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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Steam System Survey Guide  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This guide provides technical information for steam system operational personnel and plant energy managers on some of the major opportunities available to improve the energy efficiency and productivity of industrial steam systems. The guide covers five main areas of investigation: (1) profiling a steam system, (2) identifying steam properties for the steam system, (3) improving boiler operations, (4) improving resource utilization in the steam system, and (5) investigating energy losses in the steam distribution system.

2

Thermostat Wars | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermostat Wars Thermostat Wars Thermostat Wars August 3, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Drew Bittner Web Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy The other day, I was visiting a friend's office and noticed something you may have noticed yourself: his building had a variety of micro-climates, ranging from the furnace hot to the freezing cold. The offices with windows that faced south and west were hottest, while offices with windows facing north and east were cooler-and the offices without windows were, on average, about as comfortable as your refrigerator. This is an artifact of building construction from the early days of air conditioning and central heating. It's "one climate fits all" thinking, which would be fine if every office had identical solar heat gain,

3

List of Programmable Thermostats Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermostats Incentives Thermostats Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 525 Programmable Thermostats Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-525) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Residential Building Insulation Ceiling Fan Central Air conditioners

4

Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermostats Thermostats Thermostats November 26, 2013 - 2:17pm Addthis A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography You can save money on your heating and cooling bills by simply resetting your thermostat when you are asleep or away from home. You can do this automatically without sacrificing comfort by installing an automatic setback or programmable thermostat. Using a programmable thermostat, you can adjust the times you turn on the heating or air-conditioning according to a pre-set schedule. Programmable

5

Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermostats Thermostats Thermostats November 26, 2013 - 2:17pm Addthis A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography You can save money on your heating and cooling bills by simply resetting your thermostat when you are asleep or away from home. You can do this automatically without sacrificing comfort by installing an automatic setback or programmable thermostat. Using a programmable thermostat, you can adjust the times you turn on the heating or air-conditioning according to a pre-set schedule. Programmable

6

Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Reduction: Opportunities and Issues How to Calculate the True Cost of Steam Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions...

7

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on deaerators provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

8

List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

upgrades Incentives upgrades Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 100 Steam-system upgrades Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 100) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AlabamaSAVES Revolving Loan Program (Alabama) State Loan Program Alabama Commercial Industrial Institutional Building Insulation Doors Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Steam-system upgrades Water Heaters Windows Biodiesel Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Ethanol Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Natural Gas Yes Ameren Missouri (Gas) - Business Energy Efficiency Program (Missouri) Utility Rebate Program Missouri Commercial

9

Programmable Thermostats | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

List of Programmable Thermostats Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleProgrammableThermostats&oldid267186" Category: Articles with outstanding TODO...

10

Steam System Balancing and Tuning  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Balancing and Steam System Balancing and Tuning Building America Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX Jayne Choi, Energy Analyst, CNT Energy March 2, 2012 PARR Current collaboration with GTI as a part of the PARR Building America team - Steam Systems Balancing and Tuning Study - Heating season 2011-2012 Background In Chicago, heating is the focus of residential energy use Of the 470,000 multifamily units in the Chicago region, at least 70,000 of those are steam heated Old steam systems invariably suffer from imbalance - Tenants must use supplemental heat or open their windows to cool their apartments during the heating season Buildings are often overheated Problem Statement (CNT Energy) Steam Heating Steam heat was the best option for buildings constructed between 1900 and 1930

11

Steam System Improvements at a Manufacturing Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BWX Technologies, Naval Nuclear Fuel Division (NNFD) is a manufacturing company with a steam system consisting of two Babcock & Wilcox boilers and approximately 350 steam traps. The steam system is used to produce and distribute steam for space...

Compher, J.; Morcom, B.

12

Steam System Assessment Tool (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tool will help users determine the potential energy cost and emission savings of key steam-system improvements. The tool is designed for energy operations, production, project managers, and engineers who are responsible for steam systems.

Not Available

2002-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

STEAMMASTER: STEAM SYSTEM ANALYSIS SOFTW ARE Greg Wheeler Associate Professor Oregon State University Corvallis, OR 9733 I ABSTRACT As director of Oregon's ]ndustrial Assessment Center, [ have encountered many industrial steam systems during... plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. [n nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a...

Wheeler, G.

14

Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief outlines typical ways to increase steam system efficiency through changes in distribution, generation, and recovery.

15

Steam System Tool Suite Introduction Guide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

)........................................................................................8 Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT Tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, and the 3E Plus Insulation Tool. Each one of these trainings.S.DOE Steam Tools are designed to aid in assessing steam systems by identifying areas to investigate

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

16

Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Achieve Steam System Excellence- Steam Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet describes a steam systems approach to help companies operate and maintain their industrial steam plants and thermal manufacturing processes more efficiently.

18

Industrial Steam System Heat-Transfer Solutions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This brief provides an overview of considerations for selecting the best heat-transfer equipment for various steam systems and applications.

19

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, such as the Honeywell Round introduced in 1953,and PTs, such as the Honeywell RTH7600 shown in Figure 1.

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Steam System Optimization: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper highlights the study findings in a steam system in a plant from a multinational Petrochemical giant in an European country. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $8.9 million (local currency was converted to US Dollars...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

23

Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Figures Figure 1: From left: a Honeywell Round thermostat, a Honeywell setback thermostat, and a controls today: Johnson and Honeywell. In 1883, Warren S.

Meier, Alan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Industrial Steam System Process-Control Schemes | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Process-Control Schemes (July 2003) More Documents & Publications Compressed Air Storage Strategies Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems CIBO Energy Efficiency...

25

Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

thermostats, including scheduling, control of humidity andremote control and energy use scheduling. Anticipator: This

Meier, Alan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy...

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

27

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two...

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

28

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study) Rich DeBat Steam Systems Engineer Armstrong Service, Inc. Three Rivers, MI ABSTRACT Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during... existing burner system after refractory repair and continue with normal operation of the existing boiler. Annstrong Service cannot guarantee any aspect of this option. Option 2. Armstrong Service, Inc. proposes to evaluate, select and install a...

DeBat, R.

29

Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper...

Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

31

The Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT): Estimating Steam System Energy, Cost, and Emission Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The U. S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Industrial Technology Program BestPractices Steam effort is developing a number of software tools to assist industrial energy users to improve the efficiency of their steam system. A major new Best...

Wright, A.; Bealing, C.; Eastwood, A.; Tainsh, R.; Hahn, G.; Harrell, G.

32

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

in Industrial Steam Systems Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Advanced Manufacturing Home Key Activities Research & Development Projects Facilities...

33

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

34

Tips: Programmable Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Programmable Thermostats Programmable Thermostats Tips: Programmable Thermostats May 30, 2012 - 5:33pm Addthis Cool Summer Tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Cool Summer Tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Hot Winter Tip: Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Hot Winter Tip: Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Cool Summer Tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Hot Winter Tip: Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home.

35

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper,...

36

RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes results of a literature review, a workshop, and many meetings with demand response and thermostat researchers and implementers. The information obtained from these resources was used to identify key issues of thermostat performance from both energy savings and peak demand perspectives. A research plan was developed to address these issues and activities have already begun to pursue the research agenda.

Meier, Alan K.; Walker, Iain

2008-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

37

Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes Title Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-938e Year of Publication 2008 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Alan K. Meier Keywords demand response and distributed energy resources center, demand response research center, home networks & controls Abstract This report summarizes results of a literature review, a workshop, and many meetings with demand response and thermostat researchers and implementers. The information obtained from these resources was used to identify key issues of thermostat performance from both energy savings and peak demand perspectives. A research plan was developed to address these issues and activities have already begun to pursue the research agenda.

38

Control of household refrigerators. Part 1: Modeling temperature control performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial household refrigerators use simple, cost-effective, temperature controllers to obtain acceptable control. A manually adjusted airflow damper regulates the freezer compartment temperature while a thermostat controls operation of the compressor and evaporator fan to regulate refrigerator compartment temperature. Dual compartment temperature control can be achieved with automatic airflow dampers that function independently of the compressor and evaporator fan thermostat, resulting in improved temperature control quality and energy consumption. Under dual control, freezer temperature is controlled by the thermostat while the damper controls refrigerator temperature by regulating airflow circulation. A simulation model is presented that analyzes a household refrigerator configured with a conventional thermostat and both manual and automatic dampers. The model provides a new paradigm for investigating refrigerator systems and temperature control performance relative to the extensive verification testing that is typically done by manufacturers. The effects of each type of control and damper configuration are compared with respect to energy usage, control quality, and ambient temperature shift criteria. The results indicate that the appropriate control configuration can have significant effects and can improve plant performance.

Graviss, K.J.; Collins, R.L.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 103 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 103) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility

40

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings December 23, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Did you know that you can save around 10% a year on your heating and cooling bills by simply turning your thermostat back 10°-15°F for eight hours? Sounds great, but I know when I'm rushing out the door, the last thing on my mind is turning down the thermostat. Luckily, programmable thermostats make it easy to save without much effort. In fact, once you get the thermostat installed and programmed to your schedule, you can stop thinking about it; your home is programmed to save. First, decide what to set your thermostat at when you are home and awake; 68°F is a good guideline in the winter. From there, program the thermostat

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality...

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a...

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Title Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6288E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Therkelsen, Peter L., and Aimee T. McKane Journal Energy Policy Volume 57 Start Page 318 Date Published 06/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords industrial energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency barriers, steam system efficiency Abstract Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

44

SSST Module Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool Suite.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the Steam System Scoping Tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, and the 3E Plus Insulation Tool: When assessing the condition of your steam system the first tool you should use is the scoping toolSSST Module 9/30/2009 Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction on the Steam System Tool

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

45

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems October 7, 2013 - 3:17pm Addthis Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned. Operation and Maintenance Options To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, Federal agencies should: Develop and implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop and implement a boiler tuning program to be completed a minimum of

46

Opower Thermostat App | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Opower Thermostat App Opower Thermostat App Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Social Opower Agency/Company /Organization: Opower Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Mobile Device Website: thermostat.opower.com/ Country: United States Web Application Link: thermostat.opower.com/ Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 38.8911837°, -77.0838797° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.8911837,"lon":-77.0838797,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

47

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing/vcmfiles/ electricity!) for heating and air conditioning purposes Heat pumps became popular in ://www.bge.c Heat pumps

Zevenhoven, Ron

48

SSAT Module Slide 1: Hello, and welcome to this introduction to the Steam System Assessment Tool.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and welcome to this introduction to the Steam System Assessment Tool. Slide 2: Technology Delivery, and software tools. This tool, the Steam System Assessment Tool, also known as `the Assessment Tool', or its your energy reduction goals. Slide 3: Now, we will show you the Steam System Assessment Tool

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

49

Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! June 25, 2012 - 6:14pm Addthis Kristin Swineford Communication Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Many of us know that during the summer, temperatures aren't the only thing skyrocketing -- our energy bills usually also reach record highs due to the cooling measures required to keep ourselves, our pets, and even some of our household items comfortable. We've talked before about properly setting thermostats, especially programmable thermostats to maintain the appropriate settings while you're home, asleep or away. I've witnessed the results achieved when a regular thermostat is replaced with one that allows you to adjust the times you turn on the heating or

50

What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Set Your Thermostat to? Set Your Thermostat to? What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? June 29, 2012 - 6:29pm Addthis Earlier this week, Kristin was telling us how you can use a programmable thermostat to save money when you're not at home. This is an easy trick that's useful in the winter as well as the summer, and can always help save you some money. Why heat or cool your house when you're not there? So this week, we'd like to know: What temperature do you set your thermostat to in the summer? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles What Are Your Top Tips for Saving Energy? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer?

51

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings | Department of...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Senior Communicator, NREL Did you know that you can save around 10% a year on your heating and cooling bills by simply turning your thermostat back 10-15F for eight hours?...

52

Kansas City Power and Light- Energy Optimizer Programmable Thermostat Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) offers a free Honeywell programmable thermostat, worth $300, and free installation to qualifying customers to manage energy usage. Only residential and small...

53

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Annual Steam System Maintenance Outage (2014) Beginning on Sunday, June 8th  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Annual Steam System Maintenance Outage (2014) Beginning on Sunday, June 8th at 12:00pm (Noon), the Central Utility Plant (CUP), which supplies steam service to over 100 buildings on the Newark campus, will be shut down for the annual Steam System Maintenance Outage. This effort is necessary each year to ensure

Firestone, Jeremy

55

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

56

Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Construction Design & Remodeling Other Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate $100,000/project Program Info State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit: Up to 100% Custom Conservation and Evaluation Measures: Up to 50% Research and Demonstration Measures: Up to 50% Experimental Technologies: Up to 100% Building Commissioning: Up to 50% Provider Columbia Gas of Ohio Columbia Gas of Ohio offers professional Facility/Building Energy Audits to

57

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

58

Free energy via thermostatted dynamic potential-energy changes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Three dynamical methods for computing canonical-ensemble Helmholtz free energies are discussed and compared for a thermostatted six-body harmonic chain. We use a Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman thermostat [J. Chem. Phys. 97, 2635 (1992)] with six time-reversible friction coefficients to study both single-trajectory and ensemble-averaged free-energy changes. Though all three dynamic methods produce identical long-time averages, the one based on Kirkwoods coupling-parameter theory [J. Chem. Phys. 3, 300 (1935)] converges much more rapidly than do the two based on time-integrated heat transfer.

Brad Lee Holian; H. A. Posch; W. G. Hoover

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical manufacturing, and the petroleum refining industries. The report also estimates the energy savings potential available from implementing steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

60

Steam System Efficiency Optimized After J.R. Simplot Fertilizer Plant Receives Energy Assessment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study describes how a DOE energy assessment helped the J.R. Simplot Company identify ways to reduce energy use in its Pocatello, Idaho, plant's steam system.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings October 9, 2012 - 4:17pm Q&A At what temperature do you set your thermostat to save energy and money when it's cold outside? Tell Us Addthis Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL What does this mean for me? Save 5% to 15% a year on your heating bill by setting your thermostat back 10° to 15° for 8 hours at a time. It's been a beautiful fall here in Colorado; 70 and 80 degree days and comfortably cool nights have spoiled us. We haven't had to turn on the heat

62

Save with Hybrid Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

Chung, C. W.

63

Refrigerants in Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

component of ternary blends and as a blowing agent. Further testing is ongoing to determine its performance characteristics. Since CFC-114 chillers constitute an estimated 1% of the more than 80,000 centrifugal chillers, testing has not been a high..., commercial refrigerators, ice makers, etc. Some commercial chillers. Some commercial refrigeration. Marine refrigeration, stationery chillers, ternary blends, blowing agents. 51 RESULTS OF TESTING The testing programs undertaken by the refrigerant...

Stouppe, D. E.

64

An assessment of underground and aboveground steam system failures in the SRS waste tank farms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Underground steam system failures in waste tank farms at the Savannah River Site (SRS) increased significantly in the 3--4 year period prior to 1995. The primary safety issues created by the failures were the formation of sub-surface voids in soil and the loss of steam jet transfer and waste evaporation capability, and the loss of heating and ventilation to the tanks. The average annual cost for excavation and repair of the underground steam system was estimated to be several million dollars. These factors prompted engineering personnel to re-consider long-term solutions to the problem. The primary cause of these failures was the inadequate thermal insulation utilized for steam lines associated with older tanks. The failure mechanisms were either pitting or localized general corrosion on the exterior of the pipe beneath the thermal insulation. The most realistic and practical solution is to replace the underground lines by installing aboveground steam systems, although this option will incur significant initial capital costs. Steam system components, installed aboveground in other areas of the tank farms have experienced few failures, while in continuous use. As a result, piecewise installation of temporary aboveground steam systems have been implemented in F-area whenever opportunities, i.e., failures, present themselves.

Hsu, T.C.; Shurrab, M.S.; Wiersma, B.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Monitoring refrigeration energy useage.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerators use more energy than any other kitchen appliance -- an unsurprising fact considering that refrigerators operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to keep food at a safe temperature. In many low-income households, refrigerators eat up more than half the electricity consumed in one year. And if the refrigerator in a family's home is functioning poorly, the cost to the consumer can be enormous. Discovering whether an existing refrigerator is operating inefficiently enough to warrant replacing it is an extremely difficult task for a resident who sees only a monthly electric bill. Only by knowing the approximate usage of the existing unit can anyone tell whether it would pay to buy a new, energy-efficient refrigerator. The savings from replacing older refrigerators can be substantial, and collecting the data needed to determine when refrigerators should be replaced is easier and less costly than one might think. In both Chicago and New York City, replacing existing units cut refrigerator electricity usage by more than 50%. Monitoring to develop an average usage for the existing stock of refrigerators is a task that can be completed by maintenance staff in a reasonably short time -- and identifying poorly performing units that should be immediately replaced can take just two hours of monitoring.

Cavallo, J.; Mapp, J.; Energy Systems; Wisconsin Energy Bureau

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? June 25, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis You can save 5%-15% on your cooling bills by raising the temperature setting on your thermostat when you are away and don't need cooling. Only lower the setting to 78°F when you are home and need cooling. A programmable thermostat can make it easy to adjust the temperature on a regular schedule. At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the summer? How about when you're asleep or away? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a topic related to energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments.

68

Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters June 23, 2009 - 12:54pm Addthis Amy Foster Parish Ener-Gee Whiz would like to offer a hearty thanks to all of you who've written in for your great efficiency and renewables related questions. Now, on to some answers! Patti writes: Is it efficient to raise the thermostat in a business when the business is closed during air conditioning season? Ener-Gee Whiz: Your business might be able to save energy-and money-by turning your thermostat up during the cooling season. But how much energy and money you save are largely dependent on how much you set your thermostat back and for how long. The Energy Savers website suggests that

69

Ad hoc continuum-atomistic thermostat for modeling heat flow in molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ad hoc continuum-atomistic thermostat for modeling heat flow in molecular dynamics simulations J 2004) An ad hoc thermostating procedure that couples a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation

Brenner, Donald W.

70

The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System...

Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

71

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

72

Energy-efficiency directory of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented about the energy costs of operating refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers and includes the type of refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, the fresh food volume, the freezer volume, the total volume, and the yearly energy cost. The directory lists all currently marketed electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers that have Energy Guide labels. The Federal Trade Commission requires manufacturers who distribute refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers to attach Energy Guide labels to appliances manufactured on or after May 19, 1980. The data have been measured by manufacturers and/or their agents according to US Government standard test procedures.

Statt, T.G.; Coggins, J.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

74

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

75

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

76

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Cryogenic optical refrigeration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis compiles recent achievements in optical refrigeration, cooling a 5 wt. % ytterbium doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb+3:YLF) crystal through anti-Stokes fluorescence to a (more)

Melgaard, Seth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage refrigerator,...

79

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had...

80

Downhole pulse tube refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter February 28, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Amanda McAlpin This has certainly been an unusual winter for most of the country. Warmer temperatures and minimal snowfall totals have many hoping for an early spring. February on the east coast has been like a roller coaster ride, with temperatures plunging one day, then warm enough the next to skip the coat. In my home, I've spent the month trying to predict the ups and downs of the weather by adjusting my heater constantly. It's tempting to leave the thermostat on at a set temperature, so that the room is warm when returning home. Many assume this saves energy, because the heater won't have to work as hard to heat the room to the desired

82

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

None

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

Jackson, H. Z.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

85

Refrigeration monitor and alarm system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

86

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

87

Enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils for household refrigerator systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to industry concerns about the successful employment of hydrofluorocarbon-immiscible hydrocarbon oils in refrigeration systems, enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils have been developed. These products have been designed to be more dispersible with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, such as R-134a, in order to facilitate lubricant return to the compressor and to ensure proper energy efficiency of the system. Bench tests and system performance evaluations indicate the feasibility of these oils for use in household refrigeration applications. Results of these evaluations are compared with those obtained with polyol esters and typical naphthenic mineral oils employed in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigeration applications.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R. [Witco Corp., Oakland, NJ (United States); Barbour, C.B. [Americold, Cullman, AL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

89

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? December 11, 2008 - 8:45am Addthis Did you know that you can save energy in the winter by setting the thermostat to 68°F while you're awake and setting it lower while you're asleep or away from home? By turning your thermostat back 10°-15° for 8 hours, you can save about 5%-15% a year on your heating bill-a savings of as much as 1% for each degree if the setback period is eight hours long. At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the winter? How about when you're asleep or away? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov.

91

Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the waste stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air conditioners, refrigeratorsAsset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have

Sin, Peter

92

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

93

Miniature liquid?3He refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of a cryopump and high?pressure internal storage of the cryogen makes it possible to miniaturize a one?shot recyclable 3He refrigerator while at the same time improving its performance. Because of their simplified interface requirements such refrigerators are readily incorporated into existing 4He cryostats allowing a convenient extension of their operating range down to 0.3 K. An analysis of the parameters describing refrigerator performance (condensation time heat transfer to the 4He bath lifetime and refrigeration power) leads to the definition of an optimized refrigerator. Measured performance characteristics of a miniature [2?l standard temperature and pressure (STP) of 3He] refrigerator used in laboratory and stratospheric balloon?borne experiments are given.

J. P. Torre; G. Chanin

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

96

E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigerator Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator...

97

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Modular thermoacoustic refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermoacousticrefrigerator was built to explore scaling to large heat flux. The refrigerator was constructed according to a modular design so that various stack heat exchanger and resonator sections are easily interchangeable. The resonator is driven by a commercial 10?in. woofer. Initial tests using pure helium gas as the working fluid and steel honeycomb (0.8?mm cell) for the stack pumped 60 W of heat against a 10?C temperature gradient. Measurements of heat flux and efficiency will be reported as functions of stack structure (e.g. pore size and shape) and will be compared with theoretical predictions.

Steven R. Murrell; George Mozurkewich

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

The refrigerator revolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses how a simple, new technology threw the best-laid plans of the chemical and refrigerator industries into disarray-and provided a new perspective on how future environmental agreements can be reached. In recent years, a series of massive business mergers has mesmerized the industrial world. However in the early 1990s a German environmentalist, triggered global reprocussions in the wake of the mandate to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances. The economic and political background of this is explained in detail.

Ayres, E.; French, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Nekoosa, WI); Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

102

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Getting Ready to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! Getting Ready to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! October 26, 2011 - 6:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Every year I try to convince myself that I am going to turn my thermostat down for the entire winter. It's going to be 68 degrees or lower, I tell myself. I'm not going to turn it up for any reason. I might even be daring and try to get a few degrees lower! It'll be awesome! It usually doesn't end well. You see, I'm a gigantic wuss about the cold. Something always happens-it takes me 4 hours to drive home in the snow, I have a lousy day, or it drops beneath zero degrees Fahrenheit-and suddenly I want to treat myself to a balmy 70 degrees to make up for it.

105

Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, Chin-Yao Chang, Karanjit Kalsi and Yannan Sun Abstract-- Demand Response is playing population of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness

Zhang, Wei

106

Quantifying flexibility of residential thermostatically controlled loads for demand response: a data-driven approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift due to the influx of variable renewable generation to the supply side. The resulting increased uncertainty has system operators looking to new resources, enabled by smart grid technologies, on the demand ... Keywords: demand response, inverse building model, load shedding, thermostatically controlled loads

Emre Can Kara; Michaelangelo D. Tabone; Jason S. MacDonald; Duncan S. Callaway; Sila Kiliccote

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

The Smart Thermostat: Using Occupancy Sensors to Save Energy in Homes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.8% energy on average, and actually increases energy consumption in 4 of the 8 households. Categories higher energy consumption on average than those with manual con- trols because users program themThe Smart Thermostat: Using Occupancy Sensors to Save Energy in Homes Jiakang Lu, Tamim Sookoor

Whitehouse, Kamin

108

The Self-Programming Thermostat: Optimizing Setback Schedules based on Home Occupancy Patterns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Keywords Building Energy, Home Monitoring, Programmable Ther- mostats, Wireless Sensor Networks 1, accounting for 43% of all residential energy usage [8]. Programmable thermostats can substantially reduce this energy usage with a setback schedule that relaxes temperature setpoints at certain times of the day

Whitehouse, Kamin

109

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Steam System Balancing Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Location: Chicago, IL Partners: Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Steam heating distribution system and controls Application: Retrofit; Multifamily Year Tested: 2011-2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold humid continental PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including labor): $9,000 on average Projected Energy Savings: 10.2% heating savings Chicago's older multifamily housing stock is primarily heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. Often, significant temperature differentials

110

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

112

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

113

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

Sand, J.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

MagLab - Dilution Refrigerator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in science. Using a condensationevaporation cycle not unlike that of a kitchen refrigerator, a dil fridge takes 4.2 K liquid helium way down to 1.5 K. The animation below...

115

Analysis of simultaneous cooling and heating in supermarket refrigeration systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this master thesis project, conventional supermarket refrigeration systems using R404A are compared with refrigeration system solutions using natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide (more)

Marigny, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years. About 20% of refrigerators and freezers sold in 2000energy efficiency of refrigerators and freezers, Directiveof Energy, for refrigerators and freezers are base unit

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Analysis of heat recovery in supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this study is to investigate the heat recovery potential in supermarket refrigeration systems using CO2 as refrigerants. The theoretical control strategy (more)

Abdi, Amir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

119

From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models, From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models, Benchmark, and Insights Speaker(s): Yong Liang Date: May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Janie Page Nowadays, users in the retail electricity market only need to pay a fixed rate for electricity. This strategy results in lack of coordination between demand and supply and costs significant waste. A shift from fixed rate pricing in retail markets could potentially yield many benefits. Time-varying pricing promotes the substitution of off-peak consumption for peak consumption, reducing strain on the electrical system, the need for costly and inefficient "peaker" plants, and waste in electricity delivery. However, existing research supports what common sense suggests:

120

Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Residential Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 - v2.8.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Household Refrigerator Market and Energy Conservation Regulations in Japan.Household Refrigerator Market and Energy Conservation Regulations in Japan

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

125

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

126

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

127

Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration and Liquefaction Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration and Liquefaction Systems ... Current Status and Perspectives of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plant Design ...

Francisco J. Barns; C. Judson King

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Interactive Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interactive Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems ... Current Status and Perspectives of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plant Design ...

Wai Biu Cheng; Richard S. H. Mah

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

130

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

131

Development and Validation of Aggregated Models for Thermostatic Controlled Loads with Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated control models for a population of thermostatically controlled loads. The effects of demand response on the load population dynamics are investigated.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Chassin, David P.

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

132

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) April 25, 2013 DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) More Documents & Publications Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355) Schott Gemtron: Order (2013-CE-5358

133

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

134

HFC supermarket refrigeration demonstration. Phases 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HFC Supermarket Refrigeration Demonstration tested and evaluated HFC refrigerants in a new Shop `n Save supermarket in Glens Falls, New York. This project included laboratory testing of HFC refrigerants for medium- and low-temperature application, the design of a supermarket refrigeration system to accommodate the new refrigerants, installation, start-up, and field monitoring.

Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

136

Solar sorption refrigeration in Africa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar sorption refrigeration technologies are regarded as a promising way to meet the growing refrigeration needs in Africa, for thermal comfort, foods and crops, vaccines and medicines conservation. Sorption technologies projects and studies have been reported in Africa since the late 1970s. This paper describes the most representative reported research activities and projects in various African climatic conditions. An emphasis is put on demonstrative plants involving absorption, adsorption or desiccant cooling applications. From this overview, it appears that a lot of achievements have been made, though applications are mainly focused on small-size cold boxes for foods and vaccines preservation; no direct building air conditioning based on adsorption or absorption has been reported. Mediterranean countries seems to offer the best weather conditions for solar sorption refrigeration applications and plenty of related activities could be identified in these countries. A more adequate design for each of other climatic zones in Africa may then be relevant. As anywhere, the high cost of these technologies remains the main the biggest brake to their diffusion in Africa.

Kokouvi Edem NTsoukpoe; Daniel Yamegueu; Justin Bassole

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

Not Available

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption and desorption. 3. Heat flows and composition changes occur at constant temperature. The advantages of complex compounds... 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption...

Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

139

List of Refrigerators Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigerators Incentives Refrigerators Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 657 Refrigerators Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-657) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Refrigerators Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial

140

Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Manufactured in the U.S. 2 Problem Statement * Current commercial and industrial heat pumps - Poor coefficient of performance (COP) at low temperatures * HFC refrigerant...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

142

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS REfRIGERATION SYSTEMS W.O. WITHERELL AOVENTg Technolog1st Un10n Carb1de Corporat1on South Charleston, West V1rg~n1a ABSTRACT ~hen considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration... to several canple~ processes that ut iii ze refr igerat ion systems. In IOClSt cases the design of a cOOlllex refrigeration system in isolation (i.e., without considering process integration) generallv results in non-ptilTUll refrigeration levels...

Witherell, W. D.

143

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

vending machines are equipped with controls or software that put the lighting andor refrigeration systems into a low power state at night, on weekends, or other periods of...

144

IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat exchangers with round tubes, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer efficiency. But a reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

146

Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on AddThis.com...

149

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm...

150

Corrosion aspects in indirect systems with secondary refrigerants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Aqueous solutions of organic or inorganic salts are used as secondary refrigerants in indirect refrigeration systems to transport and transfer heat. Water is known (more)

Ignatowicz, Monika

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration....

152

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

153

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

154

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document...

155

Chapter 7, Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of refrigerators recycled through the program EXISTINGUEC The average annual unit energy consumption of participating refrigerators PARTUSE The portion of the year the...

156

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review...

157

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

158

Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

Bad seeds sprout perilous dynamics: stochastic thermostat induced trajectory synchronization in biomolecules  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular dynamics simulations starting from different initial conditions are commonly used to mimic the behavior of an experimental ensemble. We show in this article that when a Langevin thermostat is used to maintain constant temperature during such simulations, extreme care must be taken when choosing the random number seeds used in order to prevent statistical correlation among the MD trajectories. While recent studies have shown that stochastically thermostatted trajectories evolving within a single potential basin with identical random number seeds tend to synchronize, we show that there is a synchronization effect even for complex, biologically relevant systems. We demonstrate this effect in simulations of Alanine trimer and pentamer and in a simulation of a temperature-jump experiment for peptide folding of a 14-residue peptide. Even in replica-exchange simulations, in which the trajectories are at different temperatures, we find partial synchronization occurring when the same random number seed is employed. We explain this by extending the recent derivation of the synchronization effect for two trajectories in a harmonic well to the case in which the trajectories are at two different temperatures. Our results suggest several ways in which mishandling selection of a pseudo random number generator initial seed can lead to corruption of simulation data. Simulators can fall into this trap in simple situations such as neglecting to specifically indicate different random seeds in either parallel or sequential restart simulations, utilizing a simulation package with a weak pseudorandom number generator, or using an advanced simulation algorithm that hasn't been programmed to distribute initial seeds.

Voter, A F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sindhikara, Daniel J [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Kim, Seonah [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA; Roitberg, Adrian E [UNIV OF FLORIDA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators using a Joule Thomson circuit precooled by commercially available two staged Gifford Mac Mahon cryocoolers. The Joule Thomson counterflow heat exchangers are modular and have been thermo-hydraulically characterized. Fully automatic cool down and operation are achieved by two pneumatically driven by pass and expansion valves. Several apparatus have been built or are under assembly with cooling power ranging from 100 mW up to 5 Watt, for temperature ranging from 2.8 K up to 4.5 K. A trouble free operation with several warm up and cool down cycles has been proven over 7000 hours.

G. Claudet; R. Lagnier; A. Ravex

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

162

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Modeling supermarket refrigeration energy use and demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model has been developed that can predict the performance of supermarket refrigeration equipment to within 3% of field test measurements. The Supermarket Refrigeration Energy Use and Demand Model has been used to simulate currently available refrigerants R-12, R-502 and R-22, and is being further developed to address alternative refrigerants. This paper reports that the model is expected to be important in the design, selection and operation of cost-effective, high-efficiency refrigeration systems. It can profile the operation and performance of different types of compressors, condensors, refrigerants and display cases. It can also simulate the effects of store humidity and temperature on display cases; the efficiency of various floating head pressure setpoints, defrost alternatives and subcooling methods; the efficiency and amount of heat reclaim from refrigeration systems; and the influence of other variables such as store lighting and building design. It can also be used to evaluate operational strategies such as variable-speed drive or cylinder unloading for capacity control. Development of the model began in 1986 as part of a major effort, sponsored by the U.S. electric utility industry, to evaluate energy performance of then conventional single compressor and state-of-the-art multiplex refrigeration systems, and to characterize the contribution of a variety of technology enhancement features on system energy use and demand.

Blatt, M.H.; Khattar, M.K. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Walker, D.H. (Foster Miller Inc., Waltham, MA (US))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

165

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

166

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

168

Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles and Selection of Refrigerants, University Park, PA 16802 The optimal synthesis of the refrigeration configuration and the selection of the best refrigerants that satisfy a set of process cooling duties at different temperatures is ad- dressed

Maranas, Costas

169

DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

170

Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

171

Proceedings: commercial refrigeration research workshop. Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this workshop was to identify the state-of-the-art and determine research needs for improving energy use and demand in commercial refrigeration applications. Workshop attendees included research and development, technical operations and marketing people from manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration, space conditioning, and energy management systems equipment, and from supermarket chains and electric utilities. Presentations were given on best current practice and research needs from the perspective of each of these industry segments. Working groups identified ten important research, development and equipment demonstration projects to improve the efficiency of refrigerating equipment, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, and other energy-using systems in supermarkets.

Blatt, M.H.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

173

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of carbon dioxide as refrigerant in supermarket refrigeration systems. The work includes fieldPhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

Kazachkov, Ivan

174

Performance of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer using HFC refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-cycle 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}) refrigerator/freezer was tested utilizing American National Standards Institute/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (ANSI/AHAM) standards for energy consumption testing. A 34.9% energy consumption reduction was realized for a 1984 model refrigerator/freezer (1020 kWh original energy use). This paper presents a proven method of reducing the current Department of Energy (DOE) minimum energy-efficiency standards for refrigerator/freezers to the proposed year 2001 standards utilizing existing technology. For a top-mount, frost-free refrigerator/freezer having the above volume, the current DOE minimum energy standard is 770 kWh/year, and the proposed DOE year 2001 standard is 530 kWh/year (a 31% reduction). Therefore, some significant reductions may be obtained by implementing the modifications discussed in this paper into newer refrigerator/freezer models. The paper gives an overview of the modifications implemented by a Danish university on a US refrigerator/freezer and presents experimental performance testing results of the refrigerator/freezer. The modifications will cause the refrigerator/freezer to be more expensive, but the performance enhancements should offset cost. No cost analysis is presented in this paper, but a detailed cost analysis of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer is contained in a 1993 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (EPA 1993). The refrigerator/freezer was tested using four refrigerants and compressors. Two compressors and refrigerants were tested in the freezer cycle, and four were tested in the fresh food cycle.

Baskin, E.; Delafield, F.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Incentives over $5,000 must be pre-approved Program Info Funding Source Efficiency Vermont Public Benefit Fund Expiration Date 06/30/2013 State Vermont Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Outside Air Economizers: $1,250 Evaporator Fan Motors: $20 - $100 Evaporator Fan Motor Controls: $550 Door/Frame Heater Controls: $50 per door Case Light Occupancy Controls: $40 LED Refrigerator and Freezer Case Light Fixtures: $6 - $15 per foot Energy Star Ice Machines: $50 - $75 Efficient Compressors: $200 Display Case Strip-Curtain and Continuous Covers: $6 per foot

177

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state materialan elastic shape memory metal alloyas a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Intra-molecular refrigeration in enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a simple mechanism for intra-molecular refrigeration, where parts of a molecule are actively cooled below the environmental temperature. We discuss the potential role and applications of such a mechanism in biology, in particular in enzymatic reactions.

Hans J. Briegel; Sandu Popescu

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

179

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

182

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

183

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

185

Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivationsecond most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residualfor more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as

Greenblatt, Jeffery

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along withthe number of refrigerators and freezers in a home alongcompression refrigerators and freezers) in U.S. households.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

188

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

189

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Uninterrupted power supply for autonomous small refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to describe salient features of a small refrigerator powered by a field of photovoltaic panels backed up by a petrol-start, kerosene-run portable generator set. Such units find applications in medical shops, veterinary applications and storage of vaccines in primary health centers. The modular arrangement allows use of certain components as a part of an uninterrupted power supply system for such refrigerators. Some preliminary results on temperature distributions and performance data are also presented.

Thomachan A. Kattakayam; K. Srinivasan

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

193

Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

194

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. As concerns about climate change intensify, it is becoming increasingly clear that suitable low-GWP refrigerants will be needed for both new and existing residential and commercial heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. Project Description This project seeks to develop alternative refrigerants for HVAC&R equipment. The overall environmental impacts of alternative refrigerants will be assessed using a life cycle climate performance model that accounts for direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and indirect

196

DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator September 1, 2010 - 4:37pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a complaint. DOE subpoenaed information from Arcelik, reviewed Arcelik's response, and performed its own testing of this model. Based on our investigation and test results, DOE has determined this model to be compliant with federal energy conservation standards. Notice of Compliance Determination Addthis Related Articles DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

197

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies. Project Description The project involves the development of a supermarket refrigeration system that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption when compared to existing systems. The challenge is to design a system that is capable of achieving low refrigerant leak rates while significantly reducing both the energy consumption and the refrigerant charge size. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project Goals

198

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Surveys Speaker(s): Essel Ben Hagan Date: July 12, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Van Buskirk Galen Barbose As part of activities to develop refrigerator efficiency standards regulations in Ghana, a national survey on the energy consumption of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers has been conducted. The survey covered 1000 households in urban, peri-urban and rural communities in various parts of the country. The survey found that, on average, refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers in Ghana use almost three times what is allowed by minimum efficiency standards in the U.S., and a few refrigerators had energy use at levels almost ten times the U.S.

200

Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigerator Recycling Program Refrigerator Recycling Program Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Limit one rebate per account per year Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator and Freezer Recycling: $35 Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator. The old refrigerator should be brought outside but remain plugged in so the utility can make it is in working condition. the utility will then take the refrigerator to a recycling facility and issue a $35 bill credit. Other Information

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions March 5, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator technology has come a long way since Dr. John Gorrie (1803 - 1855), a forward-looking inventor, was granted U. S. Patent #8080 for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. In those days, ice was expensive, if it was even available: Blocks of natural ice were carved from frozen lakes and rivers and stored in special warehouses under layers of sawdust for insulation. By the 1890s, pollution and sewage dumping caused by population growth compromised sources of pure, natural ice, threatening the brewing, meat-packing, and dairy industries. As these and other industries sought better solutions, modern refrigeration technology started to evolve.

202

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost...

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

VEE-0079- In the Matter of Diversified Refrigeration, Inc.  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Diversified Refrigeration, Inc. (DRI) requests a six-month exception from the 2001 energy appliance efficiency standards for built-in refrigerators that become effective July 1, 2001. As explained...

204

Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

Boyer, Edmond

205

Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents case studies of two moderately sized ammonia refrigeration systems retrofitted for floating head pressure control. It also presents a parametric analysis to assist in selecting appropriate pressures in an ammonia refrigeration...

Barrer, P. J.; Jones, S. M.

206

DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved thecivil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

207

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

International Refrigeration Products International Refrigeration Products (room air conditioners) ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 NOTICE OF PROPOSED CIVIL PENALTY Date issued: July 9, 2012 Number of alleged violations: 5475 (365 days, 15 models) Maximum possible assessment: $1,095,000 Proposed civil penalty: $109,500 The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") Office of the General Counsel, Office of Enforcement, alleges that International Refrigeration Products ("IRP") has violated cettain provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. § 6291 et seq. ("the Act"), and 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. Specifically, DOE alleges: 1. IRP has manufactured 1 a variety of Sea Breeze brand room air conditioners, including basic models WA46YR, WA48YRX, WA410YRX, WA412YRX, WH418ZRX,

208

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from The White House Blog. For those interested in the President's remarks to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and his views on the shared responsibilities of government and business to the American people, our post earlier will give a suitable overview. For those interested in the details of the President's Executive Order on reviewing regulations and their impacts on the economy, Cass Sunstein's post this morning will also be of value. But the President also took a moment during his speech to put the debate over regulation in a different perspective, and to break through the false dichotomy so often

209

Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

210

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR-  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR- , AND FREEZERS - 1. INTRODUCTION AND NEED FOR PROPOSED ACTION ental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation stand licy Act. of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmentd Qu refrigerators, re€iigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National ' ederal Regulations, Parts 1500 through. 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy- efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Consehation Act

211

Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Retrofitting Doors on Open Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases William Goetzler Navigant Consulting, Inc. wgoetzler@navigant.com (781) 270-8351 April 4, 2013 BBA Refrigeration Project Team Images courtesy of REMIS AMERICA, LLC. 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Technology Overview Image from Investigation of Energy- Efficient Supermarket Display Cases. 2004, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Background and Motivation * Adding doors to open cases (retrofits) greatly reduces cold air loss - 50-80% load reduction - Load reduction = system energy savings

212

Development of a prototype optical refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have carried out a range of tasks directed toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-principle optical refrigerator prototype. They procured and tested new cooling elements that are at the heart of an optical refrigerator. The cooling element absorbs pump radiation and then fluoresces with nearly unity quantum efficiency. They constructed and tested a cooling chamber with low thermal emissivity walls that reduces the parasitic heating.

Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Sigel, G.H.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Phase boundary detection for dilution refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a device to conveniently measure the positions of the phase boundaries in a dilution refrigerator. We show how a simple modification of a standard capacitive level gauge (segmentation of one of the electrodes) permits a direct calibration of the capacitance versus phase boundary position. We compare this direct calibration with the indirect procedure that must be adopted for a conventional capacitive level gauge. The device facilitates the correct adjustment of the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He fraction in the dilution refrigerator.

Haar, E. ter; Martin, R.V. [DFMT, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

215

Pipeline gas pressure reduction with refrigeration generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high pressure of pipeline gas is reduced to the low pressure of a distribution system with simultaneous generation of refrigeration by passing the gas through two successive centrifugal compressors driven by two turbo-expanders in which the compressed gas is expanded to successively lower pressures. Refrigeration is recovered from the gas as it leaves each turbo-expander. Methanol is injected into the pipeline gas before it is expanded to prevent ice formation. Aqueous methanol condensate separated from the expanded gas is distilled for the recovery and reuse of methanol.

Markbreiter, S. J.; Schorr, H. P.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

216

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

218

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Keywords: refrigeration, transport, photovoltaics, economics. 1 #12;B. Elliston, M. Dennis) modules to minimise the use of diesel generation in refrigerated transport. Sub- sequently, UK supermarket. This report investigates the merit of retrofitting a PV system to assist refrigerated trailers in Australian

220

Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recovery Unit ID # : Added Lbs oz Lbs oz Lbs oz Startup Charge Net Refrigerant Added: Lbs oz Parts UsedForm Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form Service ID: Owner: Work Order #: Building: Date: Issued: Completed: Equipment ID: Technicians: Location: Model: Manufact: Serial #: Refrigerant Type

Russell, Lynn

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

223

Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its capabil- ity to minimize the total cost of energy for a commercial refrigeration system while multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor. This corresponds roughly to 2% of the entire electricity consumption in the country. Refrigerated goods constitute

224

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

225

APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mobile equipment. (c) Central air conditioning heat pumps, regardless of capacity, except that requirements for central air conditioning heat pumps with cooling capacity of 135,000 Btu per hour or more#12;#12;APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS

226

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

Bivens, D. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

229

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) | Department  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) July 9, 2012 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) More Documents & Publications

230

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study documents one year of operating experience with a transcritical carbon dioxide (TC CO2) booster refrigeration system at Delhaize Americas Hannaford supermarket location in Turner, Maine. This supermarket, which began operation in June 2013, is the first supermarket installation in the U.S. of a TC CO2 booster refrigeration system. We compare refrigeration system performance to that for a supermarket having nearly identical layout and refrigeration loads, in a similar climate and of similar vintage, that uses a conventional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant. Delhaize provided the submetered and utility data used to generate the performance summaries herein.

231

Special dilution refrigerator systems of Milli-Kelvin detector experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several hundred ultra low temperature systems have been designed and built for a variety of applications. One common application is the refrigeration of low temperature detectors. Although many of the requirements are satisfied by standard designs, Oxford Instruments has often built special refrigerators to suit specific detector requirements. A few of the most interesting of these systems will be discussed. (1) dilution refrigerators to cool gravitational wave antennae to 65 mK; (2) rotating dilution refrigerator for cosmic ray detector experiments; (3) compact dilution refrigerator to cool large bolometer arrays within the SCUBA telescope; (4) side access systems for beam line experiments

Batey, G.; Balshaw, N. (Oxford Instruments Ltd., Old Station Way (United Kingdom))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Retail refrigeration systems -- The use of ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of a secondary refrigeration system for high-temperature use as investigated in 1991, and a design for a full high-temperature system was completed the following year. In late 1992, a supermarket chain commissioned a study of the feasibility of turning the design into a practical application and assisted the project in 1993 by commissioning a test facility for single-temperature secondary refrigeration at one of the company`s factory sites. Results and conclusions from this trial work pointed toward the need for a total secondary refrigeration system, including a low-temperature system for frozen food display cases, and the possibility of utilizing environmentally friendly ammonia as the primary refrigerant. Therefore, in late 1993/early 1994, a low-temperature system was developed and commissioned at the test facility. Full collaboration between the supermarket company and the contractor resulted in the funding of practical trial work and feasibility studies for both secondary refrigeration and a fully detailed proposal for the use of ammonia in a public retail environment. In May 1995, the first UK ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration system began operation in a supermarket in Horsham, Sussex England.

Thomas, A.S. [Westward Refrigeration, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low-Global Warming Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy

234

Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

The alternative refrigerant dilemma for refrigerator-freezers: Truth or consequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to select a refrigerant that has minimal impact on energy consumption and the environment, a screening analysis of potential refrigerants was performed that resulted in the selection of six candidates. The screening results show that R-134a, R-134, R-152a, R-134a/R-152a, R-22/R-152a/R-124, and R-134a/R-152a/R-124 are the most promising refrigerants based on the following criteria: ozone depletion potential, greenhouse warming potential, coefficient of performance, and safety. Energy consumption tests were performed for the three pure refrigerants in accordance with the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results indicate an increased energy consumption of 6.8%, 7.3%, and 7.3%, respectively for R-134, R-152a, and R-134a in the most efficient oil. However, when the effects of compressor efficiency are taken into account, the normalized energy consumption results in an increase of only 2.7% for R-152a and 5.5% for both R-134a and R-134. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 International Refrigeration Products, Respondent ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Issued: July 20, 2012 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: 1. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and International Refrigeration Products ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

237

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

239

The application of Stirling cooler to refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application field of the free-piston Stirling Cooler, Model 100A of Global Cooling BV in the refrigeration has been studied. The cooling effectiveness of the free-piston Stirling Cooler which means small capacity with better efficiency, large range of temperature and capacity modulated operation is of much use to cool a space insulated well. One practicable application is suggested here, in which FPSC and secondary heat transfer fluid are used to the single temperature refrigerator (60 liter) instead of conventional vapor compression machines. In the freezer operation at {minus}20 C inside cabinet, the steady-state test results show 25% improvement in energy consumption over original one. The application of free-piston Stirling Cooler to a freezer at lower temperature shows great potentials also.

Kim, S.Y.; Chung, W.S.; Shin, D.K.; Cho, K.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Living System Lab.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

240

Process for the production of refrigerator oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

Swift, Gregory W. (Sante Fe, NM); Olson, Jeffrey R. (San Mateo, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Comfort by Design Steve Jones Commercial Sales Manager for Mitsubishi Southwest Business Unit HVAC?s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology HVAC Industry Overview HVAC Market Dollar Volume $18 Billion Source:;NABH Research....2M Systems Ductless is a small percent of the U.S. HVAC market but current building and energy usage trends indicate a large growth opportunity Determining the Proper Application Worldwide Usage-Opportunity Window Unitary Chillers...

Jones, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Cool energy savings opportunities in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commercial sector consumes over 13 quads of primary energy annually. Most of this consumption (two-thirds) meets the energy needs of lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. The largest consuming group of the remaining one-third is commercial refrigeration at about one quad annually (990 trillion Btu), valued at over $7 billion per year to the commercial sector consumer. Potential energy savings are estimated to be about 266 trillion Btu, with consumer savings valued at about $2 billion. This study provides the first known estimates of these values using a bottom-up approach. The authors evaluated numerous self-contained and engineered commercial refrigeration systems in this study, such as: supermarket central systems, beverage merchandisers, ice machines, and vending machines. Typical physical characteristics of each equipment type were identified at the component level for energy consumption. This information was used to form a detailed database from which they arrived at the estimate of 990 trillion Btu energy consumption for the major equipment types used in commercial refrigeration. Based on the implementation of the most cost-effective technology improvements for the seven major equipment types, they estimated an annual potential energy savings of 266 trillion Btu. Much of the savings can be realized with the implementation of high-efficiency fan motors and compressors. In many cases, payback can be realized within three years.

Westphalen, D.; Brodrick, J.; Zogg, R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

245

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

246

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

247

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

248

Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

Rice, C K; Sand, J R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

250

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

251

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

253

Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost, a large component of which is energy-related. Existing system operation must be analyzed to optimize energy consumption while still meeting cooling load requirements. Refrigerant properties, which form the basis for such calculations, have... to illustrate the application of the program to problems in design and operation of refrigeration systems. INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic analysis of refrigeration systems is important in a variety. of industrial; commercial, and building-related applications...

Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

254

Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

255

Supermarket refrigeration assessment for the New England Electric System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to assess the impact of energy efficient supermarket refrigeration on the electric capacity requirements of the New England Electric System (NEES) service territories. The leading supermarket chains in the NEES service territories were contacted and the number of supermarkets and the types of refrigeration systems employed were established. Estimates were then made of the potential demand and energy savings that NEES and the supermarkets could realize if energy efficient refrigeration systems were employed. On the basis of this analysis, possible incentives to accelerate the implementation of energy efficient refrigeration equipment in NEES service territories were recommended. 4 refs., 10 figs., 27 tabs.

Tsaros, T.L.; Walker, D.H. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact This will provide the heating, venting, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industries and policymakers with definitive information regarding the available...

257

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

258

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the...

260

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Exergy analysis and experimental study of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents a detailed experimental analysis of 2TR (ton of refrigeration) vapor compression refrigeration cycle for different percentage of refrigerant charge using exergy analysis. An experimental set...

S. Anand; S. K. Tyagi

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

1991 & 1992 trade-in refrigerator metering project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under SMUD`s Equipment Efficiency Improvement Program the District offers an incentive of $100 to customers who trade in an older refrigerator in conjunction with the purchase of a new model. More than 40,000 refrigerators have been traded in this program as of January 1993. This program has provided 36.5% of the total reported savings from all SMUD`s conservation programs through April 1993. Of this 36.5% reported savings, 84.7% is attributed to the trading in of an old refrigerator for a new model, and only 15.3% to purchases of a new refrigerators without trading in their older model. In 1992 two laboratory studies were undertaken to quantify energy use of older, close to retirement, domestic residential refrigerators from participants in SMUD`s refrigerator trade-in program. One study focused on annual energy use from older model refrigerators received from this program, and the second study focused on potential energy savings from condenser coil cleaning from this same stock of refrigerators. To determine the performance of these refrigerators, a sample of 79 units was randomly selected for testing. Each unit was tested to obtain annual energy use (kWh/yr) and to document physical and operational conditions. A subset of 28 units from this sample was also tested to determine energy savings as a result of cleaning condenser coils. This was done by comparing test results of annual energy use before and after coil cleaning. These refrigerators were tested to the same conventional procedures (commonly called the {open_quotes}DOE{close_quotes} test, or AHAM test procedures) used to arrive at annual energy use labeled on all new refrigerators. Although laboratory results do not exactly replicate field (in-home) results, they have been found to still be a reasonably good predictor of energy use as reported in a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory study , discussed in the following section.

Bos, W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

263

Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and unstable chemicals only be stored in a lab-safe refrigeration unit that meets National Fire Protection Association 45 ­ Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals. #12;Hearing conservation protection which will be furnished by the Institute. Samples of various types of ear muffs, ear caps, and ear

Cohen, Robert E.

264

Cascade and secondary coolant supermarket refrigeration systems : modelling and new frost correlations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nowadays traditional (direct expansion) supermarket refrigeration systems are mostly employed in supermarket establishments for refrigerating food products and beverages in the store. However, the installations (more)

Haile-Michael, Getu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

HgCdTe superlattices for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration Daryoosh Vashaee a?merit ?ZT max ? 3? at cryogenic temperatures. Calculationstemperature, 16 for cryogenic refrigeration the situation

Vashaee, D; Shakouri, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrigerator operate with propane as well as electricity?refrigerator operate with propane as well as electricity? [freezer operate with propane as well as electricity? [

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

268

1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption refrigerators and heat pumps These machines ADsorb cycles for: Heat pumps Refrigerators Air conditioning Driven by heat from: Fossil fuels Bio fuels Waste of concept forced convection adsorption machine [#1] · Generating temperature 225° C · Heat rejection

Davies, Christopher

269

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

270

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss Ph and Technology (DMST) under Grant: 2002-603/4001-93. CMBC consists of seven industrial companies, three academic of the three academic partners in the center. The refrigeration research activities within CMBC were initiated

Skogestad, Sigurd

271

NEW DESIGN OF NEON REFRIGERATOR FOR HTS POWER MACHINES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 2007 we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo?expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse?Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo?compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also a heat?exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

S. Yoshida; H. Hirai; A. Takaike; M. Hirokawa; Y. Aizawa; Y. Kamioka; H. Okamoto; H. Hayashi; Y. Shiohara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

273

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

274

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

275

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) February 21, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

276

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

277

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major priority as a way to save energy and money for American families and businesses. Since January 2009, the Department of Energy has finalized new efficiency standards for more than twenty household and commercial products, which will cumulatively save consumers between $250 billion and

278

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

279

Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration operating pressure (MOP) 5. De-humidifying (Te control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC) 8. Bleed function 9. Sensor placement tips

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Refrigeration Recovery for Experiment Hall High Target Loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a 3000 W hydrogen target scheduled for the summer of 2010 and running for two years until the planned shut-down for 12GeV. The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) supports the three experiment halls, two of which may normally have a hydrogen target. The refrigerator for the ESR is a CTI/Helix 1500 W 4.5-K refrigerator nominally capable of supporting a 1250 W target load at 12 bar and 15-K (plus 1100 W of 4.5-K refrigeration). As such, this refrigerator is not capable of supporting the Qweak experiment target load in its present condition. Additionally, since the installation of an ambient air vaporizer for a single use, two week run duration of a high target load in the summer of 2003 there has been a consistent usage of the Central Helium Liquefiers (CHLs) 3 bar 4.5-K helium, supplied via an existing transfer-line to the ESR, for other high target loads. By the fall of 2004, it was apparent that this continued use of CHLs supercritical helium was routinely being sought by the hall experimenters. As such, a method of refrigeration recovery was proposed to reduce the support required of CHL for these high target loads, including the anticipated Qweak experiment, while utilizing the recovered CHL refrigeration from the target to increase ESRs 12 bar 15-K capacity.

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Errol Yuksek, Jonathan Creel

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix] [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

An ammonia refrigerator with an absorption circuit as economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental results of a compression refrigerator with an integrated solution circuit, a so-called compression-absorption cycle, are presented. The compression refrigerator operates with ammonia (NH3) as refrigerant. The cycle is improved by two-stage throttling of the condensate and an absorption circuit which replaces the economizer compressor. The absorption circuit operates on the working pair ammonia/water (NH3/H2O). It is driven by superheat of the compressor without additional heat input from an external source. By this means the benefit of two-stage throttling, namely a reduction in compression work or an increase in refrigeration capacity, can be doubled. In the experiments an improvement of up to 9% in the efficiency of the NH3-refrigeration cycle has been attained. Compared to a simple compression refrigerator, the presented compression-absorption cycle has a payback time of only several months. Compared to a conventional economizer refrigeration cycle, the payback can be expected within the range of several months to about four years.

F Ziegler; U Spindler

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, analyzes the temperature distribution of the terrace, and supplies guidance for rebuilding refrigerators....

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Product Refrigerator Freezer Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Product Refrigerator Freezer Eggs Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze Raw yolks, whites 2 recommended storage times are for quality only. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator, opened 3 days Don't freeze unopened 10 days 1 year Mayonnaise, commercial Refrigerate after opening 2

Burke, Peter

288

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

289

Simple thermodynamic diagrams for real refrigeration systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of real irreversible cooling and refrigeration systems (chillers) can be summarized in simple rectangular temperature-entropy diagrams in analogy to classic pedagogical examples for idealized reversible devices. The key to translating complex dissipative losses into this graphical framework is the process average temperaturea factor that can be calculated from nonintrusive experimental measurements for converting entropy production into lost work. An uncomplicated thermodynamic model is used to transform the governing chiller performance equations into an easily-interpreted graph. Examples based upon actual data from commercial work-driven (reciprocating) and heat-driven (absorption) chillers are presented and are used to highlight the predominance of internal dissipation in determining chiller efficiency. With the thermodynamic diagram representation the relative roles of each irreversibility source as well as the reversible and endoreversible limits become transparent.

J. M. Gordon; K. C. Ng; H. T. Chua

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Isothermally heatsunk diffusion cloud chamber refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a diffusion cloud chamber isothermally heatsunk refrigerator which comprises: a heatsink consisting of two phases of a saturated substance existing in thermodynamic equilibrium at constant pressure and therefore at constant temperature, contained in a reservoir; a means of pressure damping to maintain constant pressure, as the ratio of the two phases present changes and introduces volumetric changes in the substance; a cooling member which transfer heat from vapor in contact with the cooling member surface to the ''cold side'' of a Peltier thermoelectric element with which the cooling member is in thermal contact; a Peltier thermoelectric element which removes the heat supplied by the cooling member from its ''cold side'' and pumps it to the ''hot side'' when driven by an electric current; and a means of transferring heat from the ''hot side'' of the Peltier thermoelectric element to the two-phase isothermal substance in the reservoir.

Menocal, S.G.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

291

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

292

SpecialBulletin page 1California Energ y Commission March 2006 no. 84  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and either third-party field-verified thermostatic expansion valves or refrigerant charge measurement and refrigerant charge measurement or thermostatic expansion valves (such as Table 8-3 of the Residential

293

2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation provides an overview of DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers. It was presented via webinar on October 6, 2014.

294

Steam System Forecasting and Management  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by manipulation of operating schedules to avoid steam balances that result in steam venting, off gas-flaring, excessive condensing on extraction/condensing turbines, and ineffective use of extraction turbines. For example, during the fourth quarter of 1981... minimum turndown levels. Several boilers would have oeen shut down; by-product fuel gas would have been flared; and surplus low level steam would have been vented to the atmosphere. Several scenarios were studied with SFC and evaluated based...

Mongrue, D. M.; Wittke, D. O.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm Addthis DOE-initiated testing has revealed that a Samsung refrigerator (model RF26VAB), which the company had claimed was Energy Star compliant, consumed more energy than permitted by the Energy Star program. Test results for the Samsung model at issue show that, when tested in accordance with DOE's test procedure, it consumed between 7 and 11.4 percent more energy than the Energy Star requirement. Samsung is no longer manufacturing this model, although it may still be available from some retail outlets. Based on this testing, DOE is referring Samsung Model RF26VAB to the U.S.

296

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residential Refrigerators Residential Refrigerators Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators October 7, 2013 - 11:19am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

297

Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/pdf/tr_re-freez_Jul.2006.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/product-standards-refrigerators-japan Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Industry Codes & Standards Regulations: Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling This Energy Conservation Center Japan (ECCJ) document was created as a guide in response to its newly established set of standards and labelling

298

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigerators Refrigerators Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators October 7, 2013 - 11:19am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

299

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Refrigeration Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 4.24846345193 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 24.6944086225 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 1.29913989581 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 7.46645043826 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

300

DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter November 14, 2008 - 4:47pm Addthis ENERGY STAR® Program Continues to Help American Consumers Make Energy Efficient Choices WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced an agreement with LG Electronics, USA, Inc. (LG), resolving concerns related to energy usage measurements reported on LG French Door refrigerators with through-the-door ice and water service. The ENERGY STAR® program helps American consumers make energy efficient choices, saving billions of dollars while protecting the environment by using identified energy efficient products and practices. "DOE believes that the actions LG plans to take will benefit consumers and

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

302

Energy Department Announces More Stringent Criteria for ENERGY STAR Refrigerators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced increased energy efficient criteria for refrigerators carrying the ENERGY STAR label. In order to qualify, full-size...

303

High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2...

304

Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Speed Control in Industrial Refrigeration: Theory, Application & Case Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is often standard practice in the field of industrial refrigeration to design and operate systems with little regard toward part-load performance. This approach is understandable, whether viewed from the standpoint of the design engineer, plant...

Wilcox, M. H.

306

Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes performance demonstrations of two members of the Ikon family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for replacement of R-12 and R-134a in manufacturing and facilities operations. Preliminary...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

307

Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan , Abi Sellen Alex S. Taylor philosophy. As such, they are designed to operate as a modular based system so that their various functions

Hunt, Galen

309

6 Energy Saving Tips for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

To help businesses save energy and money, the Energy Department today announced new standards aimed at making commercial refrigerators and freezers. Here are just a few more tips to increase the energy efficiency of these appliances.

310

Combined Cold Compressor/Ejector Helium Refrigerator Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years there has been increasing interest in raising refrigeration efficiency and capacity in cycles which produce cooling below 4.2 K. It is, of course, desirable to be able to produce the required s...

A. P. Schlafke; D. P. Brown; K. C. Wu

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

312

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

313

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFRIGERATOR DESIGN FOR THE AMBULATORY ANO WHEELCHAIR-USING ELDERLY A Thesis by MARY SUE MILLS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A S M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements f or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 198S Major Subject: Industrial Engineering REFRIGERATOR DESIGN FOR THE AMBULATORY AND WHEELCHAIR-USING ELDERLY A Thesis by MARY SUE MILLS Approved as to style and content by: )7 Rodg Koppa (Chair of Committee) rome . Co leton ( ember...

Mills, Mary Sue

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Key Facts About Hurricane Readiness Preparing for a Hurricane  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for washing. · Adjust the thermostat on refrigerators and freezers to the coolest possible temperature. If You

317

A review of lubrication and preformance issues in refrigeration systems using an HFC (R-134a) refrigerant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been considered critical for refrigerant and compressor lubricant to be miscible with each other over part of the range of operating conditions of refrigerant systems. Adequate miscibility, many believe, provides oil return to the compressor. Presently, synthetic polyol esters have been selected for use with HFC refrigerants, such as R-134a, which are considered appropriate alternatives to CFCs. The authors will review the mechanical issues in miscible vs non-miscible naphthenic hydrocarbon oil-based lubricants. Extensive lab, test stand and cabinet testing has been conducted and data will be presented which show responsible and predictable performance based on the chemical and physical properties of the lubricant and refrigerant. Many non-miscible systems show satisfactory performance with the proper selection of lubricant, additives and mechanical configuration. 3 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.; Eckard, A.; Flak, T.; Tritak, T. [Witco Corporation, Oakland, NJ (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-4837E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Goli, Sasank, Aimee T. McKane, and Daniel Olsen Conference Name 2011 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry Date Published 08/2011 Conference Location Niagara Falls, NY Keywords market sectors, openadr, refrigerated warehouses Abstract Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

320

L&E: Refrigerated Display Case | The Better Buildings Alliance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lighting & Electrical » Adopt the Lighting & Electrical » Adopt the refrigerated display case lighting performance specification and start saving on your case lighting costs Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Adopt the refrigerated display case lighting performance specification and start saving on your case lighting costs The LED Refrigerated Display Case Lighting Specification delivers nearly 50% energy savings compared to typical display case lighting. If all retail refrigerated display cases switched today to LED systems, over 2.1 TWh of electricity could be saved annually. LED Refrigerated Display Case Lighting Specification

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Combination cooler and freezer for refrigerating containers and food in outer space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus for cooling containers and food in the microgravity conditions of outer space is described comprising: (a) a housing defining a refrigeration compartment for supporting the containers in a container storage area and food in a refrigerated food storage area, and freezer compartment; (b) cold plate means within the refrigeration compartment for cooling the containers and food by conduction; (c) thermoelectric refrigeration means for maintaining the cold plates at temperatures which cool the contents of the refrigeration compartment, and the freezer compartment.

Rudick, A.G.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

322

Quantum refrigerators and the third law of thermodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The rate of temperature decrease of a cooled quantum bath is studied as its temperature is reduced to absolute zero. The third law of thermodynamics is then quantified dynamically by evaluating the characteristic exponent ? of the cooling process dT(t)dt??T? when approaching absolute zero, T?0. A continuous model of a quantum refrigerator is employed consisting of a working medium composed either by two coupled harmonic oscillators or two coupled two-level systems. The refrigerator is a nonlinear device merging three currents from three heat baths: a cold bath to be cooled, a hot bath as an entropy sink, and a driving bath which is the source of cooling power. A heat-driven refrigerator (absorption refrigerator) is compared to a power-driven refrigerator. When optimized, both cases lead to the same exponent ?, showing a lack of dependence on the form of the working medium and the characteristics of the drivers. The characteristic exponent is therefore determined by the properties of the cold reservoir and its interaction with the system. Two generic heat bath models are considered: a bath composed of harmonic oscillators and a bath composed of ideal Bose/Fermi gas. The restrictions on the interaction Hamiltonian imposed by the third law are discussed. In the Appendices, the theory of periodically driven open systems and its implication for thermodynamics are outlined.

Amikam Levy; Robert Alicki; Ronnie Kosloff

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

323

Energy performance listings: Residential refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Performance Listings series provides comparative information across manufacturers on products. The Refrigerator/Freezers Listings include more than 2900 models that meet or exceed federal standards contained in the Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products. Information on model energy efficiency levels, performance characteristics, and manufacturer names permits easy selection of top-performing equipment. Each Energy Performance Listing includes an introductory section, two sections of model listings, and an appendix with manufacturer contacts. The first model-listing section presents information in descending order of efficiency for all manufacturers. These efficiency-ordered listings also include banners or symbols to identify voluntary efficiency thresholds for U.S. DOE/U.S. EPA`s Energy Star Program and U.S. DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Products listed above each banner meet or exceed the efficiency level established by the Energy Star program. All models noted with the symbol meet or exceed FEMP levels. With these listings, users can quickly identify the most efficient product in a particular size range, identify products that meet the efficiency criteria of a specific program, or determine an efficiency threshold that will include a specific number of manufacturers. The second section of model listings presents products grouped by manufacturer and catalog number, allowing users to quickly find and identify performance information on specific models. Energy Performance Listings are tools that support purchasing and procurement by federal, state, and local governments and others, including utility companies, energy interest groups, and research organizations. The listings may be used for program design and planning purposes, equipment selection, specification, and purchasing decisions. The listings are a product of the Energy-Efficient Procurement Collaborative, Inc. and are available through NYSERDA.

NONE

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

1. For a refrigerator, you are given that 1 ,0 20 400 t p t = - ? ? . The ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1. For a refrigerator, you are given that. 2. 0. 1. ,0. 20. 400 t t p t. = -. ? ? . The Purdue Actuarial club owns two refrigerators. One is brand new and one was...

Owner

2011-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

325

Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities...

326

An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reported before. Through improving the refrigerant performance of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent bed, the refrigeration cycle has been advanced from the aspect of utilization of the thermal energy from low-temperature level resources. In addition...

Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Design of a Large 2.0 K Refrigerator for CEBAF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CEBAF refrigerator is designed to produce 4620 watts of ... Several design features are described, including a modular concept for the 2 K and 4.5 K refrigerator sections and the use of multistage centrifugal...

H. Parish; G. Gistau; C. Hood; K. Kreinbrink; W. Appleton

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

329

Design and Optimization of a Pure Refrigerant Cycle for Natural Gas Liquefaction with Subcooling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design and Optimization of a Pure Refrigerant Cycle for Natural Gas Liquefaction with Subcooling ... The worlds first commercial LNG plant uses the cascade process, which employs three different pure refrigerants: propane, ethane (or ethylene), and methane. ...

Inkyu Lee; Kyungjae Tak; Hweeung Kwon; Junghwan Kim; Daeho Ko; Il Moon

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

330

Quantum spins mimic refrigerator magnets - Argonne National Laboratories,  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Highlights > Quantum spins mimic refrigerator Highlights > Quantum spins mimic refrigerator magnets Quantum spins mimic refrigerator magnets By Joseph Bernstein * October 11, 2012 The behavior of magnetic moments in metal oxides such as layered iridium is dominated by strong spin-orbit coupling effects. In layered compounds such as Sr3Ir2O7 (shown on the left), the direction of these moments (blue arrows) is controlled at the quantum level by dipolar interactions that are akin to those of classical bar magnets. Another outcome is an unprecedented 'magnon gap' (shown at right), which was measured at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source and reveals that these underlying dipolar magnetic interactions are extremely strong. Current electronic devices depend on manipulating charge. Alternative approaches may rely on not only charge but also the spin of electrons.

331

Thailand Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thailand Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Thailand Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country Thailand South-Eastern Asia References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1]

332

DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator November 9, 2010 - 7:30pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Viking Range Corporation's refrigerator-freezer model VCSB542. The Department initiated this investigation in response to allegations that the model failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. After reviewing data provided by Viking for this model, the Department issued a testing demand on June 16, 2010 and initially tested four units, one of which was defective and replaced by a fifth unit. The test results showed that two Viking units failed the federal energy standard for maximum energy use, while two passed. Because of the wide variation in the

333

DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

into Energy Efficiency of Viking into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator November 9, 2010 - 7:30pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Viking Range Corporation's refrigerator-freezer model VCSB542. The Department initiated this investigation in response to allegations that the model failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. After reviewing data provided by Viking for this model, the Department issued a testing demand on June 16, 2010 and initially tested four units, one of which was defective and replaced by a fifth unit. The test results showed that two Viking units failed the federal energy standard for maximum energy use, while two passed. Because of the wide variation in the

334

South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country South Africa Southern Africa

335

India Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

India Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing India Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country India Southern Asia References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1]

336

Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country Mexico Central America References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1]

337

Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country India, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand Southern Asia, Central America, Southern Africa, South-Eastern Asia

338

Intermittent absorption refrigeration system equipped with an economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Conservation of useful form of energy, i.e. electricity to be used in the production sector rather than consumption sector is becoming a priority in the KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). One of the consumption sectors which utilize a large amount of electrical energy is the air-conditioning and refrigeration sector. Improving the performance of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems and utilizing solar energy in powering such systems will contribute to significant conservation of electrical energy in the kingdom of Saudi-Arabia. Hence, the objective of the present study is to improve the performance of intermittent solar absorption refrigeration system. To achieve this objective, the design of a conventional intermittent system has been modified by introducing an economizer into the system. The analysis of the modified design system indicated an increase of 20% in the coefficient of performance of the system.

S.A.M. Said; M.A.I. El-Shaarawi; M.U. Siddiqui

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.scribd.com/doc/34712276/Energy-efficiency-standards-for-refrigerat Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/energy-efficiency-standards-refrigera Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling,Emissions Standards" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

340

A simple computational model for Stirling cycle refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a simple computational model for an Alpha Free-Pistons Stirling refrigerator. The model assumes isothermal workspaces, where the compression space is maintained at temperature TH, while the expansion space is maintained at temperature TL. The regenerator is assumed to have a linear temperature distribution along its axial direction, with the working fluid taken as an ideal gas. This model is based on a control volume type analysis in which each of the components of the refrigerator (the regenerator and each of the two workspaces) is considered a separate control volume. Moving the compression piston in a predetermined sinusoidal motion provides the work input to the cycle. The motion of the compression space piston generates a pressure difference across the refrigerator, and forces the working fluid to pass through the regenerator. The expansion piston responds to the pressure in its workspace according to Newton's second law of motion. In this way the dynamics of the moving pistons will be coupled to the thermodynamics of the refrigerator system. Conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy along with ideal gas relations are used to form a set of differential and algebraic equations fully describing the refrigerator system. The motion of the expansion piston, the state of the working fluid at each workspace, and the energy terms appearing in the definition of the COP, can all be obtained. A marching-in-time technique with a Runge-Kutta scheme of the fourth order is adapted to integrate the equation of motion of the expansion piston. System behavior can be represented by the motion of the two pistons with time, and also by the pressure-volume diagrams of the workspaces. The COP plots can be produced from the computational results to describe the performance of the refrigerator.

Al-Hazmy, M.M.; Peterson, R.B.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

342

DOE Publishes Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Test Procedure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding test procedures for commercial refrigeration equipment.

343

Investigation of a Single Stage Four-Valve Pulse Tube Refrigerator for High Cooling Power  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We discuss the optimization of a pulse tube refrigerator for high cooling power. Our approach is to increase the system...

T. Schmauder; A. Waldauf; M. Thrk; R. Wagner; P. Seidel

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

DOE/EA-1643: Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment (December 2008)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers December 2008 CHAPTER 16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 16-1 16.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 16-1

345

New compressor systems seen paring refrigeration costs 15%  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Manufacturers claim that a parallel arrangement of three to five compressors of varying capacities can lower a store's refrigerating costs over 15%. The energy savings come from the more-precise matching of compressor capacity with refrigeration demand. The 500 stores that have installed uneven compressor systems are achieving a payback in under a year. Because it is important for controls to match a system for maximum efficiency, manufacturers are introducing tailor-made microprocessor controllers. A table summarizes three supermarket case histories. (DCK)

Barber, J.

1983-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

346

Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrigeration remains the last big subsector and the strongest emission source of the fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFC) in Germany? - Kauffeld [4] About 65 % of the cooling needs in Germany for frozen and refrigerated food products ? over 50.000 GWh.../a [2] In 2011, 72.4 % of the sales share of food retail industry realized in discounters and supermarkets in Germany [1] Supermarket: ? 600 ? 2.000 kWh/m2.a (PE) [3] Normal building: 200 ? 400 kWh/m2.a (PE) [4] [1] EHI retail institute 2012...

Rehault, N.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

1986-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

348

The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid [Centre of Engineering Physics, Ministry of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad (Iraq); Joudi, Khalid A. [Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

349

RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, indirect refrigeration systems renews interest as they enable to notably reduce the use of environmental the refrigeration applications to the air-conditioning systems. However, this kind of process only remainsRHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. Mylène

Boyer, Edmond

350

Paper No. 206 IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outside the buildings for devices having the refrigerant charge of small heat pumps for space heatingPaper No. 206 10th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands by subcooling of the refrigerant in the cold water tank (not used for cooling during winter). The water tank

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

Study on Alternative Refrigerants for Direct Expansion Solar Assisted Heat Pump System  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reports the investigation results of the possibilities for using pure and mixed refrigerants as working fluids to replace R22 for the DX-SAHP systems. Firstly, pure refrigerants are compared in terms of COP, discharge temperature and mass ... Keywords: direct expansion, heat pump, refrigerant, steady state, simulation

Hong Li

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J- tion of commercial refrigeration system, featuring balanced system energy consumption and food quality energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration

Skogestad, Sigurd

353

Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN of the simulation model for the two-stage refrigeration system is presented. The model is based on the mathematical, it is #12;Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 65 translated into FORTRAN or C

Skogestad, Sigurd

354

Evaluation of ozone-friendly hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropic refrigerant mixtures in a Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of the Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer has two evaporators (located in the freezer and fresh food compartments), which makes it a leading candidate for use of zeotropic refrigerant mixtures. Zeotropic mixtures can have significant temperature glides during evaporation and condensation. Performance of the zeotropic mixture can be maximized in the LM design by permitting the lower end of the temperature glide to occur in the freezer compartment evaporator and the higher end in the fresh food compartment evaporator. Several hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropes (e.g., R-227 ea/R-245ca) have been shown through steady-state modeling to outperform R-134a by up to 15%. Results from previous testing of this refrigerator/freezer using R-32/R-124 (zeotropic mixture) were published in an ASHRAE paper (Sand et al. 1993). Their results showed performance gains of approximately 3% over R-12. In the study presented in this paper, the Lorenz-Meutzner refrigerator/freezer having two evaporators and two intercoolers was experimentally tested in an environmental chamber according to Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers/Department of Energy (AHAM/DOE) testing standards using several hydrofluoropropane-based zeotropic mixtures. The results are compared to baseline testing with R-134a. The R-245ca/R-134a and R-245ca/R-152a mixtures performed comparably to R-134a. R-245ca/R-270 outperformed all zeotropic mixtures and R-134a by at least 16%. Also, a refrigerant sampling loop is added to determine the running composition of the mixture and its effects on the performance of the refrigerator/freezer.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Bayoglu, E.S.; Delafield, F.R. [Acurex Environmental Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

356

Determining the minimum mass and cost of a magnetic refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An expression is determined for the mass of the magnet and magnetocaloric material needed for a magnetic refrigerator and these are determined using numerical modeling for both parallel plate and packed sphere bed regenerators as function of temperature span and cooling power. As magnetocaloric material Gd or a model material with a constant adiabatic temperature change, representing a infinitely linearly graded refrigeration device, is used. For the magnet a maximum figure of merit magnet or a Halbach cylinder is used. For a cost of \\$40 and \\$20 per kg for the magnet and magnetocaloric material, respectively, the cheapest 100 W parallel plate refrigerator with a temperature span of 20 K using Gd and a Halbach magnet has 0.8 kg of magnet, 0.3 kg of Gd and a cost of \\$35. Using the constant material reduces this cost to \\$25. A packed sphere bed refrigerator with the constant material costs \\$7. It is also shown that increasing the operation frequency reduces the cost. Finally, the lowest cost is also found a...

Bjrk, R; Bahl, C R H; Pryds, N

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel........................................................................447 16.2.2 Heat Transfer and Airflow Near a Vertical Plate..................................................448 16.2.3 Heat Transfer and Airflow in Empty Closed Cavity

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

358

Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Long, D.L. [Statistical Solutions, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

360

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator Amikam Levy and Ronnie Kosloff  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, 07.20.Pe,05.30.-d I. INTRODUCTION The adsorption chiller is a refrigerator which employs a heat source to replace mechanical work for driving a heat pump [1]. The first device was developed in 1850 c J h P Tc Th Tw - - - 0 FIG. 1: The quantum trickle: A quantum heat pump des- ignated

Kosloff, Ronnie

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ester (POE) oils used with HFC refrigerants will break down into acid and alcohol when exposed to heat. Manufacturers have many tools to establish reliability of a product prior to mass production. Units and compressors can be nm on life tests. Prototype...

McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

Uhlig, Kurt

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Simulating effects of multispeed compressors on refrigerator/freezer performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Simulation analyses suggest that a multispeed compressor could increase steady-state operating efficiency by 4% to 14%. An additional 0.5% to 4% energy savings might be obtained from the reduction in the cycling frequency of the refrigerator. Several aspects of the robustness of the capillary tube-suction line heat exchanger design for the two-speed compressor system were also examined with the simulation model. It was shown that a system optimized for low-speed operation, when operating at the high speed, could have as much capacity as the original base case high-speed system. A relatively simple control strategy was proposed, one that requires measurement of on-cycle time and one or two compartment air temperatures. The effects of varying the speed of the evaporator or condenser fans at both compressor speeds were examined over a range of ambient temperatures. One energy-saving scenario was identified: decreasing the condenser fan speed for refrigerators operating at low ambient temperatures. By affecting the distribution of refrigerant change throughout the system, the decrease in condenser fan speed reduces the superheat in the evaporator and increases the overall UA of the evaporator. The resulting increase in evaporator capacity more than offsets the decrease in condenser UA and the energy use of the refrigerator is decreased.

Woodall, R.J. [International Paper Technology, Mobile, AL (United States); Bullard, C.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

Analysis of household refrigerators for different testing standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study highlights the salient differences among various testing standards for household refrigerator-freezers and proposes a methodology for predicting the performance of a single evaporator-based vapor-compression refrigeration system (either refrigerator or freezer) from one test standard (where the test data are available-the reference case) to another (the alternative case). The standards studied during this investigation include the Australian-New Zealand Standard (ANZS), the International Standard (ISO), the American National Standard (ANSI), the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS), and the Chinese National Standard (CNS). A simple analysis in conjunction with the BICYCLE model (Bansal and Rice 1993) is used to calculate the energy consumption of two refrigerator cabinets from the reference case to the alternative cases. The proposed analysis includes the effect of door openings (as required by the JIS) as well as defrost heaters. The analytical results are found to agree reasonably well with the experimental observations for translating energy consumption information from one standard to another.

Bansal, P.K. [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; McGill, I. [Fischer and Paykel Ltd., Auckland (New Zealand)

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Automated control and data acquisition for a small dilution refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An automatic temperature controller and data acquisition system for use with a dilution refrigerator is described. The unit is controlled by a 16?bit home microcomputer and operates and reads a resistance bridge capacitance bridge and temperature controller. Interfacing is achieved with common components and minimum additional wiring. Flexibility is retained in the software to allow application to several types of measurements.

David G. Haase

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

A Miniature Helium Turbo-Expander for Cryogenic Refrigeration Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publisher Summary This chapter highlights the features of a miniature helium turbo expander for cryogenic refrigeration systems. The Cryogenic Engineering Laboratory of the National Bureau of Standards has investigated the use of small, high speed turbines, supported by gas lubricated journal bearings, in small capacity refrigeration system. Two systems have been studied, one that operates at 4.2 K and another at 30 K. As a result of optimization studies, a 20:1 pressure ratio was used for the 4.2 K system. It is found that although the final low temperature is obtained with an expansion valve, work extraction is necessary for system operation. Refrigeration at 30 K is accomplished by shutting the expansion valve, and leaving the low temperature loop of the system unused. Refrigeration is obtained downstream of the turbine. It is found that for this system, optimization studies indicated best performance at 4:1 pressure ratio. A program was initiated to investigate the performance of a 4:1 pressure ratio turbine for this application. A design goal of 70% was selected from the qualitative reasoning that in larger sizes 80 to 90% was common, but in small machines friction and leakage losses tend to be relatively high.

M.T. NORTON

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ER-005 6-06 Extension Family and Consumer Science Specialists The Texas A&M University System If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power failure or some other reason, undesirable odors can develop. To eliminate these odors...

FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

370

Leducq, Roche, Macchi-Tejeda , Fournaison, Guilpart Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction, Cemagref Antony, France, 2009 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Leducq, Roche, Macchi-Tejeda , Fournaison, Guilpart IIR 1st Workshop on Refrigerant Charge, Antony cedex, 92 163,, France denis.leducq@cemagref.fr ABSTRACT A design of a low charge refrigerating on refrigerant charge and energy performance has been evaluated experimentally for a cold room refrigerating unit

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Refrigerator and Solenoid Run Summary August/September 1999  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The helium refrigerator was cooled down and operated for the third time since its installation. D-Zero's 2 Tesla superconducting solenoid was cooled down and operated for its second time since its installation into the D-Zero detector. This engineering note summarizes the cryogenic aspects of the test run and performance measurements made. The main purpose of this run was to do field mapping of the solenoid with different combinations of field polarity on the Solenoid and CF iron magnets. This was accomplished. A second purpose was to test the lower field joint repair that was done in January 1999. This field joint had a measurable voltage drop across the soldered bus splice. The repair was an undoing of the joint, extensive cleaning of the bus, and then welding the splice. The repair was successful, no voltage drop was measured and the magnet behaved nicely. A parasitic purpose was to get some operating time on the refrigerator, measure the refrigeration performance, and measure the heat leak in the VLPC lines mounted on the detector platform. Refrigerator performance was spot checked, and was found to be 60 watts (10%) less than generic operating curves. At this level of performance, the operating margin for the full solenoid and VLPC system will be 75 watts (15%) which is somewhat uncomfortable from an operational stand point. The VLPC lines were operated and heat leak numbers of around 40 watts was measured for each pipe section including the supply u-tubes to the detector, the bayonet can, valve box on the platform and the piping back to the refrigerator valve box. Another purpose of the test run was to test the compatibility of other detector components with the new central magnetic field environment. I do not know the results of these tests.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

372

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

DOE/AHAM advanced refrigerator technology development project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the effort to improve residential energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed domestic refrigerator-freezer. The program goal was to reduce the energy consumption of a 20-ft{sup 3} (570-L) top-mount refrigerator-freeze to 1.00 kWh/d, a 50% reduction from the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard. The options--such as improved cabinet and door insulation, a high-efficiency compressor, a low-wattage fan, a large counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control--were incorporated into prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinets and refrigeration systems. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used as a replacement for CFC-12. The baseline energy performance of the production refrigerator-freezers, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The project consisted of three main phases: (1) an evaluation of energy-efficient design options using computer simulation models and experimental testing, (2) design and testing of an initial prototype unit, and (3) energy and economic analyses of a final prototype. The final prototype achieved an energy consumption level of 0.93 kWh/d--an improvement of 45% over the baseline unit and 54% over the 1993 NAECA standard for 20-fg{sup 3} (570-L) units. The manufacturer`s cost for those improvements was estimated at $134; assuming that cost is doubled for the consumer, it would take about 11.4 years to pay for the design changes. Since the payback period was thought to be unfeasible, a second, more cost-effective design was also tested. Its energy consumption level was 1.16 kWh/d, a 42% energy savings, at a manufacturer`s cost increase of $53. Again assuming a 100% markup, the payback for this unit would be 6.6 years.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.K.; Linkous, R.L.; Hardin, C.V.; Bohman, R.H.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

An experimental analysis of cycling losses in domestic refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper identifies and quantifies the cycling losses in a domestic refrigerator-freezer. During cycling operation the refrigerator was found to operate between 5% and 25% less efficiently than the corresponding quasi-steady machine. The cycling refrigerator operates with an evaporator capacity between 3% and 17% less than that of the quasi-steady refrigerator while at the same time requiring between 1% and 9% more power to operate. This refrigerator performance degradation was attributed to several factors, the most important being the refrigerant migration and the thermal mass of the evaporator and compressor. During the off-cycle, refrigerant migrates from the condenser to the evaporator as the system pressures equalize. The off-cycle migration increases the temperature of the evaporator and necessitates refrigerant redistribution during the on-cycle and thereby tends to reduce system performance. The increased power requirements, traced to the compressor, result from slight differences in system pressure and the reduced compressor efficiency due to a cool compressor. With the cycling losses identified, several possible refrigerator design changes were suggested. It appears that a refrigerator equipped with a reciprocating compressor, solenoid valves to isolate the condenser, and no accumulator should operate in a nearly quasi-steady manner.

Coulter, W.H. [DuPont Co., Belle, WV (United States); Bullard, C.W. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Guidelines on Airflow and Refrigerant Charge Verification and Diagnostics  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

GUIDELINES ON AIRFLOW AND GUIDELINES ON AIRFLOW AND REFRIGERANT CHARGE VERIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTICS Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Airflow and refrigerant charge defects in existing air conditioning systems are well documented  Failure to address these problems represents a missed opportunity for home performance contractors  To ensure cost-effective solutions, a systematic approach is needed to quickly and accurately diagnose and resolve problems  Target:  Home performance contractors  HVAC contractors & technicians The Impact of Defects Non-TXV TXV 15% duct leakage 1 -18.10% 23% low airflow -4.70% 50% condenser coil blockage -5.80% 50% evaporator coil blockage 2 -4.60% -4.20% 20% overcharge -3.50% -7.90%

377

Guide for the selection of supermarket refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents an evaluation of supermarket refrigeration involving the use of conventional and multiplex compressor systems. Computer simulations of these systems were performed for six representative sites. The performance predictions generated in this fashion were tabulated to allow hand calculation of electric costs for any prevailing electric rate schedule. A methodology was also developed to allow economic assessment of the conventional and multiplex systems and of various enhancements employed with the multiplex system. The results of the evaluation showed the multiplex refrigeration system produced a reasonable payback for all sites examined, depending upon the enhancements employed. System features that had the greatest impact on payback were heat reclaim, hot gas defrost, and floating head pressure. 25 figs., 28 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Tsaros, T.L.; Deming, G.I. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

IMPROVEMENTS OF HELIUM LIQUEFACTION/REFRIGERATION PLANTS AND APPLICATIONS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Design features for a new range of helium liquefiers and refrigerators with capacities ranging from 30 to 280 l/h of liquid helium (LHe) and 100 to 900 Watt respectively. The latest He cold box development shows an increased efficiency due to improved turbine and heat exchanger design. Other benefits of the new design include short cool-down times and a very compact design which offers better flexibility and process control. The modularity of the system was designed in order to cover a wide range of applications like sophisticated shield cooling at different temperature levels or simultaneous operation modes for He liquefaction and refrigeration purposes. The presentation will highlight the individual improvements in the design.

K.-H. Berdais; H. Wilhelm; Th. Ungricht

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mechanism of adsorption refrigeration is shown in Fig 1. The adsorption system is sealed, when adsorbent filled in adsorber is heated, adsorbate adsorbed in adsorbent gains energy. When molecule movement rate of adsorbate is enough to overcome affinity... between adsorbate and adsorbent, adsorbate will be desorbed. When sub-pressure of the system gradually increasing reaches the value of saturation steam pressure corresponding to environmental temperature, adsorbate desorbed from adsorbent...

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

kJ/kg. a. Calculate the heat of vaporisation of the R-40 at 30°C and -20°C, and calculate with methylchloride (CH3Cl, R-40) as refrigerant. The evaporator operates at Te = -20 °C and exchanges heat-1), closing the cycle. The following data is given for these states: T °C p bar h kJ/kg s kJ/(kg·K) 1 -20 1

Zevenhoven, Ron

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

382

Waste-heat-driven refrigeration plants for freezer trawlers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis is made of the possibility of utilizing waste heat from a proposed gas-turbine fishing-vessel propulsion engine to power a refrigeration plant. On the basis of superior volume, maintenance and reliability, and cost and availability, the ammonia-water absorption system is chosen over the other waste-heat-driven option considered. It is found to be comparable in volume and in maintenance and reliability to the conventional vapor-compression system.

Kellen, A.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Aluminum tunnel junction detector operation in an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Superconducting tunnel junction detectors are being developed as both particle and X-ray detectors. Aluminum junctions are desirable for detectors because of their strong native oxide barriers, and because the small energy gap of aluminum is a good match to ballistic phonons generated by particle interactions in single crystals of silicon or other low acoustic-loss insulating crystals. Aluminum tunnel junction detectors must be operated near 0.1 T{sub C} which is 110 mK for aluminum. To operate detectors at these temperatures, we have developed adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs) for the laboratory and prototype ADRs for space based operation. These cryogenic systems are simpler, more convenient and more portable than most dilution refrigerators. We have demonstrated that the magnetic field of the ADR need not compromise the performance of aluminum tunnel junctions. We have recently initiated a program to develop superconducting tunnel junctions (STJs) as high resolution X-ray detectors and low energy threshold particle detectors. This complements our existing program in which we are developing high resolution X-ray microcalorimeter detectors. One of our goals for both of these cryogenic detector development efforts is to observe X-ray emission from cosmic sources. This requires a refrigeration system that can operate under zero gravity space flight conditions. For the microcalorimeter project, temperatures of 100 mK and below are required to sufficiently reduce the heat capacity of the device. We have therefore developed an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) system which can be configured for space flight.

Labov, S.; Silver, E.; Le Gros, M. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Bland, R.W.; Dickson, S.C.; Dignan, T.G.; Laws, K.; Johnson, R.T.; Simon, M.W.; Stricker, D.A.; Watson, R.M. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States)); Madden, N.; Landis, D. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1992-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

384

Novel 4-Way Refrigerant Reversing Valve for Heat Pumps  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project is nearing completion. Since the last progress report (November, 1999), all experimental tests have been completed. Preliminary analysis shows the refrigerant pressure drops through the reversing valve were reduced by an average of about 60{percent}, when compared to traditional reversing valves. Also, the prototype reversing valve reduced the overall coefficient of performance (COP) by an average of only 0.45{percent}.

Darin W. Nutter

2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

385

Exergetic optimization of a refrigeration cycle for natural gas liquefaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Natural gas is widely use in many industries as fuel and also as raw material. Although gas pipelines present less transportation losses they become impracticable when distances are too long or when demands are highly variable. The liquefaction of natural gas is then necessary to allow its transportation in great volumes, with little loss of material. This also enables its storage in a more stable way. Natural gas consumption is continuously growing worldwide and consequently, the number of exporter terminals (liquefaction industries) and importer terminals (regasification plants) will increase. The natural gas liquefaction process is based on a sequence of refrigeration cycles, which need to work in an optimized way. The exergetic analysis is a very useful thermodynamic tool to evaluate the efficiency of these cycles. This work aims at an exergetic analysis of a multistage cascade refrigeration cycle applied to a natural gas liquefaction process. Firstly, the process was simulated using commercial software and the results obtained from the simulations were validated with literature data, showing a good agreement. After that, different operational conditions, according to a complete factorial design of experiments, were studied, in order to verify the influence of pressure in six specific points of the cycle. The response variable analyzed is the rate of total exergy destroyed in the cycle. The results showed a new set of operational condition to the refrigeration cycle in which the destroyed exergy rate was reduced by approximately 48% in comparison with literature data.

Liza Cipolato; Maria C.A. Lirani; Thiago V. Costa; Francine M. Fbrega; Jos V.H. d'Angelo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions July 11, 2011 - 12:33pm Addthis Today’s refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Today's refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Roland Risser Roland Risser Program Director, Building Technologies Office What does this mean for me? Today's refrigerators use only about 25 percent of the energy compared to models built in 1975. They've also increased in size by almost 20 percent, with lots of

388

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions July 11, 2011 - 12:33pm Addthis Today’s refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Today's refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Roland Risser Roland Risser Program Director, Building Technologies Office What does this mean for me? Today's refrigerators use only about 25 percent of the energy compared to models built in 1975. They've also increased in size by almost 20 percent, with lots of

389

The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technologys Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; Little, William A.; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

390

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

391

Solid-vapor adsorption-refrigeration system development. Final report, March 1990-May 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study describes the development of heat-activated industrial refrigeration systems using ammoniated complex compound sorption media. The focus was on single-stage cycles for low temperature (+20 F and below) refrigeration. Compared to vapor compression refrigeration, these cycles have the advantages of lower operating energy costs, reduction of peak electrical demand and associated demand charges, and reduced maintenance costs due to replacement of the compressor with solid-state sorbers. In many cases, particularly for refrigeration at -40 F and below, complex compound sorption cycles also have the potential for lower first cost than conventional electrically driven refrigeration systems. Technical issues addressed included the following: economic optimization of sorber design, demonstration of cyclic stability of the sorption reactions, construction material compatibility, and reactor scale-up. Sorption reactions for refrigeration at -40 F, and -70 F were demonstrated. Optimum heat exchanger configuration, complex compound loading, and cycle time were determined.

Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.; Graebel, B.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Using R-134a and R-22 in supermarket refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports on tests of the performance of refrigerants R-134a and R-22 in medium and low temperature refrigeration systems. These tests were performed to determine the accuracy of predictions that R-134a would be a suitable replacement for CFC refrigerants in supermarkets. The testing resulted in extensive modifications to compressors, lubricating oil and control systems while using standard piping systems, expansion valves and installation practices.

Albrecht, R.H. (New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Albany, NY (United States)); Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.J. (Aspen Systems Inc., Marlborough, MA (United States)); Matthews, T.J. (Hannaford Bros., Co., Scarborough, ME (United States))

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Plants: Including a Case Study at Stonyfield Farm Yogurt  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MARKET Table 1 below presents information on the manufacturing industries that are intensive in process cooling and refrigeration (PC&R) energy consumption as monitored by the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). The information in Table 1... Expansion (DX), Pumped Liquid Overfeed, Flooded shell and tube and Plate heat exchangers. Evaporators in the refrigerated space can contribute as much as 10 to 15% of the energy consumption in an industrial refrigeration system and therefore...

Dixon, R.; McCowan, B.; Drake, L.; Epstein, G.; D'Antonio, M.; Moray, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Table B36. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)",,,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets",,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets" "All Buildings ................",4657,950,658,255,719,67338,25652,19713,8808,19938 "Building Floorspace"

398

ISAC SC-LINAC PHASE-II HELIUM REFRIGERATOR COMMISSIONING AND FIRST OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AT TRIUMF  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ISAC Phase-II is an upgrade of the radioactive isotope superconducting linear accelerator, SC-linac, at TRIUMF. The Phase-I section of the accelerator, medium-beta, is operational and is cooled with a 600 W helium refrigerator, commissioned in March 2005. An identical refrigerator is being used with the Phase-II segment of the accelerator; which is now under construction. The second refrigerator has been commissioned and tested with the Phase-I section of the linac and is used for Phase-II linac development, including new SC-cavity performance tests. The commissioning of the Phase-II refrigeration system and recent operational experience is presented.

Sekachev, I.; Kishi, D.; Laxdal, R. E. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

399

Some studies on industrial Refrigeration system integrated With encapsulated pcm in cool Thermal energy storage system;.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The widespread use of refrigeration and air conditioning utilities newlineespecially in the developing countries has increased manifold during the last newlinedecade This additional load on (more)

Cheralathan M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Development and Testing of a Screw Compressor Supermarket Refrigeration System: Phase II, Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A laboratory prototype screw compressor refrigeration system was designed, fabricated and tested under various evaporator and ambient conditions. The design is based on a Dunham-Bush vertical hermetic screw compressor and other standard refrigeration components. Results indicate that a screw compressor rack with vapor injection can increase the thermodynamic efficiency of low temperature refrigeration in supermarkets by 20 to 28% compared to multiple reciprocating compressor racks. The payback period of the screw compressor refrigeration system relative to multiple reciprocating compressor systems is 1.1 to 1.5 years and the net present value savings range from 15 to 22 thousand dollars.

Borhanian, H. Hamed; Toscano, William M.; Lee, Kang P.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Options for reducing refrigerant emissions from supermarket systems. Final report, February-September 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report was prepared to assist personnel responsible for the design, construction, and maintenance of retail food refrigeration equipment in making knowledgeable decisions regarding the implementation of refrigerant-emissions-reducing practices and technologies. It characterizes the design of typical supermarket refrigeration systems and focuses on why these types of systems have high rates of refrigerant emissions. Three case studies are provided of companies that have successfully implemented emission-reducing practices and technologies. The report discusses a variety of technical and procedural options that can be applied to existing systems and in new construction.

Troy, E.F.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This (more)

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

World Business Information: Refrigerators, URL: http://www.gobi.co.uk/page42.htm International Energy Agency (2005) IEA Energy Statistics,

Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Study of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Heat Pump System for Residential Applications.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??R410A is one of the major refrigerants used for air conditioning and heat pump systems in residential applications. It has zero ODP but its GWP (more)

Barve, Atharva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

406

E-Print Network 3.0 - authority refrigerator replacement Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Summary: generally replacing their old refrigerator with a larger capacity unit. Rising energy prices and heightened... -95d DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY,...

407

Energy use test procedures for appliances: A case study of Japanese refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy test procedure provides a consistent measurement of refrigerator energy consumption, which can be used by engineers, utility forecasters, and consumers. The U.S. and Japanese test procedures for refrigerators differ significantly, so it is impossible to directly compare the performance of unique features, or even determine which units are more efficient. The energy use of 12 Japanese refrigerators (of which 9 were unique models) were measured under the U.S. DOE energy test procedure and compared to that reported by the manufacturers under the Japanese test procedure. The Japanese refrigerators used substantially more electricity with the DOE test.

Meier, A.K.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Refrigerator/freezer directory: sorted by type and volume, based on 1979 standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This directory identifies refrigerators, freezers and combinations thereof, that have been certified as complying with the regulations that became effective on November 3, 1979.

Not Available

1980-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

409

New Development of Simulation Methods on Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Equipments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Development status of classical simulation technology and application status of artificial intelligence on refrigeration and air conditioning equipments were introduced. The new concept of intelligence simulat...

Cao Wensheng

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

E-Print Network 3.0 - arti refrigerant database Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

-- &i Supplementary Laboratory Testing William M. Toscano... ENERGY-EFFICIENT SUPERMARKET REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS VOLUME 2 SUPPLEMENTAL ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory -...

411

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in significant energy and demand savings for refrigeratedbe modified to reduce energy demand during demand responsein refrigerated warehouse energy demand if they are not

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so, then the chart below can he  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Adapted from FDA refrigerator and freezer guidelines: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Food/ResourcesForYou/HealthEducators/UCM109315.pdf Have you ever wondered how long you should keep things in the refrigerator or freezer? If so to preserve quality. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator Freezer Product Refrigerator

414

Thermal links for the implementation of an optical refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical refrigeration has been demonstrated by several groups of researchers, but the cooling elements have not been thermally linked to realistic heat loads in ways that achieve the desired temperatures. The ideal thermal link will have minimal surface area, provide complete optical isolation for the load, and possess high thermal conductivity. We have designed thermal links that minimize the absorption of fluoresced photons by the heat load using multiple mirrors and geometric shapes including a hemisphere, a kinked waveguide, and a tapered waveguide. While total link performance is dependent on additional factors, we have observed net transmission of photons with the tapered link as low as 0.04%. Our optical tests have been performed with a surrogate source that operates at 625 nm and mimics the angular distribution of light emitted from the cooling element of the Los Alamos solid state optical refrigerator. We have confirmed the optical performance of our various link geometries with computer simulations using CODE V optical modeling software. In addition we have used the thermal modeling tool in COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS to investigate other heating factors that affect the thermal performance of the optical refrigerator. Assuming an ideal cooling element and a nonabsorptive dielectric trapping mirror, the three dominant heating factors are (1) absorption of fluoresced photons transmitted through the thermal link, (2) blackbody radiation from the surrounding environment, and (3) conductive heat transfer through mechanical supports. Modeling results show that a 1 cm{sup 3} load can be chilled to 107 K with a 100 W pump laser. We have used the simulated steady-state cooling temperatures of the heat load to compare link designs and system configurations.

Epsteiin, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Scott R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, John [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Mar, David [HARVEY MUDD GOLLEGE; Von Der Porten, Steven [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Hankinson, John [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Byram, Kevin [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Lee, Chris [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Mayeda, Kai [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Haskell, Richard [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Yang, Qimin [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

EMS control chosen instead of refrigeration, HVAC upgrade  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Wisconsin supermarket decided on the basis of costs to install an energy management system (EMS) to improve the store's energy efficiency rather than invest in new refrigerating equipment at this time. When the next remodeling occurs in two years, the store will purchase new equipment using energy savings from the EMS to help defray the costs. The store selected an EMS with distributed processing that can expand to control new equipment. It expects a 22% drop in energy bills and a two-year payback of the $50,000 investment. Details of the system's functions describe some of the 53 control points.

Watson, F.

1984-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

416

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A heat absorption method for an absorption chiller is described comprising: (a) providing a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; (b) providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature than the first temperature range; (c) heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution from the first circuit condenser and absorber with absorption solution from the generator of the second circuit; and (d) the evaporator of the first circuit and the evaporator of the second circuit both being disposed in thermal communication with an external heat load to withdraw heat from the heat load.

De Vault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

417

Innovative Method for Performance Inspections often save 20-30% through Optimization of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of performance?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. 16. NT VVS 116, 1997. ?Refrigeration and heat pump equipment: Check-ups and performance data inferred from measurements under field conditions in the refrigerant system?. (Nordtest.) Esbo, Finland. ESL-IC-10...

Berglof, K.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

COPs OF R718 IN COMPARISION WITH OTHER MODERN REFRIGERANTS A.Kilicarslan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condenser and evaporator, and polytropic efficiency are also investigated. It is shown that for evaporator of polytropic efficiency INTRODUCTION Water as a refrigerant is one of the oldest refrigerants being used and chemical properties. Beside these advantages, there are technical challenges that result from its high

Müller, Norbert

419

Edinburgh Research Explorer A stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Edinburgh Research Explorer A stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid' Solar energy, vol 100, pp. 172-178., 10 as postprint) Published In: Solar energy General rights Copyright for the publications made accessible via

Edinburgh, University of

420

Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This research and development (R&D) roadmap for next-generation low-GWP refrigerants provides recommendations to the Building Technologies Office (BTO) on R&D activities that will help accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire HVAC&R industry.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

compressor driven by a steam turbine. The fraction of the refrigerant that flows around the second the compressor turbine. A forced draft air cooler is used to condense the HP refrigerant vapour, followed TP1o TP2o TP1i TP2i Turbine Compressor 1 Compressor 2 Condenser Receiver Process Stream 1 Process

Skogestad, Sigurd

422

FLOATING PRESSURE CONVERSION AND EQUIPMENT UPGRADES OF TWO 3.5KW, 20K, HELIUM REFRIGERATORS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two helium refrigerators, each rated for 3.5 KW at 20 K, are used at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Building No. 32 to provide cryogenic-pumping within two large thermal-vacuum chambers. These refrigerators were originally commissioned in 1996. New changes to the controls of these refrigerators were recently completed. This paper describes some of the control issues that necessitated the controls change-over. It will describe the modifications and the new process control which allows the refrigerators to take advantage of the Ganni Cycle floating pressure control technology. The controls philosophy change-over to the floating pressure control technology was the first application on a helium gas refrigeration system. Previous implementations of the floating pressure technology have been on 4 K liquefaction and refrigeration systems, which have stored liquid helium volumes that have level indications used for varying the pressure levels (charge) in the system for capacity modulation. The upgrades have greatly improved the performance, stability, and efficiency of these two refrigerators. The upgrades have also given the operators more information and details about the operational status of the main components (compressors, expanders etc.) of the refrigerators at all operating conditions (i.e. at various loads in the vacuum chambers). The performance data of the two systems, pre and post upgrading are presented.

J. Homan, V. Ganni, A. Sidi-Yekhlef, J. Creel, R. Norton, R. Linza, G. Vargas, J. Lauterbach, J. Urbin, D. Howe

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

Kandlikar, Satish

424

Steady-state operational degrees of freedom with application to refrigeration cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steady-state operational degrees of freedom with application to refrigeration cycles Jørgen Bauck charge as a possible degree of freedom in cyclic processes. Additional degrees of freedom related to com- position of the circulating refrigerant are also discussed. Two LNG processes of current interest, the C3

Skogestad, Sigurd

425

DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

426

Neural modeling of vapor compression refrigeration cycle with extreme learning machine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, a single-hidden layer feed-forward neural network (SLFN) is used to model the dynamics of the vapor compression cycle in refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, based on the extreme learning machine (ELM). It is shown that the assignment ... Keywords: Back propagation, Extreme learning machine, Modeling, Radial basis function, Support vector regression, Vapor compression refrigeration cycle

Lei Zhao; Wen-Jian Cai; Zhi-Hong Man

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Analysis of a commercial absorption-refrigeration water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle using Aspen Plus simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Robur absorption-refrigeration-water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle is analyzed using Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator. The results are compared with experimental and some manufacturer data reported in the open literature. Among performance parameters analyzed ... Keywords: Aspen, COP, absorption, ammonia, refrigeration, simulation, water

N. A. Darwish; S. H. Al-Hashimi; A. S. Al-Mansoori

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Determination of thermodynamic properties of an alternative refrigerant (R407c) using artificial neural network  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermodynamic analysis of the refrigeration systems is too complex because of thermodynamic properties equations of working fluids, involving the solution of complex differential equations. To simplify this complex process, this paper proposes a new ... Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Ozone safe refrigerant, R407c, Thermodynamic properties

Adnan Szen; Erol Arcaklio?lu; Tayfun Menlik; Mehmet zalp

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Holding Tank and Refrigeration Unit A 568-1 (150-gal) fiber glass holding tank was connectedPHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days

430

Storage of Dressed Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Refrigerated Freshwater, Diluted Seawater, Seawater, and in Ice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Storage of Dressed Chinook Salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Refrigerated Freshwater, Diluted Seawater, Seawater, and in Ice M. N. BRONSTEIN, R. J. PRICE, E. M. STRANGE, E. F. MELVIN, C. M. DEWEES mixtures of seawater and freshwater, refrigerated seawater, and chilled mixtures of seawater and ice

431

The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California Industrial Refrigerated Facilities Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedDemand Response .. ..Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California

Scott, Doug

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Super efficient refrigeration systems: Two non-CFC designs ready for commercialization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two high-efficiency prime movers for refrigeration are ready for field testing and commercialization. Either machine, combined with other advanced measures, could result in a CFC-free refrigerator using significantly less energy than units meeting the 1993 US efficiency standards. The first design is a linear motor/compressor that manufacturers could substitute for the standard rotating motor/compressor in a conventional refrigerator. The second design is a Stirling-cycle refrigeration machine that is self contained and uses helium gas as the working fluid. The results of prototype testing, the inherent simplicity of both machines, and their virtually frictionless operation point to economical and reliable service. If these features are confirmed in further testing now being conducted by appliance and compressor manufacturers, these machines will be strong candidates for inclusion in super efficient refrigerator designs over the next few years.

Stickney, B.L.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

Determination of properties of PVE lubricants with HFC refrigerants[PolyVinylEther  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Polyalkyleneglycol (PAG) and polyol ester (POE) have been developed as refrigeration lubricants, used with HFC134a. PAG is used for automotive air conditioning systems and POE is used for domestic reciprocating refrigerators and for A/C systems. Although PAG exhibits good lubricity performance, it is difficult to use for domestic reciprocating refrigerators due to its low dielectric property. POE is difficult to use for automotive A/C systems, due to hydrolysis and poor lubricity performance. Polyvinylether (PVE) can be used in place of PAG and POE with HFC refrigerants. PVE is used for A/C systems as well as refrigerator and freezer applications. PVE is an ideal lubricant for use with HFCs.

Kaneko, Masato; Sakanoue, Shuichi; Tazaki, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Shoichi; Takagi, Minoru; Goodin, M.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

A Comparative Study on the Environmental Impact of CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarket refrigeration systems have high environmental impact due to their large refrigerant charge and high leak rates. Accordingly, the interest in using natural refrigerants, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and new refrigerant blends with low GWP in such systems is increasing. In this paper, an open-source Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) framework is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of three supermarket refrigeration systems. These systems include a transcritical CO2 booster system, a cascade CO2/N-40 system, and a baseline R-404A multiplex direct expansion system. The study is performed for cities representing different climates within the USA using EnergyPlus to simulate the systems' hourly performance. Finally, a parametric analysis is performed to study the impact of annual leak rate on the systems' LCCP.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

NONE

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Mixed refrigerants proven efficient in natural-gas-liquids recovery process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lower processing temperatures for higher recoveries of natural gas liquids (NGL) leads to increasingly complex and expensive refrigeration techniques. This paper describes the mixed component refrigeration technique and that it has been proven as a viable alternative to the turboexpander plant. Mixed component refrigeration systems have been primarily used in applications such as LNG terminals and peak-shaving plants, where overall compression horse-power requirements are of primary concern due to operating cost. Recently, development of high pressure, brazed aluminum plate/fin exchangers and increasing compression costs have made economic potential of the mixed refrigerant alternative apparent. If the residue gas must be compressed to the same pressure as the plant inlet using the turbo-expander design, the mixed refrigerant system will require approximately 15% less horsepower for the same liquids production.

Mac Kenzie, D.H.

1985-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

437

Wednesday, June 6, 2001 [Fwd: 9th REQUEST: Is there any documentation of the Palm Pilot = refrigerator energy use claim?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

= refrigerator energy use claim?] Page: 1 IMAP://imap4.lbl.gov?fetch>UID>/INBOX>25065 Subject: [Fwd: 9th REQUEST: Is there any documentation of the Palm Pilot = refrigerator energy use claim?] Date: Wed, 06 Jun 2001 10 are still using the wireless Palm Pilot = refrigerator claim (you cite the network electricity used

438

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-26-HERS Refrigerant Charge Verification -Alternate Measurement Procedure (Page 1 of 2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-26-HERS Refrigerant Charge Verification - Alternate Measurement are specified in Reference Residential Appendix RA3.2. If refrigerant charge verification is required-MECH-26-HERS Refrigerant Charge Verification - Alternate Measurement Procedure (Page 2 of 2) Site Address

439

COFELY Refrigeration | Rdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 CopyrightCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Seite 1 Copyright©COFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. #12;COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Campaign Spectrum: Heat pump with speed controlled screw compressor #12;COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

440

Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

NASA advanced refrigerator/freezer technology development project overview  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has recently initiated a three-year project to develop the advanced refrigerator/freezer (R/F) technologies needed to support future life and biomedical sciences space experiments. Refrigerator/freezer laboratory equipment, most of which needs to be developed, is enabling to about 75 percent of the planned space station life and biomedical science experiments. These experiments will require five different classes of equipment; three storage freezers operating at -20 C, -70 C and less than 183 C, a -70 C freeze-dryer, and a cryogenic (less than 183 C) quick/snap freezer. This project is in response to a survey of cooling system technologies, performed by a team of NASA scientists and engineers. The team found that the technologies required for future R/F systems to support life and biomedical sciences spaceflight experiments, do not exist at an adequate state of development and concluded that a program to develop the advanced R/F technologies is needed. Limitations on spaceflight system size, mass, and power consumption present a significant challenge in developing these systems. This paper presents some background and a description of the Advanced R/F Technology Development Project, project approach and schedule, general description of the R/F systems, and a review of the major R/F equipment requirements.

Cairelli, J.E.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

The ISM equation of state applied to refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the authors apply an equation of state based on statistical-mechanical perturbation theory to liquid refrigerants and their mixtures. Three temperature-dependent parameters are needed to use the equation of state: the second virial coefficient, B{sub 2}(T), an effective van der Waals covolume, b(T), and a scaling factor, {alpha}(T). The second virial coefficients are calculated from a correlation based on the heat of vaporization, {Delta}H{sub vap}, and the liquid density at the freezing point, p{sub fp}. {alpha}(T) and {beta}(T) can also be calculated from the second virial coefficient by a scaling rule. Based on the theory, these two temperature-dependent parameters depend only on the repulsive branch of the potential function, and therefore, by the procedure, can be found from {Delta}H{sub vap} and p{sub fp}. The theory has considerable predictive power, since it permits the construction of the p-v-T surface from the heat of vaporization plus the triple-point density. The equation of state is tested for pure, two- and three-component liquid refrigerant mixtures.

Eslami, H.; Sabzi, F.; Boushehri, A.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Experimental study and analysis on components of a thermoacoustic refrigerator and thermoacoustic prime mover  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermoacoustic refrigerator and a thermoacoustic prime mover, due to its simple structure, would serve as very desirable systems because thermoacoustic prime movers can be driven with the waste heat such as an exhaust gas from engines, and with heat from the nature such as sunlight and a geothermal heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator and the thermoacoustic prime mover combined would serve as a perfect cooling system without moving parts, CFC's and HFC's. Thus this Thermoacoustic-driven Thermoacoustic Refrigerator will replace the previous paper compression refrigeration system. The authors set up the thermoacoustic refrigerator and thermoacoustic prime mover to investigate the fundamental characteristics. On the refrigerator tests, dimensions of the stack are varied as a parameter of experiments. As a result, influences of the stack configuration on the performance are confirmed, so the design method for the optimum dimension to attain the large temperature difference can be indicated. About the prime mover tests, fundamental characteristics of stack dimensions is checked. The way to improve the thermal efficiency of the prime mover is mentioned in terms of the operating condition. Numerical calculations about the refrigerator are made which is based on the enthalpy flow model by Radebaugh. The result of calculations has a good agreement in quality with the experimental results, so the propriety of this model is confirmed.

Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

ANDREWS, J.W.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Fridge of the future: ORNL`s refrigeration R&D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fears about warming the globe may change the way foods are chilled. Concern about global warming, as expressed in the President`s Climate Change Action Plan of 1993, is the latest motivation for putting future American refrigerators and freezers on a strict energy diet. A current national goal is to design an environmentally sound refrigerator-freezer by 1998 that uses half as much energy as 1993 models. Interest in designing a more energy-efficient refrigerator is not new. It first became a goal almost 20 years ago. In the 1970`s the United States was relying on increasingly unstable supplies of imported oil for fuel, and energy prices began to rise. Utilities balked at building additional power plants because of rising costs and investment risks. As a result, a premium was placed on developing energy-efficient appliances, culminating in the passage of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987. In the late 1980`s refrigerator design was again a target of engineers because of the need to change the refrigerant and insulation used. The reason: the Montreal Protocol called for phasing out of substances containing chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by the year 2000 because they were thought to be destroying the earth`s stratospheric ozone layer. Ozone shields humans from solar rays that can cause skin cancer and cataracts. Among the CFCs to be phased out are common refrigerants like R-12 and the refrigerator insulation blowing agent R-11.

Krause, C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

446

Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

447

Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

Johnson, Francis

2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

448

Design and laboratory testing of an unequal parallel multicompressor supermarket refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Project was structured to investigate and develop new highly energy-efficient supermarket refrigeration systems. A supermarket refrigeration system that included unequal parallel compressors, a condenser with floating head-pressure control, and a microprocessor-based electronic control system was analyzed, designed, and tested. The total system capacity is 35 hp (26.10 kW), consisting of three compressors of 5, 10, and 20 hp (3.73, 7.46, and 14.91 kW), which were determined to be the optimum number and capacity distribution. A theoretical comparison to conventional supermarket refrigeration systems revealed that the three unequal parallel compressor system with R-12 exhibited a maximum annual energy savings of 29,100 kWh, or 26 percent and with R-502 exhibited a maximum annual energy savings of 20,100 kWh, or 15 percent. A compressor capacity control algorithm was designed to select the optimum compressor combination for each operating condition by matching compressor capacity to refrigeration load. A microprocessor system was selected for system control and data acquisition. The economic analysis revealed that for a payback period of three years or less, an added microprocessor-based electronic control system that costs between $500 and $1500, depending on the refrigerant used and the refrigeration load, is acceptable. Testing was performed on the unequal parallel compressor system over a refrigeration load range of 78,000 to 160,000 Btu/hr (22.86 to 46.88 kW). For refrigerant R-12, the increase in the energy efficiency ratio (EER) for the microprocessor-based electronic control system, as compared to the mechanical pressure control system, ranged from 9.8 to 14.4 percent.

Toscano, W.M.; Cooper, W.L.; Oven, M.J.; Vineyard, E.A.; Walker, D.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Advanced Underground Gas Storage Concepts Refrigerated-Mined Cavern Storage  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE FINAL REPORT DOE CONTRACT NUMBER DE-AC26-97FT34349 SUBMITTED BY: PB-KBB INC. 11757 KATY FREEWAY, SUITE 600 HOUSTON, TX 77079 SEPTEMBER 1998 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily

450

A cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor for superfluid helium refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CERN's new project, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), will use superfluid helium as coolant for its high-field superconducting magnets and therefore require large capacity refrigeration at 1.8 K. This may only be achieved by subatmospheric compression of gaseous helium at cryogenic temperature. To stimulate development of this technology, CERN has procured from industry prototype Cold Compressor Units (CCU). This unit is based on a cryogenic axial-centrifugal compressor, running on ceramic ball bearings and driven by a variable-frequency electrical motor operating under low-pressure helium at ambient temperature. The machine has been commissioned and is now in operation. After describing basic constructional features of the compressor, we report on measured performance.

Decker, L; Schustr, P; Vins, M; Brunovsky, I; Lebrun, P; Tavian, L

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.

Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Temperatureentropy diagram for an irreversible absorption refrigeration cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article develops the theoretical foundation for the temperatureentropy (Ts) diagram for irreversible absorption chillers that employ either a volatile or nonvolatile working pair. The representation of a real absorption refrigeration cycle on a Ts diagram can directly depict the energetic superiority of one design over another. For practical usage this diagrammatic approach only requires as inputs the inlet and outlet state points that can be computed based on the corresponding temperatures pressures and component concentrations of each of the heat-and-mass exchanger modules within a chiller system and can therefore also be employed as a useful tool for system analysis and diagnosis. The same method is also applicable to any continuously operating thermodynamic system that is wholly or partially driven by thermal power.

H. T. Chua; H. K. Toh; K. C. Ng

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a heat absorption method for an absorption chiller. It comprises: providing a firs absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range, providing a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range; heat exchanging refrigerant and absorber solution; thermal communication with an external heat load. This patent describes a heat absorption apparatus for use as an absorption chiller. It includes: a first absorption system circuit for operation within a first temperature range; a second absorption system circuit for operation within a second temperature range which has a lower maximum temperature relative to the first temperature range; the first circuit having generator means, condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operatively connected together; the second circuit having generator means condenser means, evaporator means, and absorber means operative connected together; and the first circuit condenser means and the first circuit absorber means being in heat exchange communication with the second circuit generator means.

DeVault, R.C.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

454

Thermal performance of an ammonia-water refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conservation and efficient use of energy has led to alternate methods for air conditioning in buildings. Presently, two types of absorption air conditioning systems are widely used: the lithium-bromide-water system and the ammonia-water system. The first type is typically a water fired absorption chiller while the second one is a gas fired chiller. Some of the lithium-bromide-water systems use as a source of heat a stream of hot water supplied from solar collectors at a temperature level of the order of 95-100 {degrees}C. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities to use solar energy to operate an ammonia-water system and to predict its thermodynamic performance. The results indicate that it is feasible to use solar energy to operate an ammonia-water absorption-refrigeration system.

Manrique, J.A. (Inst. Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Monterrey, NL (MX))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Experimental investigation of an advanced adsorption refrigeration cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental measurements are made for a silica gel-water advanced absorption refrigeration chiller (1.2-kW [4,095-Btu/h] cooling capacity) to evaluate its performance under different temperature and adsorption/desorption cycle time conditions. This paper describes the operating principle of the chiller, outlines the experimental hardware, and discusses results obtained by varying the cooling and hot water inlet temperatures and adsorption/desorption cycle times, as well as their agreement with the simulated results given by a lumped parameter model. The chiller performance is analyzed in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP). Excellent qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimental data and simulated results. The results showed the advanced three-stage cycle to be particularly well suited for operation with low-grade-temperature waste heat as the driving source, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (heat source-heat sink temperature) of 10 to 30 K.

Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Mechanical Systems Engineering Dept.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

456

Factors affecting the energy consumption of two refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two refrigerator-freezers, one with a top-mounted freezer and one with side-by-side doors, were tested in the laboratory to determine the sensitivity of their energy consumption to various operational factors. Room temperature, room humidity, door openings, and the setting of the anti-sweat heater switch were the factors examined. The results indicated that the room temperature and door openings had a significantly greater effect on energy consumption than the other two factors. More detailed tests were then performed under different room temperature and door-opening combinations. The relationship of door openings and the equivalent test room temperature was established. Finally, the effect on energy of different temperature settings was studied. Test results are presented and discussed.

Kao, J.Y.; Kelley, G.E. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

457

The Super Efficient Refrigerator Program: Case study of a Golden Carrot program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this report was conducted by the Analytic Studies Division (ASD) of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Building Technologies. This case study describes the development and implementation of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP), which awarded $30 million to the refrigerator manufacturer that developed and commercialized a refrigerator that exceeded 1993 federal efficiency standards by at least 25%. The program was funded by 24 public and private utilities. As the first Golden Carrot program to be implemented in the United States, SERP was studied as an example for future `market-pull` efforts.

Eckert, J B

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Assessment of gas-fired commercial refrigeration. Final report Mar-Aug 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gas-fired commercial refrigeration is not common today. However, today's and tomorrow's gas engines (internal combustion, Stirling, gas turbines) could power cost-effective refrigeration systems. One key is effectively utilizing the prime mover's reject heat to economic advantage. Another is the capacity control afforded by a variable-speed prime mover. The best example of such a system is comparatively near-term. It serves the large and steady supermarket refrigeration market with an industrial-grade internal combustion engine driving an open-shaft reciprocating compressor. The gas engine's exhaust enables a reciprocating steam engine to boost shaft power by 20%.

Hynek, S.J.; Krepchin, I.P.; Harvey, A.C.; Demler, R.L.; Borhanian, H.H.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Regeneration tests of a room temperature magnetic refrigerator and heat pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A magnetic heat pump apparatus consisting of a solid magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium, and a liquid regenerator column of ethanol and water has been tested. Utilizing a 7T field, it produced a maximum temperature span of 80 K, and in separate tests, a lowest temperature of 241 K and a highest temperature of 328 K. Thermocouples, placed at intervals along the regenerator tube, permitted measurement of the temperature distribution in the regenerator fluid. No attempt was made to extract refrigeration from the device, but analysis of the temperature distributions shows that 34 watts of refrigeration was produced.

Brown, G V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Application of JLab 12GeV helium refrigeration system for the FRIB accelerator at MSU  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The planned approach to have a turnkey helium refrigeration system for the MSU-FRIB accelerator system, encompassing the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the 4.5-K refrigerator cold box(es), cold compression system, warm compression system, gas management, oil removal and utility/ancillary systems, was found to be cost prohibitive. Following JLabs suggestion, MSU-FRIB accelerator management made a formal request to evaluate the applicability of the recently designed 12GeV JLab cryogenic system for this application. The following paper will outline the findings and the planned approach for the FRIB helium refrigeration system.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Casagrande, F. [MSU-FRIB, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Review of energy efficiency of refrigerator/freezer gaskets. Final report, Jul-Nov 90  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The report gives results of an investigation of the significance of heat leakage through gaskets in household refrigerator/freezers, explores different design features, and suggests further study if necessary. The report gives results of an extensive literature review, interviews with refrigerator/freezer and gasket manufacturers, and some engineering analysis. (NOTE: Home refrigerators are the largest consumers of electricity among household appliances and are consuming an estimated 8% of the total electricity used in the U.S. Recent studies show that gasket area heat leakage may account for as much as 21% of the total thermal load.)

Ghassemi, M.; Shapiro, H.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

463

Microsoft Word - Steam System Energy.doc  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LBNL---6288E LBNL---6288E ERNEST ORLANDO LAWRENCE BERKELEY NATIONAL LABORATORY Implementation a nd Rejection o f I ndustrial Steam S ystem E nergy Efficiency M easures Peter T herkelsen a nd A imee M cKane Environmental E nergy T echnologies D ivision Lawrence B erkeley N ational L aboratory Reprint version of journal article published in " Energy P olicy", p lease c ite a s: Peter T herkelsen, A imee M cKane, Implementation a nd r ejection o f i ndustrial s team system e nergy e fficiency m easures, E nergy Policy, V olume 5 7, J une 2 013, P ages 3 18---328 May 2 013 2 Disclaimer This d ocument w as p repared a s a n a ccount o f w ork s ponsored b y t he U nited States Government. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof,

464

Training: Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

required to register. Steam End User - 1 day workshop Availability: Onsite instructor-led and online self-paced workshop This course covers the operation of typical steam...

465

Steam System Modeler | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Efficiency (%) Isentropic Efficiency (%) Blowdown Rate (%) Deaerator Vent Rate (%) Heat Loss (%) Condensate Return (%) Steam Mass Flow Feedwater Mass Flow Initial HP Steam...

466

{Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modular and Extensible Systemic Simulation of Demand Response Networks 2.1 Introduction Thermostatically controlled devices, such as heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), refrigerators,

Burke, William Jerome

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 / (RIN)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 / (RIN) 1904-AC19 DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 / (RIN) 1904-AC19 In today's call we discussed the new CRE proposed standard and how ControlTec anti-sweat controls can help meet those standards without sacrificing equipment performance or integrity. We have a revolutionary product that is the only in the business that has built in Measurement & Verification (M&V). All other anti-sweat heater controls are old technology that has algorithm's to estimate store conditions inaccurately. EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards.pdf More Documents & Publications General Electric: ENERGY STAR Referral (PFSF5NFZ****) Docket No. EERE- 2008-BT-STD-0005, RIN 1904-AB57 Ex parte

468

Property:Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Refrigeration | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Refrigeration Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Refrigeration Pages using the property "Building/SPBreakdownOfElctrcityUseKwhM2Refrigeration" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 2.77390577084 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 37.1080462614 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 0.895094880057 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 12.4536103016 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

469

Exergy analysis of a two-stage refrigeration cycle using two natural substitutes of HCFC22  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of the present paper is to carry out a detailed exergy analysis of a two-stage vapour compression cycle by calculating its components exergetic losses. The exergy equations have been developed using refrigerant thermodynamic properties computed by means of a simple model of local equations of states. The results of the exergy analysis of a two-stage refrigeration system operating between a constant evaporating temperature of -30°C and condensation temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60°C with two natural substitutes of HCFC22, namely, propane (R290) and ammonia (R717) as working fluids, are presented. It is found that the most significant losses occur in the compressors, expansion valves and condenser. Furthermore, it is shown that the optimum inter-stage pressure for a two-stage refrigeration system is very close to the saturation pressure corresponding to the arithmetical mean of the refrigerant condensation and evaporation temperatures.

Ahmed Ouadha; Mohammed En-nacer; Lahouari Adjlout; Omar Imine

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for commercial refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

471

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energys (DOE) notice in the August 8, 2012 Federal Register...

472

2014-02-28 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding energy conservation standards for commercial refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Assistant Secretary on February 28, 2014.

473

Using Magnets to Keep Cool: Breakthrough Technology Boosts Energy Efficiency of Refrigerators  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

New technology funded by the Energy Department has led to a major breakthrough in refrigeration systems that could yield big energy savings for consumers and greatly reduce carbon pollution.

474

Study Of a Solar Trough Concentrating System for Application of Solar Energy Refrigeration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A solar concentrating trough device has been constructed for further application of solar heating and power system or solar refrigeration. A model for both evacuated tube and copper tube heated by solar trough co...

Li Ming; Wang Liuling; Zhou Xizheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

The effect of new priorities and new materials on residential refrigerator design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increasing energy-efficiency requirements, combined with environmental considerations, have resulted in designs for domestic refrigerators that incorporate new thermal insulating materials. The first series of tests of these materials have been sufficiently promising that incorporation of vacuum insulations if likely within the next several years. Initial designs will probably use a combination of vacuum insulations and foam; in future designs, major parts consolidation will be possible using structural and other characteristics of the new panel assemblies. Given optimization of the refrigerator thermal envelope according to life-cycle costs, energy use by refrigerators could be greatly reduced; refrigerators could lose their significance as a major component in residential energy-use. Possible forms in which these new materials will be used are discussed, including alternatives for composite assembly and requirements for reliability and durability.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Field Measurements and Evaluation of CO2 Refrigeration Systems for Supermarkets.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this thesis, three supermarket refrigeration systems are evaluated; two trans-critical DX CO2 systems and one R404A/CO2 cascade system. Field measurements of energy consumption, (more)

Kullheim, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

CO2 Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Southeast Asia and the USA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative analysis of the annual energy consumption of these refrigeration systems in eighty eight cities from all climate zones in Southeast Asia. Also, the performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems is compared to the baseline R404A multiplex direct expansion (DX) system. Finally, the overall performance of the CO2 refrigeration systems in various climatic conditions in Southeast Asia is compared to that in the United States. For the refrigeration systems investigated, it was found that the Transcritical Booster System with Bypass Compressor (TBS-BC) performs better or equivalent to the R404A multiplex DX system in the northern regions of Southeast Asia (China and Japan). In the southern regions of Southeast Asia (India, Bangladesh, Burma), the R404A multiplex DX system and the Combined Secondary Cascade (CSC) system performs better than the TBS-BC.

Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Impact of the Variable Refrigerant Volume Air Conditioning System on Building Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The application of the variable refrigerant volume multi-zone air conditioning systems has met with mixed results since the publication of the Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. This paper analyzes the characteristics...

Zhu, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Dynamic Exergy Analysis of a Solar Ejector Refrigeration System with Hot Water Storage Tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic model is proposed to use in investigating the exergy analysis of a solar ejector refrigeration system using R141, for office ... in Tehran. Classical hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation model...

Hooman Golchoobian; Ali Behbahaninia

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

LPG recovery from refinery flare by waste heat powered absorption refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A waste heat powered ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit (ARU) has commenced operation at the Colorado Refining Company in Commerce City, Colorado. The ARU provides 85 tons of refrigeration at 30 F to refrigerate the net gas/treat gas stream, thereby recovering 65,000 barrels per year of LPG which formerly was flared or burned as fuel. The ARU is powered by the 290 F waste heat content of the reform reactor effluent. An additional 180 tons of refrigeration is available at the ARU to debottleneck the FCC plant wet gas compressors by cooling their inlet vapor. The ARU is directly integrated into the refinery processes, and uses enhanced, highly compact heat and mass exchange components. The refinery's investment will pay back in less than two years from increased recovery of salable product, and CO{sub 2} emissions are decreased by 10,000 tons per year in the Denver area.

Erickson, D.C.; Kelly, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Demand Side Management by controlling refrigerators and its effects on consumers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Demand Side Management in power grids has become more and more important in recent years. Continuously growing energy demand both increases the need for distributed generation from renewable energy sources and brings out the topic of Demand Side Management. One of the major application areas of Demand Side Management in smart grids is cooling systems. In this paper, Demand Side Management with control of a refrigerator and its economic effects on consumers are analyzed. With a refrigerator model based on real measurements, several cooling schedules are simulated and annual energy fees for different pricing methods in use in Turkey are calculated and discussed. The results revealed that, 37.9% of refrigerators demand in peak period can be shifted to other periods and annual electricity bills for customers can be reduced by 11.4%.

M. Alparslan Zehir; Mustafa Bagriyanik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Patterns of Refrigerant Use Resulting From Regulations Designed to Protect the Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These difficulties can be turned into a competitive advantage if the contractor understands the source of the difficulties. This paper explores some of the industry wide problems and solutions. The new refrigerants are many and are covered by venting, recycling...

Thomas, R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

ZnO nanorefrigerant in R152a refrigeration system for energy conservation and green environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the reliability and performance of a vapour compression refrigeration system with ZnO nanoparticles in the working fluid was investigated experimentally. Nanorefrigerant was synthesized on the basis...

D. Sendil Kumar; R. Elansezhian

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Mixed Refrigerant Cascade Liquefiers for Natural GasDesign and Optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper describes the development of highly flexible calculation methods and computer programs to deal with the complex problems encountered in the design of Mixed Refrigerant Cascade (MRC) plants. The relativ...

D. T. Linnett; K. C. Smith

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Dynamic Modeling and Cascaded Control for a Multi-Evaporator Supermarket Refrigeration System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The survey from US Department of Energy showed that about one-third of energy consumption in US is due to air conditioning and refrigeration systems. This significant usage of electricity in the HVAC industry has prompted researchers to develop...

Gupta, Ankush 1986-

2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

486

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A combined power and ejector refrigeration cycle for low temperature heat sources is under investigation in this paper. The proposed cycle combines the organic Rankine cycle and the ejector refrigeration cycle. The ejector is driven by the exhausts from the turbine to produce power and refrigeration simultaneously. A simulation was carried out to analyze the cycle performance using R245fa as the working fluid. A thermal efficiency of 34.1%, an effective efficiency of 18.7% and an exergy efficiency of 56.8% can be obtained at a generating temperature of 395 K, a condensing temperature of 298 K and an evaporating temperature of 280 K. Simulation results show that the proposed cycle has a big potential to produce refrigeration and most exergy losses take place in the ejector. (author)

Zheng, B.; Weng, Y.W. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

487

Development of Small Size Claude Cycle Helium Refrigerator with Micro Turbo-Expander  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the field of small size helium refrigerators, need for a maintenance free and vibration free system is rapidly increasing, especially for the application to cryoelectronic devices such as NMR-CT and Josephs...

H. Izumi; S. Harada; K. Matsubara; S. Saito

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various miscellaneous refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administrations Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.31.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated that there were 3.61.0 million hybrid refrigerator-wine/beverage coolers and 0.90.5 million hybrid freezer-wine/beverage coolers in U.S. households. We also obtained estimates of miscellaneous refrigeration product capacities, lifetimes, purchase and installation costs, repair frequencies and costs, and maintenance costs. For wine/beverage coolers, we also obtained information on the penetration of built-in units, AC/DC operating capability, the use of internal lights, and distributions of door opening frequencies. This information is essential to develop detailed estimates of national energy usage and life-cycle costs, and would be helpful in obtaining information on other plug-load appliances. Additional information not highlighted in the main report was presented in Appendices.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

489

Development and Testing of a Screw Compressor Supermarket Refrigeration System. Phase I Final Report.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Aspen Systems, Inc. has completed the design and performance evaluation for a screw compressor refrigeration system for supermarket application. A major advantage of such a system is its ability to exactly match the compressor capacity to the refrigeration load. The capacity modulation of the compressor is performed by the repositioning of an infinitely adjustable slide valve. Another advantage of this system is its compatibility with vapor injection which is an inexpensive and reliable method of liquid subcooling and compressor intercooling.

Borhanian, H.H.; Toscano, W.M.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A RESEARCH INTO A NEW METHOD OF REFRIGERATION CHARGING AND THE EFFECTS OF IMPROPER CHARGING John Houcek Principal The Houcek Company Dallas, Texas Marvin Thedford Supervisor of Technical Services Research rexas Power & Light Company Dallas... conditioning and refrigeration equipment utilizing capillary tube or other fixed-orifice meter- ing devices at other than optimum conditions has long been a seriouri problem. With the advent of high ef- ficiency coo1:lng equipment this problem has become...

Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Research and development of highly energy-efficient supermarket refrigeration systems. Volume 2. Supplemental laboratory testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Supermarket Refrigeration System project was structured to investigate and develop a new, highly energy-efficient supermarket refrigeration system which features unequal, parallel compressors, microprocessor suction pressure control, and floating head pressure control. Energy savings are achieved because such a system is better able to match compressor capacity with the required refrigeration load. For this same reason, the unequal, parallel compressor system can operate at the lowest possible condenser pressure. The combined effect of highest possible suction pressure and lowest possible condensing pressure substantially increases the energy efficiency ratio (EER) of the refrigeration system. The test conditions included winter and spring ambient temperatures ranging from 8/sup 0/ to 70/sup 0/F, refrigerants R-12 and R-502 with corresponding evaporator temperatures of 20/sup 0/ and -20/sup 0/F, respectively, and variable refrigeration loads between 100,000 and 170,000 Btu/hr. Heat reclaim tests were performed with R-12 only. For the three sets of tests performed, R-12, R-12 with heat reclaim, and R-502, the highest system EER was achieved when the unequal, parallel compressor system was operated with microprocessor control and floating head control.

Toscano, W.M.; Walker, D.H.; Tetreault, R.D.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Investigations of ammonia-secondary fluid systems in supermarket refrigeration systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements have legislated the phaseout of many refrigerants, including R-502 and R-12, which are commonly used in supermarket refrigeration systems. R-22 and ammonia (R-717) are candidate replacement refrigerants having appropriate thermodynamic properties. The toxicity of ammonia at low concentrations required that it be confined to the equipment room, so a secondary fluid is needed to distribute cooling to the refrigerated cases. This paper investigates ammonia-secondary fluid systems and compares their performance with equivalent R-22 systems. Both R-22 and ammonia have high compressor discharge temperatures, necessitating staged compression. Three methods of staging the compression were compared for both refrigerants. Six secondary fluids were evaluated for use with ammonia in the supermarket system. The overall system performance of the ammonia-secondary fluid refrigeration system, including both compressor and secondary fluid pump power, is governed by a large set of design parameters. The influence of these parameters on the overall system performance was studied in a systematic manner. From this parametric study, design rules leading to optimal ammonia-secondary fluid systems were developed. The performance of well-designed ammonia-secondary fluid systems was found to be 4% to 10% lower than that of R-22 systems operating under similar conditions.

McDowell, T.P. [Thermal Storage Applications Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

493

Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application space simulation chambers down to 15 K superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets cavities or HTS devices like cables FCL SMES etc) Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965 reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969 centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980 oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011 driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance) cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165-174. Shipworth, M. ,and sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.timer/programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heating Systems. Applied Ergonomics, 40(2), 165- Shipworth,and Sensations. Applied Ergonomics, 12(1), 29-33. Boait, P.Timer/Programmer. Applied Ergonomics, 13(1), 15-23. Nelson,

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Smart Thermostats in Residential Applications  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Resources News & Events Expand News & Events Skip navigation links Smart Grid Demand Response Energy Efficiency Emerging Technologies Current Research Portfolio Behavior Based...

498

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 8.233-238.244.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Diamond, R.

Meier, Alan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 2, 91-100.Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 8.233-238.244.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Parker, D.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

How people actually use thermostats  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2006 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings https://Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings https://

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z