National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermostats refrigerators led

  1. REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Retailer Energy Alliances (REA) Project rearefrigdisplayspec.pdf More Documents & Publications CBEA LED Site Lighting Specification - Version 1.3, Released 2152012 Model...

  2. Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    learn more about how heating systems and thermostats interact. Limitations for Homes With Heat Pumps, Electric Resistance Heating, Steam Heat, and Radiant Floor Heating...

  3. Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Homes With Heat Pumps, Electric Resistance Heating, Steam Heat, and Radiant Floor Heating Programmable thermostats are generally not recommended for heat pumps. In...

  4. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  5. Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report15 MeetingDevelopmentDepartmentofThermostats Thermostats A

  6. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sachs, O.; Tiefenbeck, V.; Duvier, C.; Qin, A.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. We hypothesized that home occupants with a high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostat. We randomly installed a high-usability thermostat in half the 77 apartments of an affordable housing complex, installing a basic thermostat in the other half. During the heating season, we collected space temperature and furnace on-off data to evaluate occupant interaction with the thermostats, foremost nighttime setbacks. We found that thermostat usability did not influence energy-saving behaviors, finding no significant difference in temperature maintained among apartments with high- and low-usability thermostats.

  7. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  8. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as a means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).

  9. Winter Energy Savings from Lower Thermostat Settings

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    This discussion provides details on the effect of lowering thermostat settings during the winter heating months of 1997.

  10. Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Peffer, Therese; Pritoni, Marco; Aragon, Cecilia

    2010-09-04

    This report investigates the history of thermostats to better understand the context and legacy regarding the development of this important tool, as well as thermostats' relationships to heating, cooling, and other environmental controls. We analyze the architecture, interfaces, and modes of interaction used by different types of thermostats. For over sixty years, home thermostats have translated occupants' temperature preferences into heating and cooling system operations. In this position of an intermediary, the millions of residential thermostats control almost half of household energy use, which corresponds to about 10percent of the nation's total energy use. Thermostats are currently undergoing rapid development in response to emerging technologies, new consumer and utility demands, and declining manufacturing costs. Energy-efficient homes require more careful balancing of comfort, energy consumption, and health. At the same time, new capabilities will be added to thermostats, including scheduling, control of humidity and ventilation, responsiveness to dynamic electricity prices, and the ability to join communication networks inside homes. Recent studies have found that as many as 50percent of residential programmable thermostats are in permanent"hold" status. Other evaluations found that homes with programmable thermostats consumed more energy than those relying on manual thermostats. Occupants find thermostats cryptic and baffling to operate because manufacturers often rely on obscure, and sometimes even contradictory, terms, symbols, procedures, and icons. It appears that many people are unable to fully exploit even the basic features in today's programmable thermostats, such as setting heating and cooling schedules. It is important that people can easily, reliably, and confidently operate thermostats in their homes so as to remain comfortable while minimizing energy use.

  11. How People Actually Use Thermostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Aragon, Cecilia; Hurwitz, Becky; Mujumdar, Dhawal; Peffer, Therese; Perry, Daniel; Pritoni, Marco

    2010-08-15

    Residential thermostats have been a key element in controlling heating and cooling systems for over sixty years. However, today's modern programmable thermostats (PTs) are complicated and difficult for users to understand, leading to errors in operation and wasted energy. Four separate tests of usability were conducted in preparation for a larger study. These tests included personal interviews, an on-line survey, photographing actual thermostat settings, and measurements of ability to accomplish four tasks related to effective use of a PT. The interviews revealed that many occupants used the PT as an on-off switch and most demonstrated little knowledge of how to operate it. The on-line survey found that 89% of the respondents rarely or never used the PT to set a weekday or weekend program. The photographic survey (in low income homes) found that only 30% of the PTs were actually programmed. In the usability test, we found that we could quantify the difference in usability of two PTs as measured in time to accomplish tasks. Users accomplished the tasks in consistently shorter times with the touchscreen unit than with buttons. None of these studies are representative of the entire population of users but, together, they illustrate the importance of improving user interfaces in PTs.

  12. Do new baseboard thermostats save energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, L. [Lambert Engineering Inc., Bend, OR (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Higher quality electronic line voltage thermostats (ELVTs) have been available for several years, and are touted as energy savers. This article presents the results of tests by the Portland Energy Office of two no-frills ELVTs retrofit baseboard thermostats. Recomendations are given. 1 fig.

  13. RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan K.; Walker, Iain

    2008-03-02

    This report summarizes results of a literature review, a workshop, and many meetings with demand response and thermostat researchers and implementers. The information obtained from these resources was used to identify key issues of thermostat performance from both energy savings and peak demand perspectives. A research plan was developed to address these issues and activities have already begun to pursue the research agenda.

  14. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J. [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China)] [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China); Yi, X. [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China)] [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China); Yu, Z. [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)] [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  15. RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan K.

    2008-01-01

    influencing space heat and heat pump efficiency from aand through-the-wall heat pumps. If setback thermostats areinforms the user that a heat pump’s back-up heater is

  16. Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2011-01-01

    thermostat was part of a smart home system developed by theproduct/smart-overview/) Figure 4: Control4 home automationIn-­?Home  Energy  Displays   With the deployment of smart

  17. Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2011-01-01

    for night setback of heat pumps. Energy, 15(11), 935-941.Influencing Space Heat and Heat Pump Efficiency from aincluding residence, heat-pump, thermostat, weather and

  18. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats, Motors, Motor VFDs, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Oncor Electric Delivery- Government and...

  20. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  1. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  2. RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan K.

    2008-01-01

    for Residential Winter and Summer Air Conditioning.Air Conditioning Contractors of America. Washington, DC.refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA.

  3. Thermostat Interface and Usability: A Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Energy Efficiency in Buildings, 7, 1-12. American Society for Heating Refrigerating and Air-ConditioningEnergy Efficiency in Buildings. Emerson Climate Technologies (2004). Home Air Conditioning

  4. Tips: Programmable Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternational Affairs,Department of EnergyPROGRAMTips: Programmable Thermostats

  5. Thermoacoustic refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, S.L.; Hofler, T.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Shortly after their introduction, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used as working fluids in a vapor compression (Rankine) refrigeration cycle became dominant in almost all small and medium-scale food refrigerator/freezer and building/residential air-conditioning applications. That situation is about to change dramatically and, at this moment, unpredictably. Two recent events are responsible for the new era in refrigeration that will dawn before the beginning of the 21st Century. The most significant of these is the international ban on the production of CFCs which were found to be destroying the Earth's protective ozone layer. The second event was the discovery of high temperature superconductors and the development of high speed and high density electronic circuits that require active cooling. It is the purpose of this article to introduce an entirely new approach to refrigeration that was first discovered in the early 1980s. This new approach-thermoacoustic refrigeration-uses high intensity sound waves to pump heat, with inert gases as the working fluid.

  6. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    (Hvaporisation >> Hmelting), for example: water The Carnot power cycle can be executed in a reverse within the 8.11.2012Åbo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering - Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 3/64 The Carnot power cycle can be executed in a reverse within the saturation dome of a refrigerant fluid Reversed Carnot

  7. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    - compression cycle Sources for "cheap heat" could be waste heat from power generation or steamp g plants, a refrigeration cycle can be driven by heat (preferably 100-200°C) The replaces the compressor in a vapour to the surroundings in a d i th ttl d tcondenser, is throttled to low pressure and takes up heat in the evaporator

  8. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Los Alamos, NM); Buchwald, Melvin I. (Santa Fe, NM); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  9. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-09-11

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  10. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  11. Ener-Gee Whiz Answers Your Questions: Thermostat Settings and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to raise the thermostat in a business when the business is closed during air conditioning season? Ener-Gee Whiz: Your business might be able to save energy-and money-by...

  12. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  13. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  14. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  15. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  16. LED Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Mark L.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2006-09-01

    This article, which will appear in RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING MAGAZINE, interviews PNNL's Kelly Gordon and presents the interview in question and answer format. The topic is a light emitting diode (LED) lighting also known as solid state lighting. Solid state lighting will be a new category in an energy efficient lighting fixture design competition called Lighting for Tomorrow sponsored by the US Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Office, the American Institute for Lighting, and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency. LED technology has been around since the ’60s, but it has been used mostly for indicator lights on electronics equipment. The big breakthrough was the development in the 1990s of blue LEDs which can be combined with the red and green LEDs that already existed to make white light. LEDs produce 25 to 40 lumens of light per watt of energy used, almost as much as a CFL (50 lumens per watt) and much more efficient than incandescent sources, which are around 15 lumens per watt. They are much longer lived and practical in harsh environments unsuitable for incandescent lighting. They are ready for niche applications now, like under-counter lighting and may be practical for additional applications as technological challenges are worked out and the technology is advancing in leaps and bounds.

  17. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01

    SUPERMARKET WITH GROUND COUPLED CARBON DIOXIDE REFRIGERATION PLANT Dipl.-Ing. Nicolas R?hault Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE ICEBO 2012 Manchester, 25.10.2012 ? Fraunhofer ISE 2 AGENDA 1. Background on supermarkets, energy...- conditioning: Insulation and air tightness to Passivhaus Standard CO2 refrigeration plant as only energy supply No use of fossil fuels Use of ground to sub-cool refrigerant and as heat source for heat pump Use of covers and night curtains LED...

  18. LED lamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Galvez, Miguel; Grossman, Kenneth; Betts, David

    2013-11-12

    There is herein described a lamp for providing white light comprising a plurality of light sources positioned on a substrate. Each of said light sources comprises a blue light emitting diode (LED) and a dome that substantially covers said LED. A first portion of said blue light from said LEDs is transmitted through said domes and a second portion of said blue light is converted into a red light by a first phosphor contained in said domes. A cover is disposed over all of said light sources that transmits at least a portion of said red and blue light emitted by said light sources. The cover contains a second phosphor that emits a yellow light in response to said blue light. The red, blue and yellow light combining to form the white light and the white light having a color rendering index (CRI) of at least about 80.

  19. Optimal refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armen E. Allahverdyan; Karen Hovhannisyan; Guenter Mahler

    2010-07-25

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two $n$-level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures $T_h$ and $T_c$, respectively ($\\theta\\equiv T_c/T_hisolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and {\\it vice versa}. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two system. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{1-\\theta}}-1$ (an analogue of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency $\\zeta_{\\rm C} = \\frac{1}{1-\\theta}-1$. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit $\\theta\\to 1$. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for $\\ln n\\gg 1$. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}$ and converges to it for $n\\gg 1$.

  20. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  1. Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

    1999-01-01

    Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4°F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    air, Programmable Thermostats, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Efficient Living...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Renewable Energy...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Programmable Thermostats, Motors, Motor VFDs, CustomOthers pending approval, Other EE, Food Service Equipment, LED Lighting, Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Hutchinson...

  5. Solving the Nose-Hoover thermostat for Nuclear Pasta

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez Garcia, M. Angeles [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n E-37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-06-19

    At densities just below nuclear saturation density, there may be possible non-uniform spatial configurations of neutron rich matter. In this work we present a calculation using molecular dynamics techniques for a nuclear system interacting via a semiclassical potential depending on both positions and momenta and kept at fixed temperature by using the Nose-Hoover Thermostat.

  6. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  7. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  8. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  9. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  10. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  11. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  12. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  13. REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudget ||Department of Energy52Building Owners

  14. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  15. LEDs_3LEDs_3 current efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    1 LEDs_3LEDs_3 LECTURE 12 · current efficiency · extraction efficiency · wall-plug efficiency efficiencySec. 8.4 How much power gets out for GaAs? Adapted from Schubert, loc. cit. #12;5 Design to improve extraction efficiencyDesign to improve extraction efficiencySec. 8.4 What are the features of this LED from

  16. Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats Ian N. Williams,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Global warming, convective threshold and false thermostats Ian N. Williams,1 Raymond T thermostats. Citation: Williams, I. N., R. T. Pierrehumbert, and M. Huber (2009), Global warming, convective. To first order this consists of a shift to warmer temperatures as climate warms, without change of shape

  17. LED Market Intelligence Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    around dimming capabilities. 16 LED Market Intelligence Report Home Depot Walmart Cree Philips TCP GE LSG Osram Feit Costco Lowe's Retail, Regulations, and LEDs Like...

  18. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M. , Great Falls, VA )

    1993-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  19. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  20. Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    refrigerants have become expensive or unavailable. A safe, environmentally friendly, high performance refrigerant mixture for replacement of R-12 and R-134a has been developed. The mixture, designated Ikon B, is nonflammable, has zero ozone depletion potential...

  1. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, H. Z.

    1982-01-01

    heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

  2. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  3. Refrigeration monitor and alarm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

    1986-09-23

    A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

  4. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  6. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  7. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  8. Exergy analysis of magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Umberto

    2010-01-01

    One of the main challenges of the industry today is to face its impact on global warming considering that the greenhouse effect problem is not be solved completely yet. Magnetic refrigeration represents an environment-safe refrigeration technology. The magnetic refrigeration is analysed using the second law analysis and introducing exergy in order to obtain a model for engineering application.

  9. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1995-07-01

    We ordinarily think of a sound wave in a gas as consisting of coupled pressure and displacement oscillations. However, temperature oscillations always accompany the pressure changes. The combination of all these oscillations, and their interaction with solid boundaries, produces a rich variety of `thermoacoustic` effects. Although these effects as they occur in every-day life are too small to be noticed, one can harness extremely loud sound waves in acoustically sealed chambers to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps and refrigerators. Whereas typical engines and refrigerators have crankshaft-coupled pistons or rotating turbines, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators have at most a single flexing moving part (as in a loudspeaker) with no sliding seals. Thermoacoustic devices may be of practical use where simplicity, reliability or low cost is more important than the highest efficiency (although one cannot say much more about their cost-competitiveness at this early stage). This paper discusses the fundamentals of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, research in this field, and their commercial development. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Parameter spaces and design optimization of thermoacoustic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    In the last two decades thermoacoustic refrigerators were developed in research laboratories with the goal to understand the basic physics and thermodynamics of thermoacoustic heat pumping. These research efforts led to a good understanding of this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology that employs acoustic power to pump heat. Consequently the next step is to improve and optimize the performance of thermoacoustic refrigerators and seek commercial applications. For this purpose, the need for fast and simple engineering estimates arises. By implementing the simplified linear model of thermoacoustic refrigerators--the short stack boundary layer approximation--such design estimates were derived and presented in this paper in the form of a design algorithm. Calculations obtained with this algorithm predict values for the Coefficient Of Performance (COP) of the order of 5 to 6. These values cannot be achieved at this time because of loss mechanisms in key parts of the thermoacoustic refrigerator, which are not quite understood yet. Nevertheless, these values are encouraging and gaining a better understanding of these loss mechanisms will be a big step towards the commercial market for this new environmentally safe refrigeration technology.

  11. Energy Efficiency of LEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet discusses the current state of the LED market and discusses package efficacy, luminaire efficacy, and application efficacy.

  12. Deterministic Time-Reversible Thermostats : Chaos, Ergodicity, and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Graham Hoover; Julien Clinton Sprott; Puneet Kumar Patra

    2015-01-16

    The relative stability and ergodicity of deterministic time-reversible thermostats, both singly and in coupled pairs, are assessed through their Lyapunov spectra. Five types of thermostat are coupled to one another through a single Hooke's-Law harmonic spring. The resulting dynamics shows that three specific thermostat types, Hoover-Holian, Ju-Bulgac, and Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman, have very similar Lyapunov spectra in their equilibrium four-dimensional phase spaces and when coupled in equilibrium or nonequilibrium pairs. All three of these oscillator-based thermostats are shown to be ergodic, with smooth analytic Gaussian distributions in their extended phase spaces ( coordinate, momentum, and two control variables ). Evidently these three ergodic and time-reversible thermostat types are particularly useful as statistical-mechanical thermometers and thermostats. Each of them generates Gibbs' universal canonical distribution internally as well as for systems to which they are coupled. Thus they obey the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, as a good heat bath should. They also provide dissipative heat flow with relatively small nonlinearity when two or more such bath temperatures interact and provide useful deterministic replacements for the stochastic Langevin equation.

  13. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, G.A.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a compact acoustic refrigeration system that actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment.

  14. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  15. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  16. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  17. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  18. Refrigerants in Transition 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stouppe, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    . 27-30. 7. Hayes, Floyd C., "Centrifugal\\~ater Chillers," CFCs: Today's Options Tomorrow's Solutions, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1990, pp. 71-73. 8. Lorenz, Michael R., "CFCs: The Designer's Dilemma," Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning, April 1990... IN TRANSITION DAVID E. STOUPPE, P.E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a...

  19. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and it will become hotter. Move it away (demagnetization) and the food cools down. GE researchers predict the cooling refrigerators could reduce energy consumption by 20%, in...

  20. Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

    2012-07-22

    Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) – demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

  1. Thermostatic Radiator Valve (TRV) Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    This research measured the energy savings associated with installing thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) on one-pipe low-pressure steam systems in New York City multifamily buildings. There were three primary objectives: to determine whether fuel consumption was lower in buildings using TRVs; to determine if occupants would accept the TRVs; and to determine if overheating in apartments could be eliminated using TRVs. Eight buildings, ranging in size from 15 to 26 apartments, were monitored for three years. Each building was audited to determine fuel history and quick-payback energy conservation measures. The project covered three phases; phase-1 consisted of installing low-cost energy conservation measures such as pipe insulation, air vents and burner tune-tips; determining each building`s baseline energy use, and recording baseline apartment temperatures. TRV installations occurred in phases 2 and 3. In phase-2, TRVs were installed in half the apartments in four buildings. In phase-3, TRVs were installed in the remainder of the apartments. Experimental results were conclusive. Buildings with overheated apartments achieved energy savings through the installation of TRVs. The authors research shows an average reduction of 9.45% in space heating energy use occurred with partial installation of TRVs, and savings of 15.5% were achieved after full installation. Buildings with the highest average apartment temperatures during the base year showed the greatest energy savings. Simple payback, based on an installed price of $50 per TRV, averaged 3.1 years.

  2. LED Lighting Retrofit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw-Meadow, N.

    2011-01-01

    kWh is the one that never gets used? ?Dedicated to making environmentally responsible products? Ringdale Introduction LED Roadway Lighting Better Light, Fewer Watts. Period. Nathan Shaw-Meadow LED Lighting Specialist Ringdale ActiveLED ESL.../exponential efficiency growth often deters investment today 7 Challenges to Implementation ESL-KT-11-11-57 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 ? Municipal Street Light Case Study 8 ? Replaced 400W High Pressure Sodium fixtures with 52W Active...

  3. LED Market Adoption

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDFLEDLED MR16LED

  4. General Service LED Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A U.S. DOE SSL technology fact sheet that compares general service LED light bulbs with incandescent and CFL bulbs.

  5. LED Frequently Asked Questions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    term for semiconductors used to convert electricity into light. LED - light-emitting diode. CCT - correlated color temperature; a measure of the color appearance of a white...

  6. LED Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Light-Emitting diodes (LEDs) efficiently produce light in a fundamentally different way than any legacy or traditional source of light.

  7. LED ProspectsLED Prospects photometric units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    -life incandescent with LED. · 10 light fixtures/home, lights on for 6h/day, 333 days/yr. · Electricity 0.12 $/kWh. W Illuminated by: (a) high-CRI source (b) low-CRI source EFS #12;6 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/ #12;7 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/ #12;8 http://www.ecse.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light

  8. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Low-Emission Refrigeration System Research & Development Roadmap: Next-Generation Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for...

  9. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  10. New Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Reduce Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Traditional supermarket refrigeration systems found in most grocery stores across the country are vulnerable to issues which can cause significant refrigerant leakage – especially with older...

  11. New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy,...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy, Low Utility Bills for Supermarkets New Advanced Refrigeration Technology Provides Clean Energy, Low Utility Bills for...

  12. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  13. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  14. General Guidelines for the Disposal of Refrigerators, Freezers, and other Refrigeration Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cina, Jeff

    not Abandon or dispose of refrigerators, freezers, or window air conditioning units in dumpsters or in common working and nonworking household refrigeration units (refrigerators, freezers, window air conditioning

  15. Optical Safety of LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-06-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that clarifies the issue of LED lighting safety for the human eye and takes a look at current standards for photobiological safety.

  16. LED Directional Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-11-01

    Solid-state lighting program technology fact sheet that provides an overview of the current performance of LED PAR-, BR-, R-, and AR-shaped lamps, which were all investigated by CALiPER in 2012.

  17. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

    1992-01-01

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  18. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  19. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response Wei Zhang, Jianming Lian, Chin-Yao Chang, Karanjit Kalsi and Yannan Sun Abstract-- Demand Response is playing population of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effec- tiveness

  20. Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads Part I: A Mechanism Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wei

    through realistic simulations. Index Terms--Mechanism design, demand response, market- based coordination, thermostatically controlled loads I. INTRODUCTION Demand response has attracted considerable research at- tention and reliability of the future smart grid. A natural way to achieve demand response is through various pricing

  1. Thesis for the Degree of Licentiate of Philosophy Kac's Master Equation with a Gaussian Thermostat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patriksson, Michael

    , in addition to the random collisions, are accelerated by a uniform force #12;eld. The energy supplied is absorbed by a so called Gaussian thermostat, which keeps the total kinetic energy constant. We derive Classification: Primary 76P05, 82B40; Secondary 45K05, 60C05, 60Gxx, 70Fxx. #12; Contents 1 Introduction 1 1

  2. The Smart Thermostat: Using Occupancy Sensors to Save Energy in Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehouse, Kamin

    The Smart Thermostat: Using Occupancy Sensors to Save Energy in Homes Jiakang Lu, Tamim Sookoor patterns in a home, and how to use these patterns to save energy by auto- matically turning off the home demonstrate that our approach will achieve a 28% en- ergy saving on average, at a cost of approximately $25

  3. Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherell, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    of Cascade Refrigeration and Liquefaction Systems", Industrial Engineering Chemicals, Process Des. Develop., Vol. 13, No.4, 1974, pp. 421-433. 5. Cheng, W.B., and Mah, R.S.H., "Interactive Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems", Indus trial...

  4. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  5. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  6. LED Market Intelligence Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousand CubicResource and JobLCLS Operating3 DocumentReview1ImageLED

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

  8. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  9. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  10. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  11. Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    properties Kilmarnock Scotland demonstration History of Carbon Dioxide (R744) as Refrigerant CO2 proposed · Introduction to Thar Geothermal · Carbon Dioxide (R744) the Environmentally Exceptional Refrigerant · Thar Scale, Direct Exchange Design Carbon Dioxide (co2) R744 the Safe & Natural Refrigerant #12;150 Gamma

  12. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  13. A recuperative superfluid stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-07-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator has been built with a counterflow heat exchanger serving as a recuperative regenerator. It has achieved temperatures of 296 mK with a 4% {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for a 6.6% mixture.

  14. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  15. Overview of Air Liquide refrigeration systems between 1.8 K and 200 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gondrand, C.; Durand, F.; Delcayre, F.; Crispel, S. [AL-AT, 2 rue de Clémencières, 38360 Sassenage (France); Baguer, G. M. Gistau [CRYOGUY, 44, chemin de la Buisse, 38330 Biviers (France)

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic refrigeration systems are necessary for numerous applications. Gas purification and distillation require temperatures between 15 K and 200 K depending on the application, space simulation chambers down to 15 K, superconductivity between 1.8 K and up to 75 K (magnets, cavities or HTS devices like cables, FCL, SMES, etc), Cold Neutron Sources between 15 and 20 K, etc. Air Liquide Advanced Technologies is designing and manufacturing refrigerators since 60 years to satisfy those needs. The step by step developments achieved have led to machines with higher efficiency and reliability. In 1965, reciprocating compressors and Joule Thomson expansion valves were used. In 1969, centripetal expanders began to be used. In 1980, oil lubricated screw compressors took the place of reciprocating compressors and a standard range of Claude cycle refrigerators was developed: the HELIAL series. 1980 was also the time for cryogenic centrifugal compressor development. In 2011, driven by the need for lower operational cost (high efficiency and low maintenance), cycle oil free centrifugal compressors on magnetic bearings were introduced instead of screw compressors. The power extracted by centripetal expanders was recovered. Based on this technology, a range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators has been designed for temperatures between 40 K and 150 K. On-going development will enable widening the range of Turbo-Brayton refrigerators to cryogenic temperatures down to 15 K.. Cryogenic centrifugal circulators have been developed in order to answer to an increasing demand of 4 K refrigerators able to distribute cold power.

  16. LED Record Efficacy and Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Designed for general lighting applications such as street, industrial, and parking garage lighting, the Cree XLamp® power LED sets new records for LED brightness and efficacy, up to 85 lm/W at 350 mA. The XLamp utilizes Cree's performance breakthrough EZBright™ LED chip; both products include technology that was developed in part with R&D funding support from DOE.

  17. Energy Efficient Commercial Refrigeration with Carbon Dioxide Refrigerant and Scroll Expanders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dieckmann, John

    2013-04-04

    Current supermarket refrigeration systems are built around conventional fluorocarbon refrigerants – HFC-134a and the HFC blends R-507 and R404A, which replaced the CFC refrigerants, R-12 and R-502, respectively, used prior to the Montreal Protocol phase out of ozone depleting substances. While the HFC refrigerants are non-ozone depleting, they are strong greenhouse gases, so there has been continued interest in replacing them, particularly in applications with above average refrigerant leakage. Large supermarket refrigeration systems have proven to be particularly difficult to maintain in a leak-tight condition. Refrigerant charge losses of 15% of total charge per year are the norm, making the global warming impact of refrigerant emissions comparable to that associated with the energy consumption of these systems.

  18. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    COP W Q COP , , The Reversed Carnot Cycle Reversing the Carnot cycle does reverse the directions of heat and work interactions. A refrigerator or heat pump that operates on the reversed Carnot cycle refrigerator. The reversed Carnot cycle is the most efficient refrigeration cycle operating between two

  19. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by 50% compared to today's best common practice - Alternative refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) are needed to achieve these goals - Provide guidance to the...

  20. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  1. Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review New Project Lee Jestings (lee@S-RAM.com), Project Summary Timeline: Key Partners: Start date:...

  2. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Level: 7 - Full system prototype tested in a controlled environment Patent Status: Thermoacoustic Refrigerators and Engines Comprising Cascading Stirling Thermodynamic Units, US...

  3. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    kW air-to-water and air-to- refrigerant heat exchangers Investigate conventional and additive manufacturing techniques Analyze system level performance of novel heat...

  4. High Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Low Emission Refrigeration System 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Brian Fricke, frickeba@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline:...

  5. Miniaturized Air to Refrigerant Heat Exchangers | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Improving Data Center Efficiency with Rack or Row...

  6. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    beverage vending machines are the General Services Administration (GSA) and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). GSA sells refrigerated beverage vending machines through its...

  7. Development and Validation of Aggregated Models for Thermostatic Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Chassin, David P.

    2012-01-04

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated control models for a population of thermostatically controlled loads. The effects of demand response on the load population dynamics are investigated.

  8. GATEWAY Demonstrations: LED Street Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Tyson; Shackelford, Jordan; Pang, Terrance Pang

    2008-12-01

    This report summarizes an assessment project conducted to study the performance of light emitting diode (LED) luminaires in a street lighting application in San Francisco, CA.

  9. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Brian Fricke conducts research in ORNL's Building Technologies Research & Integration Center. Brian Fricke...

  10. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies...

  11. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of lower global warming potential (low-GWP) alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon...

  13. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants Lead Performer: National Institute of Standards and Technology -...

  14. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cooler relative to current heat exchanger technology are additional refrigerated space, noise reduction, and fouling reduction. Additional refrigerated volume realized by the more...

  15. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

  16. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2008-01-01

    Urban Refrigerator Stocks, 1990-2006 5 Figure 3 China's Energy Information Label for Refrigerators.. 6 Figure 4 China's Voluntary Energy Efficiency

  17. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  18. HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) HEATING, AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION DISTRIBUTORS INTERNATIONAL (HARDI) OE Framework Document...

  19. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

  20. Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications Low-Cost Electrochemical Compressor Utilizing Green Refrigerants for HVAC Applications...

  1. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis New...

  2. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for...

  3. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  4. Ergodicity of the Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman Thermostat and the 2014 Snook Prize

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    William Graham Hoover; Carol Griswold Hoover

    2015-01-28

    Nos\\'e and Hoover's 1984 work showed that although Nos\\'e and Nos\\'e-Hoover dynamics were both consistent with Gibbs' canonical distribution neither dynamics, when applied to the harmonic oscillator, provided Gibbs' Gaussian distribution. Further investigations indicated that two independent thermostat variables are necessary, and often sufficient, to generate Gibbs' canonical distribution for an oscillator. Three successful time-reversible and deterministic sets of two-thermostat motion equations were developed in the 1990s. We analyze one of them here. It was developed by Martyna, Klein, and Tuckerman in 1992. Its ergodicity was called into question by Patra and Bhattacharya in 2014. This question became the subject of the 2014 Snook Prize. Here we summarize the previous work on this problem and elucidate new details of the chaotic dynamics in the neighborhood of the two fixed points. We apply six separate tests for ergodicity and conclude that the MKT equations are fully compatible with all of them, in consonance with our recent work with Clint Sprott and Puneet Patra.

  5. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  6. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  7. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  8. Novel materials for laser refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P

    2009-01-01

    The status of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids is reviewed, and the various factors that limit the performance of current laser-cooling materials are discussed. Efficient optical refrigeration is possible in materials for which {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} < E{sub p}/8, where {Dirac_h}{omega}{sub max} is the maximum phonon energy of the host material and E{sub p} is the pump energy of the rare-earth dopant. Transition-metal and OH{sup -}impurities at levels >100 ppb are believed to be the main factors for the limited laser-cooling performance in current materials. The many components of doped ZBLAN glass pose particular processing challenges. Binary fluoride glasses such as YF{sub 3}-LiF are considered as alternatives to ZBLAN. The crystalline system KPb{sub 2}CI{sub 5} :Dy{sup 3+} is identified as a prime candidate for high-efficiency laser cooling.

  9. Metacapacitors for LED Lighting: Metacapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-02

    ADEPT Project: The CUNY Energy Institute is developing less expensive, more efficient, smaller, and longer-lasting power converters for energy-efficient LED lights. LEDs produce light more efficiently than incandescent lights and last significantly longer than compact fluorescent bulbs, but they require more sophisticated power converter technology, which increases their cost. LEDs need more sophisticated converters because they require a different type of power (low voltage direct current, or DC) than what's generally supplied by power outlets. The CUNY Energy Institute is developing sophisticated power converters for LEDs that contain capacitors made from new, nanoscale materials. Capacitors are electrical components that are used to store energy. CUNY's unique capacitors are configured with advanced power circuits to more efficiently control and convert power to the LED lighting source. They also eliminate the need for large magnetic components, instead relying on networks of capacitors that can be easily printed on plastic substrate. CUNY's prototype LED power converter already meets DOE's 2020 projections for the energy efficiency of LED power converters.

  10. Recessed LED Downlights | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recessed LED Downlights Recessed LED Downlights A Dept of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program technology fact sheet on recessed LED downlights. recesseddownlight.pdf More...

  11. LED Frequently Asked Questions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Frequently Asked Questions LED Frequently Asked Questions EERE Solid-State Lighting LED Factsheet ledbasics.pdf More Documents & Publications LED Frequently Asked Questions SSL...

  12. Demonstration Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    LED Roadway Lighting: Philadelphia, PA Royer, Michael P.; Tuenge, Jason R.; Poplawski, Michael E. Roadway Lighting; Solid-state lighting; LED lighting; SSL; LED; GATEWAY Roadway...

  13. Maintenance Practices for LED Streetlights

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 14, 2014 webinar answered important questions about the maintenance and reliability of LED streetlights, and how to take these issues into account when planning and preparing for a...

  14. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    focusing light in ways that are useful in homes and commercial settings. The light-emitting diode (LED) is one of today's most energy-efficient and rapidly-developing lighting...

  15. LED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    are directional, focusing light in ways that are useful in homes and commercial settings. The light-emitting diode (LED) is one of today's most energy-efficient and...

  16. Thermostat Wars

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The other day, I was visiting a friend's office and noticed something you may have noticed yourself: his building had a variety of micro-climates, ranging from the furnace hot to the freezing cold.

  17. Chip-Scale Power Conversion for LED Lighting: Integrated Power Chip Converter for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01

    ADEPT Project: Teledyne is developing cost-effective power drivers for energy-efficient LED lights that fit on a compact chip. These power drivers are important because they transmit power throughout the LED device. Traditional LED driver components waste energy and don't last as long as the LED itself. They are also large and bulky, so they must be assembled onto a circuit board separately which increases the overall manufacturing cost of the LED light. Teledyne is shrinking the size and improving the efficiency of its LED driver components by using thin layers of an iron magnetic alloy and new gallium nitride on silicon devices. Smaller, more efficient components will enable the drivers to be integrated on a single chip, reducing costs. The new semiconductors in Teledyne's drivers can also handle higher levels of power and last longer without sacrificing efficiency. Initial applications for Teledyne's LED power drivers include refrigerated grocery display cases and retail lighting.

  18. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  19. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  20. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

    1988-01-01

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  1. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01

    sorption media. 'i: ! 60 1 60 I 40 SO I 20 a 10 J 0 CC48G-1110 AclivallJd carbon Uquld-II0p0r ~OO-1300 Zealllll Figure 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal... refrigerant density than is attainable with any other sorption media. Figure 2 shows usable refrigerant densities for complex compounds and other sorption media. 'i: ! 80 60 1 40 SO 20 a 10 J 0 CC48G-1110 AcIivallld carbon Uqukl-II0p0r ~OO-1300Zaalllll Figure...

  2. On Market-Based Coordination of Thermostatically Controlled Loads With User Preference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sen; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2014-12-15

    This paper presents a market-based control framework to coordinate a group of autonomous Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL) to achieve the system-level objectives with pricing incentives. The problem is formulated as maximizing the social welfare subject to feeder power constraint. It allows the coordinator to affect the aggregated power of a group of dynamical systems, and creates an interactive market where the users and the coordinator cooperatively determine the optimal energy allocation and energy price. The optimal pricing strategy is derived, which maximizes social welfare while respecting the feeder power constraint. The bidding strategy is also designed to compute the optimal price in real time (e.g., every 5 minutes) based on local device information. The coordination framework is validated with realistic simulations in GridLab-D. Extensive simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach effectively maximizes the social welfare and decreases power congestion at key times.

  3. Aggregated Modeling of Thermostatic Loads in Demand Response: A Systems and Control Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Chassin, Forrest S.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-12-12

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated models for a homogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads. The different types of loads considered in this paper include, but are not limited to, water heaters and HVAC units. The effects of demand response and user over-ride on the load population dynamics are investigated. The controllability of the developed lumped models is validated which forms the basis for designing different control strategies.

  4. The Nosé–Hoover looped chain thermostat for low temperature thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coughtrie, David J.; Tew, David P.

    2014-05-21

    We have used a generalised coherent state resolution of the identity to map the quantum canonical statistical average for a general system onto a phase-space average over the centre and width parameters of a thawed Gaussian wave packet. We also propose an artificial phase-space density that has the same behaviour as the canonical phase-space density in the low-temperature limit, and have constructed a novel Nosé–Hoover looped chain thermostat that generates this density in conjunction with variational thawed Gaussian wave-packet dynamics. This forms a new platform for evaluating statistical properties of quantum condensed-phase systems that has an explicit connection to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, whilst retaining many of the appealing features of path-integral molecular dynamics.

  5. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  6. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A; Sharma, Vishaldeep

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  7. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  9. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    assumptions: Assumes 24-ft3 capacity, vertical, solid-door refrigerators operated year round. The performance of the less efficient model just meets the U.S. Department of...

  10. Advances in refrigeration and heat transfer engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Cremaschi, Prof. Lorenzo [Oklahoma State University

    2015-01-01

    This special edition of Science and Technology for the Built Environment (STBE) presents selected high quality papers that were presented at the 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference held at Purdue University during July 14-17 2014. All papers went through the additional review before being finally accepted for publication in this special issue of Science and Technology and the Built Environment. Altogether 20 papers made to this special issue that cover a wide range of topics, including advancements in alternative refrigerants, heat exchangers/heat transfer, nano-fluids, systems design and optimization and modeling approaches. Although CO2 may perhaps have been the most researched and popular refrigerant in the past decade, R32 is being seriously considered lately as an alternative and environmentally friendly refrigerant for small systems due to its low Global Warming Potential (GWP).

  11. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  12. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  13. Loveland Water & Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water & Power is providing an incentive for customers to recycle older, working refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old...

  14. LED lamp color control system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A.M.

    2013-02-05

    An LED lamp color control system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; and a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 determines whether the LED source 80 is in a feedback controllable range, stores measured optical flux for the LED source 80 when the LED source 80 is in the feedback controllable range, and bypasses storing the measured optical flux when the LED source 80 is not in the feedback controllable range.

  15. LED lamp power management system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaines, James; Clauberg, Bernd; Van Erp, Josephus A. M.

    2013-03-19

    An LED lamp power management system and method including an LED lamp having an LED controller 58; a plurality of LED channels 60 operably connected to the LED controller 58, each of the plurality of LED channels 60 having a channel switch 62 in series with at least one shunted LED circuit 83, the shunted LED circuit 83 having a shunt switch 68 in parallel with an LED source 80. The LED controller 58 reduces power loss in one of the channel switch 62 and the shunt switch 68 when LED lamp electronics power loss (P.sub.loss) exceeds an LED lamp electronics power loss limit (P.sub.lim); and each of the channel switches 62 receives a channel switch control signal 63 from the LED controller 58 and each of the shunt switches 68 receives a shunt switch control signal 69 from the LED controller 58.

  16. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  17. A stochastic thermostat algorithm for coarse-grained thermomechanical modeling of large-scale soft matters: Theory and application to microfilaments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tong; Gu, YuanTong, E-mail: yuantong.gu@qut.edu.au

    2014-04-15

    As all-atom molecular dynamics method is limited by its enormous computational cost, various coarse-grained strategies have been developed to extend the length scale of soft matters in the modeling of mechanical behaviors. However, the classical thermostat algorithm in highly coarse-grained molecular dynamics method would underestimate the thermodynamic behaviors of soft matters (e.g. microfilaments in cells), which can weaken the ability of materials to overcome local energy traps in granular modeling. Based on all-atom molecular dynamics modeling of microfilament fragments (G-actin clusters), a new stochastic thermostat algorithm is developed to retain the representation of thermodynamic properties of microfilaments at extra coarse-grained level. The accuracy of this stochastic thermostat algorithm is validated by all-atom MD simulation. This new stochastic thermostat algorithm provides an efficient way to investigate the thermomechanical properties of large-scale soft matters.

  18. Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

    1997-12-01

    International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

  19. Multicolor, High Efficiency, Nanotextured LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung Han; Arto Nurmikko

    2011-09-30

    We report on research results in this project which synergize advanced material science approaches with fundamental optical physics concepts pertaining to light-matter interaction, with the goal of solving seminal problems for the development of very high performance light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the blue and green for Solid State Lighting applications. Accomplishments in the duration of the contract period include (i) heteroepitaxy of nitrogen-polar LEDs on sapphire, (ii) heteroepitaxy of semipolar (11{bar 2}2) green LEDs on sapphire, (iii) synthesis of quantum-dot loaded nanoporous GaN that emits white light without phosphor conversion, (iv) demonstration of the highest quality semipolar (11{bar 2}2) GaN on sapphire using orientation-controlled epitaxy, (v) synthesis of nanoscale GaN and InGaN medium, and (vi) development of a novel liftoff process for manufacturing GaN thin-film vertical LEDs. The body of results is presented in this report shows how a solid foundation has been laid, with several noticeable accomplishments, for innovative research, consistent with the stated milestones.

  20. INTRODUCTION TO ARDUINO AND LEDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    7/16/13 1 INTRODUCTION TO ARDUINO AND LEDS Activity one: Make sure everybody is up and running Arduino #12;7/16/13 2 Arduino USB Interface External Power ATmega328 Analog Inputs Digital I Arduino Programming Load Examples - Basics - Blink Arduino SW system Two required functions void setup

  1. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

    2006-01-01

    With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

  2. Philadelphia International Airport Apron Lighting: LED System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Philadelphia International Airport Apron Lighting: LED System Performance in a Trial Installation Philadelphia International Airport Apron Lighting: LED System Performance in a...

  3. Testimonials - Partnerships in LED Lighting - Philips Lumileds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LED Lighting - Philips Lumileds Lighting, LLC Testimonials - Partnerships in LED Lighting - Philips Lumileds Lighting, LLC Addthis An error occurred. Try watching this video on...

  4. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: Continuous devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronnie Kosloff; Amikam Levy

    2013-10-02

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to the level of a single few level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three;a hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power;where the gain is obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principle. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimisation of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters where the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analysing refrigerators special attention is devoted to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when approaching the absolute zero are obtained by optimising the cooling current. At low temperature all refrigerators show universal behavior. Restrictions on the system imposed by the dynamical version of the third law are studied.

  5. Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrer, P. J.; Jones, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two moderately sized ammonia refrigeration systems retrofitted for floating head pressure control. It also presents a parametric analysis to assist in selecting appropriate pressures in an ammonia refrigeration...

  6. Refrigerant pressurization system with a two-phase condensing ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergander, Mark (Madison, CT)

    2009-07-14

    A refrigerant pressurization system including an ejector having a first conduit for flowing a liquid refrigerant therethrough and a nozzle for accelerating a vapor refrigerant therethrough. The first conduit is positioned such that the liquid refrigerant is discharged from the first conduit into the nozzle. The ejector includes a mixing chamber for condensing the vapor refrigerant. The mixing chamber comprises at least a portion of the nozzle and transitions into a second conduit having a substantially constant cross sectional area. The condensation of the vapor refrigerant in the mixing chamber causes the refrigerant mixture in at least a portion of the mixing chamber to be at a pressure greater than that of the refrigerant entering the nozzle and greater than that entering the first conduit.

  7. Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

  8. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost...

  9. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  10. Should Thermostatted Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics be used to calculate reaction rates?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hele, Timothy J H

    2015-01-01

    We apply Thermostatted Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics (TRPMD), a recently-proposed approximate quantum dynamics method, to the computation of thermal reaction rates. Its short-time Transition-State Theory (TST) limit is identical to rigorous Quantum Transition-State Theory, and we find that its long-time limit is independent of the location of the dividing surface. TRPMD rate theory is then applied to one-dimensional model systems, the atom-diatom bimolecular reactions H+H$_2$, D+MuH and F+H$_2$, and the prototypical polyatomic reaction H+CH$_4$. Above the crossover temperature, the TRPMD rate is virtually invariant to the strength of the friction applied to the internal ring-polymer normal modes, and beneath the crossover temperature the TRPMD rate generally decreases with increasing friction, in agreement with the predictions of Kramers theory. We therefore find that TRPMD is less accurate than Ring Polymer Molecular Dynamics (RPMD) for symmetric reactions, and in certain asymmetric systems closer to the q...

  11. Reduced-Order Modeling of Aggregated Thermostatic Loads With Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit; Sun, Yannan

    2012-12-12

    Demand Response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the behavior of populations of appliances under demand response is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of these demand response programs. In this paper, an aggregated model is proposed for a class of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs). The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. However, an accurate characterization of the collective dynamics however requires the aggregate model to have a high state space dimension. Most of the existing model reduction techniques require the stability of the underlying system which does not hold for the proposed aggregated model. In this work, a novel model reduction approach is developed for the proposed aggregated model, which can significantly reduce its complexity with small performance loss. The original and the reducedorder aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D, which is a realistic open source distribution simulation software. Index Terms – demand response, aggregated model, ancillary

  12. T N YORK, NEW YORKI AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    lDC) r; T N YORK, NEW YORKI OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF HEATING, REFRIGERATING /*s\\ TECHNICAL ANDITI

  13. LEDS | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectric Cooperative(Redirected fromUni LandLEDS Home

  14. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnical Report:Speeding accessby aLED Street Lighting Host Site: City of Kansas City,

  15. Advanced Leds | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop IncIowaWisconsin: Energy Resources JumpAdelan UK LtdWisconsin:Missouri:LLCLeadLeds

  16. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  17. Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki (electromagnetic) heat transport Cooling at the quantum limit: experiments RF refrigeration in a single as a refrigerator Optimum cooling power is reached at V 2/e: Cooling power of a NIS junction: Temperature TN

  18. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  19. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  20. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  1. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

  2. Solubility modeling of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michels, H.H.; Sienel, T.H.

    1996-12-31

    A general model for predicting the solubility properties of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures has been developed based on applicable theory for the excess Gibbs energy of non-ideal solutions. In our approach, flexible thermodynamic forms are chosen to describe the properties of both the gas and liquid phases of refrigerant/lubricant mixtures. After an extensive study of models for describing non-ideal liquid effects, the Wohl-suffix equations, which have been extensively utilized in the analysis of hydrocarbon mixtures, have been developed into a general form applicable to mixtures where one component is a POE lubricant. In the present study we have analyzed several POEs where structural and thermophysical property data were available. Data were also collected from several sources on the solubility of refrigerant/lubricant binary pairs. We have developed a computer code (NISC), based on the Wohl model, that predicts dew point or bubble point conditions over a wide range of composition and temperature. Our present analysis covers mixtures containing up to three refrigerant molecules and one lubricant. The present code can be used to analyze the properties of R-410a and R-407c in mixtures with a POE lubricant. Comparisons with other models, such as the Wilson or modified Wilson equations, indicate that the Wohl-suffix equations yield more reliable predictions for HFC/POE mixtures.

  3. Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    in the booster pump suction line to prevent pump cavitation and to improve refrigeration cycle effi ciency. Por each lOOp of sUDcooling, cycle efficiency increases by about 2%. Approxi mately 20 0 p of subcooling is planned for the modified system...

  4. Measurements with a recuperative superfluid Stirling refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watanabe, A.; Swift, G.W.; Brisson, J.G.

    1995-08-01

    A superfluid Stirling refrigerator cooled to 168 mK using a 4.9% {sup 3}He- {sup 4}He mixture and exhausting its waste heat at 383 mK. Cooling power versus temperature and speed is presented for 4.9%, 17%, and 36% mixtures. At the highest concentration, a dissipation mechanism of unknown origin is observed.

  5. Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    conversion, which harnesses the oscillations of temperature, heat flux, pressure, and motion in intense sound-transfer and acoustic components and filled with a gas-- typically high-pressure helium. Refrigeration is produced because gas that oscillates through the cold heat exchanger is depressurized adiabatically on the pulse

  6. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

    2011-12-02

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

  7. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  8. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  9. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  10. Compare Energy Use in Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pumps Field Demonstration and Computer Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharma, Chandan; Raustad, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) heat pumps are often regarded as energy efficient air-conditioning systems which offer electricity savings as well as reduction in peak electric demand while providing improved individual zone setpoint control. One of the key advantages of VRF systems is minimal duct losses which provide significant reduction in energy use and duct space. However, there is limited data available to show their actual performance in the field. Since VRF systems are increasingly gaining market share in the US, it is highly desirable to have more actual field performance data of these systems. An effort was made in this direction to monitor VRF system performance over an extended period of time in a US national lab test facility. Due to increasing demand by the energy modeling community, an empirical model to simulate VRF systems was implemented in the building simulation program EnergyPlus. This paper presents the comparison of energy consumption as measured in the national lab and as predicted by the program. For increased accuracy in the comparison, a customized weather file was created by using measured outdoor temperature and relative humidity at the test facility. Other inputs to the model included building construction, VRF system model based on lab measured performance, occupancy of the building, lighting/plug loads, and thermostat set-points etc. Infiltration model inputs were adjusted in the beginning to tune the computer model and then subsequent field measurements were compared to the simulation results. Differences between the computer model results and actual field measurements are discussed. The computer generated VRF performance closely resembled the field measurements.

  11. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on LED T8 Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartment ofHeat PumpPlan| DepartmentLED T8

  12. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in Recessed Troffers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartment ofHeat PumpPlan| DepartmentLED T8|

  13. LEDs for Street Lighting—Here Today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-11-29

    Fact sheet that provides a brief overview of the viability of LED street lighting in municipalities and highlights case studies of two cities—Los Angeles and Seattle—that have invested in LED street lighting.

  14. UNDERSTANDING LED COLOR-TUNABLE PRODUCTS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LED luminaires with the ability to deliver varying light color have been on the architectural lighting market since the early days of LED lighting, but improved efficacy, colors, controls, and...

  15. LED Solutions for the Dark Hours

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    technologies 5 LEDs for Street and Roadway Lighting Portland, OR Philadelphia, PA New York, NY Kansas City, MO 6 Boston Las Vegas Seattle Number of LED Replacements to Date (4...

  16. DOE ZERH Webinar: LED Lighting Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Description: LED lighting offers efficiency and performance benefits we've never seen in traditional lighting technologies. Commercial buildings have seen rapid growth in LED deployment, and in the...

  17. Smart Lighting: LED Implementation and Ambient Communication Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agogino, Alice M.

    Smart Lighting: LED Implementation and Ambient Communication Applications by Nicholas Adrian Galano............................................................................................................................................1 LED Implementation..........................................................................................................................2 LED Energy Usage

  18. LED Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    December 2014 LED Watch: The Outlook for OLEDs James Brodrick, U.S. Department of Energy LD+A Magazine

  19. Measurements of the efficiency and refrigeration power of pulse-tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, S.; Radebaugh, R.

    1986-09-01

    Pulse-tube or thermoacoustic refrigerators have the potential for high reliability since they require only one moving part - an oscillating piston or diaphragm at room temperature. If a tube is closed at one end and connected to a pressure-wave generator at the open end, and if the phase angle between mass flow and pressure is shifted from 90/sup 0/, then refrigeration occurs at the open end. The shift in phase angle can be realized by thermal relaxation between the gas and the tube walls or by an orifice at the closed end. A low temperature of 60 K using helium gas in a one-stage orifice pulse tube has been achieved at NBS. The report describes the first measurements of the efficiency, refrigeration power, and refrigeration power per unit mass flow, for three pulse-tube refrigerators. Three tube sizes, differing in length and diameter, were studied over a frequency range of 3 to 11.5 Hz. Cooling efficiencies as high as 90% of the Carnot efficiency were obtained when compressor and regenerator losses are neglected.

  20. Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

    2013-04-29

    An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

  1. Dual LED/incandescent security fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gauna, Kevin Wayne

    2005-06-21

    A dual LED and incandescent security lighting system uses a hybrid approach to LED illumination. It combines an ambient LED illuminator with a standard incandescent lamp on a motion control sensor. The LED illuminator will activate with the onset of darkness (daylight control) and typically remain on during the course of the night ("always on"). The LED illumination, typically amber, is sufficient to provide low to moderate level lighting coverage to the wall and ground area adjacent to and under the fixture. The incandescent lamp is integrated with a motion control circuit and sensor. When movement in the field of view is detected (after darkness), the incandescent lamp is switched on, providing an increased level of illumination to the area. Instead of an "always on" LED illuminator, the LEDs may also be switched off when the incandescent lamp is switched on.

  2. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  3. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  4. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  5. Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

    1985-01-01

    .e., minimum temperature difference betweeD the refrigerant and the process stream) in the evapo rator and condenser on the energy utilization and cooling requirements for the refrigeration system. The assumed refrigeration load is 30 million Btu... on an existing system for purposes of improving energy utilization efficiency. Consider the case of a chiller for a commercial office building, operating on R12 at an evapo rator temperature of 42 deg F. During typical summer conditions, the chiller provides...

  6. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

  7. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-28

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

  8. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    - 2013 BTO Peer Review Better Buildings Alliance Equipment Performance Specifications - 2013 BTO Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

  9. Test results on a supercharged compressor for commercial refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.; Butcher, T.A.; Wilhelm, W.G. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a project whose objective was to quantify the technical benefits of using refrigerant R-502 in a supercharged reciprocating compressor for commercial refrigeration applications. The supercharged compressor concept used a special heat exchanger that subcools the major portion of the liquid refrigerant leaving the condenser. This subcooling is achieved by flashing the remaining portion of the condensed liquid through an expansion valve, thereby cooling it, and using it to absorb heat from the rest of the refrigerant. This supercharged stream is then fed to the cylinders through ports in the cylinder walls that are uncovered when the piston reaches bottom dead center.

  10. Development and Evaluation of a Sandia Cooler-based Refrigerator...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Radial Sandia Cooler Report Rotating heat exchangers installed in appliances and heat pumps have the potentially to reduce energy costs and refrigerant charge in a compact...

  11. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    final rule regarding test procedures for commercial refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014. Though it is not...

  12. Acoustic recovery of lost power in pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Gardner, D.L.; Backhaus, S.

    1999-02-01

    In an efficient Stirling-cycle cryocooler, the cold piston or displacer recovers power from the gas. This power is dissipated into heat in the orifice of an orifice pulse tube refrigerator, decreasing system efficiency. Recovery of some of this power in a pulse tube refrigerator, without sacrificing the simplicity and reliability inherent in a system with no cold moving parts, is described in this paper. In one method of such power recovery, the hot ends of both the regenerator and the pulse tube are connected to the front of the piston driving the refrigerator. Experimental data is presented demonstrating this method using a thermoacoustic driver instead of a piston driver. Control of time-averaged mass flux through the refrigerator is crucial to this power recovery, lest the refrigerator{close_quote}s cooling power be overwhelmed by a room-temperature mass flux. Two methods are demonstrated for control of mass flux: a barrier method, and a hydrodynamic method based on turbulent irreversible flow. At {minus}55{degree}C, the refrigerator provided cooling with 9{percent} of the Carnot coefficient of performance. With straightforward improvements, similar refrigerators should achieve efficiencies greater than those of prior pulse tube refrigerators and prior standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerators, while maintaining the advantages of no moving parts. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  13. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Solstice N40 offer supermarkets an easy solution to reduce their refrigeration system's electricity consumption, save energy, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Building...

  14. Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the Development of Methods and Instruments for Identifying Reduction Potential and...

  15. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards...

  16. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  17. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  18. Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Daniel A.

    Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla; accepted 22 April 2002 An inexpensive less than $25 tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstration in the literature, this demonstration model effectively illustrates the behavior of a thermoacoustic refrigerator

  19. Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kissock, Kelly

    Energy Efficient Design, Retrofit and Control of Evaporative Condensers in Ammonia Refrigeration ABSTRACT Ammonia refrigeration systems typically offer many energy efficiency opportunities because efficiency of ammonia refrigeration systems. Introduction About 7.5% of the total manufacturing energy

  20. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  1. LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

  2. A Practical Primer to LED Technology

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ssl.energy.gov 2011 LED Transformations, LLC 60 Acknowledgements Support for the development and presentation of this educational seminar was provided by the US Department of...

  3. Challenges in LED Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about LED lighting technology, where it is headed, and the DOE’s role in its continued R&D.

  4. LED Outdoor Area Lighting Fact Sheet

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outdoor Area Lighting LED technology is rapidly becoming competitive with high-intensity discharge light sources for outdoor area lighting. This document reviews the major design...

  5. Solid State Lighting LED Manufacturing Roundtable Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-31

    Summary of a meeting of LED experts to develop proposed priority tasks for the Manufacturing R&D initiative, including task descriptions, discussion points, recommendations, and presentation highlights.

  6. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Norma Isahakian, City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting San Jose's "Smart" LED Streetlights: Controlled Amy Olay, City of San Jose Adaptive Lighting Controls...

  7. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boston, MA Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Boston, MA This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal...

  8. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dallas, TX Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations and Materials-Dallas, TX This page provides links to the presentations given at the DOE Municipal...

  9. Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Low Emission Development Strategies (LEDS): Technical, Institutional and Policy Lessons Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Low Emission Development...

  10. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  11. LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).

  12. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  13. Changing Industrial Energy Behavior Via Education: Case Study of an Energy Efficiency Refrigeration Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClaren, Mersiha; Phoutrides, Steve; O'Neil, Nick; McRae, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    refrigeration systems efficiently, while more executivesour refrigeration systems efficiently Middle manager (n=28)Value of Operating Equipment Efficiently Vendors are selling

  14. Changing Industrial Energy Behavior Via Education: Case Study of an Energy Efficiency Refrigeration Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClaren, Mersiha; Phoutrides, Steve; O'Neil, Nick; McRae, Marjorie

    2015-01-01

    Changing Industrial Energy Behavior Via Education: Casewith the operation of industrial refrigeration plants,aim was to encourage industrial refrigeration professionals

  15. GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin Fredrich GEA Grasso heat pumps using ammonia ­ the megawatt range #12;GEA Refrigeration Technologies2 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Heat pumps using ammonia ­ a sustainable choice How to improve

  16. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  17. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  18. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower Ventures Jump to:Information9176632°,InformationRefrigeration

  19. Solving the 'Green Gap' in LED Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One long-standing high-priority research area for DOE is to increase the efficiency of deep green LEDs. Although most products today use phosphor conversion (PC) to produce white light from a blue LED, having a good green source could lead to color-mixed white sources that would avoid the losses associated with the PC approach.

  20. Today LED Holiday Lights, Tomorrow the World?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.

    2004-12-20

    This article for The APEM Advantage, the quarterly newsletter of the Association of Professional Energy Managers (APEM) describes the recent increase in the popularity of light emitting diode (LED) lighting and compares LED light output with that of incandescent and compact fluorescent lighting.

  1. How to obtain thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics from exact quantum dynamics and when to use it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy J. H. Hele

    2015-08-24

    We obtain thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics (TRPMD) from exact quantum dynamics via Matsubara dynamics, a recently-derived form of linearization which conserves the quantum Boltzmann distribution. Performing a contour integral in the complex quantum Boltzmann distribution of Matsubara dynamics, replacement of the imaginary Liouvillian which results with a Fokker-Planck term gives TRPMD. We thereby provide error terms between TRPMD and quantum dynamics and predict the systems in which they are likely to be small. Using a harmonic analysis we show that careful addition of friction causes the correct oscillation frequency of the higher ring-polymer normal modes in a harmonic well, which we illustrate with calculation of the position-squared autocorrelation function. However, no physical friction parameter will produce the correct fluctuation dynamics for a parabolic barrier. The results in this paper are consistent with previous numerical studies and advise the use of TRPMD for the computation of spectra.

  2. How to obtain thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics from exact quantum dynamics and when to use it

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hele, Timothy J H

    2015-01-01

    We obtain thermostatted ring polymer molecular dynamics (TRPMD) from exact quantum dynamics via Matsubara dynamics, a recently-derived form of linearization which conserves the quantum Boltzmann distribution. Performing a contour integral in the complex quantum Boltzmann distribution of Matsubara dynamics, replacement of the imaginary Liouvillian which results with a Fokker-Planck term gives TRPMD. We thereby provide error terms between TRPMD and quantum dynamics and predict the systems in which they are likely to be small. Using a harmonic analysis we show that careful addition of friction causes the correct oscillation frequency of the higher ring-polymer normal modes in a harmonic well, which we illustrate with calculation of the position-squared autocorrelation function. However, no physical friction parameter will produce the correct fluctuation dynamics for a parabolic barrier. The results in this paper are consistent with previous numerical studies and advise the use of TRPMD for the computation of spe...

  3. Elements of naturality in dynamical simulation frameworks for Hamiltonian, thermostatic, and Lindbladian flows on classical and quantum state-spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John A. Sidles; Joseph L. Garbini; Jonathan P. Jacky; Rico A. R. Picone; Scott A. Harsila

    2010-07-12

    The practical focus of this work is the dynamical simulation of polarization transport processes in quantum spin microscopy and spectroscopy. The simulation framework is built-up progressively, beginning with state-spaces (configuration manifolds) that are geometrically natural, introducing coordinates that are algebraically natural; and finally specifying dynamical potentials that are physically natural; in each respect explicit criteria are given for "naturality." The resulting framework encompasses Hamiltonian flow (both classical and quantum), quantum Lindbladian processes, and classical thermostatic processes. Constructive validation and verification criteria are given for metric and symplectic flows on classical, quantum, and hybrid state-spaces, with particular emphasis to tensor network state-spaces. Both classical and quantum examples are presented, including dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). A broad span of applications and challenges is discussed, ranging from the design and simulation of quantum spin microscopes to the design and simulation of quantum oracles.

  4. Elements of naturality in dynamical simulation frameworks for Hamiltonian, thermostatic, and Lindbladian flows on classical and quantum state-spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sidles, John A; Jacky, Jonathan P; Picone, Rico A R; Harsila, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    The practical focus of this work is the dynamical simulation of polarization transport processes in quantum spin microscopy and spectroscopy. The simulation framework is built-up progressively, beginning with state-spaces (configuration manifolds) that are geometrically natural, introducing coordinates that are algebraically natural; and finally specifying dynamical potentials that are physically natural; in each respect explicit criteria are given for "naturality." The resulting framework encompasses Hamiltonian flow (both classical and quantum), quantum Lindbladian processes, and classical thermostatic processes. Constructive validation and verification criteria are given for metric and symplectic flows on classical, quantum, and hybrid state-spaces, with particular emphasis to tensor network state-spaces. Both classical and quantum examples are presented, including dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP). A broad span of applications and challenges is discussed, ranging from the design and simulation of quantum...

  5. 100 LPW 800 Lm Warm White LED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decai Sun

    2010-10-31

    An illumination grade warm white (WW) LED, having correlated color temperature (CCT) between 2800 K and 3500K and capable of producing 800 lm output at 100 lm/W, has been developed in this program. The high power WW LED is an ideal source for use as replacement for incandescent, and Halogen reflector and general purpose lamps of similar lumen value. Over the two year period, we have made following accomplishments: developed a high power warm white LED product and made over 50% improvements in light output and efficacy. The new high power WW LED product is a die on ceramic surface mountable LED package. It has four 1x1 mm{sup 2} InGaN pump dice flip chip attached to a ceramic submount in 2x2 array, covered by warm white phosphor ceramic platelets called Lumiramicâ?¢ and an overmolded silicone lens encapsulating the LED array. The performance goal was achieved through breakthroughs in following key areas: (1) High efficiency pump LED development through pump LED active region design and epi growth quality improvement (funded by internal programs). (2) Increase in injection efficiency (IE) represented by reduction in forward voltage (V{sub f}) through the improvement of the silver-based p-contact and a reduction in spreading resistance. The injection efficiency was increased from 80% at the start of the program to 96% at the end of the program at 700 mA/mm{sup 2}. (3) Improvement in thermal design as represented by reduction in thermal resistance from junction to case, through improvement of the die to submount connection in the thin film flip chip (TFFC) LED and choosing the submount material of high thermal conductivity. A thermal resistance of 1.72 K/W was demonstrated for the high power LED package. (4) Improvement in extraction efficiency from the LED package through improvement of InGaN die level and package level optical extraction efficiency improvement. (5) Improvement in phosphor system efficiency by improving the lumen equivalent (LE) and phosphor package efficiency (PPE) through improvement in phosphor-package interactions. Another achievement in the development of the phosphor integration technology is the demonstration of tight color control. The high power WW LED product developed has been proven to have good reliability. The manufacturing of the product will be done in Philips Lumiledsâ?? LUXEON Rebel production line which has produced billions of high power LEDs. The first high power WW LED product will be released to the market in 2011.

  6. High Performance Green LEDs by Homoepitaxial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, Christian; Schubert, E Fred

    2009-11-22

    This work's objective was the development of processes to double or triple the light output power from green and deep green (525 - 555 nm) AlGaInN light emitting diode (LED) dies within 3 years in reference to the Lumileds Luxeon II. The project paid particular effort to all aspects of the internal generation efficiency of light. LEDs in this spectral region show the highest potential for significant performance boosts and enable the realization of phosphor-free white LEDs comprised by red-green-blue LED modules. Such modules will perform at and outperform the efficacy target projections for white-light LED systems in the Department of Energy's accelerated roadmap of the SSL initiative.

  7. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  8. Design issues of a thermoacoustic refrigerator and its heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetzel, M.; Herman, C.

    1996-12-31

    Thermoacoustic refrigeration is a fast advancing new refrigeration technology. Performance calculations indicate remarkable values for the thermoacoustic core of a thermoacoustic refrigerator. The thermoacoustic core is responsible for pumping heat from a cold to a hot temperature reservoir. However, the systems necessary to support the thermoacoustic core, such as heat exchangers and acoustic drivers are the weak points of this refrigeration technology. Particularly, heat exchangers were designed so far without any optimization. A reason for this is the lack of knowledge of the flow structures and heat transfer phenomena at the interface between the thermoacoustic core and the heat exchangers. For the purpose of gaining better insight, the authors built a thermoacoustic refrigerator model and applied visualization techniques, such as smoke injection and holographic interferometry, to visualize the flow and temperature fields at the interface.

  9. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  10. Analysis of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerant Options for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants as alternatives to R410A for window air conditioners. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, a mixture of R32/R125 with 90%/10% molar concentration, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and R134a. Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The heat pump design model (HPDM) was modified and calibrated with the baseline data and was used to evaluate the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners. Among all the refrigerants studied, R32 offers the best efficiency and the lowest Global Warming Potential (GWP), and hence its use will result in the overall environmental friendliness.

  11. New technologies for refrigeration without CFCs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1992-09-01

    Today the appliance industry and other cooling industries are facing the double challenge of eliminating environmentally harmful CFCs while simultaneously improving energy efficiency. These challenges will force this industry to make tremendous changes and to work out many difficult problems, ranging from choice of technology through production-line retooling to product-liability concerns. Three new cooling technologies--sonic compression, thermoacoustic refrigeration, and Malone refrigeration--have been developed at least in part at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We will discuss the principles, features, and status of each of these three technologies. With these three examples we hope to show that mechanical compression and subsequent evaporation of CFCs is not the only potentially practical way to produce cooling. These examples are only three of many alternative cooling technologies. No new technology can be guaranteed a success before development is complete, from either an economic or engineering point of view. But enough alternative cooling technologies exist, and the probability for success of each technology is high enough, that one or more of these technologies can almost certainly be produced at reasonable cost, eliminate CFCS, and reduce the consumption of electricity.

  12. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Zheng; Matthew Stough

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project is to develop a high efficiency phosphor converting (white) Light Emitting Diode (pcLED) 1-Watt package through an increase in package extraction efficiency. A transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor is proposed to replace the powdered phosphor to reduce the scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is proposed between blue LED die and phosphor layer to recover inward yellow emission. At the end of the project we expect to recycle approximately 50% of the unrecovered backward light in current package construction, and develop a pcLED device with 80 lm/W{sub e} using our technology improvements and commercially available chip/package source. The success of the project will benefit luminous efficacy of white LEDs by increasing package extraction efficiency. In most phosphor-converting white LEDs, the white color is obtained by combining a blue LED die (or chip) with a powdered phosphor layer. The phosphor partially absorbs the blue light from the LED die and converts it into a broad green-yellow emission. The mixture of the transmitted blue light and green-yellow light emerging gives white light. There are two major drawbacks for current pcLEDs in terms of package extraction efficiency. The first is light scattering caused by phosphor particles. When the blue photons from the chip strike the phosphor particles, some blue light will be scattered by phosphor particles. Converted yellow emission photons are also scattered. A portion of scattered light is in the backward direction toward the die. The amount of this backward light varies and depends in part on the particle size of phosphors. The other drawback is that yellow emission from phosphor powders is isotropic. Although some backward light can be recovered by the reflector in current LED packages, there is still a portion of backward light that will be absorbed inside the package and further converted to heat. Heat generated in the package may cause a deterioration of encapsulant materials, affecting the performance of both the LED die and phosphor, leading to a decrease in the luminous efficacy over lifetime. Recent studies from research groups at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute found that, under the condition to obtain a white light, about 40% of the light is transmitted outward of the phosphor layer and 60% of the light is reflected inward.1,2 It is claimed that using scattered photon extraction (SPE) technique, luminous efficacy is increased by 60%. In this project, a transparent/translucent monolithic phosphor was used to replace the powdered phosphor layer. In the normal pcLED package, the powdered phosphor is mixed with silicone either to be deposited on the top of LED die forming a chip level conversion (CLC) white LED or to be casted in the package forming a volume conversion white LED. In the monolithic phosphors there are no phosphor powder/silicone interfaces so it can reduce the light scattering caused by phosphor particles. Additionally, a multi-layer thin film selectively reflecting filter is inserted in the white LED package between the blue LED die and phosphor layer. It will selectively transmit the blue light from the LED die and reflect the phosphor's yellow inward emission outward. The two technologies try to recover backward light to the outward direction in the pcLED package thereby improving the package extraction efficiency.

  13. High Power UV LED Industrial Curing Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karlicek, Robert, F., Jr; Sargent, Robert

    2012-05-14

    UV curing is a green technology that is largely underutilized because UV radiation sources like Hg Lamps are unreliable and difficult to use. High Power UV LEDs are now efficient enough to replace Hg Lamps, and offer significantly improved performance relative to Hg Lamps. In this study, a modular, scalable high power UV LED curing system was designed and tested, performing well in industrial coating evaluations. In order to achieve mechanical form factors similar to commercial Hg Lamp systems, a new patent pending design was employed enabling high irradiance at long working distances. While high power UV LEDs are currently only available at longer UVA wavelengths, rapid progress on UVC LEDs and the development of new formulations designed specifically for use with UV LED sources will converge to drive more rapid adoption of UV curing technology. An assessment of the environmental impact of replacing Hg Lamp systems with UV LED systems was performed. Since UV curing is used in only a small portion of the industrial printing, painting and coating markets, the ease of use of UV LED systems should increase the use of UV curing technology. Even a small penetration of the significant number of industrial applications still using oven curing and drying will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and reductions in the emission of green house gases and solvent emissions.

  14. Joint Visible Light Communication and Navigation via LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Dongfang

    2014-01-01

    modulated automobile LED lightings to estimate the vehiclemodulates the automobile LED lighting - either taillights orpositioning using lighting led and image sensor. In Computer

  15. Getting Ready for LEDs: LED Lighting Video Series Explains the Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new video series from ElectricTV.net explains the changes and opportunities offered by LED lighting.

  16. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed; Aute, Vikrant; Abdelaziz, Omar; Fricke, Brian A; Radermacher, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  17. LED Color Stability: 10 Important Questions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This April 15, 2014 webinar examined the causes of color shift, and took a look at existing metrics used to describe color shift/color stability in LED lighting. The lumen maintenance lifetime of...

  18. Demonstration Assessment of LED Freezer Case Lighting

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Host Site: Albertsons Grocery, Eugene, Oregon Final Report prepared in support of the U.S. DOE Solid...

  19. Text-Alternative Version LED Lighting Forecast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE report Energy Savings Forecast of Solid-State Lighting in General Illumination Applications estimates the energy savings of LED white-light sources over the analysis period of 2013 to 2030....

  20. LED Essentials- Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On October 11, 2007, Kevin Dowling, VP of Innovation for Philips Solid-State Lighting Solutions, presented a broad introduction to LED technology, and discussed the technology status, advantages...

  1. All inorganic colloidal quantum dot LEDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Vanessa Claire

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the first colloidal quantum dot light emitting devices (QD-LEDs) with metal oxide charge transport layers. Colloidally synthesized quantum dots (QDs) have shown promise as the active material in ...

  2. SPECIFYING LED COLOR-TUNABLE PRODUCTS

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Specifying LED color-tunable luminaires is dependent on being able to make accurate comparisons between products. Yet reporting performance values for color-tunable products is much more...

  3. DOE Hosts LED Industry Standards Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy hosted an LED Industry Standards Workshop on March 1, 2006 in Washington, D.C. The Workshop provided a forum to encourage greater cooperation and coordination among...

  4. LED ADOPTION REPORT | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDF icon Report:

  5. LED MR16 Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDFLED

  6. LED MR16 Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDFLEDLED MR16

  7. LED Market Adoption: Status and Trends

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDFLEDLED

  8. LED PAR38 Lamps | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT

  9. LED Roundtable Reports | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORTLEDLED Roundtable

  10. ISSUANCE 2015-10-20: Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

  11. It's 2015: Should All Your Sockets be Filled with LEDs?

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    - mid-power LEDs on PCb used in 2x4 troffers 4 LED Modules and Light Engines GE Infusion Philips Fortimo Osram PrevaLED 5 LEDs: A New Light Source for Everything * Outdoor...

  12. LEDS GP Success Story: Fostering Coordinated LEDS Support in Kenya (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-03-01

    The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) strives to advance climate-resilient, low-emission development through catalyzing collaboration, information exchange, and action on the ground. The Government of Kenya is a key LEDS GP member and offers an inspiring example of how LEDS GP is having an impact globally. The 2012 LEDS Collaboration in Action workshop in London provided an interactive space for members to share experiences on cross-ministerial LEDS leadership and to learn about concrete development impacts of LEDS around the world. Inspired by these stories, the Kenya's Ministry of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 (MPND) began to collaborate closely with the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources to create strong links between climate change action and development in the country, culminating in the integration of Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan and the country's Medium Term Development Plan.

  13. Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers (Appendix A1 after May 2, 2011) |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities »Refrigerator Standards

  14. Pittsburgh LED Street Lighting Research Project Performance Criteria

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A Pittsburgh LED Street Lighting Research Project document on Technical and Aesthetic Performance for Business District LED Lighting.

  15. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  16. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  17. DOE Publishes CALiPER Report on Linear (T8) LED Lamps in a 2x4 K12-Lensed

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartment ofHeat PumpPlan| DepartmentLED

  18. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Sharma, Vishaldeep; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2014-01-01

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  19. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization...

  20. Availability of refrigerants for heat pumps in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    grids Smart cities #12;8 Residential HPs Refrigerants Use of aero-geo- +hydrothermal renewable energy cooling and heating Residential Future: Heating of electric cars and cooling the batteries Future: Smart

  1. Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

    2006-01-01

    will be liquefied. Heat discharged by liquefaction passes through condenser 2 and exchanges heat with refrigerant (such as air or water). When stop heating, adsorbent becomes cool, its adsorbing capacity gradually enhances again. At this moment, it adsorb...

  2. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  3. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  4. Synchronous temperature rate control for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    Methods of operation for refrigerator appliance configurations with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The methods may include synchronizing alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system. The methods may also include controlling the cooling rate in one or both compartments. Refrigeration compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its lower threshold temperature. Freezer compartment cooling may begin at an interval before or after when the freezer compartment reaches its upper threshold temperature.

  5. Modeling of Refrigerant Flow Through Flexible Short Tube Orifices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Ramadan

    2000-01-01

    Single-phase flow of refrigerants R-22, R-13a, and R-41a through flexible short tube orifices with three different geometries and a range in upstream operating conditions was modeling using the finite element method, FEM. ...

  6. National Weatherization Assistance Program Evaluation: Assessment of Refrigerator Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward; Goeltz, Rick

    2015-03-01

    This report assesses the energy consumption characteristics and performance of refrigerators that were monintored as a component of the Indoor Air Quality Study that itself was a component of the retrospective evaluation of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program.

  7. Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Clothes Washers, Dishwasher, RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment Insulation, Water Heaters, Lighting, Air conditioners, Programmable Thermostats, Caulking...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Category: RefrigeratorsFreezers, Dehumidifiers, Equipment Insulation, Lighting, Heat recovery, Programmable Thermostats, Energy Mgmt. SystemsBuilding Controls, Caulking...

  10. Demand Side Management (DSM) Through Absorption Refrigeration Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E.

    1992-01-01

    will be illustrated by two recent case studies. INTRODUCTION This paper deals with a Demand Side Management (DSM) option of using waste heat for refrigeration. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This can profitably either... years. The potential for avoided cost through DSM will approach $45 billion over the next decade(1,2). Waste Energy And Pollutants The U.S. industry consumes more than 30 quads (quadrillion Btu) of energy each year. About one third...

  11. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  12. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01

    , the low COP of the absorption machine was limited seriously to compete with the refrigeration machine that is drove by electricity. Therefore, most researchers focus their attention on the improvement of performance of the absorption system through many...

  13. Fusion Energy An Industry-Led Initiative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    business not big science InternationalCompetitivenessissue - $26T/yr energy market with $300B/yr futureFusion Energy An Industry-Led Initiative September 10,1993 ATeam Effort TRW General Dynamics;Energy Supply and Needs Global per capita energy usage Global Per Capita energy usage will increase even

  14. LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N. J.; Kaye, S. M.; Coleman, P. M.; Wilkerson, A. M.; Perrin, T. E.; Sullivan, G. P.

    2014-07-31

    At the University of Florida in Gainesville, the DOE Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY program evaluated LED architectural and theatrical lighting in four academic/performance-related spaces within the Nadine McGuire Theatre + Dance Pavilion. Due to a wise choice of products and luminaire light distributions, the change brought significant quality improvements including improved controllability and color.

  15. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  16. 12RESEARCHERS Western-led creation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denham, Graham

    delegation to Brazil, accompanied by Governor General David Johnston, in April 2012 alternative energy Next-generation renewable energy sources from wind, sun and biofuels for a greener world BRAZIL Impact / Reputation globalbrazil #12;BRAZIL Investment 12RESEARCHERS Western-led creation of Canada Visiting Chair

  17. Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

    2009-01-01

    Control Parameters C1: Compressor specifications C2: Condenser specifications C3: Capillary specifications C4: Evaporator specifications Fig. 2 – Parameter diagram of refrigeration cycle.To introduce the Bx life, the characteristic life in the Weibull... ofcharacteristic life in Eq. (4). When the number of failed samples is below four, it follows the Poisson distribution (Ryu and Chang, 2005). At a sixty-percent confidence level, the characteristic life is defined as on refrigeration cycle.cycles and the number...

  18. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  19. 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input to the compressor, the rate of heat rejection to the environment,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostic, Milivoje M.

    -compression refrigeration cycle, the refrigerant enters the compressor as a saturated vapor at the evaporator pressure11-7 11-14 An ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle with refrigerant-134a as the working fluid is considered. The rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space, the power input

  20. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The technology was commercialized in our LUXEON Q product in Sept., 2013. Also, the retention of the sapphire increased the robustness of the device, enabling sales of low-cost submount-free chips to lighting manufacturers. Thus, blue LED die sales were initiated in the form of a PSS-FC in February, 2013.

  1. Sustainable LED Fluorescent Light Replacement Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-06-30

    Ilumisys and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) partnered on a three-year project awarded by the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE), to quantify the impacts of LED lamps, incandescent lamps and fluorescent benchmark lamps over a product lifecycle – i.e. to develop a sustainable design and manufacturing strategy that addresses product manufacturing, use, recycling and disposal scenarios for LED-based lighting. Based on the knowledge gained from extensive product tear-down studies of fluorescent and screw-in lighting products, lifecycle assessment tools, and accelerated lifecycle testing protocols, an interactive Sustainable LED Design Guide has been developed to aid architectural and lighting designers and engineers in making design decisions that consider three important environmental impacts (greenhouse gas emissions, energy use and mercury emission) across all phases of the life of an LED lighting product. Critical information developed for the lifecycle analysis and product feature comparisons is the useful life of the lighting product as well as its performance. The Design Guide is available at www.ncms.org, and was developed based on operational and durability testing of a variety of lighting products including power consumption, light output, and useful life of a lamp in order to allow a more realistic comparison of lamp designs. This report describes the main project tasks, results and innovative features of the lifecycle assessment (LCA)-based design tools, and the key considerations driving the sustainable design of LED lighting systems. The Design Guide incorporates the following three novel features for efficiently evaluating LED lighting features in value-chains: • Bill-of-Materials (BOM) Builder – Designers may import process data for each component and supply functional data for the product, including power, consumption, lumen output and expected useful life. • Environmental Impact Review – Designs are comparable across lifecycle phases, subsystems, and environmental impact category, and can be normalized to a userdefined functional unit. • Drill-down Review – These provide an indepth look at individual lamp designs with the ability to review across subsystem or lifecycle phase.

  2. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

    1999-01-01

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  3. The development of a proff of principle superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Franklin K., 1970-

    2005-01-01

    A new type of sub-Kelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator, has been developed and its performance has been experimentally verified. This refrigerator uses a liquid superfluid mixture of He and 4He ...

  4. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

  5. Measured Off-Grid LED Lighting System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    4 Measured Off-Grid LED Lighting System Performance Jessicapeople, the quality of LED lighting products remains acomponents of off-grid LED lighting systems (e.g. light

  6. To Bridge LEDs' Green Gap, Scientists Think Small

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To Bridge LEDs' Green Gap, Scientists Think Small To Bridge LEDs' Green Gap, Scientists Think Small Nanostructures Half a DNA Strand-Wide Show Promise for Efficient LEDs April 4,...

  7. LED Performance Specification Series: T8 Replacement Lamps

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the better fixture efficiency measured with LED T8s compared to fluorescent. Note that luminous efficacy for the LED T8 is not specified. This is because LED T8 watt- age...

  8. LED Roadway Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE INDUSTRIALU.S. DepartmentJeanKeyLANL SustainableRoadway Lighting LED

  9. Which LED Lighting Products Would You Consider Trying?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Which LED lighting products would you consider trying? Or, if you're already using LEDs, what do you think of them?

  10. (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC Units: February 11, 2010 (Expired) Nationwide Limited Public Interest Waiver for LED Lighting and HVAC...

  11. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting in Kansas City, MO Kinzey...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Street Lighting in Kansas City, MO Kinzey, Bruce R.; Royer, Michael P.; Hadjian, M.; Kauffman, Rick LED streetlighting; field illuminance measurement LED streetlighting; field...

  12. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting, Final Report This...

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Freezer Case Lighting This document is a report...

  14. Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Feasibility Assessment of LED Roadway Lighting on the Golden Gate Bridge Tuenge, Jason R. LED; induction; ceramic metal halide; plasma; roadway lighting; Golden Gate...

  15. Counter-Top Thermoacoustic Refrigerator- An Experimental Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anwar, Mahmood; Ghazali, Normah Mohd

    2010-06-28

    Thermoacoustic phenomenon is a new alternative refrigeration technology. Though design and fabrication is complex for getting the desired effect, it is environmentally friendly and successful system showed that it is relatively easy to run compared to the traditional vapor compression refrigeration system. Currently, theories supporting the thermoacoustic refrigeration systems are yet to be comprehensive to make them commercially viable. Theoretical, experimental, and numerical studies are being done to address the thermodynamics-acoustics interactions. In this study, experimental investigations were completed to test the feasibility of the practical use of a thermoacoustic refrigerator in its counter-top form for future specific application. The system was designed and fabricated based on linear acoustic theory. Acoustic power was given by a loud speaker and thermoacoustic effects were measured in terms of the cooling effects produced at resonanance. Investigations showed that discrepancies between designed and working resonance frequency exist. Thermoacoutic cooling improved at a certain frequency, achieved when the working frequency was varied away from the design frequency. A cooling effect of 4.8 K below the ambient temperature of 23.3 deg. C was obtained from the counter-top thermoacoustic system. This system uses no refrigerants and no compressor to generate the cooling effect, a potential to be further investigated for a practical system.

  16. Solutions for Summer Electric Power Shortages: Demand Response and its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigerating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Junqiao; Piette, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    LBNL-63806 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, & Electric Powerand its Applications in Air Conditioning and Refrigeratingand its applications in Air Conditioning and refrigerating

  17. A cryogen-free dilution refrigerator based Josephson qubit measurement system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian, Ye; Yu, H. F.; Deng, H.; Xue, G. M.; Liu, D. T.; Ren, Y. F.; Chen, G.; Zheng, D. N.; Jing, X. N.; Lu, Li; Zhao, S. P.; Han, Siyuan

    2012-01-12

    We develop a small-signal measurement system on cryogen-free dilution refrigerator which is suitable for superconductingqubit studies. Cryogen-free refrigerators have several advantages such as less manpower for system operation and large sample...

  18. 1. For a refrigerator, you are given that 1 ,0 20 400 t p t = - ? ? . The ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owner

    2011-04-28

    1. For a refrigerator, you are given that. 2. 0. 1. ,0. 20. 400 t t p t. = -. ? ? . The Purdue Actuarial club owns two refrigerators. One is brand new and one was ...

  19. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with electrical sheet insulation under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D.

    1996-11-01

    To determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of sheet insulation with alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit, sheet insulation was exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Most of the sheet insulation materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant at high temperature. This was attributed to incompatibility of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet was initially observed, but 2048 subsequent tests under extremely dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure.

  20. Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2006-01-01

    HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-5 Associate Master Professor Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator Chunmin Qu Yong Sun Zhonghai Chen Master... refrigerator; insulation heat; saving energy 1. INTRODUCTION The homoiothermal refrigerators that are built early day need be rebuilt to the cryogenic refrigerators along with the development continuously of market economy. The matching...

  1. EC-LEDS Transport | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (UtilityInstrumentsAreafor GeothermalNorthWorldwideMitigation | OpenEC-LEDS

  2. Category:LEDS Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar Energy LLCLtd Jump to: navigation, searchsource History ViewEnFederalLEDS

  3. LED Green Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectric Cooperative(Redirected fromUni Land JV JumpLED

  4. SemiLEDs | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EIS Report UrlNM-bRenewableSMUDSectional Modelof the| OpenSemiLEDs Jump

  5. LedEngin Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsource History ViewInformationWinds Jump to:Laredo RidgeLaymanJersey:LedEngin Inc

  6. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  7. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  8. The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid [Centre of Engineering Physics, Ministry of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad (Iraq); Joudi, Khalid A. [Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2006-07-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

  9. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Madison, WI); Stewart, Walter F. (Marshall, WI); Henke, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kalash, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  10. Flexible LEDs bring light to fingertips Oct 19, 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Flexible LEDs bring light to fingertips Oct 19, 2010 Glowing gloves Light-emitting diodes ­ or LEDs counterparts, known as holes, are driven into the well where they combine to emit light. LEDs are normally made that is populated with red LEDs. Stitches incorporating these tiny light emitters have been inserted

  11. New and Underutilized Technology: High Bay LED Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The following information outlines key deployment considerations for high bay LED lighting within the Federal sector.

  12. Text-Alternative Version: LED Essentials- Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Essentials - Technology, Applications, Advantages, Disadvantages webcast.

  13. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve attracted considerable attention. As one of the natural refrigerants, carbon dioxide has many excellent

  15. Chapter 19. Heat Engines and Refrigerators That's not smoke. It's clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhamala, Mukesh

    the cooling towers around a large power plant. The power plant is generating electricity by turning heat and refrigerators. #12;Topics: · Turning Heat into Work · Heat Engines and Refrigerators · Ideal-Gas Heat Engines Addison-Wesley. · Ideal-Gas Refrigerators · The Limits of Efficiency · The Carnot Cycle #12;Chapter 19

  16. 2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  17. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  18. page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    devices. 201. An office is heated using a heat pump system based on a vapour-compression cycle is the compressor work w (kJ/kg refrigerant) (2 p.) c. What is the coefficient of performance COP of this heat pump? Compare it with the COP of a Carnot process heat pump operating between -20°C and 30°C. (2 p.) d

  19. Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

    1998-01-01

    of their potential destruction of ozone in the troposphere. Residential and commercial rooftop units usually contain hydrochlorofluorocarbon 22 , (also referred to as HCFC-22 or R-22). R-22 has been used successfully as a refrigerant in HVAC equipment for over 40...

  20. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    and W. David Lee Arthur D. Little, Inc. Abstract This paper describes the development of an energy in the design phase, a computer model was developed by Arthur D. Little, Inc. to simulate the cabinet Refrigeration, Inc., and Arthur D. Little, Inc. In combination, these seven design options were estimated

  2. Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unit. This has proven to be reasonably economical, given the high cost of diesel fuel in the UK the fea- sibility of using photovoltaics to minimise the use of diesel generators in refrigerated because it competes with the price of electricity generated off-grid. The UK experience is compelling

  3. Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

    2009-05-15

    the risks in existing and future ammonia refrigeration systems to ensure their safety. LOPA (Layer of Protection Analysis) is one of the best ways to estimate the risk. It provides quantified risk results with less effort and time than other methods. LOPA...

  4. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  5. Effects of Refrigeration and Freezing on the Electromechanical and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschmann, Michael

    Effects of Refrigeration and Freezing on the Electromechanical and Biomechanical Properties.buschmann@polymtl.ca In vitro electromechanical and biomechanical testing of articular cartilage provide critical information,6 . Biomechanical and electromechanical tests are used to assess cartilage functional properties and reflect its

  6. Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznik, Leon

    Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri School of Communications and Informatics Victoria University PO Box 14428, Melbourne City MC VIC 8001 2-5, 2001 Abstract. The paper describes the development of a smart embedded fuzzy system for reefer

  7. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE and to install heat pumps in unoccupied spaces. Nevertheless manufacturers keep working on components for hydrocarbons. In the frame of a research project on heat pumps for simultaneous heating and cooling, an R407C

  8. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

  9. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel........................................................................447 16.2.2 Heat Transfer and Airflow Near a Vertical Plate..................................................448 16.2.3 Heat Transfer and Airflow in Empty Closed Cavity

  10. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

  11. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  12. Refrigerator Magnets It seems that, these days, the home refrigerator was invented primarily as a venue for displaying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lü, James Jian-Qiang

    of these magnets (I will call them type A), the magnetic force problem we need to solve involves only the magnet and the steel skin of the refrigerator door. The second kind of magnet (I will call it type B) has an additional includes all three components. For both types of configurations we will assume that the magnetization

  13. A merged two-stage converter for LED lighting applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranson, John (John David)

    2012-01-01

    Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are a very promising technology for developing more efficient lighting. For high-efficiency applications, a switching current regulator is necessary to control the power drawn by an LED string. ...

  14. Regenerative braking on bicycles to power LED safety flashers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, Ian M

    2005-01-01

    This work develops a method for capturing some of the kinetic energy ordinarily lost during braking on bicycles to power LED safety flashers. The system is designed to eliminate: (a) battery changing in popular LED flashers, ...

  15. Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires, V2.0

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Version 2.0 of the Model Specification for LED Roadway Luminaires is now available. Changes are substantial and include streamlined structure and formatting, new diagrams, updated references, and leveraging of LED Lighting Facts® program guidance.

  16. DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on LED Lighting in a Performing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Setting DOE Publishes GATEWAY Report on LED Lighting in a Performing Arts Setting August 6, 2014 - 2:46pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy...

  17. New DOE Report Estimates LED Savings in Common Lighting Applications...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New DOE Report Estimates LED Savings in Common Lighting Applications New DOE Report Estimates LED Savings in Common Lighting Applications July 24, 2015 - 11:00am Addthis The U.S....

  18. EECBG Success Story: Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates the Way in Alabama This is one of the 100 decorative solar-powered LED lights that replaced natural gas-powered streetlights in the city of...

  19. Seeing the Light: LED Under-Cabinet and Recessed Downlights ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    operating at their optimum energy efficiency. I'm definitely drawn to the light-emitting diode (LED) under-cabinet and recessed downlights-just two of the many LED products....

  20. Text-Alternative Version: Challenges in LED Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Narrator: LEDs have made remarkable progress in the past decade and gained a strong foothold in the US marketplace. In 2012, LED lighting saved an estimated 71 trillion BTUs, equivalent to annual...

  1. LEDs: The Future of Lighting is Here | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the common household light bulb have in common? If your answer is that light emitting diode (LED) technology can power all these things, then you're pretty bright. LEDs...

  2. Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation Reducing LED Costs Through Innovation November 19, 2013 - 3:49pm Addthis A combination solid-state laser turret cutter and stamping machine...

  3. Design, construction and analysis of an LED strobe controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Villalva, Nicholas E

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, I describe an LED strobe controller that I designed and built. With the advent of much brighter LEDs, it is possible to create stroboscopes with both high intensity output and high maximum flash rates. ...

  4. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a three-year evaluation of the LED luminaires in this installation in order to develop new longitudinal field data on LED performance in a challenging, real-world environment....

  5. MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs MOF Coating a Promising Path to White LEDs Print Friday, 27 February 2015 17:11 Hu et al. designed a new yellow phosphor with high...

  6. LEDs Go Ivy League: Princeton’s Dillon Gymnasium

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about LED lighting in Dillon Gymnasium, a focal point of sports and recreation at Princeton since 1947. William Evans discusses measurable benefits of LED lighting in the gym and...

  7. Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    surrounding environment more slowly. The lower the interior temperature, the slower the heat loss. So the longer your house remains at the lower temperature, the more energy you...

  8. Thermostats | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers at theAugust 1, 2013the New Funding Constructs forA

  9. LED Parking Lot Lighting Working Group Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-10-01

    This fact sheet describes the Retailer Energy Alliance LED Parking Lot Lighting Working Group and its Technology Procurement Project.

  10. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.

  11. Text-Alternative Version: Evaluating LED Street Lighting Solutions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the Evaluating LED Street Lighting Solutions webcast, held July 20, 2010.

  12. Text-Alternative Version: LEDs for Interior Office Applications

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LEDs for Interior Office Applications webcast, held March 18, 2010.

  13. Demonstration of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, N.

    2011-09-01

    GATEWAY program report on a demonstration of LED retrofit lamps at the Jordan Schnitzer Museum of art in Eugene, OR

  14. Semiconductors 4-bit I2C LED dimmer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    LEDs to 25 mA · Edge rate control on outputs · No glitch on power-up · Supports hot insertion · LowPhilips Semiconductors PCA9533 4-bit I2C LED dimmer Product data sheet Supersedes data of 2003 Sep 19 2004 Oct 01 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS #12;Philips Semiconductors Product data sheet PCA95334-bit I2C LED

  15. Breakthrough Makes LED Lights More Versatile Author: Andrea Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    Breakthrough Makes LED Lights More Versatile Author: Andrea Thompson Source: http these limitations by combining the best of two worlds of LEDs to make ultrathin, ultrasmall and flexible light-sized inorganic LEDs after a request from Ford Motor Co. to create a third brake light for cars that would

  16. Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    Aalborg Universitet Current-voltage model of LED light sources Beczkowski, Szymon; Munk version (APA): Beczkowski, S., & Munk-Nielsen, S. (2012). Current-voltage model of LED light sources from vbn.aau.dk on: juli 06, 2015 #12;Current-voltage model of LED light sources Szymon Bczkowski, Stig

  17. CALiPER Snapshot Report: Indoor LED Luminaires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-04-01

    Snapshot reports use data from DOE's LED Lighting Facts product list to compare the LED performance to standard technologies, and are designed to help lighting retailers, distributors, designers, utilities, energy efficiency program sponsors, and other stakeholders understand the current state of the LED market and its trajectory.

  18. DOE Publishes Report on Color Stability of LED Lighting Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has published a new GATEWAY report on color maintenance of LEDs in laboratory and field applications, summarizing color shift data of LED lamps used in real-world applications as well as LED products monitored by the CALiPER program in a lab

  19. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doerr, R.; Waite, T.

    1995-01-12

    Motor materials were exposed to original refrigerants R-11, R-12, R-22 and R-502 in the presence of mineral oil for 500 hours. These same materials were then exposed to alternative refrigerants R-123, R-134a, R-407C (R-32/R-125/R-134a) and R-404A (R-125/R-143a/R-134a), respectively, in the presence of the appropriate lubricant for 500 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1,000 hours. These tests were conducted to determine whether exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials with the alternative refrigerant/lubricant after retrofit. Motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) appeared to be compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concerns were embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet and sleeving insulations, and delamination and blistering of the Nomex sheet insulation in the R-22, R-502, and R-12. Embrittlement of the PET materials was attributed to moisture present during the exposure. Separation of the 475 varnish from metal surfaces in the R-123 was also a concern. The sheet and sleeving insulations were affected by the original refrigerant/mineral oil to a greater extent than by the alternative refrigerant and lubricant.

  20. Pilot Testing of Commercial Refrigeration-Based Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, Adam; Clark, Jordan; Deru, Michael; Trenbath, Kim; Doebber, Ian; Studer, Daniel

    2015-10-08

    Supermarkets potentially offer a substantial demand response (DR) resource because of their high energy intensity and use patterns. This report describes a pilot project conducted to better estimate supermarket DR potential. Previous work has analyzed supermarket DR using heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, and anti-condensate heaters. This project was concerned with evaluating DR using the refrigeration system and quantifying the DR potential inherent in supermarket refrigeration systems. Ancillary aims of the project were to identify practical barriers to the implementation of DR programs in supermarkets and to determine which high-level control strategies were most appropriate for achieving certain DR objectives. The scope of this project does not include detailed control strategy development for DR or development of a strategy for regional implementation of DR in supermarkets.

  1. Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2003-10-28

    An oscillating-wave engine or refrigerator having a regenerator or a stack in which oscillating flow of a working gas occurs in a direction defined by an axis of a trunk of the engine or refrigerator, incorporates an improved heat exchanger. First and second connections branch from the trunk at locations along the axis in selected proximity to one end of the regenerator or stack, where the trunk extends in two directions from the locations of the connections. A circulating heat exchanger loop is connected to the first and second connections. At least one fluidic diode within the circulating heat exchanger loop produces a superimposed steady flow component and oscillating flow component of the working gas within the circulating heat exchanger loop. A local process fluid is in thermal contact with an outside portion of the circulating heat exchanger loop.

  2. Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  3. Heat powered refrigeration compressor. Semi-annual technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop and improve the design of previously started prototypes of the Heat Powered Refrigeration Compressor. To build this prototype and ready it for testing by the University of Evansville is another goal. This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system. Work performed in the past four months has consisted of: engineering of HX-1; comparisons of specifications from different companies to ensure state of the art applications of parts for project; coordinating project requirements with machine shop; designing condenser; and partial assembly of HX-1.

  4. Solar heat pump systems with refrigerant-filled collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Dell, M.P.; Beckman, W.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The heat pump system with a refrigerant-filled evaporator consists of a standard air-to-air or air-to-liquid heat pump that utilizes a solar panel as the evaporator. A combination of solar energy and convection heat transfer acts as the ''free'' energy absorbed by the collector/evaporator. In this paper, the seasonal performance of such systems for industrial applications will be presented. Performance of collector/evaporator heat pumps will be compared with alternative heat pump and solar systems. The benefits of covered and coverless collector/evaporators will be discussed. Results to date have shown that refrigerant-filled collector heat pumps do not perform as well as conventional heat pumps at small collector areas but have as much as 15% performance improvement over conventional heat pumps at an appropriate collector area.

  5. Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

    2012-06-01

    Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

  6. New age water chillers with water as refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kühnl-Kinel, J

    1998-01-01

    Vacuum-process technology producing chilled water needs no refrigerant of the conventional kind, but water from the process itself is used to generate cooling. This eye-catching novelty incorporates many of the considerations about the future of refrigerants: "ozone friendly", no extra demands for safety measures or for skilful operators, no special requirements concerning the installation's components, lower maintenance costs since leakages can be accommodated from the system. Vacuum-process technology may be used not only for production of chilled water but also for Binary Ice - pumpable suspension of minute ice crystals in an aqueous solution. This means that all the advantages related to a latent heat system may become available.

  7. Cree Sets New Benchmarks for LED Efficacy and Brightness

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Cree has successfully created a cool white LED prototype that delivers 107 lm/W at 350mA. This achievement builds on the Cree EZBright® LED chip platform, developed in part with prior funding support from DOE. Cree made the prototype LED under their DOE project focused on developing LED chips incorporating photonic crystal elements for improved light extraction and novel package technology for higher down-conversion efficiency compared to conventional LEDs. Based on a 1 millimeter-square chip, the new prototype LED produces white light with a CCT of 5500K and a CRI of 73. Integration of four of these prototype LEDs can produce luminous flux of more than 450 lumens.

  8. A dilution refrigerator insert for standard ILL cryostats K. Neumaier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and liquified by the cold low pressure He3 gas in a counterflow heat exchanger. That allows to operate refrigerator. The tubular heat exchanger is constructed as follows. A Cu-Ni tube 0.6/0.4 mm (o.d., i.d.), 1.5 m into a coil of about 32 mm in diameter. The mixing chamber has a sintered copper heat exchanger with a surface

  9. Speed Control in Industrial Refrigeration: Theory, Application & Case Studies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    -pressure regulators (BPRs) or liquid solenoids, and condensers cycle fans. Unfortunately, these control methods do not provide the maximum attainable reduction in brake horsepower (BHP) as refrigeration capacity is reduced. This paper will discuss... theory and case study, speed control of these components provides maximum flexibility, control and energy efficiency. SPEED CONTROL BACKGROUND In standard system design, electric motors are intended to operate at a fixed speed. This speed...

  10. Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

    1999-01-01

    the Twenty-first National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 ~ ::l ;; il fitO(x) ~- f-T (; av~ 30 -----.------r---..,----r-----,-----r----,---r--i 30 E+++ 0 ~ ~ cr:" -10 -20 -20 L... ambient temperatures, and a moderately high global warming potential (GWP). 197 ESL-IE-99-05-29 Proceedings from the Twenty-first National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-13, 1999 The Ikon? Refrigerants The original goal...

  11. page 1 of 5 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of the cycle (MPa). (1p.) b. Determine the mass flow rate of the working fluid (kg/s) and compressor power (kW) in kW. (2p.) Use tabelised data for R-134a, otherwise the log p, h diagram given below (next page). #12 within 1 hour, calculate the minimum cooling/freezing capacity of the refrigerator (W) and the time

  12. Fuel Cell Based Auxiliary Power Unit for Refrigerated Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.

    2014-09-02

    This is the annual report for the Market Transformation project as required by DOE EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Office. We have been provided with a specific format. It describes the work that was done in developing fuel-cell powered Transport Refrigeration Units for Reefer Trucks. It describes the progress that has been made by Nuvera and Plug Power as they develop and ultimately demonstrate this technology in real world application.

  13. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  14. DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department ofRefrigeratorsDepartment of Energy Investigation

  15. Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancial Opportunities »Refrigerator Standards Save

  16. New waste-heat refrigeration unit cuts flaring, reduces pollution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brant, B.; Brueske, S.; Erickson, D.; Papar, R.

    1998-05-18

    Planetec Utility Services Co. Inc. and Energy Concepts Co. (ECC), with the help of the US Department of Energy (DOE), developed and commissioned a unique waste-heat powered LPG recovery plant in August 1997 at the 30,000 b/d Denver refinery, operated by Ultramar Diamond Shamrock (UDS). This new environmentally friendly technology reduces flare emissions and the loss of salable liquid-petroleum products to the fuel-gas system. The waste heat ammonia absorption refrigeration plant (Whaarp) is the first technology of its kind to use low-temperature waste heat (295 F) to achieve sub-zero refrigeration temperatures ({minus}40 F) with the capability of dual temperature loads in a refinery setting. The ammonia absorption refrigeration is applied to the refinery`s fuel-gas makeup streams to condense over 180 b/d of salable liquid hydrocarbon products. The recovered liquid, about 64,000 bbl/year of LPG and gasoline, increases annual refinery profits by nearly $1 million, while substantially reducing air pollution emissions from the refinery`s flare.

  17. Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

  18. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  19. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; Little, William A.; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

    2014-05-28

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technology’s Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  20. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  1. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  2. The superfluid Stirling refrigerator, a new method for cooling below 0.5 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-04-09

    A new subkelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Stirling cycle refrigerator, uses a working fluid of {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He mixture in a Stirling cycle. The thermodynamically active components of the mixture are the {sup 3}He, which behaves like a Boltzman gas, and the phonon-roton gas in the {sup 4}He. The superfluid component of the liquid is inert. Two refrigerators have been built and temperatures of 340 mK have been achieved.

  3. The superfluid Stirling refrigerator, a new method for cooling below 0. 5 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisson, J.G.; Kotsubo, V.; Swift, G.W.

    1993-04-09

    A new subkelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Stirling cycle refrigerator, uses a working fluid of [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He mixture in a Stirling cycle. The thermodynamically active components of the mixture are the [sup 3]He, which behaves like a Boltzman gas, and the phonon-roton gas in the [sup 4]He. The superfluid component of the liquid is inert. Two refrigerators have been built and temperatures of 340 mK have been achieved.

  4. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Shrestha, Som S

    2014-01-01

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  5. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

  6. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  7. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that...

  8. Research and Development Roadmap For Next-Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2011-07-01

    The Department of Energy commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that will accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry. The schedule of R&D activities occurs within an accelerated five-year timeframe, and covers several prominent equipment types. The roadmap is organized around four primary objectives to: assess and mitigate safety risks, characterize refrigerant properties, understand efficiency and environmental tradeoffs, and support new refrigerant and equipment development.

  9. A Cooperative Demand Response Scheme Using Punishment Mechanism and Application to Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Kai; Hu, Guoqiang; Spanos, Costas J

    2014-01-01

    Z. Yang, and Y. Zhang, “Demand response man- agement withwith application to demand response,” IEEE Transactions onand automated demand response in industrial refrigerated

  10. LED Holiday Lights: Festive, Safe, and Efficient! | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDF iconLED

  11. Concepts for Phosphorescent Organic LEDs at High Brightness ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concepts for Phosphorescent Organic LEDs at High Brightness May 24, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Sebastian Reineke Institut fr Angewandte Photophysik, Dresden reineke001 abstract: Organic...

  12. Semiconductor nanowires: from LEDs to Solar Cells | MIT-Harvard...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Semiconductor nanowires: from LEDs to Solar Cells May 4, 2010 at 3pm36-428 Silvija Gradeak Laboratory for Nanophotonics and Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology...

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site:...

  14. Lighting the Great Outdoors: LEDs in Exterior Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, Tyson D. S.; Bryan, Mary M.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2008-08-17

    Recent progress in the development of white light LEDs promises great impact by opening up the huge potential for LED illumination in new areas. One such area is general illumination for exterior applications. For example, there are an estimated combined 60.5 million roadway and parking installations in the U.S. These lights account for an estimated 53.3 TWh of electricity usage annually -- nearly 7% of all lighting. If LEDs could provide the same light performance with just 25% greater efficiency, savings of over 13 TWh could be achieved. In 2007, the authors assessed emerging LED lighting technologies in a parking garage and on a city street. The purpose of these tests was to enable a utility to determine whether energy efficiency programs promoting white light LED products might be justified. The results have supported the great promise of LEDs in exterior applications, while also highlighting the barriers that continue to hinder their widespread adoption. Such barriers include 1) inconsistent product quality across manufacturers; 2) lack of key metrics for comparing LEDs to conventional sources; and 3) high upfront cost of LED luminaires compared to conventional luminaires. This paper examines these barriers, ways in which energy-efficiency programs could help to overcome them, and the potential for energy and financial savings from LED lighting in these two exterior applications.

  15. ORNL-led team demonstrates desalination with nanoporous graphene...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Communications 865.576.6448 ORNL-led team demonstrates desalination with nanoporous graphene membrane Researchers created nanopores in graphene (red, and enlarged in the circle...

  16. Color Maintenance of LEDs in Laboratory and Field Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Royer, Michael P.; Tuttle, Ralph; Rosenfeld, Scott M.; Miller, Naomi J. Light-emitting diode (LED), color shift, color stability, color maintenance, warranty Light-emitting...

  17. Application Assessment of Bi-Level LED Parking Lot Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-02-01

    This report summarizes an assessment project conducted to evaluate light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires with bi-level operation in an outdoor parking lot application.

  18. LEDs Go Ivy League: Princeton University and DOE GATEWAY Demonstrations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    View the video about LED lighting at Princeton University, which has dramatically reduced energy costs in a number of installations around campus. William Evans, electrical engineer, describes the...

  19. Adopting LED Technology: What Federal Facility Managers Need to Know

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This document describes the presentation slides for the "Adopting LED Technology: What Federal Facility Managers Need to Know" webinar that took place on September 11, 2014.

  20. Purchasing Energy-Efficient Commercial and Industrial LED Luminaires

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial and industrial light emitting diode (LED) luminaires, a product category covered by FEMP efficiency...

  1. Lighting for Health: LEDs in the New Age of Illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    DOE Solid-State Lighting program technology fact sheet that provides background on current science and considerations related to LED light and health.

  2. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  3. ASHRAE $1000 Scholarship Application (02/26/2013) The Utah Chapter of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Jur

    of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers is offering multiple $1,000 scholarships automation or controls, heating, ventilating, refrigeration or air conditioning (HVAC) principles are invited

  4. LED Chips and Packaging for 120 LPW SSL Component

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Ibbetson

    2009-09-30

    Cree has developed a new, high-efficiency, low-cost, light emitting diode (LED) lamp module that should be capable of replacing standard, halogen, fluorescent and metal halide lamps based on the total cost of ownership. White LEDs are produced by combining one or more saturated color LEDs with a phosphor or other light down-converting media to achieve white broad-band illumination. This two year project addressed LED chip and package efficiency improvements to establish a technology platform suitable for low-cost, high-efficiency commercial luminaires. Novel photonic-crystal LEDs were developed to improve the light extraction efficiency of blue GaN-based LEDs compared to the baseline technology. Improved packaging designs that reduced down-conversion and absorption related light losses, led to a higher overall LED efficiency. Specifically, blue LEDs were demonstrated with light output nearing 600 mW and an external quantum efficiency greater than 60 percent (using 1 mm2 chips at an operating current of 350 mA). The results were achieved using a novel, production capable photonic-crystal LED fabrication process. These LEDs formed the basis for a multi-chip white lamp module prototype, which provided 510 lumens light output at a correlated color temperature (CCT) of 3875 K and an operating current of 350 mA per 1mm2 chip. The overall conversion efficiency at 4100 K improved to ~ 65%. The resulting efficacy is 112 lumens per watt (LPW) â?? a 33% improvement over the start of the project. In addition, a proof-of-concept luminaire was demonstrated that provided a flux of 1700 lumens at a 3842 K CCT.

  5. Energy Savings Potential and Research & Development Opportunities for Commercial Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This study documents the energy consumption of commercial refrigeration equipment (CRE) in the U.S. and evaluated the energy savings potential of various technologies and energy efficiency measures that could be applied to such equipment. The study provided an overview of CRE applications, assessed the energy-savings potential of CRE in the U.S., outline key barriers to adoption of energy-savings technologies, and recommended opportunities for advanced energy saving technology research. The study was modeled after an earlier 1996 report by Arthur D. Little, Inc., and updated key information, examined more equipment types, and outlined long-term research and development opportunities.

  6. Ultra Bright LED Light Injection Calibration System for MINOS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Anderson; A. Anjomshoaa; P. Dervan; J. A. Lauber; J. Thomas

    1998-10-26

    We describe here a proposal for a light injection calibration system for the MINOS detectors based on ultra bright blue LEDs as the light source. We have shown that these LEDs are bright enough to span over two orders of magnitude in light intensity, commensurate with that expected in a single scintillator strip in the MINOS neutrino detectors.

  7. ECE 466: LED Lighting Systems -Incandescent lightings rise and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connors, Daniel A.

    ECE 466: LED Lighting Systems - Incandescent lightings rise and demise via government policy - Alternative Fluorescent light sources and compact fluorescent lights (CFL) to incandescents - Alternative LED light sources - Color index as well as Watts to Lumens efficiency available from all three light sources

  8. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  9. Appraisers Project Plan: Wireless Controls and Retrofit LED Lighting Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Appraisers Project Plan: Wireless Controls and Retrofit LED Lighting Demonstration Measurement and Verification Report This report details the measurement and verification tools and methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of wireless lighting controls and LED lighting at the Appraisers Building, a federal office building in San Francisco, CA.

  10. Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    Two-Phase Cooling Method Using R134a Refrigerant to Cool Power Electronic Devices Jeremy B, TN 37932 Abstract This paper presents a two-phase cooling method using R134a refrigerant). The cooling method involves submerging PE devices in an R134a bath, which limits the junction temperature

  11. Measurements with reticulated vitreous carbon stacks in thermoacoustic prime movers and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adeff, J.A.; Hofler, T.J.; Atchley, A.A.; Moss, W.C.

    1998-07-01

    Reticulated vitreous carbon has been successfully used as a stack material in thermoacoustic prime movers and refrigerators. It is a rigid glassy carbon material, with a porous spongelike structure. Test results indicate peak pressure amplitudes of up to 32{percent} in a prime mover, and refrigeration performance comparable to that of a traditional plastic roll stack. {copyright} {ital 1998 Acoustical Society of America.}

  12. 2180, Page 1 International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2180, Page 1 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14 in Yashar and Lee (2013); they optimized the evaporator circuitry for a rooftop air- conditioning (RTU) unit;2180, Page 2 15th International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference at Purdue, July 14-17, 2014

  13. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    . (Keywords: CFCs; refrigeration; air conditioning; insulation; ozone depletion) Utilisation des to this global environmental issue by signing for R22 were obtained from the Air Conditioning and the MontrealFILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air

  14. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 4 1 ENSC 461 Tutorial, Week#6 Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Tutorial 4 1 ENSC 461 Tutorial, Week#6 ­ Refrigeration Cycle A large of the refrigerant, b) the power input to the compressor, c) the mass flow rate of the cooling water, and d) the rate to represent the system Condenser Evaporator LQ 4 3 2 1 Wc QH Expansion Valve Compressor = 100kW High Pressure

  15. DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

  16. Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration for energy savings without extra loss of food quality. We also show that by utilizing the relatively slow

  17. Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    the compressor turbine. A forced draft air cooler is used to condense the HP refrigerant vapour, followed flash of saturated liquid letdown from the high pressure (HP) refrigerant receiver. The LP evaporator vessels differ by a factor of 5. The LP and IP evaporators are designed to provide adequate liquid

  18. CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

  19. The Impact of Control Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California Industrial Refrigerated Facilities Final Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Doug

    2014-01-01

    and Automated Demand Response in Industrial RefrigeratedDemand Response .. ..Technology on the Demand Response Potential of California

  20. HFC-134A and HCFC-22 supermarket refrigeration demonstration and laboratory testing. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-04-01

    Aspen Systems and a team of nineteen agencies and industry participants conducted a series of tests to determine the performance of HFC-134a, HCFC-22, and CFC-502 for supermarket application. This effort constitutes the first phase of a larger project aimed at carrying out both laboratory and demonstration tests of the most viable HFC refrigerants and the refrigerants they replace. The results of the Phase I effort are presented in the present report. The second phase of the project has also been completed. It centered on testing all viable HFC replacement refrigerants for CFC-502. These were HFC-507, HFC-404A, and HFC-407A. The latter results are published in the Phase II report for this project. As part of Phase I, a refrigeration rack utilizing a horizontal open drive screw compressor was constructed in our laboratory. This refrigeration rack is a duplicate of one we have installed in a supermarket in Clifton Park, NY.

  1. COFELY Refrigeration | Rdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 CopyrightCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Seite 1 Copyright©COFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. #12;COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Campaign Spectrum: Heat pump with speed controlled screw compressor #12;COFELY Refrigeration | Rüdiger Roth

  2. A NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyowon

    to oxygen scavenging [5]. High CO2 levels (10- 80 %) are desirable for foods such as meat and poultryA NEW LED-LED PORTABLE CO2 GAS SENSOR BASED ON AN INTERCHANGEABLE MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS Abstract A new system for CO2 measurement (0-100%) by based on a paired emitter-detector diode

  3. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  4. RECENT PROGRESS IN DYNAMIC PROCESS SIMULATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2008-03-16

    At the CEC 2005 a paper with the title 'Helium refrigerator design for pulsed heat load in Tokamaks' was presented. That paper highlighted the control requirements for cryogenic refrigerators to cope with the expected load variations of future nuclear fusion reactors. First dynamic computer simulations have been presented.In the mean time, the computer program is enhanced and a new series of process simulations are available. The new program considers not only the heat flows and the temperature variations within the heat exchangers, but also the variation of mass flows and pressure drops. The heat transfer numbers now are calculated in dependence of the flow speed and the gas properties. PI-controllers calculate the necessary position of specific valves for maintaining pressures, temperatures and the rotation speed of turbines.Still unsatisfactory is the fact, that changes in the process arrangement usually are attended by adjustments in the program code. It is the main objective of the next step of development a more flexible code which enables that any user defined process arrangements can be assembled by input data.

  5. Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

  6. Refrigeration options for the Advanced Light Source Superbend Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Schlueter, R.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.

    1999-07-09

    The 1.9 GeV Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produces photons with a critical energy of about 3.1 kev at each of its thirty-six 1.3 T gradient bending magnets. It is proposed that at three locations around the ring the conventional gradient bending magnets be replaced with superconducting bending magnets with a maximum field of 5.6 T. At the point where the photons are extracted, their critical energy will be about 12 keV. In the beam lines where the SuperBend superconducting magnets are installed, the X ray brightness at 20 keV will be increased over two orders of magnitude. This report describes three different refrigeration options for cooling the three SuperBend dipoles. The cooling options include: (1) liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogen cooling using stored liquids, (2) a central helium refrigerator (capacity 70 to 100 W) cooling all of the SuperBend magnets, (3) a Gifford McMahon (GM) cryocooler on each of the dipoles. This paper describes the technical and economic reasons for selecting a small GM cryocooler as the method for cooling the SuperBend dipoles on the LBNL Advanced Light Source.

  7. Safe Storage of Flammable Liquids in Refrigeration and Cooling Equipment Scope: This guidance document applies to all laboratories at UT Health Science Center at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicholson, Bruce J.

    of interior or exterior explosions in a hazardous environment. The motor and thermostat is designed to prevent atmosphere may develop, such as solvent dispensing rooms. III. Modified Domestic Models: It is possible

  8. Quality and Performance of LED Flashlights in Kenya: Common End User Preferences and Complaints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tracy, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    2008. "Measured Off? Grid LED Lighting System Performance."early manifestation of LED lighting in the developing worldfor off-grid lighting products based on LED technology (

  9. LOW-COST LED LUMINAIRE FOR GENERAL ILLUMINATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowes, Ted

    2014-07-31

    During this two-year Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing R&D project Cree developed novel light emitting diode (LED) technologies contributing to a cost-optimized, efficient LED troffer luminaire platform emitting at ~3500K correlated color temperature (CCT) at a color rendering index (CRI) of >90. To successfully achieve program goals, Cree used a comprehensive approach to address cost reduction of the various optical, thermal and electrical subsystems in the luminaire without impacting performance. These developments built on Cree’s high- brightness, low-cost LED platforms to design a novel LED component architecture that will enable low-cost troffer luminaire designs with high total system efficacy. The project scope included cost reductions to nearly all major troffer subsystems as well as assembly costs. For example, no thermal management components were included in the troffer, owing to the optimized distribution of compact low- to mid-power LEDs. It is estimated that a significant manufacturing cost savings will result relative to Cree’s conventional troffers at the start of the project. A chief project accomplishment was the successful development of a new compact, high-efficacy LED component geometry with a broad far-field intensity distribution and even color point vs. emission angle. After further optimization and testing for production, the Cree XQ series of LEDs resulted. XQ LEDs are currently utilized in Cree’s AR series troffers, and they are being considered for use in other platforms. The XQ lens geometry influenced the independent development of Cree’s XB-E and XB-G high-voltage LEDs, which also have a broad intensity distribution at high efficacy, and are finding wide implementation in Cree’s omnidirectional A-lamps.

  10. University of Nevada Las Vegas LED Display Engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-08-31

    The primary objective of this part of the project is to develop and implement a method that compensates for the inefficiency of the green LED. The proposed engineering solution which will be the backbone of this project will be to use RGBW combination in every pixel to save energy. Two different RGBW geometrical pixel configurations will be implemented and compared against traditional LED configurations. These configurations will be analyzed for energy efficiency while keeping the quality of the display the same. Cost of the addition of white LEDs to displays along with energy cost savings will be presented and analyzed.

  11. Optimized Phosphors for Warm White LED Light Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setlur, Anant; Brewster, Megan; Garcia, Florencio; Hill, M. Christine; Lyons, Robert; Murphy, James; Stecher, Tom; Stoklosa, Stan; Weaver, Stan; Happek, Uwe; Aesram, Danny; Deshpande, Anirudha

    2012-07-30

    The objective of this program is to develop phosphor systems and LED light engines that have steady-state LED efficacies (using LEDs with a 60% wall-plug efficiency) of 105–120 lm/W with correlated color temperatures (CCT) ~3000 K, color rendering indices (CRI) >85, <0.003 distance from the blackbody curve (dbb), and <2% loss in phosphor efficiency under high temperature, high humidity conditions. In order to reach these goals, this involves the composition and processing optimization of phosphors previously developed by GE in combination with light engine package modification.

  12. National Consortium Supports Cities in Evaluating LED Streetlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-30

    Fact sheet that introduces Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium, a group of municipalities, utilities, and energy efficiency organizations who are interested in making investments in LED street and area lighting.

  13. LED Watch: Unlocking the Full Potential of Indoor Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems june2015ledwatch.pdf More Documents & Publications 2015 ARTICLES What's Next for Solid-State Lighting - February 2015 LED Watch: NGL Tells Us the State of Solid-State...

  14. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Accent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Accent Lighting at the Field Museum in Chicago, IL Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Accent Lighting at the Field...

  15. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Search Title: Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Parking Lot Lighting at T.J.Maxx in Manchester, NH Phase I A report describing the process and results of...

  16. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  17. Implementing and Sustaining Operator Led Energy Efficiency Improvements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, A.; Knight, N.; Rutkowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    , to significantly reduce energy consumption, the site must focus on a strategic approach which involves developing, implementing and sustaining a client specific program of energy optimization. We discuss ways of sustaining energy performance through operator led...

  18. Department of Defense led Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    within 5-7 years 5 DoE and DoD-led Institutes * Established Institutes: - America Makes (Additive Manufacturing)-Established Aug 2012 DoD - Next Gen. Power Electronics Manuf....

  19. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-11-01

    A U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Gateway Report on a Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting in Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon.

  20. Energy - LEDs to light UT arena | ornl.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 85 percent more efficient than conventional arena metal halide lights. The light-emitting diode fixtures developed by Oak Ridge-based LED North America incorporate an Oak...

  1. Text-Alternative Version: LED Color Stability Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michael Royer: All right, welcome ladies and gentleman. I'm Michael Royer of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and I'd like to welcome you to today's webinar on LED Color Stability, Ten...

  2. Better than CFL? Dimmable LED Downlights in Hospitality Facilities Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    LEDs represent less than 1% of the installed base of U.S. downlights, which in 2012 numbered about 700 million. In hospitality facilities, past efforts to reduce lighting energy use have mainly...

  3. EECBG Success Story: Solar LED Light Pilot Project Illuminates...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    courtesy of Lionel Green, Sand Mountain Reporter. A strip of new solar-powered light emitting-diode (LED) streetlights in Boaz, Alabama were installed with grant funds from the...

  4. WEBINAR: LED LIGHTING IN A PERFORMING ARTS BUILDING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Can LEDs render skin tones and makeup accurately in a dressing room? Can they provide the vertical footcandles in a studio to make dancers' bodies visible, or deliver acting studio lighting to...

  5. Measured Off-Grid LED Lighting System Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granderson, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    Budget: The Economics of Off-Grid Lighting for SmallA. Jacobson. 2007. "The Off-Grid Lighting Market in WesternTesting for Emerging Off-grid White-LED Illumination Systems

  6. Advances in Chip Technology, Packaging Enable White LED Breakthroughs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Significant advances in chip technology have enabled Cree, Inc.'s Santa Barbara Technology Center to demonstrate white LEDs with record efficacies as high as 74 lumens per watt - on par with...

  7. New GATEWAY Report Monitors LED System Performance in a High...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    the Yuma (Arizona) Sector Border Patrol Area. Six LED luminaires - installed on three poles as part of a trial installation detailed in a prior GATEWAY report - continue to be...

  8. Integrated LED-based luminare for general lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowling, Kevin J.; Lys, Ihor A.; Roberge, Brian; Williamson, Ryan C.; Roberts, Ron; Datta, Michael; Mollnow, Tomas; Morgan, Frederick M.

    2013-03-05

    Lighting apparatus and methods employing LED light sources are described. The LED light sources are integrated with other components in the form of a luminaire or other general purpose lighting structure. Some of the lighting structures are formed as Parabolic Aluminum Reflector (PAR) luminaires, allowing them to be inserted into conventional sockets. The lighting structures display beneficial operating characteristics, such as efficient operation, high thermal dissipation, high output, and good color mixing.

  9. White LED Benchmark of 65 Lumens Per Watt Achieved

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel chip design and the balance of multiple interrelated design parameters have enabled Cree, Inc.'s Santa Barbara Technology Center to demonstrate white LEDs with efficacies greater than 65 lumens per watt at 350 mA. The results are particularly significant because they were achieved with a pre-production prototype chip using the same package used in Cree's commercially available XLamp® 7090 high power LED, rather than a laboratory device.

  10. An Integrated Solid-State LED Luminaire for General Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Dowling; Fritz Morgan Ihor Lys; Mike Datta; Bernd Keller; Thomas Yuan

    2009-03-31

    A strong systems approach to designing and building practical LED-based replacement lamps is lacking. The general method of taking high-performance LEDs and marrying them to standard printed circuit boards, drivers and a heat sink has fallen short of the promise of LED lighting. In this program, a top-down assessment of requirements and a bottom-up reinvention of LED sources, electronics, optics and mechanics have resulted in the highest performance lamp possible. The team, comprised of Color Kinetics, the leaders in LED lighting and Cree, the leaders in LED devices took an approach to reinvent the package, the driver and the overall form and aesthetic of a replacement source. The challenge was to create a new benchmark in LED lighting - the resultant lamp, a PAR38 equivalent, met the light output, color, color quality and efficacy marks set out in the program as well as being dimmable, which is important for market acceptance. The approach combined the use of multiple source die, a chip-on-board approach, a very efficient driver topology, the use of both direct emission and phosphor conversion, and a unique faceted optic to avoid the losses, artifacts and hotspots of lensed approaches. The integral heat sink provided a mechanical base and airflow using a chimney-effect for use in a wide variety of locations and orientations. These research results led to a much better understanding of the system effects of component level technologies. It was clear that best-of-breed sub-system results do not necessarily result in the best end result for the complete system. In doing this work, we did not neglect the practical aspects of these systems. These were not rarified results and commercially impractical but lent themselves to eventual commercial products in the marketplace. The end result - a high performance replacement lamp - will save significant energy while providing a high-quality light source.

  11. LED LUMINAIRE LIFETIME: Recommendations for Testing and Reporting |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDF

  12. LED Lights for All Occasions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDFLED Lights for

  13. LED Luminaire Lifetime: Recommendations for Testing and Reporting

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORT PDFLED Lights

  14. LED Performance Under Tough Conditions | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPA PublicLED ADOPTION REPORT LED ADOPTION REPORTLED Performance

  15. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-09-01

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  16. Experimental study and analysis on components of a thermoacoustic refrigerator and thermoacoustic prime mover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nohtomi, Makoto; Katsuta, Masafumi

    1999-07-01

    A thermoacoustic refrigerator and a thermoacoustic prime mover, due to its simple structure, would serve as very desirable systems because thermoacoustic prime movers can be driven with the waste heat such as an exhaust gas from engines, and with heat from the nature such as sunlight and a geothermal heat. The thermoacoustic refrigerator and the thermoacoustic prime mover combined would serve as a perfect cooling system without moving parts, CFC's and HFC's. Thus this Thermoacoustic-driven Thermoacoustic Refrigerator will replace the previous paper compression refrigeration system. The authors set up the thermoacoustic refrigerator and thermoacoustic prime mover to investigate the fundamental characteristics. On the refrigerator tests, dimensions of the stack are varied as a parameter of experiments. As a result, influences of the stack configuration on the performance are confirmed, so the design method for the optimum dimension to attain the large temperature difference can be indicated. About the prime mover tests, fundamental characteristics of stack dimensions is checked. The way to improve the thermal efficiency of the prime mover is mentioned in terms of the operating condition. Numerical calculations about the refrigerator are made which is based on the enthalpy flow model by Radebaugh. The result of calculations has a good agreement in quality with the experimental results, so the propriety of this model is confirmed.

  17. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  18. Technical Subtopic 2.1: Modeling Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump and Heat Recovery Equipment in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard; Nigusse, Bereket; Domitrovic, Ron

    2013-09-30

    The University of Central Florida/Florida Solar Energy Center, in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute and several variable-refrigerant-flow heat pump (VRF HP) manufacturers, provided a detailed computer model for a VRF HP system in the United States Department of Energy's (U.S. DOE) EnergyPlus? building energy simulation tool. Detailed laboratory testing and field demonstrations were performed to measure equipment performance and compare this performance to both the manufacturer's data and that predicted by the use of this new model through computer simulation. The project goal was to investigate the complex interactions of VRF HP systems from an HVAC system perspective, and explore the operational characteristics of this HVAC system type within a laboratory and real world building environment. Detailed laboratory testing of this advanced HVAC system provided invaluable performance information which does not currently exist in the form required for proper analysis and modeling. This information will also be useful for developing and/or supporting test standards for VRF HP systems. Field testing VRF HP systems also provided performance and operational information pertaining to installation, system configuration, and operational controls. Information collected from both laboratory and field tests were then used to create and validate the VRF HP system computer model which, in turn, provides architects, engineers, and building owners the confidence necessary to accurately and reliably perform building energy simulations. This new VRF HP model is available in the current public release version of DOE?s EnergyPlus software and can be used to investigate building energy use in both new and existing building stock. The general laboratory testing did not use the AHRI Standard 1230 test procedure and instead used an approach designed to measure the field installed full-load operating performance. This projects test methodology used the air enthalpy method where relevant air-side parameters were controlled while collecting output performance data at discreet points of steady-state operation. The primary metrics include system power consumption and zonal heating and cooling capacity. Using this test method, the measured total cooling capacity was somewhat lower than reported by the manufacturer. The measured power was found to be equal to or greater than the manufacturers indicated power. Heating capacity measurements produced similar results. The air-side performance metric was total cooling and heating energy since the computer model uses those same metrics as input to the model. Although the sensible and latent components of total cooling were measured, they are not described in this report. The test methodology set the thermostat set point temperature very low for cooling and very high for heating to measure full-load performance and was originally thought to provide the maximum available capacity. Manufacturers stated that this test method would not accurately measure performance of VRF systems which is now believed to be a true statement. Near the end of the project, an alternate test method was developed to better represent VRF system performance as if field installed. This method of test is preliminarily called the Load Based Method of Test where the load is fixed and the indoor conditions and unit operation are allowed to fluctuate. This test method was only briefly attempted in a laboratory setting but does show promise for future lab testing. Since variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps include an on-board control algorithm to modulate capacity, these systems are difficult to test. Manufacturers do have the ability to override internal components to accommodate certification procedures, however, it is unknown if the resulting operation is replicated in the field, or if so, how often. Other studies have shown that variable-speed air-conditioners and heat pumps do out perform their single-speed counterparts though these field studies leave as many questions as they do provide answers. The measure

  19. Theoretical evaluation of the optimal performance of a thermoacoustic refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minner, B.L.; Braun, J.E.; Mongeau, L.G.

    1997-12-31

    Theoretical models were integrated with a design optimization tool to allow estimates of the maximum coefficient of performance for thermoacoustic cooling systems. The system model was validated using experimental results for a well-documented prototype. The optimization tool was then applied to this prototype to demonstrate the benefits of systematic optimization. A twofold increase in performance was predicted through the variation of component dimensions alone, while a threefold improvement was estimated when the working fluid parameters were also considered. Devices with a similar configuration were optimized for operating requirements representative of a home refrigerator. The results indicate that the coefficients of performance are comparable to those of existing vapor-compression equipment for this application. In addition to the choice of working fluid, the heat exchanger configuration was found to be a critical design factor affecting performance. Further experimental work is needed to confirm the theoretical predictions presented in this paper.

  20. Synchronous temperature rate control and apparatus for refrigeration with reduced energy consumption

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomes, Alberto Regio; Keres, Stephen L.; Kuehl, Steven J.; Litch, Andrew D.; Richmond, Peter J.; Wu, Guolian

    2015-09-22

    A refrigerator appliance configuration, and associated methods of operation, for an appliance with a controller, a condenser, at least one evaporator, a compressor, and two refrigeration compartments. The configuration may be equipped with a variable-speed or variable-capacity compressor, variable speed evaporator or compartment fans, a damper, and/or a dual-temperature evaporator with a valve system to control flow of refrigerant through one or more pressure reduction devices. The controller, by operation of the compressor, fans, damper and/or valve system, depending on the appliance configuration, synchronizes alternating cycles of cooling each compartment to a temperature approximately equal to the compartment set point temperature.