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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most plant steam systems are complex systems. Usually the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense for manufacturing facilities. By properly operating and maintaining the steam system and making minor improvements, significant savings can be realized.

Aegerter, R. A.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Thermostat Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...A thermostat metal is a composite material (usually in the form of sheet or strip) that consists of two or more materials bonded together, of which one can be a nonmetal. Because the materials bonded together to form the composite differ in

3

Thermostat Wars | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermostat Wars Thermostat Wars Thermostat Wars August 3, 2010 - 7:30am Addthis Drew Bittner Web Manager, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy The other day, I was visiting a friend's office and noticed something you may have noticed yourself: his building had a variety of micro-climates, ranging from the furnace hot to the freezing cold. The offices with windows that faced south and west were hottest, while offices with windows facing north and east were cooler-and the offices without windows were, on average, about as comfortable as your refrigerator. This is an artifact of building construction from the early days of air conditioning and central heating. It's "one climate fits all" thinking, which would be fine if every office had identical solar heat gain,

4

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Is this refrigerator model suitable for frozen vaccine storage? Freezer thermostat dial set to midpoint position: vaccine vial temperatures ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

5

Steam System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refinery and chemical plant steam systems are complex and the fuel required to produce the steam represents a major expense. The incremental cost for generating a 1,000 lb./hr. of steam is typically $45,000 - $60,000/year. Most plants have numerous low/

Aegerter, R.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

List of Programmable Thermostats Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermostats Incentives Thermostats Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 525 Programmable Thermostats Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-525) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Residential Building Insulation Ceiling Fan Central Air conditioners

7

Deaerators in Industrial Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect

This revised ITP tip sheet on deaerators in industrial steam systems provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermostats Thermostats Thermostats November 26, 2013 - 2:17pm Addthis A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography You can save money on your heating and cooling bills by simply resetting your thermostat when you are asleep or away from home. You can do this automatically without sacrificing comfort by installing an automatic setback or programmable thermostat. Using a programmable thermostat, you can adjust the times you turn on the heating or air-conditioning according to a pre-set schedule. Programmable

9

Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermostats Thermostats Thermostats November 26, 2013 - 2:17pm Addthis A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography A digital programmable thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/burwellphotography You can save money on your heating and cooling bills by simply resetting your thermostat when you are asleep or away from home. You can do this automatically without sacrificing comfort by installing an automatic setback or programmable thermostat. Using a programmable thermostat, you can adjust the times you turn on the heating or air-conditioning according to a pre-set schedule. Programmable

10

Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

thermostat set for energy savings during the heating season can save energy and money. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoburwellphotography A digital programmable...

11

Energy saving thermostat  

SciTech Connect

A thermostat device is disclosed for motels/hotels requiring the guest to use a key to select a desired room temperature which in turn requires that the thermostat must be set back to a preset temperature when guest desires to lock the door to his motel/hotel room upon leaving the room.

Fodera, A.W.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

12

List of Steam-system upgrades Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

upgrades Incentives upgrades Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 100 Steam-system upgrades Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 100) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AlabamaSAVES Revolving Loan Program (Alabama) State Loan Program Alabama Commercial Industrial Institutional Building Insulation Doors Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Steam-system upgrades Water Heaters Windows Biodiesel Biomass CHP/Cogeneration Ethanol Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Geothermal Electric Hydroelectric energy Landfill Gas Photovoltaics Renewable Fuels Solar Water Heat Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Natural Gas Yes Ameren Missouri (Gas) - Business Energy Efficiency Program (Missouri) Utility Rebate Program Missouri Commercial

13

Steam System Balancing and Tuning  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam System Balancing and Steam System Balancing and Tuning Building America Stakeholder Meeting Austin, TX Jayne Choi, Energy Analyst, CNT Energy March 2, 2012 PARR Current collaboration with GTI as a part of the PARR Building America team - Steam Systems Balancing and Tuning Study - Heating season 2011-2012 Background In Chicago, heating is the focus of residential energy use Of the 470,000 multifamily units in the Chicago region, at least 70,000 of those are steam heated Old steam systems invariably suffer from imbalance - Tenants must use supplemental heat or open their windows to cool their apartments during the heating season Buildings are often overheated Problem Statement (CNT Energy) Steam Heating Steam heat was the best option for buildings constructed between 1900 and 1930

14

Residential Programmable Communicating Thermostats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential programmable communicating thermostats (PCTs) enable demand response and offer a convenient energy management option for the consumer. PCTs allow customers to program and control temperature set-points remotely, primarily through the Internet. Additionally, some of these thermostats can be remotely controlled by utilities or third parties to curtail heating and cooling loads during periods of peak electricity demand. This Technology Brief, prepared for the Energy Efficiency Initiative, presen...

2007-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

15

Energy saving thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy saving thermostat adapted to be connected to a remote temperature conditioning apparatus for controlling the temperature of air in a space maintains a first temperature during a first time period and a second energy saving temperature during other time periods of the day. The thermostat has a visual indicating means so that when a manually settable switch is pushed, a time interval counter means is energized for indicating and storing a series of pulses each indicative of an hour of setback time into a storage means. The thermostat also has a review button for reviewing the stored time by pulsing the visual indicating means for the number of hours of the time period energy saving temperature.

Adams, J.T.; Kompelien, A.D.; Nelson, M.D.; Pinckaers, B.H.

1982-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

16

Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Steam-system upgrades | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Linked Data Page Edit History Share this page on Facebook icon Twitter icon Steam-system upgrades Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Steam-system...

18

Fuel heater thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermostat is described for fuel heaters wherein the fuel is heated by engine coolant and the thermostat comprises: a temperature sensing means for sensing the temperature of fuel in the fuel heater, the temperature sensing means in contacting relation with the first end of a coolant flow restricting piston, the piston having a second end in contacting relation with a pressure means wherein the temperature sensing means and the pressure means assert opposing forces against the piston and the piston in response to an increase in force from the temperature sensing means will restrict the flow of coolant through the fuel heater, and the piston further having a bleed port therein to allow coolant to flow to the first and second ends of the piston.

Ray, D.A.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

19

Programmable Communicating Thermostats: Proliphix Internet Thermostat NT20e  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This assessment is of a PCT (model NT20e) from the Basic Series line of network thermostats made by Proliphix.

2008-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

20

Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the cost Presence of alternative heating/cooling devices notAlternative definition of elements in Thermostat .46 Introduction Thermostats have controlled heating and cooling

Meier, Alan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Save Energy Now in Your Steam Systems  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program fact sheet describes how manufacturing plants can save energy and money by making energy efficiency improvements to their industrial steam systems.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Replacement element for automobile thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a thermostat replacement element for use in a cooling system in which a continuous stream of coolant normally flows from a radiator through a thermostat to an engine. The thermostat is mounted within a mounting cavity and permits maximum flow of coolant through the cooling system when in an open position. The replacement element comprises a disc-shaped member having a diameter substantially corresponding to the diameter of the mounting cavity. The member is provided with apertures of a predetermined size to permit flow of coolant therethrough at a rate generally corresponding to the rate of flow of coolant through the thermostat when the thermostat is in an open position.

Ferrari, W.

1988-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

23

Steam System Optimization : A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The steam system optimization (generation, distribution, use and condensate return) offers a large opportunity for action to comply with the new levels of energy efficiency standards. Superior design and improved maintenance practices are the two main sources of savings in steam systems. Increased competition no longer permits an industry to survive with energy waste that could be eliminated. This paper highlights the study findings of the steam system in a plant from the Food industry. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $1.9 million. Normal steam demand ranges between 80,000 to 85,000 lb/hr. The steam system analysis identified energy savings worth $270,000 per year. The optimization measures were in two categories: No cost/low cost optimizations that can be done through a better maintenance and improved operating condition Major improvements that require a significant investment, and includes the modification of the process and major equipment.

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.; Calogero, M.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Steam System Optimization: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper highlights the study findings in a steam system in a plant from a multinational Petrochemical giant in an European country. The steam system operates with an annual budget of $8.9 million (local currency was converted to US Dollars). Normal steam demand ranges from 500,000 to 600,000 lbs/hr. 380,000 lbs/hr is imported from an outside power plant and 170,000 lbs/hr is internally generated as waste heat recovery. The steam system analysis identified energy savings worth of $2,400,000 per year. The optimization measures were in two categories: no cost / low cost that can be done through better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions. major improvement that requires a significant amount of investment, that includes the modification of process and major equipment. Though the findings are specific to a single site, the basics of steam system analysis are applicable to any steam system. A critical review on any steam system always identifies controllable wastes. Improvements in steam system efficiency equal reduced energy consumption and saved environment.

Iordanova, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval Air Station Oceana Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and Energy at Naval...

26

SteamMaster: Steam System Analysis Software  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As director of Oregon's Industrial Assessment Center, I have encountered many industrial steam systems during plant visits. We analyze steam systems and make recommendations to improve system efficiency. In nearly 400 industrial assessments, we have recommended 210 steam system improvements, excluding heat recovery, that would save $1.5 million/year with a 0.4-year payback. 75% of those recommendations have been implemented for $1.1 million annual savings with 0.3-year payback. Recently I have developed a tool to facilitate the process. SteamMaster is based on an Excel spreadsheet with a Visual Basic interface to simplify system modeling and analysis. SteamMaster has many features and capabilities, including energy and cost savings calculations for five steam recommendations. This presentation will demonstrate SteamMaster software applied to one or more industrial steam systems. Software will be made available on a national web site at no cost.

Wheeler, G.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

Information Center

2000-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

28

Thermostat for neutron-diffraction apparatus  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a thermostat which has been designed for neutron-diffraction studies. The thermostat does not introduce any distortions into the beam of neutrons diffracted from the specimen. The range of operating temperatures is 300-1300 degrees K and the vacuum is 10/sup -6/ torr. The thermostat permits liquid, solid, and amorphous specimens to be studied.

Kozlov, E.N.; Nikolaev, V.O.; Skovorod'ko, S.N.; Tsirkunova, S.E.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Along with the shortage of conventional energy sources, efforts have been sought to use energy in a rational manner. Whereas the biggest energy consumption is in the industrial sector, various techniques to reduce energy have been searched. For industries, this will result in the reduction of production cost. In industry where steam is utilized, the steam production and distribution system consumes a significant portion of energy. Therefore, optimization of steam system is among the biggest energy saving potential in industry. The optimization measures can be categorized into two methods, i.e. (1) no cost/low cost that can be done through a better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions, and (2) major improvement that requires a significant amount of investment, that includes the modification of process and major equipment. Since energy saving is an endless effort, new levels of energy efficiency standards are being set year after year. Therefore, repeated studies should be made to identify energy saving potential. Modern instruments allow the energy specialists to conduct an in-depth survey to identify energy performance. This paper highlights the findings of the study in a steam generation and distribution system of a crude oil stabilization unit. With the annual budget of $8.3 million, the unit is handling about 600,000 barrels crude oil per day from an offshore platform. The study identified an opportunity of annual saving amounting to $1,115,300. Though the finding is specific to a single site, the basics of steam system analysis are applicable to any steam system. The steam system should be reviewed year after year to identify more energy wastes and to improve efficiency of steam system, thus reducing the energy cost. At the same time this will also help save the environment.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Leigh, N.

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report investigates the history of thermostats to better understand the context and legacy regarding the development of this important tool, as well as thermostats' relationships to heating, cooling, and other environmental controls. We analyze the architecture, interfaces, and modes of interaction used by different types of thermostats. For over sixty years, home thermostats have translated occupants' temperature preferences into heating and cooling system operations. In this position of an intermediary, the millions of residential thermostats control almost half of household energy use, which corresponds to about 10percent of the nation's total energy use. Thermostats are currently undergoing rapid development in response to emerging technologies, new consumer and utility demands, and declining manufacturing costs. Energy-efficient homes require more careful balancing of comfort, energy consumption, and health. At the same time, new capabilities will be added to thermostats, including scheduling, control of humidity and ventilation, responsiveness to dynamic electricity prices, and the ability to join communication networks inside homes. Recent studies have found that as many as 50percent of residential programmable thermostats are in permanent"hold" status. Other evaluations found that homes with programmable thermostats consumed more energy than those relying on manual thermostats. Occupants find thermostats cryptic and baffling to operate because manufacturers often rely on obscure, and sometimes even contradictory, terms, symbols, procedures, and icons. It appears that many people are unable to fully exploit even the basic features in today's programmable thermostats, such as setting heating and cooling schedules. It is important that people can easily, reliably, and confidently operate thermostats in their homes so as to remain comfortable while minimizing energy use.

Meier, Alan; Peffer, Therese; Pritoni, Marco; Aragon, Cecilia

2010-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

31

How People Actually Use Thermostats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

32

California Enterprise Development Authority - Statewide PACE...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Fuel Cells,...

33

Tips: Programmable Thermostats | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Programmable Thermostats Programmable Thermostats Tips: Programmable Thermostats May 30, 2012 - 5:33pm Addthis Cool Summer Tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Cool Summer Tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Hot Winter Tip: Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Hot Winter Tip: Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Cool Summer Tip: In the summer, save money by automatically turning up the air conditioner at night or when you're away from home. Hot Winter Tip: Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home.

34

Developments in line-voltage thermostats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermostat that provides reliable, accurate temperature control is the key to a comfortable, efficient space-heating system. The lack of a commercially available line-voltage thermostat that is affordable and performs well has been a significant factor in limiting the comfort and popularity of zoned residential electric heating systems. With EPRI support, two manufacturers have developed innovative, electronics-based line-voltage thermostats that offer a cost-effective control option for creating a comfortable environment with zoned electric heat. These thermostats also may help reduce energy consumption.

Kesselring, J.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Steam System Improvement: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The industrial sector consumes the largest share of the world's energy. The pulp and paper industry is one of the five most energy-intensive industries in the world. Therefore, optimum energy efficiency plays a pivotal role in the profitability of this sector. Also, energy cost accounts for a significant share in production cost in pulp and paper industries. This paper highlights the findings of a study done on the steam system of a paper mill (covering steam generation, steam distribution and steam usage) where steam generation accounts for 85% of the total energy used. Therefore, optimization of the steam system has the biggest energy saving potential. This paper mill produces 40,000 pounds of steam at 600 psig and distributes it to the paper-making process at various pressure levels. This New England paper mill spends approximately $1.9 million every year on its steam system. The study identified an opportunity to save the plant steam costs in the amount of 12%. Among the identified saving measures, there are some measures that can be done through better maintenance and improvement of operating conditions. The average payback period to implement the identified saving measures is 12 months. In addition to this, upon the implementation of the proposed measures, the paper mill can reduce its carbon emissions in the amount of 500 tons per year and thus, can help save the environment as well.

Leigh, N.; Venkatesan, V. V.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Two terminal line voltage thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A two terminal line voltage thermostat includes a switch which effectively connects line voltage to a heater load. The entire process is controlled by an integrated circuit microcontroller which is powered by a rectified voltage from a transformer secondary connected to a primary which is in series with the heater load. Backup battery power is provided to maintain limited functions of the microcontroller in the event of overall power loss. The microcontroller is programmed to meet the temperature sensing and control requirements specific to a two terminal electric baseboard heating installation. 7 figs.

Stalsberg, K.J.; Ingalls, J.E.; Hoglund, S.R.

1995-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

37

Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy June 25, 2012 - 6:14pm Addthis Kristin Swineford Communication...

38

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings | Department of...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings December 23, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Did you know...

39

Thermostat response and room temperature control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article examines the impact to thermal comfort of the operation of the room thermostat. The topics of the article include types of thermostat response, reset response, proportional response, digital systems, system response, verification of building temperatures, thermal comfort analysis, and productivity costs of implementing mandated setpoints.

Int-Hout, D. (Carrier Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes results of a literature review, a workshop, and many meetings with demand response and thermostat researchers and implementers. The information obtained from these resources was used to identify key issues of thermostat performance from both energy savings and peak demand perspectives. A research plan was developed to address these issues and activities have already begun to pursue the research agenda.

Meier, Alan K.; Walker, Iain

2008-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes Title Residential Thermostats: Comfort Controls in California Homes Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-938e Year of Publication 2008 Authors Walker, Iain S., and Alan K. Meier Keywords demand response and distributed energy resources center, demand response research center, home networks & controls Abstract This report summarizes results of a literature review, a workshop, and many meetings with demand response and thermostat researchers and implementers. The information obtained from these resources was used to identify key issues of thermostat performance from both energy savings and peak demand perspectives. A research plan was developed to address these issues and activities have already begun to pursue the research agenda.

42

Energy management system with programmable thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An electronic system and method including a user programmable thermostat for measuring temperature at the situs of the measurement unit and for signaling and controlling a remotely located energy controller which is connected to the programmable thermostat. By utilizing a multiplexed signal communication channel between the programmable thermostat and the energy controller, the energy controller activates preselected energy using units which may, for example, include a furnace and air conditioning units for controlling the temperature at the measurement unit situs and a power shedder unit for shedding energy usage to conserve energy all in accordance with a user provided program.

Stewart, J.T.

1983-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

Savings in Steam Systems (A Case Study)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Armstrong Service Inc. (ASI) conducted an engineered evaluation at an Ammonium Nitrate Manufacturing facility during the Fall of 1999. This plant manufactures Nitric Acid and high and low density Ammonia Nitrate. The purpose of this evaluation is to identify energy losses and system improvements in the steam and condensate systems. Steam system improvements focus on lowering the cost of steam, wherever possible, with paybacks of 3 years or less. Overall, this ASI evaluation identifies six (6) steam savings proposals with an average simple payback of 2.9 years. This evaluation also identifies one system deficiency that will lead to unnecessary expenditures if allowed to continue, but would help to increase production if the suggested improvement was implemented. The following report details the individual findings and outlines the corrections needed. The savings generated from these improvements will more than pay for themselves in short order.

DeBat, R.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Phonostat: Thermostatting phonons in molecular dynamics simulations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermostat algorithms in a molecular dynamics simulation maintain an average temperature of a system by regulating the atomic velocities rather than the internal degrees of freedom. Herein, we present a phonostat algorithm ...

Raghunathan, Rajamani

45

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings Program Your Thermostat for Automatic Savings December 23, 2008 - 4:00am Addthis Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL Did you know that you can save around 10% a year on your heating and cooling bills by simply turning your thermostat back 10°-15°F for eight hours? Sounds great, but I know when I'm rushing out the door, the last thing on my mind is turning down the thermostat. Luckily, programmable thermostats make it easy to save without much effort. In fact, once you get the thermostat installed and programmed to your schedule, you can stop thinking about it; your home is programmed to save. First, decide what to set your thermostat at when you are home and awake; 68°F is a good guideline in the winter. From there, program the thermostat

46

List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 103 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 103) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility

47

TY JOUR T1 Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

recommended steam system energy efficiency measures Based on analyses implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics payback period...

48

A parallel Lowe-Andersen thermostat for soft matter simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulating colloidal dynamics, with solvent mediated hydrodynamics interactions, is a challenging task. The traditional approach is to use Dissipative Particle Dynamics thermostat and soft interactions. However this can yield only low Schmidt number ... Keywords: MPI programing, molecular dynamics, thermostats

K. R. Prathyusha; P. B. Sunil Kumar

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Title Implementation and Rejection of Industrial Steam System Energy Efficiency Measures Publication Type Journal Article Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6288E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Therkelsen, Peter L., and Aimee T. McKane Journal Energy Policy Volume 57 Start Page 318 Date Published 06/2013 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Keywords industrial energy efficiency, industrial energy efficiency barriers, steam system efficiency Abstract Steam systems consume approximately one third of energy applied at U.S. industrial facilities. To reduce energy consumption, steam system energy assessments have been conducted on a wide range of industry types over the course of five years through the Energy Savings Assessment (ESA) program administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE). ESA energy assessments result in energy efficiency measure recommendations that are given potential energy and energy cost savings and potential implementation cost values. Saving and cost metrics that measure the impact recommended measures will have at facilities, described as percentages of facility baseline energy and energy cost, are developed from ESA data and used in analyses. Developed savings and cost metrics are examined along with implementation and rejection rates of recommended steam system energy efficiency measures. Based on analyses, implementation of steam system energy efficiency measures is driven primarily by cost metrics: payback period and measure implementation cost as a percentage of facility baseline energy cost (implementation cost percentage). Stated reasons for rejecting recommended measures are primarily based upon economic concerns. Additionally, implementation rates of measures are not only functions of savings and cost metrics, but time as well.

50

The Analysis and Development of Large Industrial Steam Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemicals, petroleum, pulp and paper, and many other industries depend heavily on extensive complex steam systems for thermal and mechanical energy delivery. Steam's versatility and desirable characteristics as both a heat transfer medium and a working fluid has fostered and perpetuated this dependency throughout industrial history. Many large process operations, however, have not developed their steam systems to keep pace with rapidly changing energy economics. As a result, the use of steam on industrial plants seldom approaches the optimum levels of first or second law efficiency. At each of many industrial complexes today, tens of millions of energy dollars per year are literally wasted. This paper describes some case histories comparing actual and optimum steam system configurations, and operational concepts. Highly effective steam system analytical techniques developed and used by the author are discussed. These include "energy level" mass balancing; the "three-branch" thermodynamic system; and powerful sophisticated digital computer steam system models. These latter are really "working models" on which development options can be tried and actively evaluated for economic and technical feasibility. The principal of steam as a plant-wide integrating energy system is explained and demonstrated with examples. These show how a properly structured and effectively operated steam system can increase operational flexibility and facilitate the practical implementation of many energy conservation opportunities in process and plant service areas.

Waterland, A. F.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Opower Thermostat App | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Opower Thermostat App Opower Thermostat App Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Social Opower Agency/Company /Organization: Opower Sector: Energy Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Mobile Device Website: thermostat.opower.com/ Country: United States Web Application Link: thermostat.opower.com/ Cost: Free Northern America Coordinates: 38.8911837°, -77.0838797° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.8911837,"lon":-77.0838797,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

52

Mounting assembly for heater thermostat control  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an assembly for mounting a thermostat control on the outer wall of a heater tank including an external spud in which a heating element is mounted. The mounting assembly comprises: a first bracket made from a spring material and including a body having an opening adapted to lockingly fit over the tank spud. The first bracket further includes a pair of laterally-spaced legs extending from the body and having a bent upper end portion adapted to apply spring pressure toward the tank outer wall when the first bracket is locked on the tank spud. Each of the legs includes in the upper end portion an elongated slot having an upper end; a second bracket carrying the thermostat control and having a pair of laterally -spaced, upstanding ears adapted to fit beneath the upper end portions of the legs. Each of the ears includes a nib received in a slot for interlocking the first and the second brackets and having an upper edge adapted to engage the upper end of the slot and cooperate therewith to urge the thermostat control into firmer contact with the tank outer wall in response to upward vertical movement of the second bracket relative to the first bracket; and the assembly further characterized by a retaining lip on the first bracket, the lip located between the legs and positioned to bear against the end wall of the thermostat control when the parts are in assembled position and an outward horizontal load is applied.

Murphy, M.A.

1987-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

53

Demand response-enabled residential thermostat controls.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Refrigeration, & Air-Conditioning Engineers. Auslander,existing patterns of air conditioning and heating.in conjunction with air conditioning), the main actuation in

Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.; Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for Residential Winter and Summer Air Conditioning.Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Washington, DC.refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

Meier, Alan K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems Best Management Practice: Boiler/Steam Systems October 7, 2013 - 3:17pm Addthis Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned. Operation and Maintenance Options To maintain water efficiency in operations and maintenance, Federal agencies should: Develop and implement a routine inspection and maintenance program to check steam traps and steam lines for leaks. Repair leaks and replace faulty steam traps as soon as possible. Develop and implement a boiler tuning program to be completed a minimum of

56

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the tower An (earlier) alternative is to use a spray pond to cool water; disadvantages are a large areaRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 7. Air conditioning, cooling towersg, g Ron Zevenhoven ??bo, is the hi htemperature at which condensation begins when air is cooled at constant pressurecooled

Zevenhoven, Ron

57

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration processes (4 5) Vapor-compression refrigeration processes (4-5) Absorption refrigeration; Gas processing (O2, H2, CO2, LPG, LNG...) (3) Air conditioning, cooling towers, rg/pages/zon Air conditioning, cooling towers, food cooling and freezing (4) Heat pumps, heat pipes, special ww.sgisland.o p p

Zevenhoven, Ron

58

De-icing thermostat for air conditioners  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electronic thermostat adapted to be connected to an air-cooling apparatus to control the operative state of the apparatus. The thermostat includes a means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of a desired temperature setpoint and means for generating a digital electrical signal representative of the ambient temperature at the thermostat. The improvement described here comprises: means for generating control signals for the aircooling apparatus in order to inhibit the accumulation of ice on the cooling element of the air-cooling apparatus when the ambient temperature is above the temperature setpoint; means, responsive to the control signals, for deenergizing the compressor in the air-cooling apparatus for a first preselected period of time whenever the compressor is determined to have run continuously for a second preselected period of time; and means for adaptively adjusting the length of at least one of the first or second preselected periods of time as a function of the change in the rate of change of the ambient temperature.

Levine, M.R.

1986-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

59

Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! Training Your Thermostat to Save Money... and Energy! June 25, 2012 - 6:14pm Addthis Kristin Swineford Communication Specialist, Weatherization and Intergovernmental Programs Many of us know that during the summer, temperatures aren't the only thing skyrocketing -- our energy bills usually also reach record highs due to the cooling measures required to keep ourselves, our pets, and even some of our household items comfortable. We've talked before about properly setting thermostats, especially programmable thermostats to maintain the appropriate settings while you're home, asleep or away. I've witnessed the results achieved when a regular thermostat is replaced with one that allows you to adjust the times you turn on the heating or

60

What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Set Your Thermostat to? Set Your Thermostat to? What Do You Set Your Thermostat to? June 29, 2012 - 6:29pm Addthis Earlier this week, Kristin was telling us how you can use a programmable thermostat to save money when you're not at home. This is an easy trick that's useful in the winter as well as the summer, and can always help save you some money. Why heat or cool your house when you're not there? So this week, we'd like to know: What temperature do you set your thermostat to in the summer? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles What Are Your Top Tips for Saving Energy? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer?

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Thermostat having simple battery level detection  

SciTech Connect

In a thermostat for controlling HVAC equipment having a battery, the battery having a power level, battery testing means is described, comprising: a time base generator producing a first signal having a frequency substantially independent of the power level; an oscillator producing a second signal having a frequency substantially dependent upon the power level: a comparator connected to the time base generator and the oscillator, the comparator shutting off the HVAC equipment if the first and second signals are not in a pre-determined relationship.

Adams, J.T.

1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

62

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.100.110.2 Typical refrigerant: R-134a, R- 600a and other hydrocarbons cture:http://1 Air-cooled condensing unit ncompressioisentropicwithprocess isentropicc realc t COP COP · The diagram gives some efficiency data from commercial vapour- 6 some efficiency data from commercial vapour compression refrigerators (T1 = TH, T2 = TL, data from 1976

Zevenhoven, Ron

63

Steam Basics: Use Available Data to Lower Steam System Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Industrial steam users recognize the need to reduce system cost in order to remain internationally competitive. Steam systems are a key utility that influence cost significantly, and represent a high value opportunity target. However, the quality of steam is often taken for granted, even overlooked at times. When the recent global recession challenged companies to remain profitable as a first priority, the result was that maintenance budgets were cut and long term cost reduction initiatives for steam systems set aside due to more pressing issues. One of the regrettable results of such actions is that knowledgeable personnel are re-assigned, retired, or released when necessary steam system cost reduction programs are eliminated. When the time arrives to refocus on long term cost reduction by improving the steam system, some programs may have to start from the beginning and a clear path forward may not be evident. New personnel are often tasked with steam improvements when the programs restart, and they may experience difficulty in determining the true key factors that can help reduce system cost. The urgency for lowering long term fuel use and reducing the cost of producing steam is near for each plant. Population growth and resultant global demand are inevitable, so the global economy will expand, production will increase, more fossil fuel energy will be needed, and that fuel will become scarce and more costly. Although fuel prices are low now, energy costs can be expected to trend significantly upward as global production and demand increase. Now is the time for plants to make certain that they can deliver high quality steam to process equipment at lowest system cost. There are three stages to help optimize plant steam for best performance at a low system cost; Phase 1: Manage the condensate discharge locations (where the steam traps & valves are located), Phase 2: Optimize steam-using equipment, and Phase 3: Optimize the entire steam system. This presentation will focus primarily on management of the condensate discharge locations (CDLs) and show sites how to use readily available data to more efficiently achieve goals; but will also provide insight into how the three stages interact to reduce system cost and improve process performance.

Risko, J. R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads  

SciTech Connect

As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

65

A climatic thermostat making Earth habitable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The mean surface temperature on Earth and other planets with atmospheres is determined by the radiative balance between the non-reflected incoming solar radiation and the outgoing long-wave black-body radiation from the atmosphere. The surface temperature is higher than the black-body temperature due to the greenhouse warming. Balancing the ice-albedo cooling and the greenhouse warming gives rise to two stable climate states. A cold climate state with a completelyice-covered planet, called Snowball Earth, and a warm state similar to our present climate where greenhouse warming prevents the total glacition. The warm state has dominated Earth in most of its geological history despite a 30 % fainter young Sun. The warming could have been controlled by a greenhouse thermostat operating by temperature control of the weathering process depleting the atmosphere from $CO_2$. This temperature control has permitted life to evolve as early as the end of the heavy bombartment 4 billion years ago.

Peter D. Ditlevsen

2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

66

Facilitating Energy Savings through Enhanced Usability of Thermostats  

SciTech Connect

Residential thermostats play a key role in controlling heating and cooling systems. Occupants often find the controls of programmable thermostats confusing, sometimes leading to higher heating consumption than when the buildings are controlled manually. A high degree of usability is vital to a programmable thermostat's effectiveness because, unlike a more efficient heating system, occupants must engage in specific actions after installation to obtain energy savings. We developed a procedure for measuring the usability of thermostats and tested this methodology with 31 subjects on five thermostats. The procedure requires first identifying representative tasks associated with the device and then testing the subjects ability to accomplish those tasks. The procedure was able to demonstrate the subjects wide ability to accomplish tasks and the influence of a device's usability on success rates. A metric based on the time to accomplish the tasks and the fraction of subjects actually completing the tasks captured the key aspects of each thermostat's usability. The procedure was recently adopted by the Energy Star Program for its thermostat specification. The approach appears suitable for quantifying usability of controls in other products, such as heat pump water heaters and commercial lighting.

Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

67

Case Study- Steam System Improvements at Dupont Automotive Marshall Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dupont's Marshall Laboratory is an automotive paint research and development facility in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The campus is comprised of several buildings that are served by Trigen-Philadelphia Energy Corporation's district steam loop. In 1996 Dupont management announced that it was considering moving the facility out of Philadelphia primarily due to the high operating cost compared to where they were considering relocating. The city officials responded by bringing the local electric and gas utilities to the table to negotiate better rates for Dupont. Trigen also requested the opportunity to propose energy savings opportunities, and dedicated a team of engineers to review Dupont's steam system to determine if energy savings could be realized within the steam system infrastructure. As part of a proposal to help Dupont reduce energy costs while continuing to use Trigen's steam, Trigen recommended modifications to increase energy efficiency, reduce steam system maintenance costs and implement small scale cogeneration. These recommendations included reducing the medium pressure steam distribution to low pressure, eliminating the medium pressure to low pressure reducing stations, installing a back pressure steam turbine generator, and preheating the domestic hot water with the condensate. Dupont engineers evaluated these recommended modifications and chose to implement most of them. An analysis of Dupont's past steam consumption revealed that the steam distribution system sizing was acceptable if the steam pressure was reduced from medium to low. After a test of the system and a few modifications, Dupont reduced the steam distribution system to low pressure. Energy efficiency is improved since the heat transfer losses at the low pressure are less than at the medium pressure distribution. Additionally, steam system maintenance will be significantly reduced since 12 pressure reducing stations are eliminated. With the steam pressure reduction now occurring at one location, the opportunity existed to install a backpressure turbine generator adjacent to the primary pressure reducing station. The analysis of Dupont's steam and electric load profiles demonstrated that cost savings could be realized with the installation of 150 kW of self-generation. There were a few obstacles, including meeting the utility's parallel operation requirements, that made this installation challenging. Over two years have passed since the modifications were implemented, and although cost savings are difficult to quantify since process steam use has increased, the comparison of steam consumption to heating degree days shows a reducing trend. Dupont's willingness to tackle energy conservation projects without adversely affecting their process conditions can be an example to other industrial steam users.

Larkin, A.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Steam Power Partnership: Improving Steam System Efficiency Through Marketplace Partnerships  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Alliance to Save Energy, a national nonprofit organization based in Washington DC, and the U.S. Department of Energy are working with energy efficiency suppliers to promote the comprehensive upgrade of industrial steam systems. Like EPA's Green Lights and DOE's Motor Challenge, the Steam Power Partnership program will encourage industrial energy consumers to retrofit their steam plants wherever profitable. The Alliance has organized a "Steam Team" of trade associations, consulting engineering firms, and energy efficiency companies to help develop this public- private initiative.

Jones, T.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

A Thermostat Fuzzy Control System Based on MCU  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A thermostat is an automatic temperature control unit, which operating environment is featuring by non-linear, inertial and time-variant. Traditional control can not achieve satisfied performance. As one large embranchment of non-linear control, fuzzy ...

Chenluan Wang

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Kansas City Power and Light- Energy Optimizer Programmable Thermostat Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) offers a free Honeywell programmable thermostat, worth $300, and free installation to qualifying customers to manage energy usage. Only residential and small...

71

Kansas City Power & Light- Energy Optimizer Programmable Thermostat Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Kansas City Power and Light (KCP&L) offers a free Honeywell programmable thermostat, worth $300, and free installation to qualifying customers to manage energy usage. Only residential and small...

72

ProSteam- A Structured Approach to Steam System Improvement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal operation of site utility systems is becoming an increasingly important part of any successful business strategy as environmental, legislative and commercial pressures grow. A reliable steam model allows a clear understanding of the system and of any operational constraints. It can also be used to determine the true cost of improvement projects, relating any changes in steam demand back to purchased utilities (fuel, power, and make-up water) at the site boundary. Example projects could include improved insulation, better condensate return, increased process integration, new steam turbines or even the installation of gas-turbine based cogeneration. This approach allows sites to develop a staged implementation plan for both operational and capital investment projects in the utility system. Steam system models can be taken one step further and linked to the site DCS data to provide real-time balances and improve the operation of the system, providing an inexpensive but very effective optimizer. Such a model ensures that the steam system is set in the optimum manner to react to current utility demands, emissions regulations, equipment availability, fuel and power costs, etc. This optimization approach typically reduces day-to-day utility system operating costs by between 1% and 5% at no capital cost.

Eastwood, A.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control  

SciTech Connect

Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Reduce Natural Gas Use in Your Industrial Steam Systems: Ten Timely Tips  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Industrial Technologies Program brochure provides 10 timely tips to help industrial manufacturing plants save money and reduce natural gas use in their steam systems.

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Tools to Boost Steam System Efficiency, Software Tools for Industry, Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes how the Industrial Technologies Program steam software tools can help industrial plants identify steam system improvements to save energy and money.

Not Available

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Review of four DOE-sponsored low temperature steam systems  

SciTech Connect

The system characteristics and limited operating experience of four DOE-sponsored low temperature steam system field tests are described. The West Point Peperell (Honeywell) installation in Farifax, Alabama, has been operational for nine months but has experienced numerous minor equipment and system problems and a major problem with its shadow bar tracker. The other three installations are not operational yet. Johnson and Johnson (Acurex) in Sherman, Texas, is currently in the startup and checkout phase and will be operational in December, 1979. Home Laundry (Jacobs-Del) in Pasadena, California, and Tropicana Products (General Electric) in Bradenton, Florida, are both well into the construction phase and expect to be operational in February, 1980.

Gerich, J.W.

1979-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

77

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) and gives it off at higher ail.asp?article temperature (and pressure) and gives it off at higher temperature or no pressure changes Coolant for an engine: e:http://www 8.11.2012?bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 32/64 pressure changes. Coolant for an engine: not a refrigerant

Zevenhoven, Ron

78

Saving energy the easy way: an analysis of thermostat management  

SciTech Connect

We analyzed data on self-reported winter and summer thermostat settings and control strategies that were collected in recent surveys by utility companies, and state and federal energy agencies. We constructed several hypotheses to examine how thermostat management was related to the following occupant-related features: socioeconomic characteristics of occupants (age, education, income, home ownership, and race), building characteristics (house type, size, and age), space conditioning fuel and system, climate, and energy audit programs. We also examined thermostat management over time (during the day, seasonally, and yearly) and analyzed its relationship to energy use. We found that thermostat management (especially during the summer) is not fixed, but varies and is sensitive to some conditions. Certain groups - younger people, better educated individuals, audited households, multi-family households, and residents of warmer climates - reduce energy use at a greater rate than their counterparts. Households lower and raise their thermostats during the day and during different seasons and also shut off their heating and air conditioning systems when their home is unoccupied. In fact, many households reported settings below 68/sup 0/ in the winter and above 78/sup 0/ in the summer, the standard temperatures used in many energy models and programs.

Vine, E.L.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Identifying Steam Opportunity "Impact" Inputs for the Steam System Assessment Tool (SSAT)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. DOE BestPractices Steam "Steam System Assessment Tool" (SSAT) is a powerful tool for quantifying potential steam improvement opportunities in steam systems. However, all assessment tools are only as good as the validity of the modeling inputs.

Harrell, G.; Jendrucko, R.; Wright, A.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program Columbia Gas of Ohio - Programmable Thermostat Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Construction Design & Remodeling Other Sealing Your Home Ventilation Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Maximum Rebate $100,000/project Program Info State Ohio Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit: Up to 100% Custom Conservation and Evaluation Measures: Up to 50% Research and Demonstration Measures: Up to 50% Experimental Technologies: Up to 100% Building Commissioning: Up to 50% Provider Columbia Gas of Ohio Columbia Gas of Ohio offers professional Facility/Building Energy Audits to

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

82

Solving the Nose-Hoover thermostat for Nuclear Pasta  

SciTech Connect

At densities just below nuclear saturation density, there may be possible non-uniform spatial configurations of neutron rich matter. In this work we present a calculation using molecular dynamics techniques for a nuclear system interacting via a semiclassical potential depending on both positions and momenta and kept at fixed temperature by using the Nose-Hoover Thermostat.

Perez Garcia, M. Angeles [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

2006-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

83

Fluorescent refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

84

Water heater with an improved thermostat mounting and a method of making such water heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improvement in an electric water heater is described comprising: a non-metallic tank, a cold water inlet, a hot water outlet, an electrical heating means adapted to heat a body of water contained in the tank and a thermostat having a sensing face with a given area controlling the flow of electric current to the heating means, the improvement comprising a thermally conductive thermostat mounting plate having a surface area substantially larger than the sensing face given area in direct contact with the tank and a thermostat retention means releasably holding the thermostat in contact with the thermostat mounting plate.

Moore, H.J.; Deneau, M.E.

1993-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

85

Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings Program Your Thermostat for Fall and Winter Savings October 9, 2012 - 4:17pm Q&A At what temperature do you set your thermostat to save energy and money when it's cold outside? Tell Us Addthis Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Use a programmable thermostat to automatically turn down the heat at night or when you're away from home. Allison Casey Senior Communicator, NREL What does this mean for me? Save 5% to 15% a year on your heating bill by setting your thermostat back 10° to 15° for 8 hours at a time. It's been a beautiful fall here in Colorado; 70 and 80 degree days and comfortably cool nights have spoiled us. We haven't had to turn on the heat

86

Dow Chemical Company: Assessment Leads to Steam System Energy Savings in a Petrochemical Plant  

SciTech Connect

This DOE Save Energy Now case study describes how Dow Chemical Company saves 272,000 MMBtu and $1.9 million annually after increasing the steam system energy efficiency of a plant in Louisiana.

2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Generating Electricity with your Steam System: Keys to Long Term Savings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The application of combined heat and power principals to existing plant steam systems can help produce electricity at more than twice efficiency of grid generated electricity. In this way, steam plant managers can realize substantial savings with relatively quick payback of capital. Carefully planned and executed projects are the key to unlocking the maximum value of generating electricity from an existing steam system. This paper illustrates the key concepts of generating onsite power with backpressure steam turbine generators along with practical considerations.

Bullock, B.; Downing, A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

The impact of thermostat performance on energy consumption and occupant comfort in residential electric heating systems  

SciTech Connect

A digital computer simulation was used to compare the energy consumption and comfort of an electric baseboard heating system using high performance thermostats (low droop, fast cycling) to that of the same system using poorer performing thermostats (high droop, slow cycling, such as many line voltage types). Since a thermostat which allows the controlled temperature to fall below the setpoint will obviously cause less energy consumption than a thermostat which maintains the controlled temperature closer to the setpoint, the key hypothesis of this study was that the user will reset the thermostat setpoint in some fashion during the heating season to obtain acceptable conditions for all heating loads. The major assumption of this study, therefore, was the mode of this ''user-thermostat interaction''. For every case in which the simulated ''user'' could intervene, the energy consumption using high performance thermostats was found to be less, while a greater degree of comfort was maintained, than systems using poorer performing thermostats. Energy savings ranged from 2% to 18% depending upon the mode of user interaction simulated. Where energy savings were small, the ''user'' was resetting the poorly performing thermostat as often as twice a day; i.e., the ''user'' was performing the function of a better performing thermostat.

Benton, R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Summer? June 25, 2009 - 5:00am Addthis You can save 5%-15% on your cooling bills by raising the temperature setting on your thermostat when you are away and don't need cooling. Only lower the setting to 78°F when you are home and need cooling. A programmable thermostat can make it easy to adjust the temperature on a regular schedule. At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the summer? How about when you're asleep or away? Each Thursday, you have the chance to share your thoughts on a topic related to energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. Please comment with your answers, and also feel free to respond to other comments.

93

Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and Solar Water Heaters June 23, 2009 - 12:54pm Addthis Amy Foster Parish Ener-Gee Whiz would like to offer a hearty thanks to all of you who've written in for your great efficiency and renewables related questions. Now, on to some answers! Patti writes: Is it efficient to raise the thermostat in a business when the business is closed during air conditioning season? Ener-Gee Whiz: Your business might be able to save energy-and money-by turning your thermostat up during the cooling season. But how much energy and money you save are largely dependent on how much you set your thermostat back and for how long. The Energy Savers website suggests that

94

Analysis of Thermostat Design for Vertical Fan Coil Units Within Modern Window-Wall Condominium Suites.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim for this research is to identify the issues with poor thermostat designs in a window-wall condominium suite during cooling season, and to investigate (more)

Ruff, Shawn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

96

A State-Queueing Model of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper develops a new method to analyze the price response of aggregated loads consisting of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs). Assuming a perfectly diversified load before the price response, we show that TCA setpoint changes in response to the market price will result in a redistribution of TCAs in on/off states and therefore change the probabilities for a unit to reside in each state. A randomly distributed load can be partially synchronized and the aggregated diversity lost. The lost of the load diversity can then create unexpected dynamics in the aggregated load profile. Raising issues such as restoring load diversity and damping the peak loads are also addressed in the paper.

Lu, Ning; Chassin, David P.

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Thermostat means adaptively controlling the amount of overshoot or undershoot of space temperature  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a clock thermostat adaptively controlling the amount of overshoot or undershoot of space temperature due to changes in the current temperature setpoint of the thermostat means, including: microcomputer means including real time clock and memory; data input means connected to the microcomputer to input a sequence of desired heat and cool control temperature setpoints and times for a desired temperature control by the thermostat; temperature sensor including connection to monitor temperature at the thermostat means; connection means connected to microcomputer to communicate a temperature at sensor means to the microcomputer; thermostat means further including output switch adapted to control heating and cooling equipment by thermostat means; microcomputer means and memory means including overshoot-undershoot correction program means which is operable to adjust a ramprate slope of a current temperature setpoint of thermostat means; overshoot-undershoot correction program and the memory means providing a ramprate slope that reduces an overshoot-undershoot of space temperature due to a change in current temperature setpoint; and overshoot-undershoot correction program means and memory means creating a new ramprate slope after a temperature setpoint change to progressively adjust the ramprate slope of the thermostat to limit the amount of overshoot-undershoot of the space temperature to an acceptable level.

Beckey, T.J.

1987-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Decay and storage of multiparticle entangled states of atoms in collective thermostat  

SciTech Connect

We derive a master equation describing the collective decay of two-level atoms inside a single mode cavity in the dispersive limit. By considering atomic decay in the collective thermostat, we found a decoherence-free subspace of the multiparticle entangled states of the W-like class. We present a scheme for writing and storing these states in collective thermostat.

Basharov, A. M.; Gorbachev, V. N.; Rodichkina, A. A. [Laboratory for Quantum Information and Computation, Aerospace University, St.-Petersburg 190000 Bolshaia Morskaia 67 (Russian Federation)

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

99

ARTI refrigerant database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Calm, J.M.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants  

Ames Laboratory researchers have developed a new magnetic material that can be used at low temperatures (sub liquid hydrogen) for magnetic refrigerators.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

China Refrigerator Information Label  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy

102

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

103

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

106

DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE LEAKAGE FROM THE HRT PROCESS STEAM SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Calculations were made to determine the radiation hazard to HRT personnel as a result of leakage to the atmosphere from the process steam system in the event of a heat exchanger tube rupture. These calculations show that with the present four-minute delay before dumping approximately 1020 lb of fuel solution may be transferred to the steam system. The radiation hazard from fission products in the atomosphere will be negligble if the steam killer blower is operating. If this blower is not operatin. a natural convection loop will be set up in the steam killer which will have a condensing capacity of 4 lb/min of steam at atmospheric pressure. In this latter case. the inhalation hazard will be negligible when the leak rate through the steam stop valves is less than 4lb/ min. (auth)

Gift, E.H.

1959-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

107

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition (Book) (Revised)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry was developed for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO), formerly the Industrial Technologies Program. AMO undertook this project as a series of sourcebook publications. Other topics in this series include: compressed air systems, pumping systems, fan systems, process heating and motor and drive systems. For more information about program resources, see AMO in the Where to Find Help section of this publication.

Not Available

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Case history of industrial plant steam system layup for direct-fired gas operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the facts of an industrial plant steam system layup for direct fired gas operations. Fuel price savings indicated that gas firing a paper dryer, the largest steam user in the plant, would pay for itself in one year. Conversion work is detailed. Primary gas distribution was achieved by using one line of the steam loop. Machine water heating, power venting, space heating, and air makeup heating, among other conversions, are also specified.

Stacy, G.N.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

A Case Study of Steam System Evaluation in a Petroleum Refinery  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASI conducted a steam system evaluation study at a multinational petroleum Refinery located in the Eastern UK during June-July, 1999. At this refinery, Steam, Fuel and Electricity systems are inter-connected. Steam is generated from direct fuel fired boilers as well from Furnace and Kiln waste heat. Steam is also supplied from the CHP waste heat boilers. Steam generation averages 1,500,000 lbs/hr and does not change significantly between winter and summer since steam needs for process and power generation dominates way above comfort heating. To generate steam, the refinery spends about 28 million per year ($46 million). The system evaluation study identified 31 Energy & steam system cost savings measures (ECM) to save fuel, steam and condensate in the areas of: Steam generation, Steam distribution, Steam Utilization, Condensate recovery, and Combustion optimization in kilns. By implementing all the above 31 ECMs, the refinery is estimated to save $3.5 million annually. Based on our preliminary investment estimate the average payback would be within 2 years. The refinery also would reduce 5600 metric tons Carbon emission to environment. Some of the opportunities address the installation defects of the steam system components that would improve the system reliability and longevity.

Venkatesan, V. V.; Iordanova, N.

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

111

Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter Thinking of Your Thermostat for Savings This Winter February 28, 2012 - 2:48pm Addthis Amanda McAlpin This has certainly been an unusual winter for most of the country. Warmer temperatures and minimal snowfall totals have many hoping for an early spring. February on the east coast has been like a roller coaster ride, with temperatures plunging one day, then warm enough the next to skip the coat. In my home, I've spent the month trying to predict the ups and downs of the weather by adjusting my heater constantly. It's tempting to leave the thermostat on at a set temperature, so that the room is warm when returning home. Many assume this saves energy, because the heater won't have to work as hard to heat the room to the desired

112

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performance and efficiency improvements.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Thermostatted molecular dynamics: How to avoid the Toda demon hidden in Nose-Hoover dynamics  

SciTech Connect

The Nose-Hoover thermostat, which is often used in the hope of modifying molecular dynamics trajectories in order to achieve canonical-ensemble averages, has hidden in it a Toda ``demon,`` which can give rise to unwanted, noncanonical undulations in the instantaneous kinetic temperature. We show how these long-lived oscillations arise from insufficient coupling of the thermostat to the atoms, and give straightforward, practical procedures for avoiding this weak-coupling pathology in isothermal molecular dynamics simulations.

Holian, B.L.; Voter, A.F. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ravelo, R. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Control Strategies of Thermostatically Controlled Appliances in a Competitive Electricity Market  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the setpoint-control strategies for thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) in a competitive electricity market with electric water heater used as an example. By varying the TCA thermostat settings, the TCA power consumption can be shifted from the high-price period to the low-price period to reduce the peak-load and energy cost. Economic benefits and impacts on distribution feeder load shapes when applying different setpoint-control strategies are studied.

Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas

2005-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

115

An analysis of the differences between monitored indoor temperatures and reported thermostat settings  

SciTech Connect

We examined differences in reported winter thermostat settings and monitored temperatures, and contrasted those households with little difference, and those with a substantial difference. This analysis was conducted on households participating in Bonneville Power Administration's Residential Standards Demonstration Program (RSDP) in the Pacific Northwest. The reported thermostat settings were obtained from a survey of RSDP participants, and indoor temperatures were read from special recorders inside the house. 9 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Vine, E.; Barnes, B.K.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Refrigerated cryogenic envelope  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An elongated cryogenic envelope including an outer tube and an inner tube coaxially spaced within said inner tube so that the space therebetween forms a vacuum chamber for holding a vacuum. The inner and outer tubes are provided with means for expanding or contracting during thermal changes. A shield is located in the vacuum chamber intermediate the inner and outer tubes; and, a refrigeration tube for directing refrigeration to the shield is coiled about at least a portion of the inner tube within the vacuum chamber to permit the refrigeration tube to expand or contract along its length during thermal changes within said vacuum chamber.

Loudon, John D. (Boulder, CO)

1976-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

117

Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

Swift, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

118

High temperature refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

Steyert, Jr., William A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection  

SciTech Connect

Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Steam systems in industry: Energy use and energy efficiency improvement potentials  

SciTech Connect

Steam systems are a part of almost every major industrial process today. Thirty-seven percent of the fossil fuel burned in US industry is burned to produce steam. In this paper we will establish baseline energy consumption for steam systems. Based on a detailed analysis of boiler energy use we estimate current energy use in boilers in U.S. industry at 6.1 Quads (6.4 EJ), emitting almost 66 MtC in CO{sub 2} emissions. We will discuss fuels used and boiler size distribution. We also describe potential savings measures, and estimate the economic energy savings potential in U.S. industry (i.e. having payback period of 3 years or less). We estimate the nationwide economic potential, based on the evaluation of 16 individual measures in steam generation and distribution. The analysis excludes the efficient use of steam and increased heat recovery. Based on the analysis we estimate the economic potential at 18-20% of total boiler energy use, resulting in energy savings approximately 1120-1190 TBtu ( 1180-1260 PJ). This results in a reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent to 12-13 MtC.

Einstein, Dan; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

2001-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? Question of the Week: At What Temperature Do You Set Your Thermostat in the Winter? December 11, 2008 - 8:45am Addthis Did you know that you can save energy in the winter by setting the thermostat to 68°F while you're awake and setting it lower while you're asleep or away from home? By turning your thermostat back 10°-15° for 8 hours, you can save about 5%-15% a year on your heating bill-a savings of as much as 1% for each degree if the setback period is eight hours long. At what temperature do you set your thermostat when you are home and awake in the winter? How about when you're asleep or away? E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov.

122

Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator - Energy ...  

... -phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, ...

123

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California...

124

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

Cain, J.M. (Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States))

1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

125

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Solar powered refrigeration apparatus is disclosed in which an absorption refrigeration system is operated directly by solar energy. One end of a heat pipe is thermally connected to the boiler of the absorption refrigeration system, and a solar collector is thermally coupled to the other remote end of the heat pipe. The heat pipe is a sealed, evacuated metal tube partially filled with water. The solar collector is a double walled glass vacuum tube with a central axial opening for accommodating the remote end of the heat pipe. Heat energy collected by the solar collector boils the water in the heat pipe to subsequently condense in the area of the boiler thus transferring heat energy along the heat pipe to the boiler. The heat pipe is installed sloping downwardly away from the boiler to permit the return of condensate down the pipe to the solar collector area thus permitting continuous operation.

Theakston, F.H.

1982-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

127

Japanese refrigerators field testing  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, A.T.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Adsorption Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption refrigeration is an environmentally friendly cooling technology which could be driven by recovered waste heat or low-grade heat such as solar energy. In comparison with absorption system, an adsorption system has no problems such as corrosion at high temperature and salt crystallization. In comparison with vapor compression refrigeration system, it has the advantages of simple control, no moving parts and less noise. This paper introduces the basic theory of adsorption cycle as well as the advanced adsorption cycles such as heat and mass recovery cycle, thermal wave cycle and convection thermal wave cycle. The types, characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of different adsorbents used in adsorption refrigeration systems are also summarized. This article will increase the awareness of this emerging cooling technology among the HVAC engineers and help them select appropriate adsorption systems in energy-efficient building design.

Wang, Kai [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Japanese Refrigerators Field Testing.  

SciTech Connect

Residential refrigerators consume the equivalent of 1700 megawatts (MW) of baseload power in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) service area. Japanese manufacturers have designed refrigerator units that appear more energy efficient than some currently available American models. This report summarizes preliminary findings from field testing of 12 refrigerators of Japanese manufacture to evaluate annual kilowatt hour (kWh) use during actual operation. The units have also undergone laboratory testing sponsored by BPA at ETL Testing Laboratories, Inc. in Cortland, New York. A final report of the project -- due at the end of 1989 -- will correlate in detail the results of field and laboratory tests in comparison to performance ratings determined by the manufacturer.

Lou, Albert T.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

Calm, J.M.

1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

131

COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I Fishery Leaflet 427 Washington 25, D. C. June 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART em; COlD STORAGE DESIGN · · · · · 18 Specific design features 0 0 · · · · · · · · · · · · · · 19 Refrigerated surfaces 0 · · 0 0 0 · 0

132

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

133

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

134

Superfund at work: Hazardous waste cleanup efforts nationwide, fall 1992. (American Thermostat Corporation, New York)  

SciTech Connect

EPA's Superfund program decisively mitigated dangerously high levels of toxic chemicals at New York's American Thermostat Corporation (ATC) hazardous waste site. Superfund staff: quickly sampled area drinking wells and treated over 10 million gallons of contaminated ground water; used innovative technologies to reduce on-site soil and ground water contamination; secured a permanent alternate water supply for affected residents; and initiated a public outreach effort which gained support for cleanup activities. The American Thermostat site is a prime example of EPA's commitment to preserve the health and welfare of citizens and the environment.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

A Tale of Two Houses: The Human Dimension of Demand Response Enabling Technology from a Case Study of an Adaptive Wireless Thermostat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

underestimate the heating setpoint (Woods 2006). Similarly,Woods, James. 2006. Fiddling with Thermostats: Energy Implications of Heating and

Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward; Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A tale of two houses: the human dimension of demand response enabling technology from a case study of an adaptive wireless thermostat.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

underestimate the heating setpoint (Woods 2006). Similarly,Woods, James. 2006. Fiddling with Thermostats: Energy Implications of Heating and

Peffer, Therese; Arens, Edward A; Chen, Xue; Jang, Jaehwi; Auslander, David M.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

The Steam System Scoping Tool: Benchmarking Your Steam Operations Through Best Practices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology (DOE-OIT) BestPractice efforts aim to assist U.S. industry in adopting near-term energy-efficient technologies and practices through voluntary technical-assistance programs on improved system efficiency. The BestPractices Steam effort, a part of the DOE-OIT effort, has developed a new tool that steam energy managers and operations personnel can use to assess their steam operations and improve their steam energy usage -the Steam System Scoping Tool. This paper describes how the tool was developed, how the tool works, and the status of efforts to improve the tool in the future.

Wright, A.; Hahn, G.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Getting Ready to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! Getting Ready to Set the Thermostat Low-And Keep it There! October 26, 2011 - 6:48am Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Every year I try to convince myself that I am going to turn my thermostat down for the entire winter. It's going to be 68 degrees or lower, I tell myself. I'm not going to turn it up for any reason. I might even be daring and try to get a few degrees lower! It'll be awesome! It usually doesn't end well. You see, I'm a gigantic wuss about the cold. Something always happens-it takes me 4 hours to drive home in the snow, I have a lousy day, or it drops beneath zero degrees Fahrenheit-and suddenly I want to treat myself to a balmy 70 degrees to make up for it.

139

The smart thermostat: using occupancy sensors to save energy in homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) is the largest source of residential energy consumption. In this paper, we demonstrate how to use cheap and simple sensing technology to automatically sense occupancy and sleep patterns in a home, and how to use ... Keywords: building energy, home monitoring, programmable thermostats, wireless sensor networks

Jiakang Lu; Tamim Sookoor; Vijay Srinivasan; Ge Gao; Brian Holben; John Stankovic; Eric Field; Kamin Whitehouse

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Electronic thermostat with selectable mode to control heating only, cooling only or both heating and cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a thermostat for use in a building having means for cooling the building and means for heating the building, the thermostat being connected to the cooling means and the heating means and operative to generate an energizing signal for only one of the heating means or cooling means at a given time, the thermostat comprising: means for measuring the ambient temperature within the building; manual data entry means; means for storing a program of desired heating temperatures over a repetitive time cycle, programmed by the manual data entry means; a clock operative to generate time signals within the repetitive time cycle; means for generating a signal representative of a desired heating temperature and a desired cooling temperature at the present time based upon the signals from the clock in the stored temperature program; means for placing the thermostat in either a first mode where control signals are generated only for the heating means as a function of the difference between the measured temperature within the building and the desired heating temperature signal. Control signals are generated for either the heating means or the cooling means based upon the measured temperature and the respective desired heating and cooling temperature signals.

Levine, M.R.

1987-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

Bennett, G.A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He/[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

143

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

Bennett, G.A.

1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

144

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

145

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a cryogenic refrigerator which cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of {sup 3}He in a single phase {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He solution. The {sup 3}He in superfluid {sup 4}He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid {sup 3}He at an initial concentration in superfluid {sup 4}He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of {sup 4}He while restricting passage of {sup 3}He. The {sup 3}He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

1991-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

146

Compact acoustic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

149

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Magnetic Refrigeration - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aug 6, 2013 ... Magnetic Refrigeration a 21st Century Highly Efficient and Green Cooling .... In order to advance their incorporation in prototypes and industrial...

151

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

152

Design concepts for flash steam systems for use with medium temperature geothermal water  

SciTech Connect

Medium temperature water can be utilized for production of electrical energy when it is available in massive quantities. The design concepts herein are to provide a base for feasibility studies and evaluate processes with consideration of the economics of developing this electrical energy on a commercial scale. Two methods of producing electrical energy with geothermal water are being considered. The methods discussed in this document are by the flashing process of producing steam for driving turbine-generators. Flash steam systems were evaluated for use with 300/sup 0/F water. Single and multiflash systems were evaluated and component size sensitivity to operating pressures were studied. It was determined that a double flash system is the most practical system. Net power production of approximately 2.4 megawatts/million pounds per hour of brine is estimated for the double flash system which operates at an initial flash pressure of 30 psia and a second stage pressure of 13 psia. Flash pressures below atmospheric are not recommended due to oxygen leakage into the system. Sensitivity analysis has indicated that the power output is not highly sensitive to the first stage flash pressure. A significant loss in power output occurs if the second stage pressure is increased significantly.

Whitbeck, J.F.

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Determining the basic operational characteristics of a solar thermostat in the conditions of full-scale tests  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of calculating a heat-receiver-heater and the volume of the heat store is presented, together with the results of full-scale tests of a solar thermostat with stochastic variations of climatic factors.

Gryadunov, A.I.; Mamedova, A.I.; Razaev, P.F.; Sadykov, S.A.; Velieva, B.A.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

155

Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet), Building America Case Study: Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Building Technologies Office (BTO)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Steam System Balancing Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Chicago, Illinois PROJECT INFORMATION Project Name: Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings Location: Chicago, IL Partners: Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit www.gastechnology.org Building Component: Steam heating distribution system and controls Application: Retrofit; Multifamily Year Tested: 2011-2012 Applicable Climate Zone(s): Cold humid continental PERFORMANCE DATA Cost of Energy Efficiency Measure (including labor): $9,000 on average Projected Energy Savings: 10.2% heating savings Chicago's older multifamily housing stock is primarily heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. Often, significant temperature differentials

156

From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models, From the Optimizing Thermostat to a Smart Energy Management System: Models, Benchmark, and Insights Speaker(s): Yong Liang Date: May 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Janie Page Nowadays, users in the retail electricity market only need to pay a fixed rate for electricity. This strategy results in lack of coordination between demand and supply and costs significant waste. A shift from fixed rate pricing in retail markets could potentially yield many benefits. Time-varying pricing promotes the substitution of off-peak consumption for peak consumption, reducing strain on the electrical system, the need for costly and inefficient "peaker" plants, and waste in electricity delivery. However, existing research supports what common sense suggests:

157

Fail-safe coolant thermostat system for an internal combustion engine  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an improvement in a device for controlling the flow of cooling fluid between a fluid-cooled engine and a radiator, wherein a primary passage is provided with a thermostat that normally controls the flow of cooling fluid between the engine and the radiator. It comprises: a bypass passage connected in parallel with the primary passage and thermostat; a control valve contained within the bypass passage, the valve comprising a solenoid operated cup-shaped valve body and means for continually urging open the valve toward an open position; and means for de-energizing the solenoid for positioning the control valve in an open condition when either the engine is not operating or the cooling fluid temperature exceeds a positioning the control valve in a closed condition when the engine is operating and the cooling fluid temperature is below the predetermined level.

Shelton, V.E.

1990-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

158

Modeling Uncertainties in Aggregated Thermostatically Controlled Loads Using a State Queueing Model  

SciTech Connect

Abstract To study the impacts of price responsive demand on the electric power system, requires better load models. This paper discusses the modeling of uncertainties in aggregated thermostatically controlled loads using a state queueing (SQ) model. The cycling times of thermostatically controlled appliances (TCAs) vary with the TCA types and sizes, as well as the ambient temperatures. The random consumption of consumers, which besides phase shifting, shortens or prolongs a specific TCA cycling period, introduces another degree of uncertainty. By modifying the state transition matrix, these random factors can be taken into account in a discrete SQ model. The impacts of considering load diversity in the SQ model on simulating TCA setpoint response are also studied.

Lu, Ning; Chassin, David P.; Widergren, Steven E.

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Modified Nose-Hoover thermostat for solid state for constant temperature molecular dynamics simulation  

SciTech Connect

Nose-Hoover (NH) thermostat methods incorporated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulation have been widely used to simulate the instantaneous system temperature and feedback energy in a canonical ensemble. The method simply relates the kinetic energy to the system temperature via the particles' momenta based on the ideal gas law. However, when used in a tightly bound system such as solids, the method may suffer from deriving a lower system temperature and potentially inducing early breaking of atomic bonds at relatively high temperature due to the neglect of the effect of the potential energy of atoms based on solid state physics. In this paper, a modified NH thermostat method is proposed for solid system. The method takes into account the contribution of phonons by virtue of the vibrational energy of lattice and the zero-point energy, derived based on the Debye theory. Proof of the equivalence of the method and the canonical ensemble is first made. The modified NH thermostat is tested on different gold nanocrystals to characterize their melting point and constant volume specific heat, and also their size and temperature dependence. Results show that the modified NH method can give much more comparable results to both the literature experimental and theoretical data than the standard NH. Most importantly, the present model is the only one, among the six thermostat algorithms under comparison, that can accurately reproduce the experimental data and also the T{sup 3}-law at temperature below the Debye temperature, where the specific heat of a solid at constant volume is proportional to the cube of temperature.

Chen, Wen-Hwa, E-mail: whchen@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 10622, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Chun-Hung [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsien-Chie [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

Crunkleton, J.A.

1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

163

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

164

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, Walter F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Metrics Thermostat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The explosion of information and information technology has led many firms to evolve a dispersed product development process with people and organizations spread throughout the world. To

Hauser, John

166

Metrics Thermostat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The explosion of information and information technology has led many firms to evolve a dispersed product development process with people and organizations spread throughout the world. To coordinate such dispersed processes ...

Hauser, John

167

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine Storage ... Suitability of commercial refrigerators for vaccine storage not ...

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

168

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLOne Stage Compressor Heat Exchanger Refrigeration Load XBLcondensers, surface heat exchangers, surface condensers,

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

171

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

172

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Proposed Standards for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers to Lower Energy Use by as much as Twenty-Five Percent

174

Magnetocaloric Effect and Enhanced Refrigeration effectiveness in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Magnetocaloric Effect and Enhanced Refrigeration effectiveness in ... Industrial Needs and Applications for Soft Magnetic Materials Industrial...

175

Optimization of the Refrigerant Capacity in Multiphase ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Magnetic Materials for Energy Applications. Presentation Title, Optimization of the Refrigerant Capacity in Multiphase Magnetocaloric Materials.

176

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

Barclay, J.A.

1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

178

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

179

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

180

Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pulse-tube refrigerator shown in Figure 1 dissipates acoustic power by design because power must flowFrontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation S. Backhaus1 , D. Geller2 , B oscillating thermodynamics in a gas in a sealed system. Since then, many related engines and refrigerators

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

183

Investigation of Chlorine-Free Refrigerants for Low-Temperature Supermarket Refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With the phaseout of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants, supermarkets are seeking a replacement for R-502, the refrigerant of choice for low-temperature (frozen food) refrigeration. EPRI has conducted field testing to characterize the performance of the new hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) nonchlorinated refrigerants replacements for R-502. Results showed that energy and demand savings can be obtained using these alternative refrigerants with zero ozone-depleting potential.

1996-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

184

Columbia Gas of Massachusetts - Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat recovery, Processing and Manufacturing Equipment, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Commercial Cooking Equipment, Tankless Water Heaters...

185

Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Bad seeds sprout perilous dynamics: stochastic thermostat induced trajectory synchronization in biomolecules  

SciTech Connect

Molecular dynamics simulations starting from different initial conditions are commonly used to mimic the behavior of an experimental ensemble. We show in this article that when a Langevin thermostat is used to maintain constant temperature during such simulations, extreme care must be taken when choosing the random number seeds used in order to prevent statistical correlation among the MD trajectories. While recent studies have shown that stochastically thermostatted trajectories evolving within a single potential basin with identical random number seeds tend to synchronize, we show that there is a synchronization effect even for complex, biologically relevant systems. We demonstrate this effect in simulations of Alanine trimer and pentamer and in a simulation of a temperature-jump experiment for peptide folding of a 14-residue peptide. Even in replica-exchange simulations, in which the trajectories are at different temperatures, we find partial synchronization occurring when the same random number seed is employed. We explain this by extending the recent derivation of the synchronization effect for two trajectories in a harmonic well to the case in which the trajectories are at two different temperatures. Our results suggest several ways in which mishandling selection of a pseudo random number generator initial seed can lead to corruption of simulation data. Simulators can fall into this trap in simple situations such as neglecting to specifically indicate different random seeds in either parallel or sequential restart simulations, utilizing a simulation package with a weak pseudorandom number generator, or using an advanced simulation algorithm that hasn't been programmed to distribute initial seeds.

Voter, A F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sindhikara, Daniel J [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Kim, Seonah [UNIV OF CALIFORNIA; Roitberg, Adrian E [UNIV OF FLORIDA

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Small Business Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats: SMUD's Summer Solutions Research Pilot  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. An analysis of hourly load data indicates that the offices and retail stores in our sample provided significant demand response, while the restaurants did not. Thermostat data provides further evidence that restaurants attempted to precool and reduce AC service during event hours, but were unable to because their air-conditioning units were undersized. On a 100 F reference day, load impacts of all participants during events averaged 14%, while load impacts of office and retail buildings (excluding restaurants) reached 20%. Overall, pilot participants including restaurants had 2007-2008 summer energy savings of 20% and bill savings of 30%. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

188

Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

Grant, D.C.H.

1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

189

Save Energy Now (SEN) Assessment Helps Expand Energy Management Program at Shaw Industries: Flooring Company Saves $872,000 Annually by Improving Steam System Efficiency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study describes how the Shaw Industries plant #20 in Dalton, Georgia, achieved annual savings of $872,000 and 93,000 MMBtu after receiving a DOE Save Energy Now energy assessment and implementing recommendations to improve the efficiency of its steam system.

Not Available

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) April 25, 2013 DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) More Documents & Publications Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355) Schott Gemtron: Order (2013-CE-5358

191

Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a const...

Feldmann, Tova

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

A compact rotating dilution refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 0.001 rad/s up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad/s. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

Fear, M J; Chorlton, D A; Zmeev, D E; Gillott, S J; Sellers, M C; Richardson, P P; Agrawal, H; Batey, G; Golov, A I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

194

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

SciTech Connect

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH); Middleton, Marc G. (West Jefferson, OH)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

196

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

SciTech Connect

Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Transport Refrigeration Units: A Technical Assessment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the prospects for operating transport refrigeration systems on electricity while they are stationary at a distribution center or refrigerated warehouses. Because most transport refrigeration units (TRUs) in use today are powered by diesel engines, concentrations of diesel exhaust products including particulate matter occur near these distribution centers. Operating TRUs on electricity would eliminate diesel exhaust emissions concentrations at these facilities, but would increase cos...

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

198

List of Refrigerators Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigerators Incentives Refrigerators Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 657 Refrigerators Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-657) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Refrigerators Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial

199

Building Technologies Office: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Use to Save Money. Learn More. News DOE Issues Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Energy Conservation Standard August 29, 2013 DOE Issues...

200

Regenerator for Magnetic Refrigerants - Energy Innovation Portal  

Magnetic refrigeration is being investigated as an alternative to conventional gas compressor technology ... because of its potential to save energy and ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

An Alternative Refrigeration System For Automotive Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The air conditioning systems currently utilized in automobiles are the vapor compression systems. This type of system has many disadvantages: the refrigerant used is not (more)

McLaughlin, Shannon

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

have developed a multi-stage refrigerator, designed to recapture and utilize the acoustic energy that would ordinarily be wasted in traditional Stirling configurations. Available...

203

NIST Quantum Refrigerator Offers Extreme Cooling and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... NIST's prototype solid-state refrigerator uses quantum physics in the square chip mounted on the green circuit board to cool the much larger copper ...

2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

204

Magnetic Refrigeration a 21 - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Magnetic Refrigeration a 21st Century Highly Efficient and Green ... Alloy Design and Powder Processing of Mn-Al Based Materials for Rare

205

Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

206

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on AddThis.com...

207

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

208

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... style refrigerator and a freezerless household refrigerator used ... possible that the nature of the cooling system and ... model simply do not cool the side ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

209

Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These comments...

210

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys Title U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon...

211

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

be used to design and optimize refrigeration cycles as wellCOMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATIONTrial Design Fixed state parameters (bar) Refrigeration

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ERKELEY N ATIONAL L ABORATORY China Refrigerator InformationDivision Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of7 Table 2 Coefficient Values for China Refrigerator 2003

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

215

Steam System Opportunity Assessment for the Pulp and Paper, Chemical Manufacturing, and Petroleum Refining Industries: Main Report and Appendices (CD-ROM)  

SciTech Connect

The main report on this CD assesses steam generation and use in the pulp and paper, chemical, and petroleum refining industries, and estimates the potential for energy savings from implementation of steam system performace and efficiency improvements. The Appendices on this CD provide supporting information for the analyses and provides and recommendations for assessing the effectiveness of the U.S. Department of Energy BestPractices Steam Program.

Not Available

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration with the process may result in reduced power consumption. However, the total utility situation must be considered when evaluating the compressor driver. Conversion from steam drivers to electric drivers may be more economical when considering proper process integration. These questions and various scenarios must be addressed in light of the total process requirements and constraints. During the last few years, Union Carbide has successfully applied ADVENT technology to several complex processes that utilize refrigeration systems. In most cases the design of a complex refrigeration system in isolation (i.e., without considering process integration) generally results in non-optimum refrigeration levels and excessive refrigeration consumption. By applying ADVENT Process Integration Technologv to these non-optimal designs, retrofit projects have emerged that clearly identify how to optimize the existing design with good project economics. This paper presents the results of an ADVENT Process Integration Study for the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) of Palo Alto, California. The study objective was to demonstrate process synthesis techniques for retrofit design in two industrial refrigeration intensive processes: an olefins process and a beer brewery process. Study results for each retrofit design are explained along with generalized guidelines for application to other processes. An industry scoping portion of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help facilitate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout the industry.

Witherell, W. D.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration Flow Coil Design etc. Finger Print Relationship Every evaporator is unique Unstable Region * = examples

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

218

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on availability of additional R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information contained in this report is designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. 97% of the swell measurements have been made to date. The other 3% of the measurements are contingent on the availability of additional quantities of R-32. Swell behavior in the fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a constant adiabatic measure for all the cycle segments. We have identified a family of quantized frictionless cycles with increasing cycle times. These cycles minimize the entropy production. Such frictionless cycles are able to cool to $T_c=0$. External noise on the controls eliminates these frictionless cycles. The influence of phase and amplitude noise on the demagnetization and magnetization segments is explicitly derived. An extensive numerical study of optimal cooling cycles was carried out which showed that at sufficiently low temperature the noise always dominates restricting the minimum temperature.

Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

2009-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Novel materials for laser refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

A Successful Case Study of Small Business Energy Efficiency and Demand Response with Communicating Thermostats  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report documents a field study of 78 small commercial customers in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District service territory who volunteered for an integrated energy-efficiency/demand-response (EE-DR) program in the summer of 2008. The original objective for the pilot was to provide a better understanding of demand response issues in the small commercial sector. Early findings justified a focus on offering small businesses (1) help with the energy efficiency of their buildings in exchange for occasional load shed, and (2) a portfolio of options to meet the needs of a diverse customer sector. To meet these expressed needs, the research pilot provided on-site energy efficiency advice and offered participants several program options, including the choice of either a dynamic rate or monthly payment for air-conditioning setpoint control. Overall results show that pilot participants had energy savings of 20%, and the potential for an additional 14% to 20% load drop during a 100 F demand response event. In addition to the efficiency-related bill savings, participants on the dynamic rate saved an estimated 5% on their energy costs compared to the standard rate. About 80% of participants said that the program met or surpassed their expectations, and three-quarters said they would probably or definitely participate again without the $120 participation incentive. These results provide evidence that energy efficiency programs, dynamic rates and load control programs can be used concurrently and effectively in the small business sector, and that communicating thermostats are a reliable tool for providing air-conditioning load shed and enhancing the ability of customers on dynamic rates to respond to intermittent price events.

Herter, Karen; Wayland, Seth; Rasin, Josh

2009-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

225

EWEB - Existing Facilities Energy Efficiency Rebate Program ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lighting, Lighting ControlsSensors, Motors, Programmable Thermostats, Refrigerators, Windows, Vending Machine Controls, Commercial Cooking Equipment, Commercial Refrigeration...

226

Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Solar Power Towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, solar power tower, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Control system for heat exchangers fans in a refrigeration system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper presents a method for controlling evaporator and condenser fans in a refrigeration system. The refrigeration system includes a refrigerant circuit defined by a compressor, a condenser, a throttling device, and an evaporator. The system includes ... Keywords: controlling, fan, refrigeration system, variable frequency drive unit

Cristian Iosifescu; Valeriu Damian; C?lin Ciufudean

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial system is sized, a year long plant simulation is performed resulting in electric energy consumption profile and an exergy destruction profile for each component and for the system. The program uses actual regional hourly outside dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures for both sizing and simulation. An exergoeconomic optimization uses the results of the simulation combined with component and energy costs to optimize the condenser size such that both plant costs and energy losses are minimized.

Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

An evaluation of the bioclimatic chart for choosing design strategies for a thermostatically-controlled residence in selected climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To be successful in sustainable building design, architects must consider energy efficient design strategies in the early design stage. Unfortunately, many architects still rely on simplified analysis, synthesis techniques, and historical examples. Although, building energy simulations are becoming more common in the design of buildings, architects rarely use simulation in the early design stage. The "Bioclimatic" charts have been used in the early design stage to define potential building design strategies to achieve indoor thermal comfort. Currently, many architects use the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic design chart (Milne and Givoni, 1979), which was developed based on principle reasoning and heuristics. There have been many attempts to develop computerized programs to further the bioclimatic analysis; however, there have been very limited efforts to test and evaluate the design strategies of the chart using simulations of a thermostatically-controlled building. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to promote comfortable buildings that reduce energy use through appropriate building design strategies. The objectives of the research are to develop a more accurate bioclimatic chart for a thermostaticallycontrolled residence by testing and evaluating the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart. The analysis is performed with DOE-2.1e program (Winkelmann, 1993) and TMY2 weather data (Marion and Urban, 1995) for several climates. To achieve these objectives, four main tasks were accomplished: 1) investigate the Givoni-Milne Bioclimatic Chart using representative weather data from several climates, 2) analyze and modify the design strategy boundaries using DOE-2 program and TMY2 weather data to simulate the effects of varied conditions of a thermostatically-controlled residence in different climates, 3) compare these new design strategy boundaries to the original Givoni-Milne design strategy boundaries, and 4) develop general guidelines for the new bioclimatic chart. In summary, there were some differences in the results from the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart and the DOE-2 simulation results. These results imply that without further modification, the G-M Chart may have only a limited use for a thermostaticallycontrolled residence. Therefore, to improve the usefulness of the bioclimatic chart the new bio-climatic chart for choosing design strategies for a thermostatically-controlled residence in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, was developed. This new bioclimatic chart for a thermostatically-controlled residence will be a useful tool for architects and engineers in the early design stage. Similar versions of the new bioclimatic for other climates could then be developed.

Visitsak, Sopa

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

An Evaluation of the Bioclimatic Chart for Choosing Design Strategies for a Thermostatically-controlled Residence in Selected Climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To be successful in sustainable building design, architects must consider energy efficient design strategies in the early design stage. Unfortunately, many architects still rely on simplified analysis, synthesis techniques, and historical examples. Although, building energy simulations are becoming more common in the design of buildings, architects rarely use simulation in the early design stage. The Bioclimatic charts have been used in the early design stage to define potential building design strategies to achieve indoor thermal comfort. Currently, many architects use the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic design chart (Milne and Givoni, 1979), which was developed based on principle reasoning and heuristics. There have been many attempts to develop computerized programs to further the bioclimatic analysis; however, there have been very limited efforts to test and evaluate the design strategies of the chart using simulations of a thermostatically-controlled building. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to promote comfortable buildings that reduce energy use through appropriate building design strategies. The objectives of the research are to develop a more accurate bioclimatic chart for a thermostaticallycontrolled residence by testing and evaluating the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart. The analysis is performed with DOE-2.1e program (Winkelmann, 1993) and TMY2 weather data (Marion and Urban, 1995) for several climates. To achieve these objectives, four main tasks were accomplished: 1) investigate the Givoni-Milne Bioclimatic Chart using representative weather data from several climates, 2) analyze and modify the design strategy boundaries using DOE-2 program and TMY2 weather data to simulate the effects of varied conditions of a thermostatically-controlled residence in different climates, 3) compare these new design strategy boundaries to the original Givoni-Milne design strategy boundaries, and 4) develop general guidelines for the new bioclimatic chart. In summary, there were some differences in the results from the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart and the DOE-2 simulation results. These results imply that without further modification, the G-M Chart may have only a limited use for a thermostaticallycontrolled residence. Therefore, to improve the usefulness of the bioclimatic chart the new bio-climatic chart for choosing design strategies for a thermostatically-controlled residence in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, was developed. This new bioclimatic chart for a thermostatically-controlled residence will be a useful tool for architects and engineers in the early design stage. Similar versions of the new bioclimatic for other climates could then be developed.

Visitsak, Sopa

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

An evaluation of the bioclimatic chart for choosing design strategies for a thermostatically-controlled residence in selected climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To be successful in sustainable building design, architects must consider energy efficient design strategies in the early design stage. Unfortunately, many architects still rely on simplified analysis, synthesis techniques, and historical examples. Although, building energy simulations are becoming more common in the design of buildings, architects rarely use simulation in the early design stage. The Bioclimatic charts have been used in the early design stage to define potential building design strategies to achieve indoor thermal comfort. Currently, many architects use the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic design chart (Milne and Givoni, 1979), which was developed based on principle reasoning and heuristics. There have been many attempts to develop computerized programs to further the bioclimatic analysis; however, there have been very limited efforts to test and evaluate the design strategies of the chart using simulations of a thermostatically-controlled building. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to promote comfortable buildings that reduce energy use through appropriate building design strategies. The objectives of the research are to develop a more accurate bioclimatic chart for a thermostaticallycontrolled residence by testing and evaluating the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart. The analysis is performed with DOE-2.1e program (Winkelmann, 1993) and TMY2 weather data (Marion and Urban, 1995) for several climates. To achieve these objectives, four main tasks were accomplished: 1) investigate the Givoni-Milne Bioclimatic Chart using representative weather data from several climates, 2) analyze and modify the design strategy boundaries using DOE-2 program and TMY2 weather data to simulate the effects of varied conditions of a thermostatically-controlled residence in different climates, 3) compare these new design strategy boundaries to the original Givoni-Milne design strategy boundaries, and 4) develop general guidelines for the new bioclimatic chart. In summary, there were some differences in the results from the Givoni-Milne bioclimatic chart and the DOE-2 simulation results. These results imply that without further modification, the G-M Chart may have only a limited use for a thermostaticallycontrolled residence. Therefore, to improve the usefulness of the bioclimatic chart the new bio-climatic chart for choosing design strategies for a thermostatically-controlled residence in the hot-humid climate of Houston, Texas, was developed. This new bioclimatic chart for a thermostatically-controlled residence will be a useful tool for architects and engineers in the early design stage. Similar versions of the new bioclimatic for other climates could then be developed.

Visitsak, Sopa

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): American Thermostat site, South Cairo, Green County, New York (second remedial action). Final report, June 29, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The 8-acre American Thermostat (AT) site is a former thermostat assembly facility in South Cairo, Greene County, New York. From 1954 to 1985, thermostats for small appliances were assembled using machine oils, lubricants, and solvents in the process. Waste chemical sludges were disposed of directly into drains and dumped onsite for dust control. In 1983, an interim consent order was signed requiring AT to clean up the site; however, this was never implemented before plant operations ceased in 1985. A 1988 Record of Decision (ROD) provided for a permanent alternate water supply for approximately 43 affected residents. The final ROD addresses remediation of all remaining contaminated media at the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil, sediment, sludge, debris, ground water, and surface water are VOCs including PCE and TCE; other organics; and metals including arsenic, chromium, and lead.

Not Available

1990-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

235

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Incentives over $5,000 must be pre-approved Program Info Funding Source Efficiency Vermont Public Benefit Fund Expiration Date 06/30/2013 State Vermont Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Outside Air Economizers: $1,250 Evaporator Fan Motors: $20 - $100 Evaporator Fan Motor Controls: $550 Door/Frame Heater Controls: $50 per door Case Light Occupancy Controls: $40 LED Refrigerator and Freezer Case Light Fixtures: $6 - $15 per foot Energy Star Ice Machines: $50 - $75 Efficient Compressors: $200 Display Case Strip-Curtain and Continuous Covers: $6 per foot

237

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

238

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

239

Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state materialan elastic shape memory metal alloyas a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Amarnath, M. Blatt, Variable refrigerant flow: where, why,simulation in the variable refrigerant flow air-conditioningsimulation of the variable refrigerant flow air conditioning

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

D. Brown (2004). Industrial Refrigeration Best PracticesD. Brown (2004). Industrial Refrigeration Best Practicesoutlet common in industrial refrigeration Source: Wilcox,

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration products use vapor compression technology toicemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

247

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

249

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0.25 4700 Cold boxes, environmental chambers R-718 Water 212 0 N/A Steam-driven absorption chiller 4750 Older centrifugal chillers (>200 tons) R-12 CFC -20 1 10900 Old refrigerators and vehicle A/C R-13/C mach. R-123 HCFC 81 1.3 77 Newer centrifugal chillers (>200 tons) R-134a HFC -15 0 1430 Refrigerators

Homes, Christopher C.

251

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

252

Energy Efficient Operation of Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because of their size and complexity. This paper develops a model for simulating single-stage ammonia refrigeration systems, describes common energy saving opportunities, and uses the model to quantify those opportunities. The simulation model uses data that are typically available during site visits to ammonia refrigeration plants and can be calibrated to actual consumption and performance data if available. Annual electricity consumption for a base-case ammonia refrigeration system is simulated. The model is then used to quantify energy savings for six specific energy efficiency opportunities; reduce refrigeration load, increase suction pressure, employ dual suction, decrease minimum head pressure set-point, increase evaporative condenser capacity, and reclaim heat. Methods and considerations for achieving each saving opportunity are discussed. The model captures synergistic effects that result when more than one component or parameter is changed. This methodology represents an effective method to model and quantify common energy saving opportunities in ammonia refrigeration systems. The results indicate the range of savings that might be expected from common energy efficiency opportunities.

Mohammed, Abdul Qayyum [University of Dayton, Ohio; Wenning, Thomas J [ORNL; Sever, Franc [University of Dayton, Ohio; Kissock, Professor Kelly [University of Dayton, Ohio

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water easy. Since refrigeration equipment runs more than heat pumps, energy savings can be large for ground-coupled refrigeration. The paper presents a design procedure for ground loops for heat pumps, hot water, ice machines, and water-cooled refrigeration. It gives an overview of the commercial ground-coupled systems in Louisiana that have both refrigeration and heat pumps. Systems vary from small offices to a three-story office building with 187 tons. A chain of hamburger outlets uses total ground-coupling in all of its stores. A grocery store has ground-coupling for heat pumps and refrigeration. Desuperheaters provide 80 percent of the hot water for a coin laundry in the same building. A comparison of energy costs in a bank with a ground-coupled heat pump system to a similar bank with air-conditioning and gas for heat revealed a 31 percent reduction in utility costs for the ground-coupled building. Two buildings of the Mississippi Power and Light Co. have ground-coupled heat pumps in one, and high efficiency air source heat pumps in the other. Energy savings in nine months was 60,000 kWh (25 percent), and electric peak demand was reduced 42 kW (35 percent).

Braud, H. J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. As concerns about climate change intensify, it is becoming increasingly clear that suitable low-GWP refrigerants will be needed for both new and existing residential and commercial heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. Project Description This project seeks to develop alternative refrigerants for HVAC&R equipment. The overall environmental impacts of alternative refrigerants will be assessed using a life cycle climate performance model that accounts for direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and indirect

256

Well simulation using Refrigerant 114  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simple method for the investigation of thermodynamic (substance) similarity in the two-phase domain is introduced based on the assumptions of a simplified model fluid. According to this method, the investigation of the conditions for thermodynamic similarity between substances in the two-phase region reveals the important role the latent heat of evaporation (h/sub fg/) plays in the definition of the property scales. These greatly influence the dynamic and geometric similarity of the process under investigation. The introduction of the thermodynamic similarity property scales into the energy conservation equations for a certain process (e.g., flow up a geothermal well) brings forth a thermodynamic length scale and kinetic energy scale. Refrigerant 114 has been examined for similarity with water substance according to this method and found to be adequate for geothermal well simulation in the laboratory. Low pressures and temperatures and a substantial reduction of mass flow rates and geometric scales are a few of the advantages of using R114 for such experiments.

Nikitopoulos, D.E.; Dickinson, D.A.; DiPippo, R.; Maeder, P.F.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator September 1, 2010 - 4:37pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a complaint. DOE subpoenaed information from Arcelik, reviewed Arcelik's response, and performed its own testing of this model. Based on our investigation and test results, DOE has determined this model to be compliant with federal energy conservation standards. Notice of Compliance Determination Addthis Related Articles DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

258

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies. Project Description The project involves the development of a supermarket refrigeration system that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption when compared to existing systems. The challenge is to design a system that is capable of achieving low refrigerant leak rates while significantly reducing both the energy consumption and the refrigerant charge size. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project Goals

259

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system. The refrigeration system design involves sizing ofDesign Essentials for Refrigerated Storage Facilities, American Society for Heating Refrigeration anddesign considerations are mostly related to wall and roof types, shell insulation, and the refrigeration

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well-developed, applicable and competitive technology. Three eco-friendly refrigeration systems are increasingly getting attention, especially in a day with increasingly energy and environmental crises. In summary, thermoelectric refrigeration possesses the following superiorities: a longer developmental period, more perfect techniques, increasing applications, a larger range of refrigerating capacity, and a better economic property in small refrigerating capacity. Thermoelectric refrigeration cannot be replaced in special fields, and its applications have received more and more attention in recovering waste heat. Magnetic refrigeration has been widely applied in lower temperature regions; its application in middle temperature regions is juvenile. In particular, there is no application of this technique in high temperature regions. Adsorption refrigeration is practical only in near room temperatures. Its advantage is that it can be used in some fields where conventional refrigeration cannot be applied, such as in the application of solar energy, geothermal energy, and other renewable energy, and the recovery of residual and waste heat.? Supported by the Young Foundation of Central South University of Forestry & Technology (06002A) The disadvantages are as follows: the cost is expensive, no practical technique is available at present, and thus, it possesses no general superiority versus other refrigeration technologies.

Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

Starke, M.R.

2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

262

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Surveys Speaker(s): Essel Ben Hagan Date: July 12, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Van Buskirk Galen Barbose As part of activities to develop refrigerator efficiency standards regulations in Ghana, a national survey on the energy consumption of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers has been conducted. The survey covered 1000 households in urban, peri-urban and rural communities in various parts of the country. The survey found that, on average, refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers in Ghana use almost three times what is allowed by minimum efficiency standards in the U.S., and a few refrigerators had energy use at levels almost ten times the U.S.

263

Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerator Recycling Program Refrigerator Recycling Program Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Limit one rebate per account per year Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator and Freezer Recycling: $35 Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator. The old refrigerator should be brought outside but remain plugged in so the utility can make it is in working condition. the utility will then take the refrigerator to a recycling facility and issue a $35 bill credit. Other Information

264

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions March 5, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator technology has come a long way since Dr. John Gorrie (1803 - 1855), a forward-looking inventor, was granted U. S. Patent #8080 for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. In those days, ice was expensive, if it was even available: Blocks of natural ice were carved from frozen lakes and rivers and stored in special warehouses under layers of sawdust for insulation. By the 1890s, pollution and sewage dumping caused by population growth compromised sources of pure, natural ice, threatening the brewing, meat-packing, and dairy industries. As these and other industries sought better solutions, modern refrigeration technology started to evolve.

265

DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved thecivil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

266

VEE-0079 - In the Matter of Diversified Refrigeration, Inc.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Diversified Refrigeration, Inc. (DRI) requests a six-month exception from the 2001 energy appliance efficiency standards for built-in refrigerators that become effective July 1, 2001. As explained...

267

Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our EMI problem, it is becoming very urgent to design and fabricate the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC

Wang, Wei Hua

268

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature-stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, C.M.

1981-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

269

Proposed Methodology for LEED Baseline Refrigeration Modeling (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This PowerPoint presentation summarizes a proposed methodology for LEED baseline refrigeration modeling. The presentation discusses why refrigeration modeling is important, the inputs of energy models, resources, reference building model cases, baseline model highlights, example savings calculations and results.

Deru, M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

International Refrigeration Products International Refrigeration Products (room air conditioners) ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 NOTICE OF PROPOSED CIVIL PENALTY Date issued: July 9, 2012 Number of alleged violations: 5475 (365 days, 15 models) Maximum possible assessment: $1,095,000 Proposed civil penalty: $109,500 The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") Office of the General Counsel, Office of Enforcement, alleges that International Refrigeration Products ("IRP") has violated cettain provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. § 6291 et seq. ("the Act"), and 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. Specifically, DOE alleges: 1. IRP has manufactured 1 a variety of Sea Breeze brand room air conditioners, including basic models WA46YR, WA48YRX, WA410YRX, WA412YRX, WH418ZRX,

271

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from The White House Blog. For those interested in the President's remarks to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and his views on the shared responsibilities of government and business to the American people, our post earlier will give a suitable overview. For those interested in the details of the President's Executive Order on reviewing regulations and their impacts on the economy, Cass Sunstein's post this morning will also be of value. But the President also took a moment during his speech to put the debate over regulation in a different perspective, and to break through the false dichotomy so often

272

Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have generally been overlooked by the process industry. This paper will address the application of the lithium bromide-water cycle in various energy saving modes. A waste heat powered absorption chiller producing chilled water can reduce energy consumption in a process plant by replacing an existing mechanical refrigeration system or replacing cooling tower water with a lower temperature cooling medium at negligible increase in energy cost. A variety of waste heat sources can be used at temperatures as low as 150 F.

Davis, R. C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies.

274

Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

Calm, James M.

2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

275

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR-  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR- , AND FREEZERS - 1. INTRODUCTION AND NEED FOR PROPOSED ACTION ental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation stand licy Act. of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmentd Qu refrigerators, re€iigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National ' ederal Regulations, Parts 1500 through. 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy- efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Consehation Act

276

Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Retrofitting Doors on Open Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases William Goetzler Navigant Consulting, Inc. wgoetzler@navigant.com (781) 270-8351 April 4, 2013 BBA Refrigeration Project Team Images courtesy of REMIS AMERICA, LLC. 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Technology Overview Image from Investigation of Energy- Efficient Supermarket Display Cases. 2004, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Background and Motivation * Adding doors to open cases (retrofits) greatly reduces cold air loss - 50-80% load reduction - Load reduction = system energy savings

277

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants on climate change drive the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants conference between ASHRAE and NIST. Supporting Organizations: NOTE: Registration closes Oct. 18 and includes conference proceedings, daily lunch and dinner Monday evening. ASHRAE Members: $425 Non

Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

279

Refrigeration needs for sustainable preservation of horticultural products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fresh horticultural products are highly perishable and need refrigeration for further preservation. Refrigeration needs energy consumption with consequent economical cost and damage for the environment. The objective of the present work was to use efficiently ... Keywords: energy efficiency, food salads, halophytes, postharvest technologies, refrigeration, safe food, sustainability

Custdia Gago; Ana Rita Sousa; Miriam Julio; Graa Miguel; Dulce Antunes; Thomas Panagopoulos

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH -PART 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(Fishery Leaflet 427) Cold-Storage Design and Refrigeration Equipment Part 3 (Fisher y Leaflet 429) FactorsHANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 2 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH 428 Washington 25, D, C. December 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART TWO HANDLING FRESH FISH By Charles

283

Carbon Dioxide and Ionic Liquid Refrigerants: Compact, Efficient Air Conditioning with Ionic Liquid-Based Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Notre Dame is developing an air-conditioning system with a new ionic liquid and CO2 as the working fluid. Synthetic refrigerants used in air conditioning and refrigeration systems are potent GHGs and can trap 1,000 times more heat in the atmosphere than CO2 alonemaking CO2 an attractive alternative for synthetic refrigerants in cooling systems. However, operating cooling systems with pure CO2 requires prohibitively high pressures and expensive hardware. Notre Dame is creating a new fluid made of CO2 and ionic liquid that enables the use of CO2 at low pressures and requires minimal changes to existing hardware and production lines. This new fluid also produces no harmful emissions and can improve the efficiency of air conditioning systems enabling new use of CO2 as a refrigerant in cooling systems.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

285

The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

2010-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

286

Refrigeration in a world without CFCs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In an era of heightened awareness of energy efficiency and the associated environmental impacts, many industries, worldwide, are exploring ``environmentally friendly`` technologies that provide equivalent or improved performance while reducing or eliminating harmful side effects. The refrigeration and air conditioning industry, due to its reliance on CFCs and HCFCs has invested in research in alternatives to the industry standard vapor compression machines. One alternative technology with great promise is chemical absorption. Absorption chillers offer comparable refrigeration output with reduced SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and NO{sub x} emissions. Additionally, absorption chillers do not use CFCs or HCFCs, refrigerants that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. The purpose of this paper is to provide an introduction for those new to absorption technology as well as a discussion of selected high efficiency cycles and environmental impacts for those familiar with absorption. The introduction will include a brief history of absorption and a description of the basic refrigeration cycle, while the advanced sections will discuss triple-effect technology and a life-cycle or ``systems`` approach to evaluating global warming impacts.

Garland, R.W. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington D.C. (United States); Adcock, P.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

On the performance of ejector refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design characteristics of an ejector refrigeration system using R134a with fixed cooling capacity and fixed inlet temperatures of the external fluids at the inlet of the generator, the condenser and the evaporator are presented for different pressures ... Keywords: COP, R-134a, computer simulation, finite size thermodynamics

Abdelouahid Dahmani; Zine Aidoun; Nicolas Galanis

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) | Department  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) July 9, 2012 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) More Documents & Publications

290

Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model  

SciTech Connect

Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Global Warming Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy

292

Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Preliminary selection of refrigerants for dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers  

SciTech Connect

The paper discusses the preliminary selection of refrigerants for dual-circuit and Lorenz refrigerator/freezers (RFs). Since RFs currently use a fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) as a refrigerant and are the most energy-consuming appliances in most households in the U.S., EPA is concerned about not only RFs' effects on stratospheric ozone depletion but also their impact on the greenhouse effect. Reductions in power consumption will slow the increase in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations in the atmosphere by reducing the utility companies' need for capacity. CO{sub 2} concentrations are believed to be directly related to impacts of the greenhouse effect. For these reasons, EPA believes that finding the most energy-efficient refrigerant(s) and RF design is important when eliminating fully halogenated CFCs. Two new configurations (the dual-circuit and Lorenz RFs) appear to provide energy savings of up to 20% over standard U.S. RF designs.

Bare, J.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ameren Missouri (Gas) - Business Energy Efficiency Program (Missouri...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Insulation, CaulkingWeather-stripping, DuctAir sealing, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system upgrades, Windows, Food Service Equipment Active Incentive Yes Implementing...

295

Berkshire Gas - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DuctAir sealing, Equipment Insulation, Furnaces, Lighting, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Windows Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector...

296

ConEd (Gas) - Residential Energy Efficiency Incentives Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Eligible Technologies Boilers, DuctAir sealing, Furnaces, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system upgrades, Water Heaters, Boiler Reset Control, ECM Furnace Fan Motor Active...

297

Avista Utilities - Commercial Energy Efficiency Incentives Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Central Air conditioners, Steam-system upgrades, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Motors, Agricultural Equipment, Comprehensive...

298

Focus on Energy - Farm Multi-Project Bonus (WPS Customers Only...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Motor VFDs, Processing and Manufacturing...

299

Connecticut Natural Gas - Custom Commercial Energy Efficiency...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Building Insulation, Windows, Doors, Motors, Motor...

300

Citizens Gas - Commercial Efficiency Rebates (Indiana) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sector Commercial Eligible Technologies Boilers, CustomOthers pending approval, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Furnaces, Programmable Thermostats, Steam-system...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy Efficiency Rebate Program - Commercial (Virginia) | Open...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat recovery, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, DuctAir sealing, Building Insulation, Windows,...

302

Connecticut Light & Power - Operation and Maintenance Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air conditioners, Steam-system upgrades, Compressed air, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Motors, Motor VFDs, Processing and Manufacturing...

303

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 International Refrigeration Products, Respondent ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Issued: July 20, 2012 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: 1. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and International Refrigeration Products ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

304

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; Jos P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

305

SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper discusses actual design and modifications for increased system efficiency and includes reduced chilled liquid flow during part load operation, reduced condensing and increased evaporator temperatures for reduced system head, thermosiphon cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system head and pumping energy, and using high efficiency motors.

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool  

SciTech Connect

Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

309

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

310

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

311

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

312

Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost. In this paper, the author introduces different points of this kind of design with conventional design. For efficient use of the compressed heat of the refrigeration system, the designer should calculate the number of condensers according to the changes that the refrigeration system undergoes after using the soft water as cooling water. To economize the investment, the designer should use the refrigeration workshop and the soft water workshop and obtain optimum processing to shorten the duct. Through an economizing energy analysis, the paper demonstrates that an optimum design for a refrigeration system for a mucilage glue factory has a significant energy saving potential.

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Japanese Refrigerators : A Field Performance Analysis : Summary Report.  

SciTech Connect

Society generally expects Japanese refrigerators to be more energy efficient than their American-made counterparts. With increasing attention being focused on appliance energy efficiency, research into operating characteristics of Japanese refrigerators has gained importance. Other projects report the monitored energy use of certain models of Japanese refrigerators. In addition, laboratory tests determined energy consumption of certain refrigerators under controlled conditions. In 1987, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) undertook a project to measure and analyze the energy consumption of 12 Japanese-made refrigerators in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area. This project's purpose was to collect field data on certain models and compare with that collected in other projects and laboratory tests. Japanese energy consumption figures fall 30--40% below those of DOE. This energy savings, if real, could substantially cut baseload power for utilities. Determining typical refrigerator energy use patterns and which environmental factors effect them helps utilities to forecast demand. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Short, John A.

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronautics design uses a novel property of certain materials, called magnetocaloric materials, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

317

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

318

Energy conservation for household refrigerators and water heaters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An energy conservation arrangement for household refrigerators and water heaters, in which the source of cold water to the hot water heater is divided and part is caused to flow through and be warmed in the condenser of the refrigerator. The warmed water is then further heated in the oil cooling loop of the refrigerator compressor, and proceeds then to the top of the hot water tank.

Speicher, T. L.

1984-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

319

Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES LEGACY COLLECTION - Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us |...

320

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... may result from planned HVAC outages at night or ... recording data after the refrigerator was powered. ... the length of the power outage and the ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

322

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota) < Back...

323

The Ghana Refrigerator Efficiency Initiative - An Overview of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

refrigeration services the most expensive of energy services in residential Ghanaian households, posing serious financial burden on households. --The problem that this project...

324

Purchase of newer refrigerators slows during economic downturn ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales data from the Association of Home Appliance ... Decreasing sales of new refrigerators means slower adoption of new energy-efficient technology and less ...

325

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

It uses a bottom-up approach to estimate residential end-use consumption and evaluate the energy saving potential for refrigerators. References Retrieved from "http:...

326

Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Refrigeration...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Power Management, and Vending Machine Technologies to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: New and Underutilized Refrigeration, Computer Power Management,...

327

Sustainable design of hydrocarbon refrigerants applied to the hermetic compressor.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??International environmental concern led to the control and phase out of traditional chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants (CFCs) under the terms of the Montreal protocol. CFCs used in (more)

Garland, Nigel P.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Magnetocaloric Refrigeration Concepts: Current State of the Art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Refrigeration devices based on the magnetocaloric effect have been ... Some of the major design choices are then evaluated and, based on...

329

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an Appliance Market...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an Appliance Market Transformation Program Design for Africa Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-61251 Year of...

330

Enhancement of the Refrigerant Capacity in Partially Crystallized Gd ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Consequently, the magnetic refrigerant capacity of the partially crystallized alloys is ... Alloy Design and Powder Processing of Mn-Al Based Materials for Rare...

331

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that...

333

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and2.5,+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators inthe existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover,

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid ...  

The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigera ...

335

Verification of a level-3 diesel emissions control strategy for transport refrigeration units.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transport Refrigeration Units (TRUs) are refrigeration systems used to control the environment of temperature sensitive products while they are being transported from one place to (more)

Shewalla, Umesh.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A technology with the potential to create efficient and compact refrigeration devices is an active magnetic regenerative refrigerator (AMRR). AMRRs exploit the magnetocaloric effect displayed (more)

Tura, Armando

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Solar absorption refrigeration system using new working fluid pairs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Absorption refrigeration systems powered by solar energy increasingly attract research interests in the last years. In this study, thermodynamic analyses for different working fluid pairs are performed. A computer simulation model has been developed ... Keywords: NH3-LiNO3, absorption, crystallization, generator, performance, refrigeration, solar energy

Jasim M. Abdulateef; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; M. A. Alghoul; Mohd Yusof Sulaiman; Azami Zaharim; Ibrahim Ahmad

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Performance monitoring strategies for effective running of commercial refrigeration systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Refrigeration systems often represent the largest electricity consumers in the supermarkets. Therefore there is a clear need for running these systems effectively. Performance monitoring uses different techniques to determine the actual system state. ... Keywords: COP, FDD, energy monitoring, performance measure, refrigeration

Martin Hrn?r; Petr Stluka

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Energy efficiency strategies in refrigeration systems of large supermarkets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Energy efficiency and its relationship with sustainable development are one of the most important objectives in modern engineering systems. In Industrial Installations that use refrigeration systems that are associated with the food industry, this optimization ... Keywords: energy efficiency, optimizing parameters, refrigeration systems, supermarkets

J. M. Garcia; L. M. R. Coelho

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Description and validation of a computer based refrigeration system simulator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes and evaluates the validation of a novel software package which simulates the transient and steady-state operation of whole refrigeration systems of the type used for the storage and processing of food. This software allows practitioners ... Keywords: Computer simulation, Food processing, Modelling, Refrigeration

I. W. Eames; T. Brown; J. A. Evans; G. G. Maidment

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration control. The goal of this project is twofold: to design an efficient and economically feasibleEmbedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri intelligent industrial controller on one hand and to test and further develop a smart device design approach

Reznik, Leon

345

REFRIGERATION OF FISH PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFRIGERATION OF FISH· PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS UNITED STATES in a series of five on "Refrigeration of Fish." Titles of the other four leaflets are: Part 1 (Fishery Leaflet 427) -- Cold-Storage Design and Refrigera- tion Equipnent Part 2 (Fishery Leaflet 428) -- Handling

346

New concepts for refrigerant leak detection and mixture measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the discovery that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) destroy the ozone layer, the need to reduce the release of these refrigerants into the environment has become critical. A total ban of ozone-depleting CFCs is expected within a few years, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and fluorocarbons (FCs) and their mixtures are expected to be used during a transition period. Several HFC and FC refrigerants are currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently being considered as CFC substitutes. The electronic refrigerant leak detectors currently on the market were developed to detect CFCs and are not as sensitive to HFCs. Although incremental improvement can be made to these devices to detect HFCs, they often lead to increased false signals. Also, there is no simple device available to measure the composition of a refrigerant mixture. The authors present two new concepts to aid in the development of two portable instruments that can be used for HFC leak detection and for quantitative measurement of refrigerant mixture compositions. The development of simple, easy-to-use portable leak detectors and refrigerant mixture meters is essential to the wide use of alternative refrigerants in industry.

Chen, F.C.; Allman, S.L.; Chen, C.H.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

347

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) February 21, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

349

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

350

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major priority as a way to save energy and money for American families and businesses. Since January 2009, the Department of Energy has finalized new efficiency standards for more than twenty household and commercial products, which will cumulatively save consumers between $250 billion and

351

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

352

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

353

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

354

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

355

Condensation of refrigerants on vertical fluted tubes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were run to determine heat transfer performance of single vertical fluted tubes with selected fluids condensing on the outside. Working fluids included six fluorocarbons (Refrigerants 11, 21, 22, 113, 114, and 115) and a hydrocarbon (Refrigerant 600a or isobutane). The nine test tubes were of 2.54-cm (1-in.) nominal outside diameter and 1.2 m (4 ft) in length with from 0 (smooth) to 60 axial flutes. Condensing heat transfer coefficients ranged from 620 to 7900 W/m/sup 2/ . K (110 to 1400 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/ . /sup 0/F) over the heat flux range of 2000 to 43,000 W/m/sup 2/ (920 to 13,600 Btu/hr . ft/sup 2/). All parameters are based on total condensing surface area. The data show that, for a given heat flux, a fluted tube can increase condensing coefficients up to 6.0 times smooth tube values. Further heat transfer enhancement was achieved by the use of drainage skirts on fluted tubes; these skirts effectively divided the 1.2-m (4-ft) tubes into two, four, and eight equal condensing lengths.

Combs, S.K.; Mailen, G.S.; Murphy, R.W.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Advanced Manufacturing Office: Steam Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Condensing Economizer PDF , January 2012 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators PDF , January 2012 Consider Installing...

357

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

A New Absorption Cycle: The Single-Effect Regenerative Absoprtion Refrigeration Cycle  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REGENERATIVE ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION CYCLE ABSTRACT A new absorption cycle , using heat as the energy

Dao, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France

Crispel, S; Caillaud, A; Delcayre, F; Grabie, V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Research of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle Heat Engines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper firstly introduces the principles of Refrigerant Phase-Change Stirling-Cycle solar power towers This heat engines use solar reservoire. When the refrigerant in an engine cylinder absorbs heat from high-temperature heat sources, refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerant phase-change cycle, heat engines, finite-time thermodynamics

Dezhong Huang; Fuer Wu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

An Ocean Dynamical Thermostat  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The role of ocean dynamics in the regulation of tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) is investigated using the Zebiak-Cane coupled occan-atmosphere model. The model is forced with a uniform heating, or cooling, varying between 40 W m?2 into ...

Amy C. Clement; Richard Seager; Mark A. Cane; Stephen E. Zebiak

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

364

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

365

Safety audit of refrigerated liquefied gas facilities  

SciTech Connect

An Exxon Research and Engineering Co. comprehensive review of engineering practices and application of safety requirements at Exxon's world-wide refrigerated liquefied hydrocarbon gas storage and handling installations, which included a field audit of about 90 tanks at 30 locations, showed that catastrophic tank failure was not a credible event with properly operated and maintained tanks designed, constructed, and tested in accordance with API Standard 620, Design and Construction of Large Welded Low-Pressure Storage Tanks, although supplemental requirements were suggested to further enhance safety. The review also showed that any meaningful safety audit should be comprehensive and must include all facilities with careful attention to detail. The review embraces products of -1 to -167C and included LNG, ethylene, LPG, and LPG olefins. Recent and proposed LNG safety legislation; some field audit results; and recommendations as to design, construction, and operation of LNG and LPG storage facilities, marine terminals, and tankers, are also discussed.

Feely, F.J.; Sommer, E.C.; Marshall, B.T.; Palmer, A.J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Spray generators for absorption refrigeration systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A spray generator for an absorption refrigeration system that includes a heat exchanger comprised of a multiplicity of variably spaced heat exchange tubes. The tubes are spaced close together near the top of the heat exchanger and spaced more widely apart near the bottom of the heat exchanger. Dilute absorbent solution is sprayed down through the heat exchanger. The close nesting of the tubes in the top portion of the heat exchanger retards liquid flow and aids heating of the solution. The wide spacing of the tubes in the lower section of the heat exchanger facilitate vapor flow out of the heat exchanger and eliminates liquid "blow-off". The top tubes are covered by a baffle to prevent the liquid solution from splashing out of the heat exchanger off of these top tubes.

Sibley, Howard W. (Baldwinsville, NY)

1979-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

367

Designing Environmentally Safe Refrigerants Using Mathematical Programming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Computer aided molecular design is a strategy in which a set of structural groups are systematically combined to form molecules with desired properties. In this paper, a mathematical programming based approach to computer aided molecular design is presented. Using a set of structural groups, the problem is formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear program in which discrete variables represent the number of each type of structural groups present in the candidate compound. The augmentedpenalty /outer-approximation algorithm is used to solve the MINLP to obtain compound(s) with an optimum value of an appropriate performance index such that molecular structural constraints, physical property constraints and process design limitations are met. With the current renewed interest in the environment, the suggested approach is applied to refrigerant design with an environmental constraint. The results indicate the viability of this approach. INTRODUCTION The chemical industry is constantly explo...

Amit P. Duvedi; Luke E. K. Achenie; Copyright Amit Duvedi; Luke Achenie

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A microcomputer program entitled REFRIG has been developed to determine the thermodynamic properties of common refrigerants and to analyze vapor-compression refrigeration cycles. This paper describes the theoretical basis for property determination and for the cycle analysis. Validation of property calculations is discussed. A number of features are described which have been incorporated into the program to enhance its usefulness to the engineer in analyzing system performance. Two example cases are presented to illustrate the application of the program to problems in design and operation of refrigeration systems.

Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

Mei, V.

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

370

AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Programmable Thermostats, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Geothermal Heat Pumps, LED Lighting Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy...

371

Business Energy Efficiency Rebate (Offered by 11 Utilities) ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Programmable Thermostats, Water Heaters, LED Exit Signs, Commercial Cooking Equipment, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment, Food...

372

Flint Energies - Residential Energy Efficiency Loan Program ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Programmable Thermostats, Refrigerators, Roofs, Siding, Water Heaters, Windows Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy Efficiency...

373

Austin Utilities (Gas and Electric) - Residential Conserve and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Lighting, Programmable Thermostats, Refrigerators, Water Heaters, Windows, Geothermal Heat Pumps, LED Lighting, Drain Water Heat Recovery, Tankless Water...

374

DTE Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lighting ControlsSensors, Motor VFDs, Programmable Thermostats, Refrigerators, Windows Active Incentive Yes Implementing Sector Utility Energy Category Energy Efficiency...

375

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Electric) - Residential...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Lighting, Programmable Thermostats, Refrigerators, Water Heaters, Windows, Room Air Conditioners, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Appliance Recycling, Home Energy...

376

A Sensor for Laser Ultrasonic Measurement of Elastic Properties of Moving Paper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration device (Vortex tube by Exair, Inc), thermostat and thermocouple are used to regulate the sensor temperature in industrial

Ridgway, P.; Russo, R.; Lafond, E.; Jackson, T.; Zhang, X.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Refrigeration Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 4.24846345193 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 24.6944086225 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 1.29913989581 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 7.46645043826 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

378

DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter November 14, 2008 - 4:47pm Addthis ENERGY STAR® Program Continues to Help American Consumers Make Energy Efficient Choices WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced an agreement with LG Electronics, USA, Inc. (LG), resolving concerns related to energy usage measurements reported on LG French Door refrigerators with through-the-door ice and water service. The ENERGY STAR® program helps American consumers make energy efficient choices, saving billions of dollars while protecting the environment by using identified energy efficient products and practices. "DOE believes that the actions LG plans to take will benefit consumers and

379

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of Freon refrigerants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of Freon refrigerants. The following refrigerants can be analyzed F-11, F-12, F-13, F-14, F-21, F-22, F-23, F-113, and F-114. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for these refrigerants given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and entropy, pressure and enthalpy, temperature and quality, temperature and specific volume, and temperature and pressure. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a refrigerant as the working fluid. The Downing form of the Martin equation of state was used. This report contains a brief description, flow chart and listing of all subroutines required.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.

1977-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Computer program for determining the thermodynamic properties of freon refrigerants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program was written to be used as a subroutine. The program determines the thermodynamics of Freon refrigerants. The following refrigerants can be analyzed F-11, F-12, F-13, F-14, F-21, F-22, F-23, F-113, and F-114. The subroutine can evaluate a thermodynamic state for these refrigerants given any of the following pairs of state quantities: pressure and quality, pressure and entropy, pressure and enthalpy, temperature and quality, temperature and specific volume and temperature and pressure. These six pairs of knowns allow the user to analyze any thermodynamic cycle utilizing a refrigerant as the working fluid. The Downing form of the Martin equation of state was used. A brief description, flow chart, and listing of all subroutines required are presented.

Riemer, D.H.; Jacobs, H.R.; Boehm, R.F.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Improved Algorithm and Simulation of the Provision Refrigerating Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamic model of reciprocating provision cooling plant is presented, and the algorithm of the model is amended, through the method of quoting an unknown variable, which is enthalpy of the refrigerant at the compressor outlet. Dynamic simulation of ...

HE Zhi-bin; ZHANG Jun-dong; SUN Yu-qing; ZENG Hong; GAN Hui-bing

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm Addthis DOE-initiated testing has revealed that a Samsung refrigerator (model RF26VAB), which the company had claimed was Energy Star compliant, consumed more energy than permitted by the Energy Star program. Test results for the Samsung model at issue show that, when tested in accordance with DOE's test procedure, it consumed between 7 and 11.4 percent more energy than the Energy Star requirement. Samsung is no longer manufacturing this model, although it may still be available from some retail outlets. Based on this testing, DOE is referring Samsung Model RF26VAB to the U.S.

383

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Residential Refrigerators Residential Refrigerators Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators October 7, 2013 - 11:19am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

384

Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/pdf/tr_re-freez_Jul.2006.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/product-standards-refrigerators-japan Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Industry Codes & Standards Regulations: Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling This Energy Conservation Center Japan (ECCJ) document was created as a guide in response to its newly established set of standards and labelling

385

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Refrigerators Refrigerators Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators October 7, 2013 - 11:19am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

386

Energy Department Announces More Stringent Criteria for ENERGY STAR Refrigerators  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced increased energy efficient criteria for refrigerators carrying the ENERGY STAR label. In order to qualify, full-size...

387

Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

388

Detailed CFD modelling of open refrigerated display cabinets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A comprehensive and detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) modelling of air flow and heat transfer in an open refrigerated display cabinet (ORDC) is performed in this study. The physical-mathematical model considers the flow through the internal ...

Pedro Dinis Gaspar; L. C. Carrilho Gonalves; R. A. Pitarma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Surveys Speaker(s): Essel Ben Hagan Date: July 12, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of...

390

Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Advanced refrigeration system for the Brookhaven superconducting cable project  

SciTech Connect

A description is given of a basic supercritical refrigerator. The present status of the cable enclosure and the types of cooling schemes being considered are presented with some examples of laboratory results and computer analysis. (MOW)

Jensen, J.E.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect

A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

393

Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power outage or some other reason, undesirable odors can result. This publication explains how to eliminate odors from these appliances.

FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

395

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

397

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report  

SciTech Connect

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hybrid refrigeration/sorption solar-cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The hybrid refrigeration/sorption concept is a technically feasible approach to solar cooling which has not yet been systematically evaluated. Various system configurations are possible, each with advantages and disadvantages relative to the others, and with respect to solar cooling systems based on the individual absorption, Rankine, and desiccant technologies. Conventional cooling and dehumidification, sorption dehumidification, and the effects on the refrigeration unit of adding a dehumidifier are discussed.

Curran, H.M.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Transport Refrigeration Equipment: Analysis of Emissions and Economics of Electrification  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Most refrigerated trucks, trailers, and ocean containers used to transport, deliver, and store fresh and frozen foods utilize an auxiliary diesel engine (10 to 34 hp) to operate on-board refrigeration systems. These engines are vital for product temperature control while the vehicle is on the road, but also idle while the truck is parked at a facility, pre-cooling, loading, unloading, or waiting to be dispatched. As a result, large distribution centers can experience high concentrations of pollutants and...

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

400

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with engineering plastics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

All seven oil immersion studies are complete at both temperatures. Nine out of ten refrigerant ambient immersion studies are complete including 60C (140F) for R-123. All 22 plastic test materials have been molded into test bars. All test bars have been quality controlled for physical consistency and integrity. All 22 test chambers are functional. Creep loads have been increased to 25% of ultimate tensile. Refrigerant has solubilities of Emery 2927 with R-22 and 134a are complete.

Cavestri, R.C.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Consumers Energy (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Program...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heat pumps, Lighting, Motor VFDs, Programmable Thermostats, Refrigerators, Geothermal Heat Pumps, Pipe Wrap, Refrigerator Recycling, Mobile Home Belly Insulation in Low Income...

402

Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Polarized target with dilution refrigerator: why and how  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Polarized targets using dilution refrigerators have several advantages over targets of He/sup 3/ cryostats for some polarization experiments. One of the advantages is in the long nuclear spin lattice relaxation time in quite low temperatures. It permits holding the target polarization in a magnetic field different from the polarizing field. Another merit is in the fact that one can obtain higher polarization in a dilution refrigerator than in a He/sup 3/ cryostat, especially in the case of deuterons. These facts suggest various applications of the target with a dilution refrigerator, such as a spin-frozen target for spin-rotation parameter measurements, a target for spin effects in inelastic scattering, high polarized deuteron target, and so on. Furthermore, one can hopefully make a highly polarized HD target with further improvements of the dilution refrigerator. The possibility of the solid hydrogen polarization is also discussed. Finally, the principle of the dilution refrigerator and the special features of the refrigerator for the polarized target are briefly described. 7 figures.

Masaike, A.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect

The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

Mark J. Bergander

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

405

Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

An Advanced Solar-Powered Rotary Solid Adsorption Refrigerator with High Performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, according to practical consideration, a new solar powered rotary solid adsorption refrigerator system adopting activated carbon fibre + ethanol as its adsorption pair has been designed with higher performance. Moreover, the principle of the refrigeration cycle, different components of the machine, selection of working pairs and feasible theory analysis of the refrigeration system all have been presented in detail. In addition, it shows that the new refrigerator has many great advantages including a simple structure, fast refrigeration, higher thermodynamic coefficient, friendly to the atmospheric environment, etc. This paper explains that the refrigerating process is constant, which has a promising potential for competing the 'intermittent' cycle reported before. Through improving the refrigerant performance of heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent bed, the refrigeration cycle has been advanced from the aspect of utilization of the thermal energy from low-temperature level resources. In addition, it is shown that the commercial solar powered refrigerator will be existent in the near future.

Zheng, A.; Gu, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Title Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Publication Type Conference Paper LBNL Report Number LBNL-4837E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Goli, Sasank, Aimee T. McKane, and Daniel Olsen Conference Name 2011 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Industry Date Published 08/2011 Conference Location Niagara Falls, NY Keywords market sectors, openadr, refrigerated warehouses Abstract Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

408

Predictions of thermal comfort and pollutant distributions for a thermostatically-controlled, air-conditioned, partitioned room: Numerical results and enhanced graphical presentation  

SciTech Connect

An index of local thermal comfort and pollutant distributions have been computed with the TEMPEST computer code, in a transient simulation of an air-conditioned enclosure with an incomplete partition. This complex three-dimensional air conditioning problem included forced ventilation through inlet veins, flow through a partition, remote return air vents, and infiltration source, a pollutant source, and a thermostatically controlled air conditioning system. Five forced ventilation schemes that varied in vent areas and face velocities were simulated. Thermal comfort was modeled as a three-dimensional scalar field dependent on the fluid velocity and temperature fields; where humidity activity levels, and clothing were considered constants. Pollutants transport was incorporated through an additional constituent diffusion equation. Six distinct graphic techniques for the visualization of the three-dimensional data fields of air velocity, temperature, and comfort index were tested. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

White, M.D.; Eyler, L.L.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

L&E: Refrigerated Display Case | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lighting & Electrical » Adopt the Lighting & Electrical » Adopt the refrigerated display case lighting performance specification and start saving on your case lighting costs Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Adopt the refrigerated display case lighting performance specification and start saving on your case lighting costs The LED Refrigerated Display Case Lighting Specification delivers nearly 50% energy savings compared to typical display case lighting. If all retail refrigerated display cases switched today to LED systems, over 2.1 TWh of electricity could be saved annually. LED Refrigerated Display Case Lighting Specification

410

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

The Cost of Helium Refrigerators and Coolers for Superconducting Devices as a Function of Cooling at 4 K  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as a function of design refrigeration at 4.5 K. The costsk$) versus the Design Refrigeration at 4.2 K (W) THECoolers versus the Design Refrigeration at 4.2 K. (The open

Green, Michael A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Counter-Top Thermoacoustic Refrigerator- An Experimental Investigation  

SciTech Connect

Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a new alternative refrigeration technology. Though design and fabrication is complex for getting the desired effect, it is environmentally friendly and successful system showed that it is relatively easy to run compared to the traditional vapor compression refrigeration system. Currently, theories supporting the thermoacoustic refrigeration systems are yet to be comprehensive to make them commercially viable. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies are being done to address the thermodynamics-acoustics interactions. In this study, experimental investigations were completed to test the feasibility of the practical use of a thermoacoustic refrigerator in its counter-top form for future specific application. The system was designed and fabricated based on linear acoustic theory. Acoustic power was given by a loud speaker and thermoacoustic effects were measured in terms of the cooling effects produced at resonanance. Investigations showed that discrepancies between designed and working resonance frequency exist. Thermoacoutic cooling improved at a certain frequency, achieved when the working frequency was varied away from the design frequency. A cooling effect of 4.8 K below the ambient temperature of 23.3 deg. C was obtained from the counter-top thermoacoustic system. This system uses no refrigerants and no compressor to generate the cooling effect, a potential to be further investigated for a practical system.

Anwar, Mahmood; Ghazali, Normah Mohd [Department of Thermo-Fluids, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Skudai 81310, Johor (Malaysia)

2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam single-effect absorption refrigeration, flue gas absorption refrigeration and hot water absorption refrigeration, etc. As a universal criterion, the COP coefficient cannot reflect the difference in availability of driving energy for different chillers. Exergy efficiency of optional chillers in CCHP system was analyzed and compared, which can be regarded as an important reference criterion in comparison of energy efficiency. Furthermore, a new index, relative electricity saving ratio, was put forward for evaluating end energy efficiency of all kinds of chillers in a CCHP system, which indicates actual energy or electricity saving ratio for different absorption chillers with various parameters in contrast to the reference electricity-driven refrigeration scheme.

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

The Performance Analysis of a Quantum Brayton Refrigeration Cycle with an Ideal Bose Gas  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Brayton refrigeration cycle using an ideal Bose gas as the working substance is simply referred to as a quantum Brayton refrigeration cycle, which consists of two constant-pressure and two adiabatic processes. The influence of quantum degeneracy on ...

Bihong Lin; Jincan Chen

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator November 9, 2010 - 7:30pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Viking Range Corporation's refrigerator-freezer model VCSB542. The Department initiated this investigation in response to allegations that the model failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. After reviewing data provided by Viking for this model, the Department issued a testing demand on June 16, 2010 and initially tested four units, one of which was defective and replaced by a fifth unit. The test results showed that two Viking units failed the federal energy standard for maximum energy use, while two passed. Because of the wide variation in the

418

DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

into Energy Efficiency of Viking into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation into Energy Efficiency of Viking Refrigerator November 9, 2010 - 7:30pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Viking Range Corporation's refrigerator-freezer model VCSB542. The Department initiated this investigation in response to allegations that the model failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. After reviewing data provided by Viking for this model, the Department issued a testing demand on June 16, 2010 and initially tested four units, one of which was defective and replaced by a fifth unit. The test results showed that two Viking units failed the federal energy standard for maximum energy use, while two passed. Because of the wide variation in the

419

South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country South Africa Southern Africa

420

India Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

India Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing India Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name India-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country India Southern Asia References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1]

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country Mexico Central America References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1]

422

Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country India, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand Southern Asia, Central America, Southern Africa, South-Eastern Asia

423

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus Area: Energy Efficiency Topics: Potentials & Scenarios Website: www.scribd.com/doc/34712276/Energy-efficiency-standards-for-refrigerat Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/energy-efficiency-standards-refrigera Language: English Policies: Regulations Regulations: "Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling,Emissions Standards" is not in the list of possible values (Agriculture Efficiency Requirements, Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling, Audit Requirements, Building Certification, Building Codes, Cost Recovery/Allocation, Emissions Mitigation Scheme, Emissions Standards, Enabling Legislation, Energy Standards, Feebates, Feed-in Tariffs, Fuel Efficiency Standards, Incandescent Phase-Out, Mandates/Targets, Net Metering & Interconnection, Resource Integration Planning, Safety Standards, Upgrade Requirements, Utility/Electricity Service Costs) for this property.

424

Quantum spins mimic refrigerator magnets - Argonne National Laboratories,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Highlights > Quantum spins mimic refrigerator Highlights > Quantum spins mimic refrigerator magnets Quantum spins mimic refrigerator magnets By Joseph Bernstein * October 11, 2012 The behavior of magnetic moments in metal oxides such as layered iridium is dominated by strong spin-orbit coupling effects. In layered compounds such as Sr3Ir2O7 (shown on the left), the direction of these moments (blue arrows) is controlled at the quantum level by dipolar interactions that are akin to those of classical bar magnets. Another outcome is an unprecedented 'magnon gap' (shown at right), which was measured at the Argonne Advanced Photon Source and reveals that these underlying dipolar magnetic interactions are extremely strong. Current electronic devices depend on manipulating charge. Alternative approaches may rely on not only charge but also the spin of electrons.

425

Thailand Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thailand Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Thailand Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Thailand-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Agency/Company /Organization Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH Sector Climate Focus Area Renewable Energy, Greenhouse Gas Topics Low emission development planning, -LEDS, -NAMA, Market analysis Website http://www.giz.de/en/ Program Start 2010 Program End 2012 Country Thailand South-Eastern Asia References Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)[1]

426

Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O' Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

DOE/EA-1643: Environmental Assessment for 10 CFR 431 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment (December 2008)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Ice-Cream Freezers; Self-Contained Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator- Freezers without Doors; and Remote Condensing Commercial Refrigerators, Commercial Freezers, and Commercial Refrigerator-Freezers December 2008 CHAPTER 16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS TABLE OF CONTENTS 16.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 16-1 16.2 AIR QUALITY ANALYSIS ............................................................................................ 16-1

428

Refrigerant Properties: Commercial Cooling Update Issue 5, Rev. 6, September 1999  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Update describes the properties of existing and proposed refrigerants. Because many of these properties are measured by techniques that are still evolving, some of the values shown may change. The data included are from the most recently published sources. Properties covered include: ozone depletion potential, global warming potential, refrigeration capacity, energy efficiency, flammability, exposure limits,and refrigerant blends. A table conveniently compares traditional refrigerants in use, new re...

1999-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

429

Novel La(Fe,Si) 13 -Based Composites for Magnetic Refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocomposite Alloy Design for High Frequency Power Conversion Applications Novel La(Fe,Si)13-Based Composites for Magnetic Refrigeration.

430

Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

431

Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

1986-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

432

Influence of External Heat Source on Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic refrigerants such as CFCs and HCFCs are harmful to the ozone and could cause greenhouse effect. Refrigerant alternatives research is very urgent. CO2 as a natural working fluid has zero ODP and its GWP=1, is receiving more and more attention ... Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Experimental Investigation, Heat Source, Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System

Liu Yingfu; Xiao Jian; Jin Guangya

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator by Armando Tura BEng Committee Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator by Armando Tura with the potential to create efficient and compact refrigeration devices is an active magnetic regenerative

Victoria, University of

434

System design and simulation of constant temperature box using semiconductor refrigeration device  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the variation law of temperature in three-dimensional space, which is cooled by the refrigeration provided by the cold side of a semiconductor. The mathematical model of the temperature field of the semiconductor refrigeration ... Keywords: constant temperature box, forced convection, mathematical modelling, numerical simulation, semiconductor refrigeration, system design

Hui Zhang; Kuang-Chao Fan; Jun Wang

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industryElectric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

436

Chapter 6: Refrigeration Process Control: A Formal Design Approach 111 66.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 6: Refrigeration Process Control: A Formal Design Approach 111 66 are summarised in Table 6.1 below. #12;Chapter 6: Refrigeration Process Control: A Formal Design Approach 112 on #12;Chapter 6: Refrigeration Process Control: A Formal Design Approach 113 the steady state gain

Skogestad, Sigurd

437

Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are needed, and the required allowances in design are made to account for this. #12;Chapter 3: RefrigerationChapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN-stage refrigeration system case study. It describes in detail the mathematical model developed, highlighting

Skogestad, Sigurd

438

Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 75 55.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 75 55. #12;Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 76 This leaves up to three from a different perspective #12;Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach

Skogestad, Sigurd

439

Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop  

SciTech Connect

Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Not Available

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method, analyzes the temperature distribution of the terrace, and supplies guidance for rebuilding refrigerators.

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator Amikam Levy and Ronnie Kosloff  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

source to replace mechanical work for driving a heat pump [1]. The first device was developed in 1850 an ab- sorption refrigerator with no moving parts [2]. This idea has been incorporated recently c J h P Tc Th Tw - - - 0 FIG. 1: The quantum trickle: A quantum heat pump des- ignated

Kosloff, Ronnie

442

COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and the assumed electrical energy cost is $0.04 per kWh.cost (the cost is given in US$ per kWh at 80.4°K) andThe cost of nitrogen refrigeration given in $ per kWh at

green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Procurement and commissioning of the CHL refrigerator at CEBAF  

SciTech Connect

The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) provides 2K refrigeration to the 338 superconducting niobium cavities in two 400 MeV linacs and one 45 MeV injector. The CHL consists of three first stage and three second stage compressors, a 4.5K cold box, a 2K cold box, liquid and gaseous helium storage, liquid nitrogen storage, and transfer lines. Figure 1 presents a block diagram of the CHL refrigerator. The system was designed to provide 4.8 kW of primary refrigeration at 2K, 12 kW of shield refrigeration at 45K for the linac cryomodules, and 10 g/s of liquid flow for the end stations. In April 1994, stable 2K operation of the previously uncommissioned cold compressors was achieved. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of circa 3.0K. These compressors operate on magnetic bearing,s and therefore eliminate the possibility of contamination due to any air leaks into the system. Operational data and commissioning experience as they relate to the warm gaseous helium compressors, turbines, instrumentation and control, and the cold compressors are presented.

Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.M.; Bevins, B.S.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.H.; Keesee, M.M.; Reid, T.R.; Wilson, J.D.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Microprocessor-based controller for a liquid hydrogen target refrigerator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A microprocessor-based cryogenic refrigerator controller developed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory provides automatic cooldown and subsequent monitoring of liquid hydrogen targets. The controller performs the initial cooldown of the cryogenic system and provides continuous monitoring of the important system parameters. An alarm is sounded to summon an operator in the event of any parameter exceeding predetermined limits.

Gjovig, A.J.; Little, J.D.; Novak, J.K.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Speed Control in Industrial Refrigeration: Theory, Application & Case Studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is often standard practice in the field of industrial refrigeration to design and operate systems with little regard toward part-load performance. This approach is understandable, whether viewed from the standpoint of the design engineer, plant manager or chief operator. As long a space temperature and production rates are maintained during peak periods, the refrigeration system is viewed as operating "correctly". The truth is, most refrigeration systems spend some, if not most operating hours at reduced capacity. Screw compressors back off slide valves, evaporator coils utilize back-pressure regulators (BPRs) or liquid solenoids, and condensers cycle fans. Unfortunately, these control methods do not provide the maximum attainable reduction in brake horsepower (BHP) as refrigeration capacity is reduced. This paper will discuss the application of variable speed drive (VSD, also called "variable frequency drive", "adjustable speed drive", "inverter", or simply "freq. drive") technology to capacity control of screw compressors, evaporator fans, and condenser fans. As shown through theory and case study, speed control of these components provides maximum flexibility, control and energy efficiency.

Wilcox, M. H.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence which has the lowest energy cost to operate at a given plant cooling load and outside air wet bulb temperature. and satisfies all the constraints associated with the refrigeration system. Selection of the optimal equipment sequence is very difficult given the complexity of the refrigeration system and the dynamic nature of the plant cooling load. As a solution a computer program was developed to generate optimal equipment sequences to operate for combinations of a wide range of plant cooling loads and outside air wet bulb temperatures. Analysis of the solution identified the need for a retrofit project to remove "vital" constraints in order to improve the refrigeration system's performance. The solution to the problem was then incorporated in the operating procedures for the Central Utility Plant.

Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan , Abi Sellen Alex S. Taylor In this poster we present the conceptual designs for several augmented fridge magnets, each illustrative of a larger number of concepts being explored and implemented. The designs have been informed through ongoing

Hunt, Galen

449

The Energy-Saving Design Practices for Direct Cooling Refrigerator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The area of evaporator on cold storage chamber was added under a constant total evaporator area. Composite and stereoscopic structure with laminated exchanger flake was used on evaporator of freezing chamber. Wing - flakes were fixed outside the refrigerant ... Keywords: refrigerantion, energy-saving, condensor, evaporator

Cai Yingling; Zhang Hua; Chen Shuai; Li Gang; Xia Peng

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

451

Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

Lowe, K.T.

2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

SciTech Connect

In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Energy and global warming impacts of next generation refrigeration and air conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect

Significant developments have occurred in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) and the application of ammonia and hydrocarbons as refrigerant working fluids since the original TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact) report in 1991. System operating and performance data on alternative refrigerants and refrigeration technologies justify and updated evaluation of these new alternative refrigerants and competing technologies in well-characterized applications. Analytical and experimental results are used to show quantitative comparisons between HFCS, HFC blends, hydrocarbons, and ammonia, used as refrigerants. An objective evaluation is presented for commercial and near commercial non-CFC refrigerants/blowing agents and alternative refrigeration technologies. This information is needed for objective and quantitative decisions on policies addressing greenhouse gas emissions from refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. The evaluation assesses the energy use and global warming impacts of refrigeration and air conditioning technologies that could be commercialized during the phase out of HCFCS. Quantitative comparison TEWI for two application areas are presented. Opportunities for significant reductions in TEWI are seen with currently known refrigerants through improved maintenance and servicing practices and improved product designs.

Sand, J.R.; Fischer, S.K.; Baxter, V.D.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Guidelines on Airflow and Refrigerant Charge Verification and Diagnostics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GUIDELINES ON AIRFLOW AND GUIDELINES ON AIRFLOW AND REFRIGERANT CHARGE VERIFICATION AND DIAGNOSTICS Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Airflow and refrigerant charge defects in existing air conditioning systems are well documented  Failure to address these problems represents a missed opportunity for home performance contractors  To ensure cost-effective solutions, a systematic approach is needed to quickly and accurately diagnose and resolve problems  Target:  Home performance contractors  HVAC contractors & technicians The Impact of Defects Non-TXV TXV 15% duct leakage 1 -18.10% 23% low airflow -4.70% 50% condenser coil blockage -5.80% 50% evaporator coil blockage 2 -4.60% -4.20% 20% overcharge -3.50% -7.90%

455

Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold  

SciTech Connect

Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

Boeder, A; Zimm, C

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

457

Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

Brant, B.; Brueske, S. [Planetec Utility Services Co., Inc., Evergreen, CO (United States); Erickson, D.; Papar, R. [Energy Concepts Co., Annapolis, MD (United States)

1998-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

459

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions July 11, 2011 - 12:33pm Addthis Today’s refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Today's refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Roland Risser Roland Risser Program Director, Building Technologies Office What does this mean for me? Today's refrigerators use only about 25 percent of the energy compared to models built in 1975. They've also increased in size by almost 20 percent, with lots of

460

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions The Proof is in the Pudding: How Refrigerator Standards Have Saved Consumers $Billions July 11, 2011 - 12:33pm Addthis Today’s refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Today's refrigerators have been designed to save energy and money without detriment to capacity, functionality, or extra features. | Image source: Building Technologies Program Roland Risser Roland Risser Program Director, Building Technologies Office What does this mean for me? Today's refrigerators use only about 25 percent of the energy compared to models built in 1975. They've also increased in size by almost 20 percent, with lots of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

462

Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with elastomers. Quarterly report, 1 April 1992--30 June 1992  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Information contained in this reporters designed to assist the air-conditioning and refrigeration industry in the selection of suitable elastomeric gasket and seal materials that will prove useful in various refrigerant and refrigeration lubricant environments. Swell measurements have been made on approximately 50% of the proposed elastomers (94 total)in both the lubricant (7 total) and refrigerant (10 total) materials. Swell behavior in the these fluids have been determined using weight and in situ diameter measurements for the refrigerants and weight, diameter and thickness measurements for the lubricants. Weight and diameter measurements are repeated after 2 hours and 24 hours for samples removed from the refrigerant test fluids and 24 hours after removal from the lubricants.

Hamed, G.R.; Seiple, R.H.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

465

A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Comparing Variable Refrigerant Flow to Traditional Heating and Cooling Technologies: Assessing VRF Performance in Mobile, Alabama  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In America, most conditioned air is delivered by ductwork, which is often made of sheet metal covered in insulation and installed during construction. However, in Japan and Europe, because the office buildings often pre-date the invention of air conditioning, it is easier and more common for refrigerant pipes to run to wall- or ceiling-mounted heat exchangers. Using refrigerant pipes instead of ducting can eliminate duct loss and offer more precise control. Are Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) ...

2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

467

Performance Assessment of a Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Air Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Variable refrigerant flow (VRF) technology uses smart integrated controls, variable speed drives, and refrigerant piping to provide energy efficiency, flexible operation, ease of installation, low noise, zone control, and comfort through all-electric technology. This report describes and documents the construction, performance, and application of a heat pump air conditioning system that uses VRF technology8212the Daikin VRV system. This variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system is manufactured by Daikin I...

2008-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

468

Table B36. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" 6. Refrigeration Equipment, Number of Buildings and Floorspace, 1999" ,"Number of Buildings (thousand)",,,,,"Total Floorspace (million square feet)" ,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)",,,"All Buildings","All Buildings with Refrigeration Equipment","Type of Equipment (more than one may apply)" ,,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets",,,"Walk-In","Open Cases or Cabinets","Closed Cases or Cabinets" "All Buildings ................",4657,950,658,255,719,67338,25652,19713,8808,19938 "Building Floorspace"

469

Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

comparison of VAV and VRF air conditioning systems in anThe variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heatthe energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP

Hong, Tainzhen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Edison (2007). DR Strategies for Coldof Southern California Edison Refrigerated Warehouses byTable 5. Southern California Edison Commercial Cold Storage

Lekov, Alex

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Superheat control for air conditioning and refrigeration systems: Simulation and experiments.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ever since the invention of air conditioning and refrigeration in the late nineteenth century, there has been tremendous interest in increasing system efficiency to reduce (more)

Otten, Richard J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Solar refrigeration in rural West Bengal: Design of a product service system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Solarbear is a refrigerator that cools with the heat of the sun only. This technology, more formally known as solar powered adsorption cooling, has been (more)

Van Genuchten, R.P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

474

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigerator operate with propane as well as electricity? [freezer operate with propane as well as electricity? [cooler operate with propane as well as electricity? [

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth's temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

Vineyard, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Roke, L. (Fisher and Paykel, Auckland (New Zealand)); Hallett, F. (Frigidaire, Washington, DC (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat recovery system consists of a shell and tube heat exchanger (16"? x 14'0") installed in the compressor hot gas discharge line. Water is recirculated from a 23,000-gallon tempered water storage tank to the heat exchanger by a circulating pump at the rate of 100 gallons per minute. All make-up water to the plant hot water system is supplied from this tempered water storage tank, which is maintained at a constant filled level. Tests to determine the actual rate of heat recovery were conducted from October 3, 1979 to October 12, 1979, disclosing an average usage of 147,000 gallons of hot water daily. These tests illustrated a varied heat recovery of from 0.5 to 1.0 million BTU per hour. The deviations were the result of both changing refrigeration demands and compressor operating modes. An average of 16 million BTU per day was realized, resulting in reduced boiler fuel costs of $30,000 annually, based on the present $.80 per gallon #2 fuel oil price. At the total installed cost of $79,000, including test instrumentation, the project was found to be economically viable. The study has demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of refrigeration waste heat recovery as a positive energy conservation strategy which has broad applications in industry and commerce.

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth`s temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Roke, L. [Fisher and Paykel, Auckland (New Zealand); Hallett, F. [Frigidaire, Washington, DC (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

479

How small can thermal machines be? The smallest possible refrigerator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the fundamental dimensional limits to thermodynamic machines. In particular we show that it is possible to construct self-contained refrigerators (i.e. not requiring external sources of work) consisting of only a small number of qubits and/or qutrits. We present three different models, consisting of two qubits, a qubit and a qutrit with nearest-neighbour interactions, and a single qutrit respectively. We then investigate fundamental limits to their performance; in particular we show that it is possible to cool towards absolute zero.

Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu; Paul Skrzypczyk

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

480

Bubble Pump Design for Single Pressure Absorption Refrigeration Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A model has been developed for the design and optimization of a small bubble pump to be used in a single pressure absorption refrigeration cycle to lift the working fluid mixture against gravity and overcome flow friction. This analytical model is developed from two-phase flow fundamentals and incorporates the design parameters of the bubble pump. Parametric studies are carried out and a design optimization for maximum efficiency is performed for various operating conditions. Optimum efficiency is defined as the liquid pumped per unit of bubble pump heat input. The results show the optimum bubble pump tube diameter over a range of operating conditions.

Sam V. Shelton; Susan White Stewart

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermostats refrigerators steam-system" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.