{Angstrom}/4{Angstrom}) case were simulated by using the FEFF calculations, and the Co K XAFS and the major peak in the fourier transform for the Co/Pd(15{Angstrom}/4{Angstrom}) case were also simulated consistently.

Choi, M. [Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics; Joo, J.H. [Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Materials Design Lab.; Kim, S.K.; Kang, J.S.; Lee, Y.P. [Research Inst. of Industrial Science Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Shin, S.C. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Heald, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Electron yield XAFS study of evaporated Co/Pd multilayers with various thickness ratios of Co to Pd sublayers: Simulations of the Co K-edge XAFS and fourier transforms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron-yield XAFS measurements using the NSLS were made on e-beam evaporated Co/Pd multilayers with various sublayer thicknesses and different thickness ratios of Co to Pd sublayers. The Co K-edge and the Pd K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the Co/Pd multilayers with sublayer thicknesses of 3[Angstrom]/ 4[Angstrom], 15[Angstrom]/4[Angstrom], 3[Angstrom]/15[Angstrom], 2.1[Angstrom]/13.5[Angstrom], and 2.2[Angstrom]/4.5[Angstrom]. Fourier transforms of Co K XAFS for most samples show a splitting of major peak, and the magnitude ratio of these split peaks varies systematically with the thickness ratio of the Pd sublayer to the Co sublayer, whereas the Fourier transforms of the Pd K XAFS for the same samples do not show a splitting of peaks. As a preliminary analysis, the Co K XAFS and the split peaks in the Fourier transform for the Co/Pd(3[Angstrom]/4[Angstrom]) case were simulated by using the FEFF calculations, and the Co K XAFS and the major peak in the fourier transform for the Co/Pd(15[Angstrom]/4[Angstrom]) case were also simulated consistently.

Choi, M. (Catholic Univ. Medical Coll., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics); Joo, J.H. (Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Materials Design Lab.); Kim, S.K.; Kang, J.S.; Lee, Y.P. (Research Inst. of Industrial Science Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)); Shin, S.C. (Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)); Heald, S.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Fluids Mechanics -1 Consider a circular plate of outer radius Ro (a portion of which is shown in the figure). A fluid filled gap of thickness h(t)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fluids Mechanics - 1 Consider a circular plate of outer radius Ro (a portion of which is shown in the figure). A fluid filled gap of thickness h(t) exists between the bottom of the plate and the flat surface that the fluid filling the gap is incompressible, inviscid and its motion is irrotational. Also assume the radial

Virginia Tech

433

Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 58, No. 212, 2012 doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J249 1151 Using surface velocities to calculate ice thickness and bed  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Space Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA 5 School of Technology, Michigan velocities to calculate ice thickness and bed topography: a case study at Columbia Glacier, Alaska, USA R,7 W.T. PFEFFER,8 B.E. SMITH,7 M. TRUFFER1 1 Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks

Rasmussen, L.A.

434

Metal Abundances and Kinematics of Bright Metal-Poor Giants Selected from the LSE Survey: Implications for the Metal-Weak Thick Disk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report medium-resolution (1-2 A) spectroscopy and broadband (UBV) photometry for a sample of 39 bright stars (the majority of which are likely to be giants) selected as metal-deficient candidates from an objective-prism survey concentrating on Galactic latitudes below |b| = 30 deg, the LSE survey of Drilling & Bergeron. Although the primary purpose of the LSE survey was to select OB stars (hence the concentration on low latitudes), the small number of bright metal-deficient giant candidates noted during this survey provide interesting information on the metal-weak thick disk (MWTD) population. The kinematics of the LSE giants indicate the presence of a rapidly rotating population, even at quite low metallicity. We consider the distribution of orbital eccentricity of the LSE giants as a function of [Fe/H], and conclude that the local fraction (i.e., within 1 kpc from the Sun) of metal-poor stars that might be associated with the MWTD is on the order of 30%-40% at abundances below [Fe/H] = -1.0. Contrary to recent analyses of previous (much larger) samples of non-kinematically selected metal-poor stars, we find that this relatively high fraction of local metal-poor stars associated with the MWTD may extend to metallicities below [Fe/H] = -1.6, much lower than had been considered before. We identify a subsample of 11 LSE stars that are very likely to be members of the MWTD, based on their derived kinematics; the lowest metallicity among these stars is [Fe/H] = -2.35. Implications of these results for the origin of the MWTD and for the formation of the Galaxy are considered. (abridged)

Timothy C. Beers; John S. Drilling; Silvia Rossi; Masashi Chiba; Jaehyon Rhee; Birgit Fuhrmeister; John E. Norris; Ted von Hippel

2002-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

435

Effects of Oxide Thickness on Scale and Interface Stresses under Isothermal Cooling and Micro-Indentation for Ferritic Stainless Steel Interconnect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) provide the electrical connection between the individual cells, as well as separate the anode air from the cathode fuel for each cell. The recently developed anode-supported planar SOFCs design allows the cell working temperature to be 800oC and lower, which led to the proposed use of ferritic stainless steel as interconnects and current collectors in the SOFC systems. Many experimental studies have shown that metal based interconnects will go through surface oxidation under the typical operating temperature and environment of an SOFC system. Since the oxide scale is formed at the outer surface of interconnect, its microstructure (morphology, texture), properties (electrical, thermal and mechanical properties), and structural integrity/stability will have a significant impact on the performance of interconnect. In this paper, we study the oxide growth kinetics and stresses generated during scale growth the thermal cycling for Cr-Fe based alloy, e.g. Crofer 22 APU. The goal is to predict the interconnect life under typical operating conditions and thermal cycles. First, a mathematical model is developed based on the growth of scale and coupling relation between diffusion and stress field. The following phenomena are considered: 1) The predominant cationic diffusion and cation distribution within the oxide scale in transient state and steady state; 2) Chemical reaction within the scale as well as the growth kinetics of the oxide scale; 3) Stresses distribution during the oxidation, especially for mid- and long-term treatment; 4) Coupling relationship or interaction between oxidation induced stresses and mass diffusion within the scale. Next, thermal stresses generated due to temperature changes in thermal cycling are predicted using finite element analyses for different substrate and scale thickness. In general, very high compressive in-plane stresses are predicted for the oxide layer. Also, high shear stress is also predicted on the oxide/substrate interface. The predicted shear stress on the interface is used to compare with the experimentally determined bond strength to predict delamination. Finally, scale spallation and IC life prediction are predicted by comparing the compressive stress in the scale with the critical buckling load for the delaminated scale.

Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Vetrano, John S.; Yang, Zhenguo; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

436

Controlling the crystallite size and influence of the film thickness on the optical and electrical characteristics of nanocrystalline Cu{sub 2}S films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modification of the preparation technique in order to deposit nanostructure Cu{sub 2}S thin films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling the crystallite size of the prepared films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study the surface morphology, optical and electrical characteristics of Cu{sub 2}S films. -- Abstract: In this work, Cu{sub 2}S nanocrystalline films have been successfully prepared using dip-coating technique. The stoichiometry and the structural characteristics of the prepared films were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The surface morphology of the deposited Cu{sub 2}S film was studied using both the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM and AFM images indicate that the prepared Cu{sub 2}S films are characterized by a well-dispersed and highly dense with spherical like-shaped aggregates of size in the nano scale. The optical absorption measurements indicate that the Cu{sub 2}S nanoparticles have a direct band gap of 2.92 eV. The dispersion and absorption parameters such as the dispersion energy, oscillating energy, real and imaginary dielectric constants and dissipation factor were calculated within a wide wavelength range of the spectrum that indicates the suitability of the deposited films as solar absorber using this technique. The dark electrical resistivity ({rho}) measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the range 312-440 K. These results confirm the semiconducting characteristic of the prepared Cu{sub 2}S films. Moreover, two activation energies were obtained that indicate the presence of two dominating conduction mechanisms in these temperature ranges. The bulk electrical resistivity ({rho}{sub B}) and the mean free path (l{sub 0}) of charge carriers were estimated from the resistivity-thickness dependence. The heterojunction device of n-ZnCdS/p-Cu{sub 2}S behaves good rectifying property. The photovoltaic characteristic of the heterojunction device using the current-voltage characteristic under illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} was also observed. Discussion of the obtained results and their comparison with the previous published data were also considered.

Rafea, M. Abdel [Advanced Technology and New Material institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Advanced Technology and New Material institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt); Farag, A.A.M., E-mail: alaafaragg@yahoo.com [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Roxy, Cairo 11757 (Egypt)] [Thin Film Laboratory, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Heliopolis, Roxy, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); Roushdy, N. [Advanced Technology and New Material institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt)] [Advanced Technology and New Material institute, City for Scientific Research and Technology Applications, New Borg El Arab City, Alexandria (Egypt)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

437

Correlation Between Grain and Grain-Boundary Critical Current Densities in ex situ Coated Conductors with Variable YBa2Cu3O7- ? Layer Thickness  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dependence of the percolative critical current density at low magnetic fields on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) layer thickness is studied by comparing grain, J{sub c}{sup G}, and grain-boundary, J{sub c}{sup GB}, critical current densities for a series of ex situ processed YBCO films on a RABiTS template. Both critical current densities decrease as a function of thickness and the values of J{sub c}{sup G} and J{sub c}{sup GB} show a clear correlation which suggests the existence of an interaction between Abrikosov-Josephson vortices on the grain boundaries and Abrikosov vortices in the bulk of the grains. This opens the possibility to improve J{sub c}{sup GB} by optimizing the pinning capabilities of the grains.

Palau, A. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Puig, T. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Obradors, X. [ICMAB, Barcelona, Spain; Feenstra, Roeland [ORNL; Gapud, Albert Agcaoili [ORNL

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Thickness dependence of magnetoelectric response for composites of Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} films on CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Using chemical solution spin-coating we grew Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} films of different thicknesses on highly dense CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics. X-ray diffraction revealed no other phases except Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. In many of these samples we observed typical ferroelectric hysteresis loops, butterfly-shaped piezoelectric strains, and the magnetic-field-dependent magnetostriction. These behaviors caused appreciable magnetoelectric responses based on magnetic-mechanical-electric coupling. Our results indicated that the thickness of the Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} film was important in obtaining strong magnetoelectric coupling.

Wang, Jing, E-mail: wang-jing@nuaa.edu.cn; Zhu, Kongjun [State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, College of Aerospace Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wu, Xia; Deng, Chaoyong [School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025 (China); Peng, Renci; Wang, Jianjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and State Key Lab of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

439

An analysis of the pull strength behaviors of fine-pitch, flip chip solder interconnections using a Au-Pt-Pd thick film conductor on Low-Temperature, Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) substrates.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The assembly of the BDYE detector requires the attachment of sixteen silicon (Si) processor dice (eight on the top side; eight on the bottom side) onto a low-temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrate using 63Sn-37Pb (wt.%, Sn-Pb) in a double-reflow soldering process (nitrogen). There are 132 solder joints per die. The bond pads were gold-platinum-palladium (71Au-26Pt-3Pd, wt.%) thick film layers fired onto the LTCC in a post-process sequence. The pull strength and failure modes provided the quality metrics for the Sn-Pb solder joints. Pull strengths were measured in both the as-fabricated condition and after exposure to thermal cycling (-55/125 C; 15 min hold times; 20 cycles). Extremely low pull strengths--referred to as the low pull strength phenomenon--were observed intermittently throughout the product build, resulting in added program costs, schedule delays, and a long-term reliability concern for the detector. There was no statistically significant correlation between the low pull strength phenomenon and (1) the LTCC 'sub-floor' lot; (2) grit blasting the LTCC surfaces prior to the post-process steps; (3) the post-process parameters; (4) the conductor pad height (thickness); (5) the dice soldering assembly sequence; or (5) the dice pull test sequence. Formation of an intermetallic compound (IMC)/LTCC interface caused by thick film consumption during either the soldering process or by solid-state IMC formation was not directly responsible for the low-strength phenomenon. Metallographic cross sections of solder joints from dice that exhibited the low pull strength behavior, revealed the presence of a reaction layer resulting from an interaction between Sn from the molten Sn-Pb and the glassy phase at the TKN/LTCC interface. The thick film porosity did not contribute, explicitly, to the occurrence of reaction layer. Rather, the process of printing the very thin conductor pads was too sensitive to minor thixotropic changes to ink, which resulted in inconsistent proportions of metal and glassy phase particles present during the subsequent firing process. The consequences were subtle, intermittent changes to the thick film microstructure that gave rise to the reaction layer and, thus, the low pull strength phenomenon. A mitigation strategy would be the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques to create thin film bond pads; this is multi-chip module, deposited (MCM-D) technology.

Uribe, Fernando R.; Kilgo, Alice C.; Grazier, John Mark; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Zender, Gary L.; Hlava, Paul Frank; Rejent, Jerome Andrew

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Simple data filtering in rough set systems Ivo Dntsch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of medical indicators for the risk of a heart attack, while p is a combined measure of psychological of a heart attack within a predefined time span, and we code 1 ­ HEART ATTACK, 0 ­ NO HEART ATTACK What

Düntsch, Ivo

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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441

To our roughly 6,800 new and continuing international  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Boiler Out! The Boiler Out! Volunteer Program provides interna- tional students with opportu- nities. Currently, the Boiler Out! cohort repre- sents the diversity of Pur- due's student body, consist- ing of more than 100 stu- dents and representing 19 countries! To learn more about Boiler Out!, view

Ginzel, Matthew

442

Elastic–Plastic Spherical Contact Modeling Including Roughness Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A multilevel model for elastic–plastic contact between ajunction growth of an elastic–plastic spherical contact. J.nite element based elastic–plastic model for the contact of

Li, L.; Etsion, I.; Talke, F. E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Modeling rough energy landscapes in defected condensed matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation is a computational and theoretical investigation of the behavior of defected condensed matter and its evolution over long time scales. The thesis provides original contributions to the methodology used ...

Monasterio Velásquez, Paul Rene

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Analysis of the scattering by an unbounded rough surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Jun 7, 2012 ... Specifically, we consider the scattering of a time-harmonic wave field, ... of analytical solution in the form of an infinite series but also to an ...

2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

445

Analysis of the Scattering by an Unbounded Rough Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solution, in the form of an infinite series, is deduced by using a boundary perturbation ... with the mathematical analysis of the solution for an acoustic wave scat-.

2012-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

446

Design of a chain flail mower for leveling rough terrain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The flail mower is a piece of agricultural equipment that uses bladed attachments rotating around a drum to cut down bushes and grassy terrain. One major drawback to the flail mower is the rapid wear that happens almost ...

Flores, Aaron (Aaron N.)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Procedure for estimating fracture energy from fracture surface roughness  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The fracture energy of a material is determined by first measuring the length of a profile of a section through a fractured surface of the material taken on a plane perpendicular to the mean plane of that surface, then determining the fractal dimensionality of the surface. From this, the yield strength of the material, and the Young's Modulus of that material, the fracture energy is calculated.

Williford, Ralph E. (Kennewick, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

NEAR-FIELD IMAGING OF INFINITE ROUGH SURFACES 1 ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cal exploration (e.g., oil and gas exploration), and medical imaging (e.g., breast cancer detection). However, there is a resolution limit to the sharpness of details

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

449

Immersive Planar Display using Roughly Aligned Projectors Ramesh Raskar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.cs.unc.edu/~raskar/Planar/ Abstract When a projector is oblique with respect to a planar dis- playsurface, it creates keystoning is not perpendicular to the display screen, the resultant image is keystoned and ap- pears distorted (Fig 1). We rectangular images (b) Oblique projectors create keystoned images. positioned in large display systems, after

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

450

Enhanced Thermoelectric Performance of Rough Silicon Allon I. Hochbaum1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.nature.com/nature 2 #12;Thermal contact resistance The thermal contact resistance of the Pt-C pads was tested was the same before and after the second Pt-C bonding, indicating that the thermal contact resistance of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 3 Department of Materials Science

Yang, Peidong

451

On the rough folding landscape of green fluorescent protein  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

H. (2008). Understanding protein folding: small proteins inG. (1997). Theory of protein folding: the energy landscapeenergy landscape of protein folding: a synthesis. Proteins

Andrews, Benjamin Thomas

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

What rough beast? Synthetic Biology and the Future of Biosecurity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Synthetic biology seeks to create modular biological parts that can be assembled into useful devices, allowing the modification of biological systems with greater reliability, at lower cost, with greater speed, and by a ...

Mohr, Scott C.

453

Speed Map for Autonomous Rovers over Rough Terrain  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

presented here: fuzzy logic, reactive control, and machineto speed control is to utilize fuzzy logic. Fuzzy logic wascontrol, this is a new area of research where reactive speed controller, fuzzy logic,

Loh, Jonathan Edau

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Impact of Ice Crystal Roughness on Satellite Retrieved Cloud Properties  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun withconfinementEtching. |EndecahemeEMSLImaging the BrainIce Crystal

455

Rough Rock, Arizona: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginiaRoosevelt Gardens is°

456

Rough and Ready Biomass Facility | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to: navigation, searchVirginiaRoosevelt Gardens is°and Ready Biomass Facility Jump to:

457

File:Wind rough example.pdf | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revision has beenFfe2fb55-352f-473b-a2dd-50ae8b27f0a6Theoretical vs Actual Data Lesson Planrough example.pdf Jump

458

Computer Simulation of Uranyl Uptake by the Rough Lipopolysaccharide  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2 Computational Physics andComputer Sciences andMembrane

459

Surface Orbital 'Roughness' in Colossal Magnetoresistive Oxide | Advanced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security AdministrationcontrollerNanocrystalline GalliumSuppression of conductivity inBatteries -Photon

460

Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. (Los Alamos, NM); Chen, Yongfen (Eugene, OR); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Htoon, Han (Los Alamos, NM); Vela, Javier (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thick plywood roughly" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Ultrasonic thickness testing of aging offshore structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

research on the use of corrosion protection. New corrosion resistant membranes are sometimes placed on the members in the splash zone area. Pemex Exploration and Production has used a protective epoxy coating called "RE-32" in the Bay of Campeche...

Ellison, Brian Kirk

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Neutron spectral and angular distribution measurements for 113 and 256 MeV protons on range-thick Al and sup 238 U targets using the foil activation techniques  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Second neutron yields, energy spectra, and angular distributions have been measured at seven angles from 0 to 150{degree} for 113 and 256 MeV protons stopped in range-thick targets of aluminum and depleted uranium ({sup 238}U). Thin foil stacks of ten different materials were activated by secondary neutrons at distances of 20--30 cm from the targets. Following each irradiation, 30--40 different activation products were measured by gamma-ray spectroscopy. These activation rates were then used to adjust neutron energy spectra calculated by the HETC computer code. Activation cross sections were taken from ENDF/BV below 20 MeV, from literature values tested in Be(d,n) fields up to 50 MeV, and from proton spallation data and calculations from 50--250 MeV. Spectral adjustments were made with the STAY'SL computer code using a least-squares technique to minimize {chi}{sup 2} for a covariance matrix determined from uncertainties in the measured activities, cross sections, and calculated flux spectra. Neutron scattering effects were estimated from foil packets irradiated at different distances from the target. Proton effects were measured with (p,n) reactions. Systematic differences were found between the adjusted and calculated neutron spectra, namely, that HETC underpredicts the neutron flux at back angles by a factor of 2--3 and slightly overpredicts the flux at forward angles. 19 refs., 23 figs., 13 tabs.

Greenwood, L.R.; Intasorn, A.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Shielding Experiments Under JASMIN Collaboration at Fermilab(III) - Measurement of High-Energy Neutrons Penetrating a Thick Iron Shield from the Antiproton Production Target by AU Activation Method  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In an antiproton production (Pbar) target station of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), the secondary particles produced by bombarding a target with 120-GeV protons are shielded by a thick iron shield. In order to obtain experimental data on high-energy neutron transport at more than 100-GeV-proton accelerator facilities, we indirectly measured more than 100-MeV neutrons at the outside of the iron shield at an angle of 50{\\deg} in the Pbar target station. The measurement was performed by using the Au activation method coupled with a low-background {\\gamma}-ray counting system. As an indicator for the neutron flux, we determined the production rates of 8 spallation nuclides (196-Au, 188-Pt, 189-Ir, 185-Os, 175-Hf, 173-Lu, 171-Lu, and 169-Yb) in the Au activation detector. The measured production rates were compared with the theoretical production rates calculated using PHITS. We proved that the Au activation method can serve as a powerful tool for indirect measurements of more than 100-MeV neutrons that play a vital role in neutron transport. These results will be important for clarifying the problems in theoretical calculations of high-energy neutron transport.

H. Matsumura; N. Kinoshita; H. Iwase; A. Toyoda; Y. Kasugai; N. Matsuda; Y. Sakamoto; H. Nakashima; H. Yashima; N. Mokhov; A. Leveling; D. Boehlein; K. Vaziri; G. Lautenschlager; W. Schmitt; K. Oishi

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

A new refined theory of plates with transverse shear deformation for moderately thick and thick plates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper we propose a new refined shear deformation plate theory which possesses a series of desirable features, the most salient of which are as follows: (i) The loads, which are generally considered to be applied on the middle surface of the plate, act on the upper surface of the plate; (ii) The equations are applicable to the calculation of the stresses in isotropic plates and provide the same order of accuracy as several theories with second order shear deformation effects; (iii) It constitutes a theory, in the sense defined by Love, since it gives easy expressions for application to problems in different fields in architecture and civil engineering

Valle, Jose Miguel Martinez

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Effect of the thickness of BiFeO{sub 3} layers on the magnetic and electric properties of BiFeO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BiFeO{sub 3} layers with various thicknesses were fabricated on La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} covered SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by a laser molecular-beam epitaxy system. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub c}) and magnetic coercive field (H{sub c}) of BiFeO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructures are larger than those of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} film. With increasing the thickness of the BiFeO{sub 3} layer, T{sub c}, H{sub c}, and ferroelectric coercive field of the BiFeO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructures decrease, while the dielectric permittivity, remanent polarization, and resistance ratio of the ON and OFF states increase. The variations of the magnetic and electric properties with the thickness could be due to the effects of the epitaxial strain and the interface layer.

Wang, Le; Wang, Zhen; Jin, Kui-juan; Li, Jian-qi; Yang, Huai-xin; Wang, Can; Zhao, Rui-qiang; Lu, Hui-bin; Guo, Hai-zhong; Yang, Guo-zhen [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

466

Effects and applications of capillary condensation in ultrathin nanoparticle assemblies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique can be used to make uniform, conformal multi-stack nanoparticle thin films from aqueous solution, with precise thickness and roughness control over each stack. Much ...

Gemici, Zekeriyya

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

U.S. Department of Energy Categorical Exclusion ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Carolina This activity removes two 18 inch thick by roughly 3 feet by 2 feet stainless steel spacers from the 773-A Central Hood Exhaust (CHEX) system. These two plates and their...

468

Smooth electrode and method of fabricating same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A smooth electrode is provided. The smooth electrode includes at least one metal layer having thickness greater than about 1 micron; wherein an average surface roughness of the smooth electrode is less than about 10 nm.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Kennerly, Stacey Joy (Albany, NY); Aimi, Marco Francesco (Niskayuna, NY)

2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

469

Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and field evaluations of in-service residential roofs. Application of Spray Foam Insulation Under Plywood and OSB Roof Sheathing More Documents & Publications Exterior Rigid...

470

Low interfacial trap density and sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor devices using molecular beam deposited HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} as gate dielectrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigated the passivation of In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (001) surface by molecular beam epitaxy techniques. After growth of strained In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As on InP (001) substrate, HfO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} high-{kappa} oxide stacks have been deposited in-situ after surface reconstruction engineering. Excellent capacitance-voltage characteristics have been demonstrated along with low gate leakage currents. The interfacial density of states (D{sub it}) of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As interface have been revealed by conductance measurement, indicating a downward D{sub it} profile from the energy close to the valence band (medium 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}) towards that close to the conduction band (10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}eV{sup -1}). The low D{sub it}'s are in good agreement with the high Fermi-level movement efficiency of greater than 80%. Moreover, excellent scalability of the HfO{sub 2} has been demonstrated as evidenced by the good dependence of capacitance oxide thickness on the HfO{sub 2} thickness (dielectric constant of HfO{sub 2}{approx}20) and the remained low D{sub it}'s due to the thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation layer. The sample with HfO{sub 2} (3.4 nm)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1.2 nm) as the gate dielectrics has exhibited an equivalent oxide thickness of {approx}0.93 nm.

Chu, L. K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Merckling, C.; Dekoster, J.; Caymax, M. [Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Alian, A.; Heyns, M. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Interuniversity Microelectronics Center (IMEC vzw), 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kwo, J. [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Center for Condensed Matter Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hong, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

471

Influence of the SiO{sub 2} interlayer thickness on the density and polarity of charges in Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks as studied by optical second-harmonic generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

By accurately tuning the SiO{sub 2} interlayer thickness the density and polarity of charges in Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks can be controlled. We report on the number density, polarity, and physical location of charges present in the stacks as studied by optical second-harmonic generation (SHG). Depending on the SiO{sub 2} interlayer thickness (1–150?nm) the effective charge density in the Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks ranges from 10{sup 13} to 10{sup 11}?cm{sup ?2} for both n- and p-type silicon. The polarity of the charges switches from negative to positive around a SiO{sub 2} interlayer thickness of 5–10?nm at which point the effective charge density in the stacks is negligible. This switch in polarity is apparent from spectroscopic, time-dependent, and azimuthal SHG measurements. The observed trends in charge density and polarity can be explained by tunneling of electrons into defect states at the SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface as well as the presence of fixed and bulk charges at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface and in the SiO{sub 2}, respectively. This charge mechanism appears to hold generally for Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks as similar results were observed for SiO{sub 2} films prepared by various techniques.

Terlinden, N. M.; Dingemans, G.; Vandalon, V.; Bosch, R. H. E. C.; Kessels, W. M. M., E-mail: w.m.m.kessels@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

472

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Revised: June 24, 2010 Supersedes: June 12, 2008 Number of pages: 4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, but varies depending on wood species and moisture content. Boiling point: Not applicable. Solubility in water, engineered veneer, bark mulch, wood chips Synonyms: Hardwood plywood, prefinished plywood, melamine Names: Classic CoreTM, Classic LamTM, Classic Core IITM, MelawoodTM EuroplyTM, JayCoreTM, UV WoodTM, CFP

Rollins, Andrew M.

473

Root region airfoil for wind turbine  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thick airfoil for the root region of the blade of a wind turbine. The airfoil has a thickness in a range from 24%-26% and a Reynolds number in a range from 1,000,000 to 1,800,000. The airfoil has a maximum lift coefficient of 1.4-1.6 that has minimum sensitivity to roughness effects.

Tangler, James L. (Boulder, CO); Somers, Dan M. (State College, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Design and qualification of an absolute thickness measuring machine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The target fabrication group at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory develops various high energy density physics targets, which are used to study the interaction of materials when shot with high energy lasers. These ...

Kelly, Darcy K. (Darcy Kendal), 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

aerosol optical thickness: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols is a key el- ement of the Earth's radiative energy balance and climate. The optical properties of aerosol particles are, however,...

476

Carbon Abundances in the Galactic Thin and Thick Disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although carbon is, together with oxygen and nitrogen, one of the most important elements in the study of galactic chemical evolution its production sites are still poorly known and have been much debated (see e.g. Gustafsson et al. 1999; Chiappini et al. 2003). To trace the origin and evolution of carbon we have determined carbon abundances from the forbidden [C I] line at 8727 A and made comparisons to oxygen abundances from the forbidden [O I] line at 6300 A in a sample of 51 nearby F and G dwarf stars. These data and the fact that the forbidden [C I] and [O I] lines are very robust abundance indicators (they are essentially insensitive to deviations from LTE and uncertainties in the stellar parameters, see, e.g., Gustafsson et al. 1999; Asplund et al. 2005) enable us to very accurately measure the C/O ratio as well as individual C and O abundances. Our first results indicate that the time-scale for the main source that contribute to the carbon enrichment of the interstellar medium operate on the same time-scale as those that contribute to the iron enrichment (and can possibly be AGB stars...)

T. Bensby; S. Feltzing

2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

477

Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tight gas sands, coal-bed methane, and gas shales are commonly called unconventional reservoirs. Tight gas sands (TGS) are often described as formations with an expected average permeability of 0.1mD or less. Gas production rates from TGS reservoirs...

Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

478

Completion methods in thick, multilayered tight gas sands  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

sands have been proposed in the petroleum literature. Kuuskraa, V.A. and Haas, M.R. proposed that ?tight gas is merely an arbitrary delineation of a natural geologic continuity in the permeability of a reservoir rock. The dominant characteristic...-situ permeability as low as 0.001 mD?6. 10 Misra, R. proposed that ?tight gas sands are reservoirs that have low permeability (< 0.1 mD) and which cannot be produced at economic flow rates or do not produce economic volumes without the assistance from...

Ogueri, Obinna Stavely

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

479

Very thick holographic nonspatial filtering of laser beams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Riccobono Northeast Photosciences, Inc. 18 Flagg Rd. Hollis, New Hampshire 03049 E-mail: 71053.3526

Shahriar, Selim

480