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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Modeling of solar thermal selective surfaces and thermoelectric generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator is a solid-state device that converts a heat flux into electrical power via the Seebeck effect. When a thermoelectric generator is inserted between a solar-absorbing surface and a heat sink, a ...

McEnaney, Kenneth

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

Pryslak, N.E.

1974-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

3

High-density thermoelectric power generation and nanoscale thermal metrology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric power generation has been around for over 50 years but has seen very little large scale implementation due to the inherently low efficiencies and powers available from known materials. Recent material advances ...

Mayer, Peter (Peter Matthew), 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Component for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a thermoelectric generator, a component comprises a ceramic insulator, having over limited areas thereof, each area corresponding to a terminal end of thermoelectric wires, a coating of a first metal which adheres to the insulator, and an electrical thermoelectric junction including a second metal which wets said first metal and adheres to said terminal ends but does not wet said insulator, and a cloth composed of electrically insulating threads interlaced with thermoelectric wires.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

Metzger, John D. (Eaton' s Neck, NY); El-Genk, Mohamed S. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

9

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a higher thermal conductivity than that of the superconducting material. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials, establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Superconducting thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Definition: Thermoelectric power generation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thermoelectric power generation Thermoelectric power generation Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Thermoelectric power generation The conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. Thermoelectric generation relies on a fuel source (e.g. fossil, nuclear, biomass, geothermal, or solar) to heat a fluid to drive a turbine[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice-versa. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold

12

Theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric energy generators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper investigates the theoretical efficiency of solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). A model is established including thermal concentration in addition to optical concentration. Based on the model, the maximum ...

Chen, Gang

13

Thermoelectric Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel thermoelectric OTEC concept is proposed and compared with the ammonia closed-cycle designs. The thermoelectric OTEC is a much simpler system which uses no working fluid and therefore requires no pressure vessel, working fluid pumps, or turbogenerator. These components are replaced by power modules which are heat exchangers integrated with thermoelectric generators. The thermoelectric OTEC offers several potential advantages including: simpler and more easily mass-produced components; higher reliability system performance through the use of a high level of redundancy and long-lived, solid-state thermoelectric generators; greater safety for crew and environment by elimination of the pressurized working fluid; and the possibility of lower system costs. These comparisons are discussed and plans for future work are presented.

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.; Bohn, M.S.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Thermoelectrics and Thermal Transport - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 14, 2012 ... Energy Nanomaterials: Thermoelectrics and Thermal Transport Sponsored by: The Minerals, Metals and Materials Society, TMS Materials ...

15

Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

Bass, John C. (6121 La Pintra Dr., La Jolla, CA 92037)

1997-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

16

Progress report No. 23 for a program of thermoelectric generator testing and RTG degradation mechanisms evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research is reported on selenide technology evaluation, silicon germanium technology, and thermoelectric generator testing and evaluation. Results of thermal conductivity tests, in-gradient tests, thermophysical properties and compatibility tests, and accelerated resistance module tests for selenium are presented and discussed. Thermoelectric property characteristics of silicon germanium alloys are presented, and performance characteristics of silicon germanium thermoelectric generators are discussed. Thermoelectric generators assembled with lead telluride, TAG-85, and silicon-germanium materials being tested at JPL are described. (WHK)

Stapfer, G.; Rouklove, P.; Garvey, L.

1977-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials can generate electricity or provide cooling by converting thermal gradients to electricity or electricity to thermal gradients. More efficient thermoelectric materials would make feasible the widespread use of thermoelectric converters in mundane applications. This report summarizes the state-of-the-art of thermoelectric materials including currently available materials and applications, new developments, and future prospects.

2000-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

18

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Thermoelectric Power Generation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Heat transfer plays an important role in thermoelectric (TE) power generation because the higher the heat-transfer rate from the hot to the cold side of… (more)

Hu, Shih-yung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thermoelectric generator apparatus and operation method  

SciTech Connect

A method of operating a thermoelectric generator includes: cyclically producing increasing then decreasing temperature differences in the thermoelectric material of the generator; and generating a cyclically increasing then decreasing electrical generator output signal, in response to such temperature differences, to transmit electrical power generated by the generator from the generator. Part of the thermoelectric material reaches temperatures substantially above the melting temperature of the material. The thermoelectric material of the generator forms a part of a closed electrical loop about a transformer core so that the inductor voltage for the loop serves as the output signal of the generator. A thermoelectric generator, which can be driven by the described method of operation, incorporates fins into a thermopile to conduct heat toward or away from the alternating spaces between adjacent layers of different types of thermoelectric material. The fins extend from between adjacent layers, so that they can also conduct electrical current between such layers, perpendicularly to the direction of stacking of the layers. The exhaust from an internal combustion engine can be employed to drive the thermoelectric generator, and, also, to act as a driver for a thermoelectric generator in accordance with the method of operation initially described.

Lowther, F.E.

1984-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Solar thermoelectrics for small scale power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the past two decades, there has been a surge in the research of new thermoelectric (TE) materials, driven party by the need for clean and sustainable power generation technology. Utilizing the Seebeck effect, the ...

Amatya, Reja

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

Mowery, Jr., Alfred L. (Potomac, MD)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

Mowery, A.L. Jr.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

23

Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

24

Analysis of a heat exchanger-thermoelectric generator system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Analysis of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) application is presented. An analytic model is developed for describing the heat exchanger-TEG interactions. This model is used to illustrate limitations of applying conventional fixed junction temperature assumptions to systems experiencing significant temperature drops across the heat exchanger surfaces. Design methods are developed for determining the thermoelectric element geometry that produces maximum output power. Results show that a heat exchanger-TEG system may deliver about 100 W/m/sup 2/ of heat exchanger surface. This compares favorably with conventional OTEC schemes.

Henderson, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Energy Payback Optimization of Thermoelectric Power Generator Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An analytic model for optimizing thermoelectric power generation system is developed and utilized for parametric studies. This model takes into account the external thermal resistances with hot and cold reservoirs. In addition, the spreading thermal resistance in the module substrates is considered to find the impact of designing small fraction of thermo elements per unit area. Previous studies are expanded by a full optimization of the electrical and thermal circuits. The optimum condition satisfies both electrical load resistance match with the internal resistance and the thermal resistance match with the heat source and the heat sink. Thermoelectric element aspect ratio and fill factor are found to be key parameters to optimize. The optimum leg length and the maximum output power are determined by a simple formula. The output power density per mass of the thermoelectric material has a peak when thermo elements cover a fractional area of ~1%. The role of the substrate heat spreading for thermoelectric power generation is equally significant as thermoelement. For a given heat source, the co-optimization of the heat sink and the thermoelectric module should be performed. Active cooling and the design of the heat sink are customized to find the energy payback for the power generation system. The model includes both the air cooled heat sinks and the water cooled micro channels. We find that one can reduce the mass of thermoelement to around 3~10 % of that in commercial modules for the same output power, as long as the module and elements are designed properly. Also one notes that higher heat flux sources have significantly larger energy payback and reduced cost per output power.

Kazuaki Yazawa; Ali Shakouri

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

1980-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

27

Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI); Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1987-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

28

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A solar tracker and concentrator was designed and assembled for the purpose of cogeneration of thermal power and electrical power using thermoelectric technology. A BiTe… (more)

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The Feasibility of Thermoelectric Power Generation: Linking Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact Us Department Contacts Media Contacts The Feasibility of Thermoelectric Power Generation: Linking Materials, Systems, and Cost Speaker(s): Saniya LeBlanc Date:...

30

Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

32

Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators Powering Curiosity: Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators January 29, 2008 - 7:06pm Addthis Mars Science Laboratory, aka Curiosity, is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term program of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. It's powered by the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech. Mars Science Laboratory, aka Curiosity, is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term program of robotic exploration of the Red Planet. It's powered by the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Photo courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech. What are the key facts? Over the last four decades, the United States has launched 26

33

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

Hart, Mark M. (Aiken, SC)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

Hart, M.M.

1995-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

35

Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

Hart, M.M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use as thermoelectric generators.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Thermoelectric Study of InGaN-Based Materials for Thermal Energy ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thermoelectric Study of InGaN-Based Materials for Thermal ... Structural and Thermal Stability Properties of Cellulose Nanocomposites with ...

38

The Effect of Stoichiometry on the Thermoelectric Properties of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

39

ECONOMIC FACTORS OF MFP THERMOELECTRIC GENERATORS. Interim Report  

SciTech Connect

Mixed Fission Products (MFP) for use as a heat source for thermoelectric generators will become increasingly available in the coming years. The Atomic Energy Conamission sponsored program on solidification of nuclear wastes is now entering the hot-bench scale test phase. During this phase approximately 5000 thermal watts of two year old MFP could be produced monthly. Two different types of hot calcination pilot plants are planned for installation at the Hanford National Laboratories in the 1964 to 1966 time period. Each of these plants should be able to produce 160,000 thermal watts of two year MFP and 16,000 thermal watts of ten year MFP on a monthly basis. During this phase, MFP costs should be less than 15 per ihermal watt for two year MFP and 50 for ten year MFP. This cost includes operation of the plant solely to obtain heat sources and sealing the MFP into fuel containers. A full scale plant for a 15,000 Mw(e) nuclear economy is estimated to produce four to five times as much MFP as either of the pilot plants. Costs will be dependent upon AEC policy in effect at the time the plant is operating. lf the policy indicates that the full cost be paid by the user, the prices will approximate that obtained from the pilot plant operation. A conceptual design has been made for MFP fueled generators at several output power levels up to 1000 watts. These are for use at great underwater depths and contain an integral biological shield. A low cost biological shield of high density concrete or cast iron is considered. Economic studies indicate that, in production quantities, a 10 watt generator will cost one tenth an equivalent Strontium90 generator. Because of the low cost for MFP heat sources, radionuclide generators at the hundred and thousand watt level can be reasonably postulated for the first time. At the kilowatt level costs of per watt year are achievable while to 0 are estimated at the ten watt level. Currently available ocean-going craft can handle the placement of MFP generators up to the hundreds of watts level. Investigation of other available vessels is continuing. (auth)

Barmat, M.

1962-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

FINAL SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT. SNAP III THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The SNAP-III thermoelectric generator procedures power from the decay heat of 2100 curies of Po/sup 210/. This generator is to be used as a source of auxiliary power in a terrestrial satellite. For purposes of analysis, the satellite system postulated is launched from the Pacific Missile Bange into a 275- statute mile polar orbit with an orbital lifetime of about 1 year. Po/sup 210/ is an alpha emitter having a half life of 138 days and alpha and gamma decay energies of 5.3 and 0.8 mev, respectively. It is a natural component of the earth's crust, as a member of the uranium disintegration series. Sampling of polonium in the biosphere was conducted specifically for this program to determine background radiation levels. Since the fuel is primarily an alpha emitter, there is no direct radiation problem. An analysis was performed to determine the ability of the fuel container to withstand the various thermal, mechanical, and chemical forces imposed upon the generator by vehicle failures. Where theoretical analysis was impossible and experimental evidence was desired, capsules and generators were tested under simulated missile-failure conditions, Thus, the safety limits of SNAP-III in a satellite application were defined. SNAP-III is designed to be aerothermodynamically consumed on reentry into the earth's atmosphere so that the polonium will be dispersed as aerosols in the upper stratosphere. Since heating rates will be lower for aborts occurring prior to orbiting, 65 abort cases have been considered to define the general consequences of vehicle failures. The spatial and temporal relations of vehicle aborts are summarized in cartographic and tabular form. (auth)

Hagis, W.; Dix, G.P.

1960-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Thermoelectric Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... which allow solid-state conversion of thermal to electrical energy, have a ... and exhaust system, which can run either an electric motor or accessories ...

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

42

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

King, D.A.

1994-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

43

End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

45

Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester - Energy Innovation Portal  

A novel thermoelectric generator (TEG) design by PNNL allows the conversion of ambient thermal energy into electric power for a variety of low-power uses. These ...

46

Synthesis of Ca3Co4O9 Thermoelectric Oxide by Self-Propagating ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

47

The Effect of Mg/Co Ratio on the Thermoelectric Properties of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

48

SNAP-III--THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR ENVIRONMENTAL TEST. VOLUME III  

SciTech Connect

The results of tests on four thermoelectric generators (two each of two different configurations) of the Snap III type to both the J.P.L. and the L.M.S.D. specifications for shock, vibration. and acceleration test are reported. The simulated levels were based on the anticipated environments of the Vega (J.P.L.) and WS117L (L.M.S.D.) systems. All four generators exhibited the same characteristic behavior pattern throughout the vibration portion of the test prograna, showing a d-c ripple in the generator output only in the Y place. This behavior of the generator is attributed to the oscillatory change in internal resistance resulting from vibratory elastic deformation of the thermoelectric elements. This produces a transient in the electrical output with a resultant reduction in generator efficiency. The maximum reduction in efficiency was noted in the 700 cps region. A resonance on the generator shell at 1845 cps was noted, but generator electrical output and efficiency were not affected. Upon discontinuance of the induced vibration, the generators returned to normal operating conditions. While undergoing shock test, a d-c transient was noted at the time of impact, resulting in a slight decrease in effi ciency. The generators immediately returned to their normal operating efficiency. In the acceleration portion of the test no d-c transient was evident in any of the three planes, therefore the generator efficiency remained constant. Steady state conditions were re-established at the start of each new test phase (i.e., changing planes of excitation, changing from shock to vibration, etc.). Thus, any variation from pretest efficiency was attributed to the external load resistance becoming umnatched due to the change in internal resistance. The important result is that complete generator recovery was consistent in all cases and normal operation continued The generator, shell, internal structure and pressure, and the hot and cold junction temperature were not affected during the test. As a result of this test program, it was concluded that the Snap III thermoelectric generator will operate reliably in the enviromnents associated with the Vega and WS117L vehicles. (auth)

Gross, L.W.; Schramm, E.J.

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCARâ??s test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

N.B. Elsner; J.C. Bass; S. Ghamaty; D. Krommenhoek; A. Kushch; D. Snowden; S. Marchetti

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

51

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA SANTA CRUZ THERMOELECTRICS COMBINEDsystem in Burbank, California. Figure 2.6: Front panel andthermal system in Burbank, California. previously discussed.

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Device for use in a furnace exhaust stream for thermoelectric generation  

SciTech Connect

A device for generating voltage or electrical current includes an inner elongated member mounted in an outer elongated member, and a plurality of thermoelectric modules mounted in the space between the inner and the outer members. The outer and/or inner elongated members each include a plurality of passages to move a temperature altering medium through the members so that the device can be used in high temperature environments, e.g. the exhaust system of an oxygen fired glass melting furnace. The modules are designed to include a biasing member and/or other arrangements to compensate for differences in thermal expansion between the first and the second members. In this manner, the modules remain in contact with the first and second members. The voltage generated by the modules can be used to power electrical loads.

Polcyn, Adam D.

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

54

Heat exchanger design for thermoelectric electricity generation from low temperature flue gas streams  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An air-to-oil heat exchanger was modeled and optimized for use in a system utilizing a thermoelectric generator to convert low grade waste heat in flue gas streams to electricity. The NTU-effectiveness method, exergy, and ...

Latcham, Jacob G. (Jacob Greco)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Thermoelectric I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 10, 2012 ... Breaking the Thermal Conductivity Glass Limit: Qiang Li1; 1Brookhaven National Laboratory In the development of thermoelectric materials, ...

56

100-WATT CURIUM-242 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR--CONCEPTUAL DESIGN. SNAP Subtask 5.7 Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A thermoelectric generator which produces 100 watts of electrical power continuously over a six-month operational life in a space environment was designed. It employs the heat produced by the decay of Cm/sup 24/ as the source of power. Uniform output over the operational life of the generator is accomplished by means of a thermally actuated shutter which maintains the hot junction temperature of the thermoelectric conventer at a constunt figure by varying the amount of surplus heat which is radiated directly to space from the heat source. The isotopic heat source is designed to safely contain the Cm/sup 242/ under conditions of launch pad abont and rocket failure, but to burn up upon re-entry to the earth's atmosphere from orbital velocity. (W.L.H.)

Weddell, J.B.; Bloom, J.

1960-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Recovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

]. When waste heat, geothermal heat and solar is the heat source, the cost of thermal input canRecovering Industrial Waste Heat by the Means of Thermoelectricity Spring 2010 Department available thermoelectric modules and to build a thermoelectric power generator demonstration unit

Kjelstrup, Signe

58

Oxide based thermoelectric materials for large scale power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermoelectric (TE) devices are based on the Seebeck and Peltier effects, which describe the conversion between temperature gradient and electricity. The effectiveness of the material performance can be described by ...

Song, Yang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Conversion system overview assessment. Volume 1: solar thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An assessment of thermoelectrics for solar energy conversion is given. There is significant potential for solar thermoelectrics in solar technologies where collector costs are low; e.g., Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and solar ponds. Reports of two studies by manufacturers assessing the cost of thermoelectric generators in large scale production are included in the appendix and several new concepts thermoelectric systems are presented. (WHK)

Jayadev, T. S.; Henderson, J.; Finegold, J.; Benson, D.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

None

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Design and operation of an inert gas facility for thermoelectric generator storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

While the flight hardware is protected by design from the harsh environments of space, its in-air storage often requires special protection from contaminants such as dust, moisture and other gases. One of these components, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) which powers the missions, was deemed particularly vulnerable to pre-launch aging because the generators remain operational at core temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees centigrade throughout the storage period. Any oxygen permitted to enter the devices will react with thermally hot components, preferentially with molybdenum in the insulating foils, and with graphites to form CO/CO{sub 2} gases which are corrosive to the thermopile. It was important therefore to minimize the amount of oxygen which could enter, by either limiting the effective in-leakage areas on the generators themselves, or by reducing the relative amount of oxygen within the environment around the generators, or both. With the generators already assembled and procedures in place to assure minimal in-leakage in handling, the approach of choice was to provide a storage environment which contains significantly less oxygen than normal air. 2 refs.

Goebel, C.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter (Peter) Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

64

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Electrical Cogeneration ……………………. …………… 16 2.4.OptimalELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A thesis submitted inFOR ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL COGENERATION A solar tracker and

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

[Radioisotope thermoelectric generators and ancillary activities]. Monthly technical progress report, 1 April--28 April 1996  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Tehnical progress achieved during this period on radioisotope thermoelectric generators is described under the following tasks: engineering support, safety analysis, qualified unicouple fabrication, ETG fabrication/assembly/test, RTG shipping/launch support, design/review/mission applications, and project management/quality assurance/reliability.

NONE

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Ab-Initio Thermal Conductivity for Thermoelectric Nanostructured ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Energy Nanomaterials. Presentation Title, Ab-Initio Thermal Conductivity for ...

67

Thermal Cycling Effects on the Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type In, Ce based Skutterudite Compounds  

SciTech Connect

N-type In-filled CoSb3 are known skutterudite compounds that have shown promising thermoelectric (TE) properties resulting in high dimensionless figure of merit values at elevated temperatures. Their use in various waste heat recovery applications will require that they survive and operate after exposure to harsh thermal cycling environments. This research focused on uncovering the thermal cycling effects on thermoelectric properties of n-type In0.2Co4Sb12 and In0.2Ce0.15Co4Sb12 skutterudite compositions as well as quantifying their temperature-dependent structural properties (elastic modulus, shear modulus, and Poisson's ratio). It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient and resistivity increased only slightly in the double-filled In,Ce skutterudite materials upon thermal cycling. In the In-filled skutterudites the Seebeck coefficient remained approximately the same on thermal cycling, while electrical resistivity increased significantly after thermal cycling. Results also show that thermal conductivity marginally decreases in the case of In-filled skutterudites, whereas the reduction is more pronounced in In, Ce-based skutterudite compounds. The possible reason for this kind of reduction can be attributed to grain pinning effects due to formation of nano inclusions. High temperature structural property measurements (i.e., Young's modulus and shear modulus) are also reported and the results show that these structural properties decrease slowly as temperature increases and the compounds are structurally stable after numerous thermal cycles.

Biswas, Krishnendu; Subramanian, Mas A.; Good, Morris S.; Roberts, Kamandi C.; Hendricks, Terry J.

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

68

Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

1990-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

69

Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules  

SciTech Connect

The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential for widespread practical TE applications is very large and includes TE generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. TE materials for automotive TEG applications must have good intrinsic performance, be thermomechanically compatible, and be chemically stable in the 400 K to 850 K temperature range. Both n-type and p-type varieties must be available at low cost, easily fabricated, and durable. They must also form robust junctions and develop good interfaces with other materials to permit efficient flows of electrical and thermal energy. Among the TE materials of interest for automotive waste heat recovery systems are the skutterudite compounds, which are the antimony-based transition-metal compounds RTE4Sb12, where R can be an alkali metal (e.g., Na, K), alkaline earth (e.g., Ba), or rare earth (e.g., La, Ce, Yb), and TE can be a transition metal (e.g., Co, Fe). We synthesized a considerable quantity of n-type and p-type skutterudites, fabricated TE modules, incorporated these modules into a prototype TEG, and tested the TEG on a production General Motors (GM) vehicle. We discuss our progress on skutterudite TE module fabrication and present module performance data for electrical power output under simulated operating conditions for automotive waste heat recovery systems. We also present preliminary durability results on our skutterudite modules.

Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Ye, Zuxin [GM Research and Development Center; Moczygemba, Joshua E. [Marlow Industries, Inc; Thompson, Alan [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff W. [Marlow Industries, Inc; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Maloney, Ryan [Michigan State University; Thompson, Travis [Michigan State University; Sakamoto, Jeff [Michigan State University; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Meisner, G P [General Motors Corporation-R& D

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion  

SciTech Connect

The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Ramesh, Ramamoorthy (Moraga, CA); Yu, Choongho (College Station, TX); Scullin, Matthew L. (Berkeley, CA); Huijben, Mark (Enschede, NL)

2012-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

71

Molecular Level Assessment of Thermal Transport and Thermoelectricity in Materials: From Bulk Alloys to Nanostructures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to manipulate material response to dynamical processes depends on the extent of understanding of transport properties and their variation with chemical and structural features in materials. In this perspective, current work focuses on the thermal and electronic transport behavior of technologically important bulk and nanomaterials. Strontium titanate is a potential thermoelectric material due to its large Seebeck coefficient. Here, first principles electronic band structure and Boltzmann transport calculations are employed in studying the thermoelectric properties of this material in doped and deformed states. The calculations verified that excessive carrier concentrations are needed for this material to be used in thermoelectric applications. Carbon- and boron nitride-based nanomaterials also offer new opportunities in many applications from thermoelectrics to fast heat removers. For these materials, molecular dynamics calculations are used to evaluate lattice thermal transport. To do this, first, an energy moment term is reformulated for periodic boundary conditions and tested to calculate thermal conductivity from Einstein relation in various systems. The influences of the structural details (size, dimensionality) and defects (vacancies, Stone-Wales defects, edge roughness, isotopic disorder) on the thermal conductivity of C and BN nanostructures are explored. It is observed that single vacancies scatter phonons stronger than other type of defects due to unsatisfied bonds in their structure. In pristine states, BN nanostructures have 4-6 times lower thermal conductivity compared to C counterparts. The reason of this observation is investigated on the basis of phonon group velocities, life times and heat capacities. The calculations show that both phonon group velocities and life times are smaller in BN systems. Quantum corrections are also discussed for these classical simulations. The chemical and structural diversity that could be attained by mixing hexagonal boron nitride and graphene provide further avenues for tuning thermal and electronic properties. In this work, the thermal conductivity of hybrid graphene/hexagonal-BN structures: stripe superlattices and BN (graphene) dots embedded in graphene (BN) are studied. The largest reduction in thermal conductivity is observed at 50% chemical mixture in dot superlattices. The dot radius appears to have little effect on the magnitude of reduction around large concentrations while smaller dots are more influential at dilute systems.

Kinaci, Alper

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The thermal expansion coefficient as a key design parameter for thermoelectric materials and its relationship to processing-dependent bloating  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a key design parameter for thermoelectric (TE) materials, especially in energy harvesting applications since stresses generated by CTE mismatch, thermal gradients, and thermal transients scale with the CTE of the TE material. For the PbTe PbS-based TE material (Pb 0.95 Sn 0.05 Te) 0.92(PbS) 0.08 0.055 % PbI 2 over the temperature ranges of 293 543 and 293 773 K, a CTE, alpha avg , of 21.4 0.3 x 10-6 K-1 was measured using (1) dilatometry and (2) high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) for powder and bulk specimens. The CTE values measured via dilatometry and HT-XRD are similar to the literature values for other Pb-based chalcogenides. However, the processing technique was found to impact the thermal expansion such that bloating (which leads to a hysteresis in thermal expansion) occurred for hot pressed billets heated to temperatures [603 K while specimens fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering and as-cast specimens did not show a bloating-modified thermal expansion even for temperatures up to 663 K. The relationship of bloating to the processing techniques is discussed, along with a pos- sible mechanism for inhibiting bloating in powder processed specimens.

Ni, Jennifer E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schmidt, Robert [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Chun-I [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hogan, Timothy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern University, Evanston

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S.  

SciTech Connect

There is a myriad of uses to which our country's freshwater supply is currently committed. Together with increasing quantities of consumption, there are growing constraints on water availability. In our future there will be two elements of consumption at the forefront of concern: availability and efficiency. Availability of freshwater is the most important of these and is the subject of this report. To use water efficiently, we must first have it. Efficiency is key to ensuring availability for future needs. As population grows and economic and technology demands increase - especially for thermoelectric power - needs for freshwater will also increase. Thus, using our limited supplies of freshwater must be done as efficiently as possible. Thermoelectric generating industry is the largest user of our nation's water resources, including fresh, surface, ground, and saline water. Saline water use accounts for approximately 30% of thermoelectric use, while the remaining 70% is from freshwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) estimates that thermoelectric generation accounts for roughly 136,000 million gallons per day (MGD), or 39% of freshwater withdrawals. This ranks slightly behind agricultural irrigation as the top source of freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. in 2000. For Americans to preserve their standard of living and maintain a thriving economy it is essential that greater attention be paid to freshwater availability in efforts to meet energy demands - particularly for electric power. According to projections by the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO 2006) anticipated growth of thermoelectric generating capacity will be 22% between 2005 and 2030. In the 2007 Report, EIA estimates that capacity to grow from approximately 709 GW in 2005 to 862 GW in 20303. These large increases in generating capacity will result in increased water demands by thermoelectric power plants and greater competition over water between the energy sector and domestic, commercial, agricultural, industrial, and instream use sectors. The implications of these increased demands have not been adequately researched. This report is a preliminary effort to explore these implications. In addition, since this report was completed in draft form in 2007, there have been several updates and important issues brought to bear on water for energy that should be mentioned. Uncertainties include drought and climate change impacts. Policies such as commitments to Coal-to-Liquids (CTL) quotas; Ethanol production requirements; Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) mandates; increasing nuclear power plant construction; valuing carbon and carbon dioxide emissions all have significant implications on water use and on the need for water in the power sector by 2025.

David Feldman; Amanda Slough; Gary Garrett

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Flexible Micro Thermoelectric Generator based on Electroplated Bi2Te3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present and discuss the fabrication process and the performance of a flexible micro thermoelectric generator with electroplated Bi2Te3 thermocouples in a SU-8 mold. Demonstrator devices generate 278uWcm-2 at dTmeas=40K across the experimental set up. Based on model calculations, a temperature difference of dTG=21.4K across the generator is assumed. Due to the flexible design and the chosen generator materials, the performance stays high even for curved contact surfaces. The measurement results correlate well with the model based design optimization predictions.

Schwyter, E; Durrer, L; Hierold, Ch

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Thermal Energy Harvesting with Thermoelectrics for Self-powered Sensors: With Applications to Implantable Medical Devices, Body Sensor Networks and Aging in Place  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

6! 1.4. Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting for BiomedicalBiomechanical Energy Harvesting: Generating ElectricityP. K. Wright, “Energy Harvesting - A Systems Perspective,”

Chen, Alic

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Anomalously low thermal conductivity and thermoelectric properties of new cationic clathrates in the Sn-In-As-I system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Single-crystal samples of cationic clathrates in the Sn-In-As-I system with different indium contents have been synthesized. Their crystal structure has been analyzed and their thermoelectric properties have been measured. These compounds are found to be n-type semiconductors with high absolute values of the Seebeck coefficient (S = 400-600 {mu}V/K) and anomalously low thermal conductivity ({kappa} {materials. The reasons for the anomalously low thermal conductivity of these semiconductors are discussed and ways for optimizing their thermoelectric properties are shown.

Shevelkov, A. V.; Kelm, E. A.; Olenev, A. V. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kulbachinskii, V. A., E-mail: kulb@mig.phys.msu.ru; Kytin, V. G. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

77

Nanocomposites as thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials have attractive applications in electric power generation and solid-state cooling. The performance of a thermoelectric device depends on the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) of the material, ...

Hao, Qing

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Long-respected international experts on thermoelectrics (Dixon, Ertl and Goldsmid supported by Ure) determine the probable maximum figure of merit (ZT) for fully matured thermoelectric generators as about unity from ordiary temperatures to 2000 K. Thus the maximum efficiency for fully matured thermoelectrics would be approximately 0.414 (l - r/sub T/)/(1.414 + r/sub T/) where r/sub T/ is the ratio of cold and hot junction temperatures. This limitation contrasts with the recent burst of enthusiasm for high-temperature thermoelectrics - based on calculated figures of merit and efficiencies that increase more and more rapidly with rising temperatures. Unfortunately these calculations neglect internal radiation effects which diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K: The effective thermal-conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. Therefore the quotation from Thermoelectricy: Science and Engineering by Heikes and Ure apparently still prevails: ...thermoelectric devices appear difficult to extend in the direction of high temperature, while thermionic devices become inefficient at low temperature. Accordingly consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high-temperature heat sources should include utilization of TEC topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more-efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.

Morris, J.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

Satoh, J.A.

1994-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

80

Economic Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) study. Volume I. ERTG design. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and evaluate an ERTG design for a high power, Curium-244 fueled system based on the tubular thermoelectric module technology; (2) to prepare a program plan for the development of a flight qualified ERTG; and (3) to estimate the costs associated with the production of one, ten and twenty flight qualified ERTG's. This volume presents the Reference Design ERTG approach, the results of the engineering trade studies leading to its selection, and the Second Generation ERTG Design proposed for development. (WHK)

Not Available

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Package O-Ring Seal Material Validation Test was conducted to validate the use of the Butyl material as a primary seal throughout the required temperature range. Three tests were performed at (1) 233 K ({minus}40 {degrees}F), (2) a specified operating temperature, and (3) 244 K ({minus}20 {degrees}F) before returning to room temperature. Helium leak tests were performed at each test point to determine seal performance. The two major test objectives were to establish that butyl rubber material would maintain its integrity under various conditions and within specified parameters and to evaluate changes in material properties.

Adkins, H.E.; Ferrell, P.C.; Knight, R.C.

1994-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

82

(Design, fabricate, and provide engineering support for radiosotope thermoelectric generators for NASA's CRHF AND CASSINI missions)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical progress achieved during the period 11 January through 31 March 1991 on Contract DE-AC03-91SF18852.000 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and ancillary activities is described. The system contract consists of the following tasks: (1) Spacecraft Integration and Liaison; (2) Engineering Support; (3) Safety; (4) Qualify Unicouple Fabrication; (5) ETG Fabrication, Assembly and Test; (6) GSE; (7) RTG Shipping and Launch Support; (8) Designs, Reviews, and Mission Applications; (9) Project Management, Quality Assurance and Reliability; and (H) CAGO Acquisition (Capital Funds). The progress achieved is broken down into these tasks. 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Mass Properties Testing and Evaluation for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

Mass properties (MP) measurements were performed for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG), serial number (S/N) 0X730401, the power system designated for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Measurements were made using new mounting fixtures at the mass properties testing station in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Space and Security Power Systems Facility (SSPSF). The objective of making mass properties measurements was to determine the generator’s flight configured mass and center of mass or center of gravity (CG). Using an extremely accurate platform scale, the mass of the as-tested generator was determined to be 100.117 ± 0.007 lb. Weight accuracy was determined by checking the platform scale with calibrated weights immediately prior to weighing the MMRTG.a CG measurement accuracy was assessed by surrogate testing using an inert mass standard for which the CG could be readily determined analytically. Repeated testing using the mass standard enabled the basic measurement precision of the system to be quantified in terms of a physical confidence interval about the measured CG position. However, repetitious testing with the MMRTG itself was not performed in deference to the gamma and neutron radiation dose to operators and the damage potential to the flight unit from extra handling operations. Since the mass standard had been specially designed to have a total weight and CG location that closely matched the MMRTG, the uncertainties determined from its testing were assigned to the MMRTG as well. On this basis, and at the 99% confidence level, a statistical analysis found the direct, as-measured MMRTG-MSL CG to be located at 10.816 ± 0.0011 in. measured perpendicular from the plane of the lower surface of the generator’s mounting lugs (Z direction), and offset from the generator’s long axis centerline in the X and Y directions by 0.0968 ± 0.0040 in. and 0.0276 ± 0.0026 in., respectively. These uncertainties are based simply on the statistical treatment of results from repetitive testing performed with the mass standard and included position variations that may have occurred during several mounting/dismounting operations of both the mass standard and mounting fixtures. Because of the limited data available, the computed uncertainty intervals reported are likely, although not assuredly, wider than the intervals that would have been found had more extensive data been available. However, these uncertainties do not account for other contributors to measurement uncertainty that might be applicable. These include potential weighing errors, possible tilt of the as-mounted test article, or translation of the measurement results from the MP instrument coordinates to those of the test article. Furthermore, when testing heat producing test articles such as the MMRTG, measurement degradation can occur from thermal expansion/contraction of the mounting fixtures as they heat up or cool and cause a subtle repositioning of the test article. Analyses for such impacts were made and additional uncertainty allowances were conservatively assigned to account for these. A full, detailed description is provided in this report.

Felicione, Frank S.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Development and Demonstration of a Modeling Framework for Assessing the Efficacy of Using Mine Water for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric power plants use large volumes of water for condenser cooling and other plant operations. Traditionally, this water has been withdrawn from the cleanest water available in streams and rivers. However, as demand for electrical power increases it places increasing demands on freshwater resources resulting in conflicts with other off stream water users. In July 2002, NETL and the Governor of Pennsylvania called for the use of water from abandoned mines to replace our reliance on the diminishing and sometimes over allocated surface water resource. In previous studies the National Mine Land Reclamation Center (NMLRC) at West Virginia University has demonstrated that mine water has the potential to reduce the capital cost of acquiring cooling water while at the same time improving the efficiency of the cooling process due to the constant water temperatures associated with deep mine discharges. The objectives of this project were to develop and demonstrate a user-friendly computer based design aid for assessing the costs, technical and regulatory aspects and potential environmental benefits for using mine water for thermoelectric generation. The framework provides a systematic process for evaluating the hydrologic, chemical, engineering and environmental factors to be considered in using mine water as an alternative to traditional freshwater supply. A field investigation and case study was conducted for the proposed 300 MW Beech Hollow Power Plant located in Champion, Pennsylvania. The field study based on previous research conducted by NMLRC identified mine water sources sufficient to reliably supply the 2-3,000gpm water supply requirement of Beech Hollow. A water collection, transportation and treatment system was designed around this facility. Using this case study a computer based design aid applicable to large industrial water users was developed utilizing water collection and handling principals derived in the field investigation and during previous studies of mine water and power plant cooling. Visual basic software was used to create general information/evaluation modules for a range of power plant water needs that were tested/verified against the Beech Hollow project. The program allows for consideration of blending mine water as needed as well as considering potential thermal and environmental benefits that can be derived from using constant temperature mine water. Users input mine water flow, quality, distance to source, elevations to determine collection, transport and treatment system design criteria. The program also evaluates low flow volumes and sustainable yields for various sources. All modules have been integrated into a seamless user friendly computer design aid and user's manual for evaluating the capital and operating costs of mine water use. The framework will facilitate the use of mine water for thermoelectric generation, reduce demand on freshwater resources and result in environmental benefits from reduced emissions and abated mine discharges.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Solar Thermal Generation Technologies: 2006  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

After years of relative inactivity, the solar thermal electric (STE) industry is experiencing renewed activity and investment. The shift is partly due to new interest in large-scale centralized electricity generation, for which STE is well suited and offers the lowest cost for solar-specific renewable portfolio standards. With policymaking and public interest driven by concerns such as global climate change, atmospheric emissions, and traditional fossil fuel price and supply volatility, STE is increasing...

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

86

A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have built and tested a miniaturized, thermoelectric power source that can provide in excess of 450 {micro}W of power in a system size of 4.3cc, for a power density of 107 {micro}W/cc, which is denser than any system of this size previously reported. The system operates on 150mW of thermal input, which for this system was simulated with a resistive heater, but in application would be provided by a 0.4g source of {sup 238}Pu located at the center of the device. Output power from this device, while optimized for efficiency, was not optimized for form of the power output, and so the maximum power was delivered at only 41mV. An upconverter to 2.7V was developed concurrently with the power source to bring the voltage up to a usable level for microelectronics.

Aselage, Terrence Lee; Siegal, Michael P.; Whalen, Scott; Frederick, Scott K.; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

88

Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

Prior, Gregory P

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Economic Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) study. Volume II. Development plan. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop and evaluate an ERTG design for a high power, Curium-244 fueled system based on the tubular thermoelectric module technology; (2) to prepare a program plan for the development of a flight qualified ERTG; and (3) to estimate the costs associated with the production of one, ten and twenty flight qualified ERTG's. This volume summarizes the program plan for developing and producing flight qualified ERTG's. The information presented explains what will be accomplished and when, in relation to the overall technical and management effort - defining a program geared to the design, development, qualification, and delivery within six years of ERTG hardware satisfying specified USAF performance objectives. In addition, cost estimates are supplied for producing ten and twenty follow-on ERTG units based on the Second Generation ERTG Design. (WHK)

Not Available

1973-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

91

A prototype on-line work procedure system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An on-line system to manage work procedures is being developed to support radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) assembly and testing in a new production facility. This system implements production work procedures as interactive electronic documents executed at the work site with no intermediate printed form. It provides good control of the creation and application of work procedures and provides active assistance to the worker in performing them and in documenting the results. An extensive prototype of this system is being evaluated to ensure that it will have all the necessary features and that it will fit the user's needs and expectations. This effort has involved the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) operations organization and technology transfer between Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and EG G Mound Applied Technologies Inc. (Mound) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mound Site. 1 ref.

Kiebel, G.R.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

1995-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

93

Thermally-induced voltage alteration for analysis of ...  

... an image can be generated directly from a thermoelectric potential produced by localized laser heating at the ... Building Energy ... Solar Thermal;

94

FINAL SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT--SNAP 1A RADIOISOTOPE FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

The safety aspects involved in utilizing the Task 2 radioisotope-powered thermoelectric generator in a terrestrial satellite are described. It is based upon a generalized satellite mission having a 600-day orbital lifetime. A description of the basic design of the generator is presented in order to establish the analytical model. This includes the generator design, radiocerium fuel properties, and the fuel core. The transport of the generator to the launch site is examined, including the shipping cask, shipping procedures, and shipping hazards. A description of ground handling and vehicle integration is presented including preparation for fuel transfer, transfer, mating of generators to final stage, mating final stage to booster, and auxiliary support equipment. The flight vehicle is presented to complete the analytical model. Contained in this chapter are descriptions of the booster-sustainer, final stage, propellants, and built-in safety systems. The typical missile range is examined with respect to the launch complex and range safety characteristics. The shielding of the fuel is discussed and includes both dose rates and shield thicknesses required. The bare core, shielded generator, fuel transfer operation and dose rates for accidental conditions are treated. mechanism of re-entry from the successful mission is covered. Radiocerium inventories with respect to time and the chronology of re-entry are specifically treated. The multiplicity of conditions for aborted missions is set forth. The definition of aborted missions is treated first in order to present the initial conditions. Following this, a definition of the forces imposed upon the generator is presented. The aborted missions is presented. A large number of initial vehicle failure cases is narrowed down into categories of consequences. Since stratospheric injection of fuel results in cases where the fuel is not contained after re-entry, an extensive discussion of the fall-out mechanism is presented. (auth)

Dix, G.P.

1960-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials |  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights Highlight Archives News & Events Publications Contact BES Home 04.27.12 Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials Print Text Size: A A A RSS Feeds FeedbackShare Page Scientific Achievement A newly synthesized bulk thermoelectric material that contains nanocrystals with the same orientation and structure as the host material breaks thermoelectric efficiency records by blocking thermal, but not electrical, conductivity. Significance and Impact A new strategy to design inexpensive materials that more efficiently convert heat to electricity. Research Details Thermoelectric materials directly generate electrical power from heat, but

96

SNAP PROGRAMS TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 2, February 1, 1961 through April 30, 1961  

SciTech Connect

Work in the processing of Sr/sup 90/ into heat sources for 4 radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric power generation systems is described. The design and engineering analysis of these thermoelectric generators are discussed. Fuel process flow and associated equipment requirements for remote conversion of Sr/sup 90/ feed material to strontium titanate pellets are covered. Previously evolved technical standards concerning raw fuel material specification were coordinated. (M.C.G.)

West, W.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

High Temperature Modules and Materials for Thermoelectric Power ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We fabricated oxide-based thermoelectric modules for high temperature electrical-power generation. Potentials for a development of a thermoelectric generation ...

98

Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

Becker, D.L.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE's Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford's MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford's calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

Sherrell, D.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Electron-beam processing of kilogram quantities of iridium for radioisotope thermoelectric generator applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Iridium alloys are used as fuel-cladding materials in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Hardware produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been used in Voyagers I and 2, Galilee, and Ulysses spacecraft. An integral part of the production of iridium-sheet metal involves electron-beam (EB) processing. These processes include the degassing of powder-pressed compacts followed by multiple meltings in order to purify 500-g buttons of Ir-0.3% W alloy. Starting in 1972 and continuing into 1992, our laboratory EB processing was Performed (ca. 1970) in a 60-kW (20 kV at 3 A), two-gun system. In 1991, a new 150-kW EB gun facility was installed to complement the older unit. This paper describes how the newly installed system was qualified for production of RTG developmental work is discussed that will potentially improve the existing process by utilizing the capabilities of the new EB system.

Huxford, T.J.; Ohriner, E.K.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

A shielded storage and processing facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generator heat source production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report discusses a shielded storage rack which has been installed as part of the Radioisotope Power Systems Facility (RPSF) at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. The RPSF is designed to replace an existing facility at DOE`s Mound Site near Dayton, Ohio, where General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules are currently assembled and installed into Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG). The overall design goal of the RPSF is to increase annual production throughput, while at the same time reducing annual radiation exposure to personnel. The shield rack design successfully achieved this goal for the Module Reduction and Monitoring Facility (MRMF), which process and stores assembled GPHS modules, prior to their installation into RTGS. The shield rack design is simple and effective, with the result that background radiation levels within Hanford`s MRMF room are calculated at just over three percent of those typically experienced during operation of the existing MRMF at Mound, despite the fact that Hanford`s calculations assume five times the GPHS inventory of that assumed for Mound.

Sherrell, D.L.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test  

SciTech Connect

The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Thermoelectric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates in general to thermoelectric units and more particularly to a tubular thermoelectric unit which includes an array of tandemly arranged radially tapered annular thermoelectric pellets having insulation material of a lower density than the thermoelectric pellets positioned between each pellet. (Official Gazette)

Kim, C.K.

1974-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

106

Apparatus and method for thermal power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant.

Cohen, Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Redding, Arnold H. (Export, PA)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

METHOD OF CONTROLLING TEMPERATURE OF A THERMOELECTRIC ...  

A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency; Electricity Transmission;

108

Vibration Testing of the Pluto/New Horizons Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The Radioisotopic Thermal Generator (RTG) for the Pluto/New Horizons spacecraft was subjected to a flight dynamic acceptance test to demonstrate that it would perform successfully following launch. Seven RTGs of this type had been assembled and tested at Mound, Ohio from 1984 to 1997. This paper chronicles major events in establishing a new vibration test laboratory at the Idaho National Laboratory and the nineteen days of dynamic testing.

Charles D. Griffin

2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Thermoelectric Applications to Truck Essential Power  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subjects covered in this report are: thermoelectrics, 1-kW generator for diesel engine; self-powered heater; power for wireless data transmission; and quantum-well thermoelectrics.

John C. Bass; Norbert B. Elsner

2001-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

110

Thermoelectric I  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 4, 2013 ... Many unconventional electronic structures that increase effective mass are being studied or proposed for high efficiency thermoelectric ...

111

High performance thermoelectric nanocomposite device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric device includes a nanocomposite material with nanowires of at least one thermoelectric material having a predetermined figure of merit, the nanowires being formed in a porous substrate having a low thermal conductivity and having an average pore diameter ranging from about 4 nm to about 300 nm.

Yang, Jihui (Lakeshore, CA); Snyder, Dexter D. (Birmingham, MI)

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

112

Method and apparatus for thermal power generation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component.

Mangus, James D. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter - Energy ...  

A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels; Building Energy Efficiency;

114

SNAP-21 program, Phase II. Deep sea radioisotope-fueled thermoelectric generator power supply system. Final design description, 10-watt system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The SNAP-21 10-W system provides electrical power for use under the surface of the sea. It functions by converting the heat from a decaying radioisotope fuel into useful electrical energy. This heat energy is converted into electrical energy by a thermoelectric generator. Semiconductor-type thermoelectric materials, maintained in a temperature gradient, accomplish the conversion. The isotopic fuel supplies heat to the thermoelectric materials and sea water acts as the heat sink to maintain the temperature gradient. Other components are employed to increase efficiency and condition the electrical output to the desired form. The components performing these functions are enclosed in a pressure vessel which protects them from sea water pressure and exposure. No external inputs are required to maintain operation of the system. With this type of mechanically-static, unsupported operation, long life with no maintenance is achieved.

Wickenberg, R.F.; Harris, W.W.

1969-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material - Energy ...  

A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase ...

116

Thermoelectric III  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Mar 5, 2013 ... Thermoelectric materials in energy conversion are more and more ... The main scheme is to enhance the ZT in these materials systems by ...

117

Gravity Wave Generation by a Three-Dimensional Thermal Forcing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal forcing is one of the mechanisms of wave generation in convection. Although it does not account for all the wave generation mechanisms, thermal forcing is a good proxy for estimating the gravity wave spectrum forced by convection. This ...

Jadwiga H. Beres

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Design of Thermal Power Generation Device for Vehicle Recharging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With thermal power generation as the basis, vehicle heat sources (such as engine and exhaust pipe) as the carrier, and AT89C52 as the control center, this paper has designed a thermal power generation device for vehicle recharging. This device consists ... Keywords: thermal power generation, power supply for recharging, vehicle devices, design

Hong Fang

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Techno-Economic Feasibility of Highly Efficient Cost-Effective Thermoelectric-SOFC Hybrid Power Generation Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems have the potential to generate exhaust gas streams of high temperature, ranging from 400 to 800 C. These high temperature gas streams can be used for additional power generation with bottoming cycle technologies to achieve higher system power efficiency. One of the potential candidate bottoming cycles is power generation by means of thermoelectric (TE) devices, which have the inherent advantages of low noise, low maintenance and long life. This study was to analyze the feasibility of combining coal gas based SOFC and TE through system performance and cost techno-economic modeling in the context of multi-MW power plants, with 200 kW SOFC-TE module as building blocks. System and component concepts were generated for combining SOFC and TE covering electro-thermo-chemical system integration, power conditioning system (PCS) and component designs. SOFC cost and performance models previously developed at United Technologies Research Center were modified and used in overall system analysis. The TE model was validated and provided by BSST. The optimum system in terms of energy conversion efficiency was found to be a pressurized SOFC-TE, with system efficiency of 65.3% and cost of $390/kW of manufacturing cost. The pressurization ratio was approximately 4 and the assumed ZT of the TE was 2.5. System and component specifications were generated based on the modeling study. The major technology and cost barriers for maturing the system include pressurized SOFC stack using coal gas, the high temperature recycle blowers, and system control design. Finally, a 4-step development roadmap is proposed for future technology development, the first step being a 1 kW proof-of-concept demonstration unit.

Jifeng Zhang; Jean Yamanis

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

120

Development of Heusler-type Fe 2 VAl alloys for thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, A Heusler alloy, Fe2VAl, is a promising candidate for thermoelectric power generation because of its high thermoelectric power ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Modeling the thermoelectric properties of bulk and nanocomposite thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are materials which are capable of converting heat directly into electricity. They have long been used in specialized fields where high reliability is needed, such as space power generation. Recently, ...

Minnich, Austin (Austin Jerome)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

DESIGN STUDY OF PORTABLE THERMOELECTRIC NUCLEAR SYSTEMS  

SciTech Connect

Design studies were performed and costs were estimated for an air transportable, 10 Mw(t), pressurized light water thermal circulation reactor, combined with a direct conversion thermoelectric generator and static electrical inversion equipment. This TCR-TE'' concept appears to have potential for ultimate use as a remote unmanned power station. Based on an extrapolation of present reactor technology and on assumed thermoelectric materials properties forecasted to January 1, 1963, a net a-c electrical output of 315 Kw is estimated, assuming the use of 80 deg F local water for cooling purposes. An alternate concept using 80 deg F air for cooling produces 271 Kw, net. These electrical output figures can be improved significantly through a recommended research and development effort. The design and construction of a prototype plant is also recommended. (auth)

Chajson, L.; DelCampo, A.R.; Kellogg, H.B. et al

1961-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

QUANTUM WELLS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES FOR DIESEL ENGINES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are utilized for power generation in remote locations, on spacecraft used for interplanetary exploration, and in places where waste heat can be recovered.

Ghamaty, Saeid

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

124

GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator  

SciTech Connect

The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

Not Available

1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

High performance Na-doped PbTe-PbS thermoelectric materials: electronic density of states modification and shaped-controlled nanostructures.  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric heat-to-power generation is an attractive option for robust and environmentally friendly renewable energy production. Historically, the performance of thermoelectric materials has been limited by low efficiencies, related to the thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT. Nanostructuring thermoelectric materials have shown to enhance ZT primarily via increasing phonon scattering, beneficially reducing lattice thermal conductivity. Conversely, density-of-states (DOS) engineering has also enhanced electronic transport properties. However, successfully joining the two approaches has proved elusive. Herein, we report a thermoelectric materials system whereby we can control both nanostructure formations to effectively reduce thermal conductivity, while concurrently modifying the electronic structure to significantly enhance thermoelectric power factor. We report that the thermoelectric system PbTe-PbS 12% doped with 2% Na produces shape-controlled cubic PbS nanostructures, which help reduce lattice thermal conductivity, while altering the solubility of PbS within the PbTe matrix beneficially modifies the DOS that allow for enhancements in thermoelectric power factor. These concomitant and synergistic effects result in a maximum ZT for 2% Na-doped PbTe-PbS 12% of 1.8 at 800 K.

Girard, S. N.; He, J.; Zhou, X.; Shoemaker, D.; Jaworski, C. M.; Uher, C.; Dravid, V. P.; Heremans, J. P.; Kanatzidis, M. G. (Materials Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.); (Univ. Michigan-Ann Arbor); (Ohio State Univ.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Thermoelectric system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In one particular embodiment, an internal combustion engine is provided. The engine comprises a block, a head, a piston, a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head, and at least one thermoelectric device positioned between the combustion chamber and the head. In this particular embodiment, the thermoelectric device is in direct contact with the combustion chamber. In another particular embodiment, a cylinder head configured to sit atop a cylinder bank of an internal combustion engine is provided. The cylinder head comprises a cooling channel configured to receive cooling fluid, valve seats configured for receiving intake and exhaust valves, and thermoelectric devices positioned around the valve seats.

Reiners, Eric A. (Washington, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL); Fei, Dong (Peoria, IL); McGilvray, Andrew N. (East Peoria, IL)

2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Device for thermal transfer and power generation  

SciTech Connect

A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

128

Creep properties of forged 2219 T6 aluminum alloy shell of general-purpose heat source-radioisotope thermoelectric generator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The shell (2219 T6 aluminum forging) of the General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator was designed to retain the generator under sufficient elastic stress to secure it during space flight. A major concern was the extent to which the elastic stress would relax by creep. To determine acceptability of the shell construction material, the following proof tests simulating service were performed: 600 h of testing at 270/sup 0/C under 24.1 MPa stress followed by 10,000 h of storage at 177/sup 0/C under 55.1 MPa, both on the ground; and 10,000 h of flight in space at 270/sup 0/C under 34.4 MPa stress. Additionally, systematic creep testing was performed at 177 and 260/sup 0/C to establish creep design curves. The creep tests performed at 177/sup 0/C revealed comparatively large amounts of primary creep followed by small amounts of secondary creep. The early creep is believed to be abetted by unstable substructures that are annealed out during testing at this temperature. The creep tests performed at 270/sup 0/C showed normal primary creep followed by large amounts of secondary creep. Duplicate proof tests simulating the ground exposure conditions gave results that were in good agreement. The proof test simulating space flight at 270/sup 0/C gave 0.11% primary creep followed by 0.59% secondary creep. About 10% of the second-stage creep was caused by four or five instantaneous strains, which began at the 4500-h mark. One or two of these strain bursts, occurred in each of several other tests at 177 and 260/sup 0/C but were assessed as very moderate in magnitude. The effect is attributable to a slightly microsegregated condition remaining from the original cast structure.

Hammond, J.P.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

An air-breathing, portable thermoelectric power generator based on a microfabricated silicon combustor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The global consumer demand for portable electronic devices is increasing. The emphasis on reducing size and weight has put increased pressure on the power density of available power storage and generation options, which ...

Marton, Christopher Henry

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Thermal energy from a biogas engine/generator system  

SciTech Connect

A biogas fueled engine/generator equipped with heat recovery apparatus and thermal storage is described. The thermal energy is used to fuel a liquid fuel plant. Heat recovery is quantified and the static and dynamic performance of the thermal storage is described. At 1260 rpm the engine/generator produces 21 kW of electric power and 2500 kJ/min of thermal energy.

Stahl, T.; Fischer, J.R.; Harris, F.D.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Progress report No. 29 for a program of thermoelectric generator testing and RTG degradation mechanisms evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity measurements of the P-type and N-type selenide alloys after 17000 hours and 4100 hours, respectively, are in good agreement with the 3M Co data. Ingradient testing of N-legs after 6600 hours show comparable performance to the reported 3M data. Ingradient testing of P-legs at accelerated test conditions, have completed 3600 hours and performance shows reasonable correlation with accelerated temperature and current gradients. N-type samples from both the Thermal Conductivity Tests and Ingradient Performance Tests were removed from test for examination. All samples were found to be severely cracked upon removal from the test fixtures. Metallurgical and x-ray diffraction analysis showed (1) extensive cracking had occurred in the lower half (cold end) of the legs and (2) a crystallographic phase change occurred in the upper half (hot end) of the legs from monoclinic to orthorhombic. It is postulated that the phase change that occurs on heating aggravates the micro-cracks that exist in the as fabricated leg. An initial evaluation of the performance of the Voyager 1 and 2 RTG's after 12,000 hours of operation versus the DEGRA performance prediction code, shows excellent agreement. (WHK)

Stapfer, G.; Garvey, L.

1979-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System licensed hardware second certification test series and package shock mount system test  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a summary of two separate drop test a e performed in support of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System (RTGTS). The first portion of this paper presents the second series of drop testing required to demonstrate that the RTG package design meets the requirements of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, ``Part 71`` (10 CFR 71). Results of the first test series, performed in July 1994, demonstrated that some design changes were necessary. The package design was modified to improve test performance and the design changes were incorporated into the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP). The second full-size certification test article (CTA-2) incorporated the modified design and was tested at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. With the successful completion of the test series, and pending DOE Office of Facility Safety Analysis approval of the SARP, a certificate of compliance will be issued for the RTG package allowing its use. The second portion of this paper presents the design and testing of the RTG Package Mount System. The RTG package mount was designed to protect the RTG from excessive vibration during transport, provide shock protection during on/off loading, and provide a mechanism for moving the RTG package with a forklift. Military Standard (MIL-STD) 810E, Transit Drop Procedure (DOE 1989), was used to verify that the shock limiting system limited accelerations in excess of 15 G`s at frequencies below 150 Hz. Results of the package mount drop tests indicate that an impact force of 15 G`s was not exceeded in any test from a free drop height of 457 mm (18 in.).

Ferrell, P.C.; Moody, D.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Vehicle Technologies Office: 2009 Thermoelectrics Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2009 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I Thermoelectric Manufacturing Thursday, October 1, 2009...

134

Thermoelectric material development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A search was made for improved TE materials that could have higher efficiency than state-of-the-art SiGe alloys used in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators. A new family of materials having the skutterudite structure was identified (cubic space group Im3, formula (Fe, Co, Ni)As{sub 3}). Properties of n-type IrSb{sub 3}, CoSb{sub 3}, and their solid solutions were investigated. Pt, Te, Tl, and In were used as dopants. The thermal conductivity was reduced by about 70% for the solid solutions vs the binary compounds. A maximum ZT of about 0.36 was measured on Co-rich solid solutions which is 160% improved over that of the binary compounds.

Vandersande, J.W.; Allevato, C.; Caillat, T.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

BSA 09-27: Synthesis of High-Efficiency Thermoelectric Materials  

Thermoelectric materials must exhibit both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity in order to usefully convert heat to electricity ...

137

Thermoelectric power source utilizing ambient energy harvesting for remote sensing and transmitting  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for providing electrical energy to an electrical device wherein the electrical energy is originally generated from temperature differences in an environment having a first and a second temperature region. A thermoelectric device having a first side and a second side wherein the first side is in communication with a means for transmitting ambient thermal energy collected or rejected in the first temperature region and the second side is in communication with the second temperature region thereby producing a temperature gradient across the thermoelectric device and in turn generating an electrical current.

DeSteese, John G

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

Thermal Conduction in Aligned Carbon Nanotube–Polymer Nanocomposites with High Packing Density  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanostructured composites containing aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are very promising as interface materials for electronic systems and thermoelectric power generators. We report the first data for the thermal conductivity ...

Marconnet, Amy M.

139

Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

structure as the host material breaks thermoelectric efficiency records by blocking thermal, but not electrical, conductivity. Significance and Impact A new strategy to design...

140

The Role of Spark Plasma Sintering in Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Role of Spark Plasma Sintering in Thermoelectric Nanocomposites: Effect of Nanostructures on Lattice Thermal Conductivity. Author(s) ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act Baseload CSP SunShot Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative CSP Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Deployment

142

Superlattices in thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The electrical conductivity, thermopower and the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of a superlattice, are calculated with the electric field and the thermal gradient applied parallel to the interfaces. Tunneling between quantum wells is included. The broadening of the lowest subband when the period of the superlattice is decreased produces a reduction of the thermoelectric figure of merit. However, we found that a moderate increase of the figure of merit may be expected for intermediate values of the period, due to the enhancement of the density of states produced by the superlattice structure.

Sofo, J.O.; Mahan, G.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

A linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach to optimization of thermoelectric devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Improvement of thermoelectric systems in terms of performance and range of applications relies on progress in materials science and optimization of device operation. In this chapter, we focuse on optimization by taking into account the interaction of the system with its environment. For this purpose, we consider the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator coupled to two temperature baths via heat exchangers characterized by a thermal resistance, and we analyze its working conditions. Our main message is that both electrical and thermal impedance matching conditions must be met for optimal device performance. Our analysis is fundamentally based on linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics using the force-flux formalism. An outlook on mesoscopic systems is also given.

Ouerdane, H; Apertet, Y; Michot, A; Abbout, A

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Transport Properties of Bulk Thermoelectrics An International Round-Robin Study, Part I: Seebeck Coefficient and Electrical Resistivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.

Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, Jeff [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Semiclassical model for thermoelectric transport in nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanocomposites (NCs) has recently been proposed and experimentally demonstrated to be potentially high-efficiency thermoelectric materials by reducing the thermal conductivity through phonon-interface scattering and possibly ...

Zhou, Jun

146

THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

Jordan, K.C.

1958-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

147

Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely.

Kushch, Aleksandr S.; Bass, John C.; Ghamaty, Saeid; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bergstrand, Richard A.; Furrow, David; Melvin, Mike

2002-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

148

An Innovative System for the Efficient and Effective Treatment of Non-Traditional Waters for Reuse in Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study assessed opportunities for improving water quality associated with coal-fired power generation including the use of non-traditional waters for cooling, innovative technology for recovering and reusing water within power plants, novel approaches for the removal of trace inorganic compounds from ash pond effluents, and novel approaches for removing biocides from cooling tower blowdown. This research evaluated specifically designed pilot-scale constructed wetland systems for treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters for reuse in thermoelectric power generation and other purposes. The overall objective of this project was to decrease targeted constituents in non-traditional waters to achieve reuse criteria or discharge limitations established by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Clean Water Act (CWA). The six original project objectives were completed, and results are presented in this final technical report. These objectives included identification of targeted constituents for treatment in four non-traditional water sources, determination of reuse or discharge criteria for treatment, design of constructed wetland treatment systems for these non-traditional waters, and measurement of treatment of targeted constituents in non-traditional waters, as well as determination of the suitability of the treated non-traditional waters for reuse or discharge to receiving aquatic systems. The four non-traditional waters used to accomplish these objectives were ash basin water, cooling water, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) water, and produced water. The contaminants of concern identified in ash basin waters were arsenic, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. Contaminants of concern in cooling waters included free oxidants (chlorine, bromine, and peroxides), copper, lead, zinc, pH, and total dissolved solids. FGD waters contained contaminants of concern including arsenic, boron, chlorides, selenium, mercury, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and zinc. Similar to FGD waters, produced waters contained contaminants of concern that are predominantly inorganic (arsenic, cadmium, chlorides, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, sulfide, zinc, total dissolved solids), but also contained some organics (benzene, PAHs, toluene, total organic carbon, total suspended solids, and oil and grease). Constituents of concern that may cause chemical scaling, biofouling and corrosion, such as pH, hardness and ionic strength, and nutrients (P, K, and N) may also be found in all four non-traditional waters. NPDES permits were obtained for these non-traditional waters and these permit limits are summarized in tabular format within this report. These limits were used to establish treatment goals for this research along with toxicity values for Ceriodaphnia dubia, water quality criteria established by the US EPA, irrigation standards established by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), and reuse standards focused on minimization of damage to the power plant by treated waters. Constructed wetland treatment systems were designed for each non-traditional water source based on published literature reviews regarding remediation of the constituents of concern, biogeochemistry of the specific contaminants, and previous research. During this study, 4 non-traditional waters, which included ash basin water, cooling water, FGD water and produced water (PW) were obtained or simulated to measure constructed wetland treatment system performance. Based on data collected from FGD experiments, pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment systems can decrease aqueous concentrations of elements of concern (As, B, Hg, N, and Se). Percent removal was specific for each element, including ranges of 40.1% to 77.7% for As, 77.6% to 97.8% for Hg, 43.9% to 88.8% for N, and no measureable removal to 84.6% for Se. Other constituents of interest in final outflow samples should have aqueous characteristics sufficient for discharge, with the exception of chlorides (<2000 mg/L). Based on total dissolved solids, co-

John Rodgers; James Castle

2008-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

149

Standard thermal energy group structure for generation of thermal group constants from ENDF/B data  

SciTech Connect

The final specifications of a standard energy group structure for the generation of thermal group constants from ENDF/B data are presented. The report represents the work of a committee appointed by the Codes and Formats Subcommittee of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group and is a parallel effort to work being done in the epithermal energy range. The thermal energy group structure specified in this report was accepted November 10, 1972, by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group as the standard for generation of thermal group constants from ENDF/B data. The standard thermal group structure specified in this report is consistent with past design experience and thermal spectrum codes, and incorporates specific features for effects known to be important in nuclear design applications in the thermal energy range. Specific recommendations are made as to methods to be used for generation of thermal group constants. (auth)

Finch, D.R.

1974-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Economical operation of thermal generating units integrated with smart houses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an economic optimal operation strategy for thermal power generation units integrated with smart houses. With the increased competition in retail and power sector reasoned by the deregulation and liberalization of power market make ... Keywords: particle swarm optimization, renewable energy sources, smart grid, smart house, thermal unit commitment

Shantanu Chakraborty; Takayuki Ito; Tomonobu Senjyu

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been proven that the maximum cooling temperature of a thermoelectric material can be increased by using either pulsed operation or graded Seebeck profiles. In this paper, we show that the maximum cooling temperature can be further increased by the pulsed operation of optimal inhomogeneous thermoelectric materials. A random sampling method is used to obtain the optimal electrical conductivity profile of inhomogeneous materials, which can achieve a much higher cooling temperature than the best uniform materials under the steady-state condition. Numerical simulations of pulsed operation are then carried out in the time domain. In the limit of low thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT, the finite-difference time-domain simulations are verified by an analytical solution for homogeneous material. This numerical method is applied to high ZT BiTe materials and simulations show that the effective figure-of-merit can be improved by 153 % when both optimal graded electrical conductivity profiles and pulsed operation are used. 1.

Q Zhou; Z Bian; A Shakouri

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Thermal Decomposition of Furan Generates Propargyl Radicals  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of furan has been studied by a 1 mm x 2 cm tubular silicon carbide reactor, C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O + {Delta} {yields} products. Unlike previous studies, these experiments are able to identify the initial furan decomposition products. Furan is entrained in either He or Ar carrier gas and is passed through a heated (1600 K) SiC tubular reactor. Furan decomposes during transit through the tubular reactor (approximately 65 {micro}s) and exits to a vacuum chamber. Within one nozzle diameter of leaving the nozzle, the gases cool to less than 50 K, and all reactions cease. The resultant molecular beam is interrogated by photoionization mass spectroscopy as well as infrared spectroscopy. Earlier G2(MP2) electronic structure calculations predicted that furan will thermally decompose to acetylene, ketene, carbon monoxide, and propyne at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, these calculations forecast that propargyl radical could result. We observe all of these species (see Scheme 1). As the pressure in the tubular reactor is raised, the photoionization mass spectra show clear evidence for the formation of aromatic hydrocarbons.

Vasiliou, A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Daily, J. W.; Ellison, G. B.

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Bio-inspired methods for fast and robust arrangement of thermoelectric modulus  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper aims to evaluate the ability of some well-known bio-inspired metaheuristics for optimal arrangement of thermoelectric cells mounted in a thermal component. In real life applications, proper arrangement of thermoelectric modules plays a pivotal ...

Ahmad Mozaffari; Ali M. Goudarzi; Alireza Fathi; Pendar Samadian

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Segregated Network Polymer-Carbon Nanotubes Composites For Thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polymers are intrinsically poor thermal conductors, which are ideal for thermoelectrics, but low electrical conductivity and thermopower have excluded them as feasible candidates as thermoelectric materials in the past. However, recent progress in polymer technology, particularly nanomaterial-polymer composites, can bring them into degenerate semiconductor or metallic regimes by incorporating a small amount of conductive filler. I demonstrate that such polymer nanocomposites can be viable for light-weight and economical thermoelectrics by using a segregated network approach for the nanocomposite synthesis. The thermoelectric properties were further improved by a change of stabilizer and drying conditions. The thermoelectric properties of the segregated network nanocomposites were measured for carbon nanotubes and the thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, was calculated at room temperature. The influence on thermoelectric properties from filler concentration, stabilizer materials and drying condition are also discussed.

Kim, Dasaroyong

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Thermal energy storage for power generation  

SciTech Connect

Studies strongly indicate that the United States will face widespread electrical power constraints in the 1990s, with most regions of the country experiencing capacity shortages by the year 2000. In many cases, the demand for increased power will occur during intermediate and peak demand periods. Much of this demand is expected to be met by oil- and natural gas-fired Brayton cycle turbines and combined-cycle plants. While natural gas is currently plentiful and reasonably priced, the availability of an economical long-term coal-fired option for peak and intermediate load power generation will give electric power utilities an option in case either the availability or cost of natural gas should deteriorate. 54 refs., 5 figs., 17 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Brown, D.R.; Sathyanarayana, K.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

SNAP 7 PROGRAM--TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 5, November 1, 1961 to January 31, 1962  

SciTech Connect

The SNAP 7A battery and converter were subjected to the required shock, vibration and temperature teats. The generator was fueled, postfueling radiation levels were checked and the generator was integrated into the complete SNAP 7A system. After the completion of acceptance tests, the SNAP 7A system was installed in a buoy which, in turn, was anchored in the bay where it will be subjected to further evaluation. The SNAP 7C generator was shipped for transport to Antarctica. The generator will power a five-watt U. S. Navy remote weather station. Tests were also conducted to determine the operational characteristics of SNAP 7B and 7D thermoelectric couples. Also, the reliability model of the generator was operated at high temperature for 23 days. The electrical, converter and battery specifications for the SNAP 7D system were completed and released. The primary effort in the fael processing phase of the program was to provide the necessary liaison with the personnel installing the processing equipment. Maintenance and checkout guides were written to assure satisfactory installation and continued performance throughout the fuel processing span. An operation procedure guide was written to describe the engineering concept of the fuel processing operation. The guide was written for the personnel who will be conducting the fuel processing operation. (auth)

McDonald, W.A.

1962-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

157

Studies of Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and Devices for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... into thermoelectric devices to show excellent power generation and cooling ... Property in Grain Boundary Character Distribution-Optimized Ni-based Alloy.

158

Progress report No. 41 for a program of thermoelectric generator testing and RTG degradation-mechanisms evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Sublimation tests conducted on Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ coated SiGe (78%-22%) legs and SiMo hot shoes produced by G.E. were continued during this reporting period. The present test time for the SiGe legs is 1623 hours, while that for the SiMo hot-shoes is 1028 hours. No unexpected results have been observed. G.E.'s conjecture that the coatings on the SiGe legs which we presently have on test are faulty is confirmed, as this material has displayed coating failure on all n-doped samples at 1150/sup 0/C with failures beginning to show at 1100/sup 0/C. No coating failures have been observed on the hot shoes on test. Thermal conductivity tests conducted on SiGe (78% to 22%) material were extended to over 6000 hours with excellent agreement with MHW results. Testing of the 4 couple module PR-1 has been conducted for over 2,000 hours with similar agreement with past MHW tests. Testing of the Q1-A generator is continuing. The present test time is 33,632 hours. The performance of the generator remains smooth and continuous. Testing of the S/N-1 and S/N-3 eighteen couple modules has been extended to 35,105 hours and 32,403 hours, respectively. As with the Q1-A generator, the performance of these modules remains steady and smooth. Comparisons between computer predictions and the actual performance of the RTGs aboard the Voyager I and II spacecrafts has been extended to approximately four years. The agreement with prediction, in both cases, is within 0.5 percent. The corresponding comparisons for the LES-8 and LES-9 RTGs are for over five years with the same excellent agreement.

Shields, V.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Vehicle Technologies Office: 2nd Thermoelectrics Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2011 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I NSFDOE Thermoelectrics Partnership Wednesday, January 5, 2012...

160

Improvement of thermoelectric properties for half-Heusler TiNiSn by interstitial Ni defects  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized off-stoichiometric Ti-Ni-Sn half-Heusler thermoelectrics in order to investigate the relation between randomly distributed defects and thermoelectric properties. A small change in the composition of Ti-Ni-Sn causes a remarkable change in the thermal conductivity. An excess content of Ni realizes a low thermal conductivity of 2.93 W/mK at room temperature while keeping a high power factor. The low thermal conductivity originates in the defects generated by an excess content of Ni. To investigate the detailed defect structure, we have performed first-principles calculations and compared with x ray photoemission spectroscopy measurement. Based on these analyses, we conclude that the excess Ni atoms randomly occupy the vacant sites in the half-Heusler structure, which play as phonon scattering centers, resulting in significant improvement of the figure of merit without any substitutions of expensive heavy elements, such as Zr and Hf.

Hazama, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Masato; Asahi, Ryoji [Toyota Central R and D Labs., Inc., Nagakute, Aichi 480-1192 (Japan); Takeuchi, Tsunehiro [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Numerical study of the thermoelectric power factor in ultra-thin Si nanowires  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Low dimensional structures have demonstrated improved thermoelectric (TE) performance because of a drastic reduction in their thermal conductivity, ż l . This has been observed for a variety of materials, even for traditionally ... Keywords: Atomistic, Boltzmann transport, Nanowire, Seebeck coefficient, Silicon, Thermoelectric power factor, Thermoelectrics, Tight-binding, ZT, sp3d5s*

Neophytos Neophytou; Hans Kosina

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Application of field-modulated generator systems to dispersed solar thermal electric generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Parabolic Dish-Electric Transport concept for dispersed solar thermal generation is considered. In this concept the power generated by 15 kWe Solar Generation Units is electrically collected in a large plant. Various approaches are possible for the conversion of mechanical shaft output of the heat engines to electricity. This study focuses on the Application of Field Modulated Generation System (FMGS) for that purpose. Initially the state-of-the-art of FMGS is presented, and the application of FMGS to dispersed solar thermal electric generation is investigated. This is followed by the definition of the control and monitoring requirements for solar generation system. Then comparison is made between FMGS approach and other options. Finally, the technology developmental needs are identified.

Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

1979-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

Combustion Synthesis of Doped Thermoelectric Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) was used to prepare silver doped calcium cobaltates (Ca1.24- xAgxCo1.62O3.86, x = 0.03 - 0.12) powders. SHS is a simple and economic process to synthesize ceramic materials with minimum energy requirements. The heat generated by the SHS reaction can sustain the propagation of the reaction front and convert reactants to desired products. The effect of doping level on thermoelectric properties was investigated in this study. Results show the substitution of calcium by silver decreases the thermal conductivity significantly. XRD and surface area measurements show synthesized powders are phase pure and have large specific surface areas.

Selig, Jiri [Lamar University; Lin, Sidney [Lamar University; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Johnson, D Ray [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

POTENTIAL THERMOELECTRIC APPLICATIONS IN DIESEL VEHICLES  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Novel thermodynamic cycles developed by BSST provide improvements by factors of approximately 2 in cooling, heating and power generation efficiency of solid-state thermoelectric systems. The currently available BSST technology is being evaluated in automotive development programs for important new applications. Thermoelectric materials are likely to become available that further increase performance by a comparable factor. These major advancements should allow the use of thermoelectric systems in new applications that have the prospect of contributing to emissions reduction, fuel economy, and improved user comfort. Potential applications of thermoelectrics in diesel vehicles are identified and discussed. As a case in point, the history and status of the Climate Controlled Seat (CCS) system from Amerigon, the parent of BSST, is presented. CCS is the most successful and highest production volume thermoelectric system in vehicles today. As a second example, the results of recent analyses on electric power generation from vehicle waste heat are discussed. Conclusions are drawn as to the practicality of waste power generation systems that incorporate BSST's thermodynamic cycle and advanced thermoelectric materials.

Crane, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

SNAP 7 PROGRAM: TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 4, August 1, 1961-October 31, 1961  

SciTech Connect

Progress during the period includes completion of the SNAP 7C system tests, completion of safety analysis for the SNAP 7A and C systems, assembly and initial testing of SNAP 7A, assembly of a modified reliability model, and assembly of a 10-W generator. Other activities include completion of thermal and safety analyses for SNAP 7B and D generators and fuel processing for these generators. (J.R.D.)

West, W.S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

167

Silicon-germanium/gallium phosphide material in high power density thermoelectric modules. Final report, February 1980--September 1981  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report of work on the characterization of an improved Si-Ge alloy and the fabrication of thermoelectric devices. The improved Si-Ge alloy uses a small addition of GaP in n- and p- type 80 at.% Si-20 at.% Ge; this addition reduces the thermal conductivity, thereby increasing its figure of merit and conversion efficiency. The thermoelectric devices fabricated include multicouples intended for use in Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and ring-type modules intended for use with nuclear reactor heat sources. This report summarizes the effort in the material as well as the device areas and discusses individual phases of each area. Results should form basis for further effort.

Not Available

1981-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

168

Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal paths can be orthogonal due to off-diagonal thermoelectricity (ODTE). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for device applications and describe a search for suitable thermoelectric properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find, at 300K for diagonal (ordinary) thermoelectricity (DTE), the general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity varies linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping, but with a proportionality in excess of a prediction from theory. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable in its consequences for applications in DTE and ODTE. A standard model suggests that conduction by carriers of both signs occurs in these polymers, which thus leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also discuss polyacetylene (which is not air-stable), where this ambipolar conduction does not occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

Mateeva, N.; Testardi, L. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States); Niculescu, H. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida A and M Univ./Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States) Coll. of Engineering; Schlenoff, J. [TecOne, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States)]|[Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States). Chemistry Dept.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Development & experimental validation of a SINDA/FLUINT thermal/fluid/electrical model of a multi-tube AMTEC cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cell development has received increased attention and funding in the space power community because of several desirable performance characteristics compared to current radioisotope thermoelectric generation and solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation. AMTEC cell development is critically dependent upon the ability to predict thermal

Terry J. Hendricks; Chris A. Borkowski; Chendong Huang

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermal energy storage for coal-fired power generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents an engineering and economic evaluation of using thermal energy storage (TES) with coal-fired conventional and combined cycle power plants. In the first case, conventional pulverized coal combustion equipment was assumed to continuously operate to heat molten nitrate salt which was then stored in a tank. During intermediate-load demand periods, hot salt was withdrawn from storage and used to generate steam for a Rankine steam power cycle. This allowed the coal-fired salt heater to be approximately one-third the size of a coal-fired boiler in a conventional cycling plant. The use of nitrate salt TES also reduced the levelized cost of power by between 5% and 24% depends on the operating schedule. The second case evaluate the use of thermal energy storage with an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this concept, the nitrate salt was heated by a combination of the gas turbine exhaust and the hot fuel gas. The IGCC plant also contained a low-temperature storage unit that uses a mixture of oil and rock as the thermal storage medium. Thermal energy stored in the low-temperature TES was used to preheat the feedwater after it leaves the condenser and to produce process steam for other applications in the IGCC plant. This concept study also predicted a 5% to 20% reduction in levelized cost of power compared to other coal-fired alternatives. If significant escalation rates in the price of fuel were assumed, the concept could be competitive with natural-gas-fired intermediate-load power generation. A sensitivity analysis of using a direct-contact heat exchanger instead of the conventional finned-tube design showed a significant reduction in the installed capital cost. 3 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

Drost, M.K.; Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Thermoelectric materials development. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A systematic search for advanced thermoelectric materials was initiated at JPL several years ago to evaluate candidate materials which includes consideration of the following property attributes: (1) semiconducting properties; (2) large Seebeck coefficient; (3) high carrier mobility and high electrical conductivity; (4) low lattice thermal conductivity; and (5) chemical stability and low vapor pressure. Through this candidate screening process, JPL identified several families of materials as promising candidates for improved thermoelectric materials including the skutterudite family. There are several programs supporting various phases of the effort on these materials. As part of an ongoing effort to develop skutterudite materials with lower thermal conductivity values, several solid solutions and filled skutterudite materials were investigated under the effort sponsored by DOE. The efforts have primarily focused on: (1) study of existence and properties of solid solutions between the binary compounds CoSb{sub 3} and IrSb{sub 3}, and RuSb{sub 2}Te, and (2) CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} based filled compositions. For the solid solutions, the lattice thermal conductivity reduction was expected to be reduced by the introduction of the Te and Ru atoms while in the case of CeFe{sub 4{minus}x}Ru{sub x}Sb{sub 12} filled compositions, the reduction would be caused by the rattling of Ce atoms located in the empty voids of the skutterudite structure and the substitution of Fe for Ru. The details of the sample preparation and characterization of their thermoelectric properties are reported in this report.

Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Review of solar thermoelectric energy conversion and analysis of a two cover flat-plate solar collector  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The process of solar thermoelectric energy conversion was explored through a review of thermoelectric energy generation and solar collectors. Existing forms of flat plate collectors and solar concentrators were surveyed. ...

Hasan, Atiya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

Mike S. H. Chu

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

174

Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material  

SciTech Connect

This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

2010-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

175

Steam Generator Management Program: Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of a Recirculating Steam Generator Using Commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics Software  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to demonstrate that a commercial computational fluid dynamics code can be set up to model the thermal-hydraulic physics that occur during the operation of a steam generator. Specific complexities in steam-generator thermal-hydraulic modeling include: phase change and two-phase fluid mechanics, hydrodynamic representation of the tube bundle, and thermal coupling between the primary and secondary sides. A commercial computational fluid dynamics code was used without any s...

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

176

Commercial oxide paints as coatings for SiGe thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Silicon-germanium alloys are used as thermoelectric materials for radioisotope thermoelectric generators. One problem is the loss of the alloy by sublimation. In the Unicouple, sublimation was minimized by a Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ coating. In the Multicouple design the application of Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ coatings which is done at high temperature is not practical. Suppression of sublimation in the Multicouple design is presently accomplished by applying glass coatings. The difficulties encountered with the glass coatings are associated with the poor adherence of the coatings. In the present study, commercial oxide points (mainly ZrO/sub 2/) which have low thermal expansion coefficients are used as coating materials. No spalling from the surface of the coated sample occurred in 1506 hours at 1080/sup 0/C in vacuum, and sublimation was reduced significantly. Zirconium silicate was observed on the surface by x-ray diffraction.

Amano, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

1986-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

177

Thermoelectric properties of epitaxial TbAs:InGaAs nanocomposites  

SciTech Connect

InGaAs lattice-matched to InP was grown by molecular beam epitaxy with randomly distributed TbAs nanoparticles for thermoelectric power generation applications. TbAs:InGaAs is expected to have a large thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, particularly at high temperatures, owing to energy band alignment between the nanoparticles and their surrounding matrix. Here, the room temperature thermoelectric properties were measured as a function of TbAs concentration, revealing a maximum thermoelectric power factor of 2.38 W/mK{sup 2} and ZT of 0.19 with 0.2% TbAs. Trends in the thermoelectric properties closely resemble those found in comparable ErAs:InGaAs nanocomposite materials. However, nanoparticles were not observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy in the highest ZT TbAs:InGaAs sample, unlike the highest ZT ErAs:InGaAs sample (0.2% ErAs) and two higher concentration TbAs:InGaAs samples examined. Consistent with expectations concerning the positioning of the Fermi level in these materials, ZT was enhanced by TbAs incorporation largely due to a high Seebeck coefficient, whereas ErAs provided InGaAs with higher conductivity but a lower Seebeck coefficient than that of TbAs:InGaAs. Thermal conductivity was reduced significantly from that of intrinsic thin-film InGaAs only with TbAs concentrations greater than {approx}1.7%.

Clinger, Laura E.; Zide, Joshua M. O. [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Pernot, Gilles; Shakouri, Ali [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Buehl, Trevor E.; Burke, Peter G.; Gossard, Arthur C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Palmstroem, Christopher J. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Materials Rama Venkatasubramanian RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC Thermoelectric Applications III Tom Avedisian, Cornell University, Chair High...

179

Experimental studies of the thermoelectric properties of microstructured and nanostructured lead salts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric devices allow for direct conversion between thermal and electrical energy. There applications, however, are severely limited by their inefficiency. A reduction in thermal conductivity of a material potentially ...

Barron, Kathleen C., 1982-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Synthesis and characterization of Bi-doped Mg{sub 2}Si thermoelectric materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Mg{sub 2}Si-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion for the middle high range of temperature. They are very attractive as they could replace lead-based compounds due to their low cost and non toxicity. They could also result in thermoelectric generator weight reduction (a key feature for the automotive application field). The high value of thermal conductivity of the silicide-based materials could be reduced by increasing the phonon scattering in the presence of nanosized crystalline grains without heavily interfering with the electrical conductivity of the thermoelectric material. Nanostructured materials were obtained under inert atmosphere through ball milling, thermal treatment and spark plasma sintering processes. In particular, the role of several bismuth doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si were investigated (Mg{sub 2}Si:Bi=1:x for x=0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 M ratio). The morphology, the composition and the structure of the samples were characterized by FE-SEM, EDS and XRD analyses after each process step. Moreover, the Seebeck coefficient analyses at high temperature and the electrical and thermal conductivity of the samples are presented in this work. The nanostructuring processes were affect by the MgO amount increase which influenced the thermoelectric properties of the samples mainly by reducing the electrical conductivity. With the aim of further increasing the scattering phenomena by interface or boundary effect, carbon nanostructures named Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns were added to the Mg{sub 2}Si in order to produce a nanocomposite material. The influence of the nanostructured filler on the thermoelectric material properties is also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Figure of merit (ZT) of Bi-doped samples and undoped Mg{sub 2}Si. A maximum ZT value of 0.39 at 600 Degree-Sign C was obtained for the nanocomposite material obtained adding Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns to the Bi 0.02 at% doped silicide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Role of Bi doping amounts in Mg{sub 2}Si and thermoelectric characterization up to 600 Degree-Sign C Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite materials synthesized by ball milling and Spark Plasma Sintering Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect on scattering phenomena of Single Wall Carbon Nanohorns added to Mg{sub 2}Si Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Importance of oxidation phenomena in nanostructured materials.

Fiameni, S., E-mail: s.fiameni@ieni.cnr.it [CNR - IENI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Battiston, S.; Boldrini, S.; Famengo, A.; Agresti, F.; Barison, S.; Fabrizio, M. [CNR - IENI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)] [CNR - IENI, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

In-Line Thermoelectric Module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

182

In-line thermoelectric module  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

Pento, Robert (Algonquin, IL); Marks, James E. (Glenville, NY); Staffanson, Clifford D. (S. Glens Falls, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II: Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications: Thermoelectric ...

184

Water Requirements for Thermoelectric Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Power Plant-Water R&D Program Barbara Carney * , Thomas Feeley, and Andrea McNemar U.S. Department of EnergyNational Energy...

185

Japan’s use of thermal generation is up since March 2011 due ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Uranium fuel, nuclear reactors, generation, ... Total post-Fukushima fossil fuel consumption peaked at about 500 trillion British thermal units in January 2012 ...

186

Geek-Up[04.01.2011]: Charting Wind, Thermal, Hydro Generation...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Office of Public Affairs Check out Bonneville Power Administration's new near real-time energy monitoring - it displays the output of all wind, thermal and hydro generation in...

187

Analysis on electro-thermal property of micro-bubble generator using carbon nanotube heating elements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Localized high temperature due to Joule heating in Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) can generate micron-sized bubbles. Electro-thermal property of CNTs-based microbubble generator is characterized by finite element analysis in this paper. Water circumstance with ...

Wenli Zhou; Sanping Wan; Chao Zhu

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

SNAP 7 PROGRAM--TASK 8--STRONTIUM-90 FUELED THERMOELECTRIC GENERATOR DEVELOPMENT. Quarterly Progress Report No. 7, May 1 through July 31, 1962  

SciTech Connect

The effort on SNAP 7A and 7C was confined to operating the reliability model. There were fluctuations in output power that can be attributed to variations in the operating parameters, plus an increase in the internal resistance. In the SNAP 7B project the second 60-watt generator was completed and has undergone the beginning-of-life (maximum input, helium gas) portion of the parametric tests. The performance was nearly identical to that of the first 60-watt generator. The unit will be used with the SNAP 7B system. The installation concept for the SNAP 7B system was approved by the U. S. Coast Guard. The generator is to be housed in a finned aluminum container that will provide the required radiator surface. This container will be filled with a water- ethylene glycol mixture that is necessary to transfer the heat from the generator into the container. The battery-converter compartment is an integral part of the container lid. During the time the entire SNAP 7D system was subjected to shock and vibratlon tests, no mechanical or functional deficiencies were detected. The required temperature tests followed the mechanical tests. During this period the complete system was operated at maximum intermediate and minimum temperatures. Design objectives were satisfied throughout the test. The SNAP 7D generator was fueled at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on June 12, 1962, with a total thermal input of 1435 watts. The iueled generator was returned and integrated with the system. The system was demonstrated and accepted on July 3, 1962. (auth)

McDonald, W.A.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

189

Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase transformation and a material exhibiting a stress induced electric field is introduced. A material that exhibits such a phase transformation exhibits a large increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion over an incremental temperature range (typically several degrees Kelvin). When such a material is arranged in a geometric configuration, such as, for a example, a laminate with a material that exhibits a stress induced electric field (e.g. a piezoelectric material) the thermally induced strain is converted to an electric field.

Nersessian, Nersesse (Van Nuys, CA); Carman, Gregory P. (Los Angeles, CA); Radousky, Harry B. (San Leandro, CA)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

190

Thermal processes generated in quark-gluon plasma by yoctosecond laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the thermal processes generated by yoctosecond (10-24 s) laser pulses in QGP are investigated. Considering that the relaxation time in QGP is of the order of 1 ys it is shown that in QGP the yoctosecond laser pulses can generate the thermal waves with velocity v = c (0.3 fm/ys). Key words: QGP, thermal waves, yoctosecond pulses

Marciak-Kozlowska, J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Thermal processes generated in quark-gluon plasma by yoctosecond laser pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper the thermal processes generated by yoctosecond (10-24 s) laser pulses in QGP are investigated. Considering that the relaxation time in QGP is of the order of 1 ys it is shown that in QGP the yoctosecond laser pulses can generate the thermal waves with velocity v = c (0.3 fm/ys). Key words: QGP, thermal waves, yoctosecond pulses

J. Marciak-Kozlowska; M. Kozlowski

2011-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

192

The microstructure network and thermoelectric properties of bulk (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report small-angle neutron scattering studies on the microstructure network in bulk (Bi,Sb){sub 2}Te{sub 3} synthesized by the melt-spinning (MS) and the spark-plasma-sintering (SPS) process. We find that rough interfaces of multiscale microstructures generated by the MS are responsible for the large reduction of both lattice thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Our study also finds that subsequent SPS forms a microstructure network of {approx}10 nm thick lamellae and smooth interfaces between them. This nanoscale microstructure network with smooth interfaces increases electrical conductivity while keeping a low thermal conductivity, making it an ideal microstructure for high thermoelectric efficiency.

Xie Wenjie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Hitchcock, Dale A.; Kang, Hye J.; He Jian [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Tang Xinfeng [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Laver, Mark [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Nano-Science Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Kobenhavn (Denmark); Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Hammouda, Boualem [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

193

Thermoelectric figure of merit for bulk nanostructured composites with distributed parameters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effective properties of composites whose structure includes nanocontacts between bulk-phase macrocrystallites are considered. A model for such a nanostructured composite is constructed. Effective values of the thermoelectric power, thermal and electrical conductivities, and thermoelectric figure of merit are calculated in the mean-field approximation.

Snarskii, A. A. [National Technical University 'Kyiv Polytechnic Institute' (Ukraine); Sarychev, A. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics (Russian Federation); Bezsudnov, I. V., E-mail: biv@akuan.ru ['Nauka-Service' Scientific and Production Company (Russian Federation); Lagarkov, A. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Theoretical and Applied Electromagnetics (Russian Federation)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Thermoelectric performance of disordered and nanostructured graphene ribbons using Green's function method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermoelectric properties of defected graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and multi-junction (MJ) GNRs coupling periodic armchair sections of different width are analyzed by means of Green's function techniques to simulate electron and phonon transport. ... Keywords: Graphene, Green's function, Phonon transport, Thermal effects, Thermoelectrics

Fulvio Mazzamuto; Jérôme Saint-Martin; Viet Hung Nguyen; Christophe Chassat; Philippe Dollfus

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Hybrid Vehicles: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Using advanced materials, thermoelectric conversion of efficiencies on the order of 20% may be possible in the near future. Thermoelectric generators offer potential to increase vehicle fuel economy by recapturing a portion of the waste heat from the engine exhaust and generating electricity to power vehicle accessory or traction loads.

Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Solar thermal bowl concepts and economic comparisons for electricity generation  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications for fixed mirror distributed focus (FMDF) solar thermal concepts which have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Following the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress includes developing new solar components, improving component and system design details, constructing working systems, and collecting operating data on the systems. This study povides an update of the expected performance and cost of the major components, and an overall system energy cost for the FMDDF concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's and are based on the potential capabilities that might be achieved with further technology development.

Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Allemann, R.T.; Coomes, E.P.; Craig, S.N.; Drost, M.K.; Humphreys, K.K.; Nomura, K.K.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermal imaging experiments on ANACONDA ion beam generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal imaging technique was used in two experimental measurements. First, the ion intensity distribution on the anode surface was observed from different angles by using a multi-pinhole camera. Second, the plume from a target intercepting the beam was visualized by observing the distribution of temperature increase on a thin plate hit by the plume.

Jiang, W.; Yatsui, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology (Japan). Lab. of Beam Technology; Olson, J.C.; Davis, H.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

199

Large-scale Ocean-based or Geothermal Power Plants by Thermoelectric Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat resources of small temperature difference are easily accessible, free and unlimited on earth. Thermoelectric effects provide the technology for converting these heat resources directly into electricity. We present designs of electricity generators based on thermoelectric effects and using heat resources of small temperature difference, e.g., ocean water at different depths and geothermal sources, and conclude that large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects are feasible and economically competitive. The key observation is that the power factor of thermoelectric materials, unlike the figure of merit, can be improved by orders of magnitude upon laminating good conductors and good thermoelectric materials. The predicted large-scale power plants based on thermoelectric effects, if validated, will have a global economic and social impact for its scalability, and the renewability, free and unlimited supply of heat resources of small temperature difference on earth.

Liu, Liping

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to improve automobile fuel economy, an experimental study is undertaken to explore practical aspects of implementing thermoelectric devices for exhaust gas energy recovery. A highly instrumented apparatus consisting of a hot (exhaust gas) and a cold (coolant liquid) side rectangular ducts enclosing the thermoelectric elements has been built. Measurements of thermoelectric voltage output and flow and surface temperatures were acquired and analyzed to investigate the power generation and heat transfer properties of the apparatus. Effects of inserting aluminum wool packing material inside the hot side duct on augmentation of heat transfer from the gas stream to duct walls were studied. Data were collected for both the unpacked and packed cases to allow for detection of packing influence on flow and surface temperatures. Effects of gas and coolant inlet temperatures as well as gas flow rate on the thermoelectric power output were examined. The results indicate that thermoelectric power production is increased at higher gas inlet temperature or flow rate. However, thermoelectric power generation decreases with a higher coolant temperature as a consequence of the reduced hot-cold side temperature differential. For the hot-side duct, a large temperature gradient exists between the gas and solid surface temperature due to poor heat transfer through the gaseous medium. Adding the packing material inside the exhaust duct enhanced heat transfer and hence raised hot-side duct surface temperatures and thermoelectric power compared to the unpacked duct, particularly where the gas-to-surface temperature differential is highest. Therefore it is recommended that packing of exhaust duct becomes common practice in thermoelectric waste energy harvesting applications.

Ibrahim, Essam [Alabama A& M University, Normal; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Parks, II, James E [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

A thermally efficient micro-reactor for thermophotovoltaic power generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Hydrocarbon fuels exhibit very high energy densities, and micro-generators converting the stored chemical energy into electrical power are interesting alternatives to batteries in certain applications. The increasing demands ...

Nielsen, Ole Mattis, 1977-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

High-temperature Thermoelectric Properties of Ag2Se.5Te.5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II ... This particular alloy displays very low thermal conductivity and competitive ... of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Thin-films with Conversion Efficiency Higher Than 8%.

203

Modeling and characterization of thermoelectric properties of SiGe nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct energy conversion between thermal and electrical energy based on thermoelectric effects is attractive for potential applications in waste heat recovery and environmentally-friendly refrigeration. The energy conversion ...

Lee, Hohyun, 1978-

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

None

2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

Analysis of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents performance and cost projections for three of the primary solar thermal alternatives which have been studied in the US Department of Energy Solar Thermal Program. A central receiver concept using a north-facing molten nitrate salt cavity receiver, a glass-metal parabolic dish concept with a dish mounted kinematic Stirling engine, and parabolic trough concept were all analyzed for electricity production. The cost and performance projections are for the late 1990's time frame and are based on the capabilities of the technologies which could be expected with further development. Both the central receiver and dish concepts analyzed in this study appear to be attractive long-term power options for electric power applications. The central receiver concept achieved the lowest levelized energy cost, at a value of 50 mills/kWh for a 100 MWe plant at high capacity factors. The parabolic dish systems lowest energy cost of 75 mills/kWh also occurred at a 100 MWe plant size, but at a no-storage capacity factor. The levelized energy cost of the parabolic trough concept was much higher than either of the other two concepts at a projected 210 mill/kWh; as configured, it is not competitive with either the central receiver or parabolic dish systems.

Williams, T.A.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Drost, M.K.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

An Overview of Energy Consumption and Waste Generation in the ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A Solid State Thermoelectric Power Generator Prototype Designed to Recover Radiant Waste ... Global Primary Aluminium Industry 2010 Life Cycle Inventory.

208

Mechanical Properties of Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Edgar Lara-Curzio, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Scope, Thermoelectric materials can directly convert waste heat into electricity without moving parts or fluids.

209

Mechanical Properties of Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Room Temperature Mechanical Properties of Natural Mineral Based Thermoelectrics: Xiaofeng Fan1; Eldon Case1; Xu Lu1; Donald Morelli1; 1 Michigan State ...

210

Nanowire silicon as a material for thermoelectric energy conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric (TE) material for TE energy conversion, it is necessary to reduce its relatively high thermal conductivity, while maintaining the high power factor. This can be done by structuring silicon into 1-D ...

A. Stranz; J. Kähler; S. Merzsch; A. Waag; E. Peiner

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Rare earth thermoelectrics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The author reviews the thermoelectric properties of metallic compounds which contain rare-earth atoms. They are the group of metals with the largest value ever reported of the Seebeck coefficient. An increase by 50% of the Seebeck would make these compounds useful for thermoelectric devices. The largest Seebeck coefficient is found for compounds of cerium (e.g., CePd{sub 3}) and ytterbium (e.g., YbAl{sub 3}). Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the maximum observed Seebeck. The author discusses the theoretical model which has been used to calculate the Seebeck coefficient. He is solving this model for other configurations (4f){sup n} of rare-earth ground states.

Mahan, G.D.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II: Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications: Thermoelectric I

213

Troubleshooting Guide for Thermal Transients in Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the period 2000-2009 EPRI developed ten reports and guidance documents on Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) thermal transients. Collectively, these documents provide the information required to identify, address, and minimize thermal transients in HRSG superheaters, reheaters, economizers, and evaporators. This summary report offers an overview of this EPRI work on HRSG transients organized to guide the reader to pertinent sections in the original reports and facilitate troubleshooting.

2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

214

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

215

Microsoft PowerPoint - High Temperature Thermoelectric_Ohuchi  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered Thermoelectric Oxides Engineered at Multiple Length Scales for Energy Harvesting Program Manager: Patricia Rawls Fumio S. Ohuchi (PI) and Rajendra K. Bordia(Co-PI) Department of Materials Science and Engineering University of Washington Box 352120 Seattle, WA 98195 Grant No. DE-FE0007272 (June 1, 2012-May 31, 2013) Graduate Students: Christopher Dandeneau and YiHsun Yang June 10, 2013 The UCR Contractors Review Conference Introduction/Motivation for Research * Thermoelectric (TE) oxides for waste heat recovery  Good high-temperature stability  Stable in hostile environments  Low cost/toxicity * Oxides with complex structure:  Low thermal conductivity,   Tailor stoichiometry to maximize S

216

A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

Metzger, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); El-Genk, M.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

A high-efficiency thermoelectric converter for space applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents a concept for using high-temperature superconducting materials in thermoelectric generators (SCTE) to produce electricity at conversion efficiencies approaching 50% of the Carrot efficiency. The SCTE generator is applicable to systems operating in temperature ranges of high-temperature superconducting materials and thus would be a low-grade converter. Operating in cryogenic temperature ranges provides the advantage of inherently increasing the limits of the Carrot efficiency. Potential applications are for systems operating in space where the ambient temperatures are in the cryogenic temperature range. The advantage of using high-temperature superconducting material in a thermoelectric converter is that it would significantly reduce or eliminate the Joule heating losses in a thermoelectric element. This paper investigates the system aspects and the material requirements of the SCTE converter concept, and presents a conceptual design and an application for a space power system.

Metzger, J.D. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); El-Genk, M.S. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inst. for Space Nuclear Power Studies)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Fabrication and testing of thermoelectric thin film devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two thin-film thermoelectric devices are experimentally demonstrated. The relevant thermal loads on the cold junction of these devices are determined. The analytical form of the equation that describes the thermal loading of the device enables one to model the performance based on the independently measured electronic properties of the films forming the devices. This model elucidates which parameters determine device performance, and how they can be used to maximize performance.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Chemistry and Materials Science Dept.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Interpretation of Self-Potential Anomalies Using Constitutive Relationships for Electrochemical and Thermoelectric Coupling Coefficients  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Constitutive relationships for electrochemical and thermoelectric cross-coupling coefficients are derived using ionic mobilities, applying a general derivative of chemical potential and employing the zero net current condition. The general derivative of chemical potential permits thermal variations which give rise to the thermoelectric effect. It also accounts for nonideal solution behavior. An equation describing electric field strength is similarly derived with the additional assumption of electrical neutrality in the fluid Planck approximation. The Planck approximation implies that self-potential (SP) is caused only by local sources and also that the electric field strength has only first order spatial variations. The derived relationships are applied to the NaCl-KCl concentration cell with predicted and measured voltages agreeing within 0.4 mV. The relationships are also applied to the Long Valley and Yellowstone geothermal systems. There is a high degree of correlation between predicted and measured SP response for both systems, giving supporting evidence for the validity of the approach. Predicted SP amplitude exceeds measured in both cases; this is a possible consequence of the Planck approximation. Electrochemical sources account for more than 90% of the predicted response in both cases while thermoelectric mechanisms account for the remaining 10%; electrokinetic effects are not considered. Predicted electrochemical and thermoelectric voltage coupling coefficients are comparable to values measured in the laboratory. The derived relationships are also applied to arbitrary distributions of temperature and fluid composition to investigate the geometric diversity of observed SP anomalies. Amplitudes predicted for hypothetical saline spring and hot spring environments are less than 40 mV. In contrast, hypothetical near surface steam zones generate very large amplitudes, over 2 V in one case. These results should be viewed with some caution due to the uncertain validity of the Planck approximation for these conditions. All amplitudes are controlled by electrochemical mechanisms. Polarities are controlled by the curvature of the concentration or thermal profile. Concave upward thermal profiles produce positive anomalies, for constant fluid concentrations, whereas concave upward concentration profiles produce negative anomalies. Concave downward concentration profiles are characterized by small negative closures bounding a larger, positive SP anomaly.

Knapp, R. B.; Kasameyer, P. W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Development of New Generation of Thermally-Enhanced Fiber Glass Insulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents experimental and numerical results from thermal performance studies. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and John s Manville was to design a basic concept of a new generation of thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation. Different types of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) have been tested as dynamic components in buildings during the last 4 decades. Most historical studies have found that PCMs enhance building energy performance. Some PCM-enhanced building materials, like PCM-gypsum boards or PCM-impregnated concretes have already found their limited applications in different countries. Today, continued improvements in building envelope technologies suggest that throughout Southern and Central U.S. climates, residences may soon be routinely constructed with PCM in order to maximize insulation effectiveness and maintain low heating and cooling loads. The proposed thermally-enhanced fiber glass insulation will maximize this integration by utilizing a highly-efficient building envelope with high-R thermal insulation, active thermal mass and superior air-tightness. Improved thermal resistance will come from modifications in infrared internal characteristics of the fiber glass insulation. Thermal mass effect can be provided by proprietary thermally-active microencapsulated phase change material (PCM). Work carried out at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on the CRADA is described in this report.

Kosny, Jan [ORNL; Yarbrough, David W [ORNL; Childs, Phillip W [ORNL; Miller, William A [ORNL; Atchley, Jerald Allen [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Procurement Specification for Horizontal Gas Path Heat Recovery Steam Generator: Avoiding Thermal-Mechanical Fatigue Damage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs), particularly those equipped with F-class gas turbines that are also subjected to periods of frequent cyclic operation, have experienced premature pressure part failures because of excessive thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF) damage. The very competitive power generation marketplace has resulted in lowest installed cost often taking precedence over medium- and long-term durability and operating costs.

2009-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

222

Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in 10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's Nanostructure Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's Nanostructure June 10, 2011 - 5:07pm Addthis Data image on lead telluride thermal conductivity | Photo Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Data image on lead telluride thermal conductivity | Photo Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Niketa Kumar Niketa Kumar Public Affairs Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What does this mean for me? Identifying a key ingredient in bone's nanostructure may help treat and prevent bone diseases such as osteoporosis and develop new light-weight, high-strength materials for innovative technologies. Advanced thermoelectric materials could be used to develop vehicle

223

Novel thermoelectric materials development, existing and potential applications, and commercialization routes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectrics (TE) are devices which can convert heat in the form of a temperature gradient into electricity, or alternatively generate and absorb heat when an electrical current is run through them. It was established ...

Bertreau, Philippe

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Thermoelectric device characterization and solar thermoelectric system modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent years have witnessed a trend of rising electricity costs and an emphasis on energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) devices can be used either as heat pumps for localized environmental control or heat engines to ...

Muto, Andrew (Andrew Jerome)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In situ nanostructuring in bulk thermoelectric materials through thermo-dynamic phase segregation has established itself as an effective paradigm for optimizing the performance of thermoelectric materials. In bulk PbTe small compositional variations create coherent and semicoherent nanometer sized precipitates embedded in a PbTe matrix, where they can impede phonon propagation at little or no expense to the electronic properties. In this paper the nanostructuring paradigm is for the first time extended to a bulk PbS based system, which despite obvious advantages of price and abundancy, so far has been largely disregarded in thermoelectric research due to inferior room temperature thermoelectric properties relative to the pristine fellow chalcogenides, PbSe and PbTe. Herein we report on the synthesis, microstructural morphology and thermoelectric properties of two phase (PbS){sub 1-x}(PbTe){sub x}x = 0-0.16 samples. We have found that the addition of only a few percent PbTe to PbS results in a highly nanostructured material, where PbTe precipitates are coherently and semicoherently embedded in a PbS matrix. The present (PbS){sub 1-x}(PbTe){sub x} nanostructured samples show substantial decreases in lattice thermal conductivity relative to pristine PbS, while the electronic properties are left largely unaltered. This in turn leads to a marked increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit. This study underlines the efficiency of the nanostructuring approach and strongly supports its generality and applicability to other material systems. We demonstrate that these PbS-based materials, which are made primarily from abundant Pb and S, outperform optimally n-type doped pristine PbTe above 770 K.

Johnsen, S.; Androulakis, J.; He, J. Q.; Dravid, V. P.; Todorov, I.; Chung, D. Y.; Kanatzidis, M. G. (Materials Science Division); (Northwestern Univ.)

2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

226

Interfacial structure in Telluride-based thermoelectric materials.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Chalcogenide compounds based on the rocksalt and tetradymite structures possess good thermoelectric properties and are widely used in a variety of thermoelectric devices. Examples include PbTe and AgSbTe2, which have the rocksalt structure, and Bi2Te3, Bi2Se3, and Sb2Te3, which fall within the broad tetradymite-class of structures. These materials are also of interest for thermoelectric nanocomposites, where the aim is to improve thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency by harnessing interfacial scattering processes (e.g., reducing the thermal conductivity by phonon scattering or enhancing the Seebeck coefficient by energy filtering). Understanding the phase stability and microstructural evolution within such materials is key to designing processing approaches for optimal thermoelectric performance and to predicting the long-term nanostructural stability of the materials. In this presentation, we discuss our work investigating relationships between interfacial structure and formation mechanisms in several telluride-based thermoelectric materials. We begin with a discussion of interfacial coherency and its special aspects at interfaces in telluride compounds based on the rocksalt and tetradymite structures. We compare perfectly coherent interfaces, such as the Bi2Te3 (0001) twin, with semi-coherent, misfitting interfaces. We next discuss the formal crystallographic analysis of interfacial defects in these systems and then apply this methodology to high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations of interfaces in the AgSbTe2/Sb2Te3 and PbTe/Sb2Te3 systems, focusing on interfaces vicinal to {l_brace}111{r_brace}/{l_brace}0001{r_brace}. Through this analysis, we identify a defect that can accomplish the rocksalt-to-tetradymite phase transformation through diffusive-glide motion along the interface.

Medlin, Douglas L.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Thermoelectric properties of nanoporous Ge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We computed thermoelectric properties of nanoporous Ge (np-Ge) with aligned pores along the [001] direction through a combined classical molecular dynamics and first-principles electronic structure approach. A significant ...

Lee, Joo-Hyoung

228

Horizontal Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulics at Various Steady-State Power Levels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three-dimensional computer simulation and analyses of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics of the WWER 1000 nuclear power plant have been performed for 50% and 75% partial loads, 100% nominal load and 110% over-load. Presented results show water and steam mass flow rate vectors, steam void fraction spatial distribution, recirculation zones, swell level position, water mass inventory on the shell side, and other important thermal-hydraulic parameters. The simulations have been performed with the computer code 3D ANA, based on the 'two-fluid' model approach. Steam-water interface transport processes, as well as tube bundle flow resistance, energy transfer, and steam generation within tube bundles are modelled with {sup c}losure laws{sup .} Applied approach implies non-equilibrium thermal and flow conditions. The model is solved by the control volume procedure, which has been extended in order to take into account the 3D flow of liquid and gas phase. The methodology is validated by comparing numerical and experimental results of real steam generator operational conditions at various power levels of the WWER Novovoronezh, Unit 5. One-dimensional model of the horizontal steam generator has been built with the RELAP 5 standard code on the basis of the multidimensional two-phase flow structure obtained with the 3D ANA code. RELAP 5 and 3D ANA code results are compared, showing acceptable agreement. (authors)

Stevanovic, Vladimir D. [University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia); Stosic, Zoran V.; Kiera, Michael; Stoll, Uwe [Framatome ANP GmbH, P.O. Box 3220, 91050 Erlangen (Germany)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Steam Generator Management Program: Benchmark Study of EPRI and EDF Steam Generator Thermal-Hydraulic and Flow Induced Vibration Cod es  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Steam generator thermal-hydraulics software codes and flow induced vibration software codes are used for steam generator design, root cause investigations, and assessment of operational changes. Organizations within the steam generator industry develop and maintain such software codes. Capabilities of existing codes are being challenged by current demands for more comprehensive results to troubleshoot ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

230

Original article: Lumped-parameter-based thermal analysis of a doubly radial forced-air-cooled direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A lumped-parameter-based thermal analysis of a direct-driven permanent magnet wind generator with double radial forced-air cooling is presented. In the proposed thermal model, the thermal conduction and convection as well as the heating of the cooling ... Keywords: Air cooling, Permanent magnet synchronous generator, Thermal analysis, Thermal resistance networks

Janne Nerg, Vesa Ruuskanen

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Numerical simulation of multiconstituent diffusion and helium release characteristics of the /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ heat source used in radioisotopic thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An analytical model is described that was developed to simulate multiconstituent diffusion within a heat source sphere, helium generation within a heat source sphere, and helium release from the surface of a heat source sphere into the surrounding environment. The model represents the first attempt to simulate multiconstituent mass transport using the continuum thermomechanical theory of mixtures and demonstrates that this theory is a viable alternative to irreversible thermodynamics.

McLaughlin, B.D.

1976-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermoelectric energy conversion using nanostructured materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High performance thermoelectric materials in a wide range of temperatures are essential to broaden the application spectrum of thermoelectric devices. This paper presents experiments on the power and efficiency characteristics ...

Chen, Gang

233

A global fouling factor methodology for analyzing steam generator thermal performance degradation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Over the past few years, steam generator (SG) thermal performance degradation has led to decreased plant efficiency and power output at numerous PWR nuclear power plants with recirculating-type SGs. The authors have developed and implemented methodologies for quantitatively evaluating the various sources of SG performance degradation, both internal and external to the SG pressure boundary. These methodologies include computation of the global fouling factor history, evaluation of secondary deposit thermal resistance using deposit characterization data, and consideration of pressure loss causes unrelated to the tube bundle, such as hot-leg temperature streaming and SG moisture separator fouling. In order to evaluate the utility of the global fouling factor methodology, the authors performed case studies for a number of PWR SG designs. Key results from two of these studies are presented here. In tandem with the fouling-factor analyses, a study evaluated for each plant the potential causes of pressure loss. The combined results of the global fouling factor calculations and the pressure-loss evaluations demonstrated two key points: (1) that the available thermal margin against fouling, which can vary substantially from plant to plant, has an important bearing on whether a given plant exhibits losses in electrical generating capacity, and (2) that a wide variety of causes can result in SG thermal performance degradation.

Kreider, M.A.; White, G.A.; Varrin, R.D. Jr. [Dominion Engineering, Inc., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Thermal and radiolytic gas generation from Tank 241-S-102 waste  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic rate parameters for flammable gas generation in Hanford single-shell tank wastes based on the results of laboratory tests using actual waste from Tank 241-S-102 (S-102). Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support Fluor Daniel Hanford (FDH) and its Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies being performed at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) under subcontract to PNNL, using simulated wastes, and to studies being performed at Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company) using actual wastes. The results of gas generation from Tank S-102 waste under thermal and radiolytic conditions are described in this report. The accurate measurement of gas generation rates in actual waste from highly radioactive waste tanks is needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the waste tanks. This report addresses the gas generation capacity of the waste from Tank S-102, a waste tank listed as high priority by the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for flammable gas accumulation above the flammability limit.

King, C.M.; Pederson, L.R.; Bryan, S.A.

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Evaluation of Thermal-, Creep-, and Corrosion-Fatigue of Heat Recovery Steam Generator Pressure Parts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The worldwide fleet of combined cycle units with heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) has exhibited a disappointing track record with respect to reliability and availability in terms of fatigue HRSG tube failures (HTF) which are thermal transient driven. This report, which forms part of a series, will assist designer, owners, and operators with the technical basis to facilitate specifying, designing, and operating HRSG in a manner to minimize fatigue damage.

2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Some Examples in Hydrogen Storage, Thermoelectrics and  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Computational Phase-stability Research and Education in Energy Materials: Some Examples in Hydrogen Storage, Thermoelectrics and ...

237

Measurements and Standards for Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... of data, thereby accelerating the selection and optimization of thermoelectric ... products industries, the military, NASA, and the energy sector. ...

2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

238

Thin Film Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thin Film Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications ... Abstract Scope, Thin film nanocomposites comprised of refractory metals and ...

239

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, Charles D. (Los Alamos, NM)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Apparatus for nuclear transmutation and power production using an intense accelerator-generated thermal neutron flux. High thermal neutron fluxes generated from the action of a high power proton accelerator on a spallation target allows the efficient burn-up of higher actinide nuclear waste by a two-step process. Additionally, rapid burn-up of fission product waste for nuclides having small thermal neutron cross sections, and the practicality of small material inventories while achieving significant throughput derive from employment of such high fluxes. Several nuclear technology problems are addressed including 1. nuclear energy production without a waste stream requiring storage on a geological timescale, 2. the burn-up of defense and commercial nuclear waste, and 3. the production of defense nuclear material. The apparatus includes an accelerator, a target for neutron production surrounded by a blanket region for transmutation, a turbine for electric power production, and a chemical processing facility. In all applications, the accelerator power may be generated internally from fission and the waste produced thereby is transmuted internally so that waste management might not be required beyond the human lifespan.

Bowman, C.D.

1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Effect of Heat Exchanger Material and Fouling on Thermoelectric Exhaust Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study is conducted in an effort to better understand and improve the performance of thermoelectric heat recovery systems for automotive use. For this purpose an experimental investigation of thermoelectrics in contact with clean and fouled heat exchangers of different materials is performed. The thermoelectric devices are tested on a bench-scale thermoelectric heat recovery apparatus that simulates automotive exhaust. The thermoelectric apparatus consists of a series of thermoelectric generators contacting a hot-side and a cold-side heat exchanger. The thermoelectric devices are tested with two different hot-side heat exchanger materials, stainless steel and aluminum, and at a range of simulated exhaust gas flowrates (40 to 150 slpm), exhaust gas temperatures (240 C and 280 C), and coolant-side temperatures (40 C and 80 C). It is observed that for higher exhaust gas flowrates, thermoelectric power output increases while overall system efficiency decreases. Degradation of the effectiveness of the EGR-type heat exchangers over a period of driving is also simulated by exposing the heat exchangers to diesel engine exhaust under thermophoretic conditions to form a deposit layer. For the fouled EGR-type heat exchangers, power output and system efficiency is observed to be significantly lower for all conditions tested. The study found, however, that heat exchanger material is the dominant factor in the ability of the system to convert heat to electricity with thermoelectric generators. This finding is thought to be unique to the heat exchangers used for this study, and not a universal trend for all system configurations.

Love, Norman [University of Texas, El Paso; Szybist, James P [ORNL; Sluder, Scott [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Nanostructured thermoelectrics : big efficiency gains from small features.  

SciTech Connect

The field of thermoelectrics has progressed enormously and is now growing steadily because of recently demonstrated advances and strong global demand for cost-effective, pollution-free forms of energy conversion. Rapid growth and exciting innovative breakthroughs in the field over the last 10-15 years have occurred in large part due to a new fundamental focus on nanostructured materials. As a result of the greatly increased research activity in this field, a substantial amount of new data - especially related to materials - have been generated. Although this has led to stronger insight and understanding of thermoelectric principles, it has also resulted in misconceptions and misunderstanding about some fundamental issues. This article sets out to summarize and clarify the current understanding in this field; explain the underpinnings of breakthroughs reported in the past decade; and provide a critical review of various concepts and experimental results related to nanostructured thermoelectrics. We believe recent achievements in the field augur great possibilities for thermoelectric power generation and cooling, and discuss future paths forward that build on these exciting nanostructuring concepts.

Vineis, C. J.; Shakouri, A.; Majumdar, A.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ.of California at Santa Cruz; Univ. of California at Berkeley

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of SiC/B{sub 4}C  

SciTech Connect

We report on the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties of {ital p}-type SiC/B{sub 4}C system for thermoelectric devices. Measurements of electrical resistivity, thermoelectric power and thermal conductivity were made on SiC as a function of both B{sub 4}C doping concentration over the range 0.2%{similar_to}60 wt. % and temperature over the range from room temperature up to 600 {degree}C. The figure of merit increases from 2 to 5 decades with temperature increase from room temperature to 600 {degree}C. We conclude that the SiC/B{sub 4}C system with around 10% of B{sub 4}C is a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications in the temperature range 400{similar_to}600 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Okamoto, Y.; Aruga, A.; Kasai, H.; Morimoto, J.; Miyakawa, T.; Fujimoto, S. [Natl. Def. Acad., Dept. MSE (Japan)

1994-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

244

Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

None

2009-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

Technical and economic analysis of the thermal performance of a solar boiling concentrator for power generation  

SciTech Connect

A system for power generation using solar energy collected by compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) incorporated into a Rankine cycle system is studied by developing a model to simulate the CPC performance. The power cycle is also modeled under quasi-steady and transient conditions. An economic analysis is performed through a model developed to study the economic viability of the power system. The CPC performance is sensitive to the ratio of diffuse to beam components of the solar incident irradiation. This ratio, along with the concentration ratio, govern the CPC optical efficiency which in turn determine the thermal efficiency. The performance of the CPC working under boiling and superheating conditions is governed by the axial fractional lengths of the non-boiling and the superheating regions. The overall thermal loss coefficient is formulated as a function of the local thermal loss coefficient in the different regions and the length of each region. The thermal efficiency of CPC's and flat plates, whether under non-boiling, boiling or superheating conditions, is evaluated. The CPC working under superheating conditions has a good potential for solar powered Rankine cycles. System efficiencies as high as 11.3% could be obtained at R-11 evaporation temperature of 120/sup 0/C and a condensation temperature of 20/sup 0/ C.

El-Assy, A.Y.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We conducted a vehicle analysis to assess the feasibility of thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery and conversion to useful electrical power and found that eliminating the 500 W of electrical power generated by the alternator corresponded to about a 7% increase in fuel economy (FE) for a small car and about 6% for a full size truck. Electric power targets of 300 W were established for city and highway driving cycles for this project. We obtained critical vehicle level information for these driving cycles that enabled a high-level design and performance analysis of radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems for several potential vehicle platforms, and we identified the location and geometric envelopes of the radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems. Based on this analysis, we selected the Chevrolet Suburban as the most suitable demonstration vehicle for this project. Our modeling and thermal analysis assessment of a radiator-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, revealed severe practical limitations. Specifically the small temperature difference of 100°C or less between the engine coolant and ambient air results in a low Carnot conversion efficiency, and thermal resistance associated with air convection would reduce this conversion efficiency even further. We therefore decided not to pursue a radiator-based waste heat recovery system and focused only on the exhaust gas. Our overall approach was to combine science and engineering: (1) existing and newly developed TE materials were carefully selected and characterized by the material researcher members of our team, and most of the material property results were validated by our research partners, and (2) system engineers worked closely with vehicle engineers to ensure that accurate vehicle-level information was used for developing subsystem models and designs, and the subsystem output was analyzed for potential fuel economy gains. We incorporated material, module, subsystem, and integration costs into the material selection criteria in order to balance various materials, module and subsystem design, and vehicle integration options. Our work on advanced TE materials development and on TEG system design, assembly, vehicle integration, and testing proceeded in parallel efforts. Results from our two preliminary prototype TEGs using only Bi-Te TE modules allowed us to solve various mechanical challenges and to finalize and fine tune aspects of the design and implementation. Our materials research effort led us to quickly abandon work on PbTe and focus on the skutterudite materials due to their superior mechanical performance and suitability at automotive exhaust gas operating temperatures. We synthesized a sufficiently large quantity of skutterudite material for module fabrication for our third and final prototype. Our TEG#3 is the first of its kind to contain state-of-the-art skutterudite-based TE modules to be installed and tested on a production vehicle. The design, which consisted of 24 skutterudite modules and 18 Bi-Te modules, attempted to optimize electrical power generation by using these two kinds of TE modules that have their peak performance temperatures matched to the actual temperature profile of the TEG during operation. The performance of TEG#3 was limited by the maximum temperature allowable for the Bi-Te TE modules located in the colder end of the TEG, resulting in the operating temperature for the skutterudite modules to be considerably below optimum. We measured the power output for (1) the complete TEG (25 Watts) and (2) an individual TE module series string (1/3 of the TEG) operated at a 60°C higher temperature (19 Watts). We estimate that under optimum operating temperature conditions, TEG#3 will generate about 235 Watts. With additional improvements in thermal and electrical interfaces, temperature homogeneity, and power conditioning, we estimate TEG#3 could deliver a power output of about 425 Watts.

Gregory Meisner

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

THERMOELECTRIC NUCLEAR FUEL ELEMENT QUARTERLY PROGRESS REPORT, APRIL-JUNE 1961  

SciTech Connect

Uranium-bearing thermoelectric compounds are now being prepared by tantalum bomb melting and by the hydride process. Tests of devices made up from these compounds indicate that the main fabrication problems are densification and contact bonding. Data from a hot-swaged pellet and a swaged device of US/sub 2/ indicate some promise for that compound. Improvements in techniques of thermoelectric parameter measurements include programming of automatic test data recording at desired intervals around the clock; increased accuracy and versatility of measurements through use of a newly-constructed adjustable precision resistor; and a method for measuring which should lead to an experimental means for determining the thermoelectric figure of merit, Z. Potential profile studies on PbTe pelleta are yielding important information on contact resistance parameters. A fission-fired thermoelectric generator is being prepared for the next in-pile test. (auth)

1961-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

249

A comparison of thermoelectric phenomena in diverse alloy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The study of thermoelectric phenomena in solids provides a wealth of opportunity for exploration of the complex interrelationships between structure, processing, and properties of materials. As thermoelectricity implies some type of coupled thermal and electrical behavior, it is expected that a basic understanding of transport behavior in materials is the goal of such a study. However, transport properties such as electrical resistivity and thermal diffusivity cannot be fully understood and interpreted without first developing an understanding of the material's preparation and its underlying structure. It is the objective of this dissertation to critically examine a number of diverse systems in order to develop a broad perspective on how structure-processing-property relationships differ from system to system, and to discover the common parameters upon which any good thermoelectric material is based. The alloy systems examined in this work include silicon-germanium, zinc oxide, complex intermetallic compounds such as the half-Heusler MNiSn, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, and rare earth chalcogenides.

Cook, Bruce

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Finding New Thermoelectric Compounds Using Crystallographic Data: Atomic Displacement Parameters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new structure-property relationship is discussed which links atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and the lattice thermal conductivity of clathrate-like compounds. For many clathrate-like compounds, in which one of the atom types is weakly bound and ''rattles'' within its atomic cage, room temperature ADP information can be used to estimate the room temperature lattice thermal conductivity, the vibration frequency of the ''rattler'', and the temperature dependence of the heat capacity. Neutron data and X-ray crystallography data, reported in the literature, are used to apply this analysis to several promising classes of thermoelectric materials.

Chakoumakos, B.C.; Mandrus, D.G.; Sales, B.C.; Sharp, J.W.

1999-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

251

Thermoelectric generator with hinged assembly for fins  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cylindrical casing has a central shielded capsule of radioisotope fuel. A plurality of thermonuclear modules are axially arranged with their hot junctions resiliently pressed toward the shield and with their cold junctions adjacent a transition member having fins radiating heat to the environment. For each module, the assembly of transition member and fins is hinged to the casing for swinging to permit access to and removal of such module. A ceramic plate having gold layers on opposite faces prevents diffusion bonding of the hot junction to the shield.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA); Shapiro, Zalman M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hursen, Thomas F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Maurer, Gerould W. (Apollo, PA)

1976-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

252

Dose rate visualization of radioisotope thermoelectric generators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced visualization techniques can be used to investigate gamma ray and neutron dose rates around complex dose rate intensive operations. A method has been developed where thousands of dose points are calculated using the MCNP(Monte Carlo N-Particle) computer code and then displayed to create color contour plots of the dose rate for complex geometries. Once these contour plots are created, they are sequenced together creating an animation to dynamically show how the dose rate changes with changes in the geometry or source over time.

Schwarz, R.A.; Kessler, S.F.; Tomaszewski, T.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Investigation on Thermoelectric Generation From High Temperature ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Preparation of Biodiesel by Transesterification of Canola Oil Using Solid Base Catalyst KOH / ?-Al2O3 · Reduction of Energy Consumption and GHGs Emission

254

Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have high maximum theoretical efficiencies; experimental systems fall short because of losses by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To ...

Chester, David A.

255

Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3rd Thermoelectrics 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Twitter Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Google Bookmark Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Delicious Rank Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on Digg Find More places to share Vehicle Technologies Office: 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 on AddThis.com... Publications Key Publications Plans & Roadmaps Partnership Documents Annual Progress Reports Success Stories

256

Modeling study of thermoelectric SiGe nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanocomposite thermoelectric materials have attracted much attention recently due to experimental demonstrations of improved thermoelectric properties over those of the corresponding bulk material. In order to better ...

Minnich, Austin Jerome

257

Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon Sequestration at a Regional-Scale Background Thermoelectric power plants are...

258

Effect of Nanoparticles on Electron and Thermoelectric Transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on Electron and Thermoelectric Transport MONA ZEBARJADI, 1,5quantitatively predict transport properties of a bulk matrixscattering, thermoelectric, transport INTRODUCTION In recent

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Assessment of fibrous insulation materials for the selenide isotope generator system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fibrous insulations for use in the converter and the heat source of the radioisotope-powered, selenide element, thermoelectric generator (selenide isotope generator) are assessed. The most recent system design and material selection basis is presented. Several fibrous insulation materials which have the potential for use as load-bearing or nonload-bearing thermal insulations are reviewed, and thermophysical properties supplied by manufacturers or published in the literature are presented. Potential problems with the application of fibrous insulations in the selenide isotope generator are as follows: compatibility with graphite, the thermoelectric elements, and the isolation hot frame; devitrification, grain growth, and sintering with an accompanying degradation of insulation quality; impurity diffusion from the insulation to adjoining structures; outgassing and storage of fibrous materials. Areas in which thermophysical data or quantitative information on the insulation and structural stability is lacking are identified.

Wei, G.C; Tennery, V.J.

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Enhancement of thermopower of TAGS-85 high-performance thermoelectric materials by doping with the rare earth Dy  

SciTech Connect

Enhancement of thermopower is achieved by doping the narrow-band semiconductor Ag{sub 6.52}Sb{sub 6.52}Ge{sub 36.96}Te{sub 50} (acronym TAGS-85), one of the best p-type thermoelectric materials, with 1 or 2% of the rare earth dysprosium (Dy). Evidence for the incorporation of Dy into the lattice is provided by X-ray diffraction and increased orientation-dependent local fields detected by {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopy. Since Dy has a stable electronic configuration, the enhancement cannot be attributed to 4f-electron states formed near the Fermi level. It is likely that the enhancement is due to a small reduction in the carrier concentration, detected by {sup 125}Te NMR spectroscopy, but mostly due to energy filtering of the carriers by potential barriers formed in the lattice by Dy, which has large both atomic size and localized magnetic moment. The interplay between the thermopower, the electrical resistivity, and the thermal conductivity of TAGS-85 doped with Dy results in an enhancement of the power factor (PF) and the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) at 730 K, from PF = 28 ?W cm{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} and ZT ? 1.3 in TAGS-85 to PF = 35 ?W cm{sup ?1} K{sup ?2} and ZT ? 1.5 in TAGS-85 doped with 1 or 2% Dy for Ge. This makes TAGS-85 doped with Dy a promising material for thermoelectric power generation.

Levin, Evgenii; Budko, Serfuei; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Monitored Thermal Performance Results of Second Generation Superwindows in Three Montana Residences.  

SciTech Connect

Simulation studies have shown that highly insulating windows with moderate solar transmittances (R values greater than 6 hr-ft[sup 2]--F/Btu and shading coefficients greater than 0.5) can outperform insulated walls on any orientation, even in a northern US climate. Such superwindows achieve this feat by admitting more useful solar heat gains during the heating season than energy lost through conduction, convection and infrared radiation. Testing of first generation superwindows in three new homes in northern Montana during the winter of 1989--1990, reported in an earlier study, indicated that the glazed areas of superwindows can in fact outperform insulated walls on obstructed off-south orientations. However, this same study also showed that further improvements in the thermal performance of window edges and frames are necessary if the entire window is to outperform an insulated wall. As a result, second generation superwindows with improved frame, edge, and glazing features were installed in these houses during the summer and fall of 1990 and these windows were monitored during the winter of 1990--1991. Results from this monitoring effort, discussed in this paper, showed that while small performance improvements may have been made with these second generation superwindows, the frame and edge still limited performance.

Arasteh, D.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Enhancing Open Circuit Voltage by Combining Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Enhancing Open Circuit Voltage by Combining Thermoelectric Materials and Dye -Sensitized Solar Cell in Series · Estimation of Compressive Strength of High ...

263

CNT Based Thermoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, CNT Based Thermoelectric Devices for Energy Harvesting. Author(s), David S. Lashmore, Tom VanVechten, Jennifer Mann, Cory Timoney, ...

264

Thermoelectric battery, protected against shocks and accelerations  

SciTech Connect

In a thermoelectric battery the heat source is suspended on the end of a thermoelectric unit, the other end of which is attached via a heat conducting mass to the casing. A resilient mounting permits resilient rocking of the thermoelectric unit to reduce stress on the unit in the event of shock or acceleration applied to the casing and spring fingers not normally in contact with the heat source or the thermoelectric unit are positioned to arrest the heat source if the assembly rocks more than a predetermined amount.

Brown, M.H.; Myatt, J.

1979-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

265

Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers.

Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Faculte des Sciences)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Thermal generation and mobility of charge carriers in collective proton transport in hydrogen-bonded chains  

SciTech Connect

The transport of protons in hydrogen-bonded systems is a long standing problem which has not yet obtained a satisfactorily theoretical description. Although this problem was examined first for ice, it is relevant in many systems and in particular in biology for the transport along proteins or for proton conductance across membranes, an essential process in cell life. The broad relevance makes the study of proton conduction very appealing. Since the original work of Bernal and Fowler on ice, the idea that the transport occurs through chains of hydrogen bonds has been well accepted. Such proton wires'' were invoked by Nagle and Morowitz for proton transport across membranes proteins and more recently across lipid bilayers. In this report, we assume the existence of such an hydrogen-bonded chain and discuss its consequences on the dynamics of the charge carriers. We show that this assumption leads naturally to the idea of soliton transport and we put a special emphasis on the role of the coupling between the protons and heavy ions motions. The model is presented. We show how the coupling affects strongly the dynamics of the charge carriers and we discuss the role it plays in the thermal generation of carriers. The work presented has been performed in 1986 and 87 with St. Pnevmatikos and N. Flyzanis and was then completed in collaboration with D. Hochstrasser and H. Buettner. Therefore the results presented in this part are not new but we think that they are appropriate in the context of this multidisciplinary workshop because they provide a rather complete example of the soliton picture for proton conduction. This paper discusses the thermal generation of the charge carriers when the coupling between the protons and heavy ions dynamics is taken into account. The results presented in this part are very recent and will deserve further analysis but they already show that the coupling can assist for the formation of the charge carriers.

Peyrard, M.; Boesch, R.; Kourakis, I. (Dijon Univ., 21 (France). Faculte des Sciences)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Comparison of different pressing techniques for the preparation of n-type silicon-germanium thermoelectric alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Improvements to state-of-the-art Si{sub 80}Ge{sub 20} thermoelectric alloys have been observed in laboratory-scale samples by the powder metallurgy techniques of mechanical alloying and hot pressing. Incorporating these improvements in large scale compacts for the production of thermoelectric generator elements is the next step in achieving higher efficiency RTGs. This paper discusses consolidation of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powders into production size compacts. Differences in thermoelectric properties are noted between the compacts prepared by the standard technique of hot uniaxial pressing and hot isostatic pressing. Most significant is the difference in carrier concentration between the alloys prepared by the two consolidation techniques.

Harringa, J.L.; Cook, B.A.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

DoubleDip: leveraging thermoelectric harvesting for low power monitoring of sporadic water use  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present DoubleDip, a low power monitoring system for enabling non-intrusive water flow detection. DoubleDip taps into minute thermal gradients in pipes for both replenishing energy reserves and performing low power wakeup. One of the remaining issues ... Keywords: energy harvesting, low power, sustainability, thermoelectric, water monitoring

Paul Martin; Zainul Charbiwala; Mani Srivastava

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Thermoelectric materials: ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

Sharp, Jeffrey W. (Richardson, TX)

2002-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

270

Thermoelectric materials ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

Sharp, Jeffrey W. (Richardson, TX)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

www.ceramics.org | American Ceramic Society Bulletin, Vol. 91, No. 334 thermoelectric  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature and has been used in niche appli- cations for refrigeration and power generation since the 1950s that thermoelectric devic- es can compete with traditional refrigeration and power generation technologies.1 calculations and molecular dynamics simulations) provide strategies for the design of nanostructured materials

McGaughey, Alan

272

NETL: News Release - DOE Estimates Future Water Needs for Thermoelectric  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

December 6, 2007 December 6, 2007 DOE Estimates Future Water Needs for Thermoelectric Power Plants 2007 Analysis Adds Projected Water Requirements for Carbon Capture WASHINGTON, DC - The Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) has released a 2007 update to its groundbreaking study, Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet Future Thermoelectric Generation Requirements. The updated analysis increases understanding of regional and national water needs and usage in the power industry, and provides input for research and development aimed at water-use reduction. MORE INFO Link to the updated study NETL's Water-Energy Interface web page New in this year's report is a response to heightened concerns over atmospheric carbon dioxide. The report examines the possibility that future

273

Prescription to Improve Thermoelectric Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work, patterns in the behavior of different classes and types of thermoelectric materials are observed, and an alchemy that could help engineer a highly efficient thermoelectric is proposed. A method based on cross-correlation of Seebeck waveforms is also presented in order to capture physics of magnetic transition. The method is used to compute Curie temperature of LaCoO3 with an accuracy of 10K. In total, over 26 systems are analyzed, and 19 presented: Chalcogenides (PbSe, PbTe, Sb2Te3, Ag2Se), Skutterudites and Clathrates (CoSb3, SrFe4Sb12, Cd (CN)2, CdC, Ba8Ga16Si30*), Perovskites (SrTiO3, BaTiO3, LaCoO3, CaSiO3, Ce3InN*, YCoO3*), Half-Heuslers (ZrNiSn, NbFeSb, LiAlSi, CoSbTi, ScPtSb*, CaMgSi*), and an assorted class of thermoelectric materials (FeSi, FeSi2, ZnO, Ag QDSL*). Relaxation time is estimated from experimental conductance curve fits. A maximum upper bound of zT is evaluated for systems that have no experimental backing. In general, thermoelectric parameters (power factor, Seebeck coefficient and zT) are estimated for the aforementioned crystal structures. Strongly correlated systems are treated using LDAU and GGAU approximations. LDA/GGA/L(S)DA+U/GGA+U approach specific errors have also been highlighted. Densities of experimental results are estimated.

Meka, Shiv Akarsh

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Advanced Metal-Hydrides-Based Thermal Battery: A New Generation of High Density Thermal Battery Based on Advanced Metal Hydrides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

HEATS Project: The University of Utah is developing a compact hot-and-cold thermal battery using advanced metal hydrides that could offer efficient climate control system for EVs. The team’s innovative designs of heating and cooling systems for EVs with high energy density, low-cost thermal batteries could significantly reduce the weight and eliminate the space constraint in automobiles. The thermal battery can be charged by plugging it into an electrical outlet while charging the electric battery and it produces heat and cold through a heat exchanger when discharging. The ultimate goal of the project is a climate-controlling thermal battery that can last up to 5,000 charge and discharge cycles while substantially increasing the driving range of EVs, thus reducing the drain on electric batteries.

None

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

THERMINATOR 2: THERMal heavy IoN generATOR 2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present an extended version of THERMINATOR, a Monte Carlo event generator dedicated to studies of the statistical production of particles in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The increased functionality of the code contains the following features: The input of any shape of the freeze-out hypersurface and the expansion velocity field, including the 3+1 dimensional profiles, in particular those generated externally with various hydrodynamic codes. The hypersufraces may have variable thermal parameters, which allows for studies departing significantly from the mid-rapidity region, where the baryon chemical potential becomes large. We include a library of standard sets of hypersurfaces and velocity profiles describing the RHIC Au+Au data at sqrt(s_(NN)) = 200 GeV for various centralities, as well as those anticipated for the LHC Pb+Pb collisions at sqrt(s_(NN)) = 5.5 TeV. A separate code, FEMTO-THERMINATOR, is provided to carry out the analysis of femtoscopic correlations which are an important source of info...

Chojnacki, Mikolaj; Florkowski, Wojciech; Broniowski, Wojciech

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Rapid hydrogen gas generation using reactive thermal decomposition of uranium hydride.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxygen gas injection has been studied as one method for rapidly generating hydrogen gas from a uranium hydride storage system. Small scale reactors, 2.9 g UH{sub 3}, were used to study the process experimentally. Complimentary numerical simulations were used to better characterize and understand the strongly coupled chemical and thermal transport processes controlling hydrogen gas liberation. The results indicate that UH{sub 3} and O{sub 2} are sufficiently reactive to enable a well designed system to release gram quantities of hydrogen in {approx} 2 seconds over a broad temperature range. The major system-design challenge appears to be heat management. In addition to the oxidation tests, H/D isotope exchange experiments were performed. The rate limiting step in the overall gas-to-particle exchange process was found to be hydrogen diffusion in the {approx}0.5 {mu}m hydride particles. The experiments generated a set of high quality experimental data; from which effective intra-particle diffusion coefficients can be inferred.

Kanouff, Michael P.; Van Blarigan, Peter; Robinson, David B.; Shugard, Andrew D.; Gharagozloo, Patricia E.; Buffleben, George M.; James, Scott Carlton; Mills, Bernice E.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Enhanced room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of the dilute bismuthide InGaBiAs  

SciTech Connect

We report room temperature electronic and thermoelectric properties of Si-doped In{sub 0.52}Ga{sub 0.48}Bi{sub y}As{sub 1-y} with varying Bi concentrations. These films were grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating InP substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. We show that low Bi concentrations are optimal in improving the conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermoelectric power factor, possibly due to the surfactant effects of bismuth. We observed a reduction in thermal conductivity with increasing Bi concentration, which is expected because of alloy scattering. We report a peak ZT of 0.23 at 300 K.

Dongmo, Pernell; Zhong Yujun; Bomberger, Cory; Zide, Joshua [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Attia, Peter [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Cheaito, Ramez; Hopkins, Patrick E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 2294 (United States); Ihlefeld, Jon F. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, M.S. 1069, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Heat reflecting tape for thermoelectric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Threads are interlaced with thermoelectric wires to provide a woven cloth in tape form, there being an intermediate layer of heat radiation reflecting material (e.g., aluminum foil) insulated electrically from said wires, which are of opposite thermoelectric polarity and connected as a plurality of thermocouples.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

Saeid Ghamaty

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics | U.S. DOE Office  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) News & Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: sc.bes@science.doe.gov More Information » February 2013 Making the Right Substitution for Better Thermoelectrics Exploiting the self-organizing nature of atoms to block heat transfer and improve thermal-to-electrical energy conversion. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Ctirad Uher

284

Generation of electrical power  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element.

Hursen, Thomas F. (Monroeville, PA); Kolenik, Steven A. (Leechburg, PA); Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Diagnostic/Troubleshooting Monitoring to Identify Damaging Cycle Chemistry or Thermal Transients in Heat Recovery Steam Generator Pressure Parts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The worldwide fleet of combined cycle units with heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) has exhibited a disappointing track record with respect to reliability and availability in terms of HRSG tube failures (HTFs). This report will assist operators in identifying the harmful chemical and thermal transient excursions that lead to failure.

2005-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

286

Deep levels generated by thermal oxidation in p-type 4H-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Thermal oxidation is an effective method to reduce deep levels, especially the Z{sub 1/2}-center (E{sub C}-0.67 eV), which strongly suppresses carrier lifetimes in n-type 4H-SiC epilayers. The oxidation, however, simultaneously generates other deep levels, HK0 (E{sub V}+0.79 eV) and HK2 (E{sub V}+0.98 eV) centers, within the lower half of the bandgap of SiC, where the HK0 center is a dominant deep level with a concentration of about 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} after oxidation. By comparing deep levels observed in three sets of p-type 4H-SiC: oxidized, electron-irradiated, and C{sup +}- or Si{sup +}-implanted samples, we find that the HK0 and HK2 centers are complexes including carbon interstitials such as the di-carbon interstitial or di-carbon antisite. Other defects observed in p-type 4H-SiC after electron irradiation or after C{sup +}/Si{sup +} implantation are also studied.

Kawahara, Koutarou; Suda, Jun; Kimoto, Tsunenobu [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2013-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

287

Water Use in Electricity Generation Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Water use is increasingly viewed as an important sustainability metric for electricity generation technologies. Most of the attention on the link between electricity generation and water use focuses on the water used in cooling thermoelectric power plants during operations. This is warranted given the size of these withdrawals; however, all electricity generation technologies, including those that do not rely on thermoelectric generation, use water throughout their life cycles. Each life cycle stage cont...

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

288

Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert heat into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

None

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Simulation System on the Thermal Stress and Fatigue Life Loss of Startup and Shutdown for a Domestic 600MW Steam Turbo Generator Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Simulation System on the thermal stresses and fatigue life loss of the rotator during startup and shutdown for a domestic 600MW steam turbo generator unit, By means of the analysis of Simulation System on the thermal stress and life loss of the rotor, ... Keywords: steam turbine unit, thermal stress, Fatigue Life Loss, rotator, startup, shutdown

Yunchun Xia

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Development and Validation of Temperature Dependent Thermal Neutron Scattering Laws for Applications and Safety Implications in Generation IV Reactor Designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The overall obljectives of this project are to critically review the currently used thermal neutron scattering laws for various moderators as a function of temperature, select as well documented and representative set of experimental data sensitive to the neutron spectra to generate a data base of benchmarks, update models and models parameters by introducing new developments in thermalization theory and condensed matter physics into various computational approaches in establishing the scattering laws, benchmark the results against the experimentatl set. In the case of graphite, a validation experiment is performed by observing nutron slowing down as a function of temperatures equal to or greater than room temperature.

Ayman Hawari

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

291

Steam Generator Management Program: Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Representative Steam Generators with Various Tube Support Plate B lockages  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Three primary-to-secondary leaks recently occurred at Cruas in France. The steam generators at Cruas were designed with a chimney region near the centerline, where 12 tubes were omitted but broach holes were still present in the tube support plates (TSPs). Sludge deposits accumulated in broached holes of the upper TSPs of the Cruas units. All three leaks were located near the chimney region and just above the top TSP. NRC Information Notice 2007-37, Buildup of Deposits in Steam Generators, was issued to ...

2008-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

292

Thermoelectrics : material advancements and market applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric properties have been known since the initial discovery in 1821 by Thomas Seebeck, who found that a current flowed at the junction of two dissimilar metals when placed under a temperature differential. This ...

Monreal, Jorge

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermoelectric Nanocomposites: Effect of Nanostructures on Lattice ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, This talk will give a brief introduction to thermoelectric phenomena and challenges that these materials ... Colloidal Ag-Pt/TiO2 Nanocomposites for Photocatalysis ... Positron Lifetime Analysis of Polyurea- Nanoclay Composites.

294

Generalized drift-diffusion for microscopic thermoelectricity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although thermoelectric elements increasingly incorporate nano-scale features in similar material systems as other micro-electronic devices, the former are described in the language of irreversible thermodynamics while ...

Santhanam, Parthiban

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Modeling water use at thermoelectric power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The withdrawal and consumption of water at thermoelectric power plants affects regional ecology and supply security of both water and electricity. The existing field data on US power plant water use, however, is of limited ...

Rutberg, Michael J. (Michael Jacob)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

SP-100 thermoelectric-electromagnetic pump review  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report contains vugraphs of a presentation on thermoelectric-electromagnetic pumps. It contains: engineering drawings; summary of rectangular TEMP results and comparison with GE predictions; and results of optimization study.

NONE

1988-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

297

Device testing and characterization of thermoelectric nanocomposites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has become evident in recent years that developing clean, sustainable energy technologies will be one of the world's greatest challenges in the 21st century. Thermoelectric materials can potentially make a contribution ...

Muto, Andrew (Andrew Jerome)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Optimal Bandwidth for High Efficiency Thermoelectrics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in narrow conduction bands of different material dimensionalities is investigated for different carrier scattering models. When the bandwidth is zero, the transport distribution ...

Zhou, Jun

299

Manipulation of Thermal Phonons  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Developing materials that can conduct electricity easily, but block the motion of phonons is necessary in the applications of thermoelectric devices, which can generate electricity from temperature differences. In converse, a key requirement as chips get faster is to obtain better ways to dissipate heat. Controlling heat transfer in these crystalline materials devices — such as silicon — is important. The heat is actually the motion or vibration of atoms known as phonons. Finding ways to manipulate the behavior of phonons is crucial for both energy applications and the cooling of integrated circuits. A novel class of artificially periodic structured materials — phononic crystals — might make manipulation of thermal phonons possible. In many fields of physical sciences and engineering, acoustic wave propagation in solids attracts many researchers. Wave propagation phenomena can be analyzed by mathematically solving the acoustic wave equation. However, wave propagation in inhomogeneous media with various geometric structures is too complex to find an exact solution. Hence, the Finite Difference Time Domain method is developed to investigate these complicated problems. In this work, the Finite-Difference Time-Domain formula is derived from acoustic wave equations based on the Taylor’s expansion. The numerical dispersion and stability problems are analyzed. In addition, the convergence conditions of numerical acoustic wave are stated. Based on the periodicity of phononic crystal, the Bloch’s theorem is applied to fulfill the periodic boundary condition of the FDTD method. Then a wide-band input signal is used to excite various acoustic waves with different frequencies. In the beginning of the calculation process, the wave vector is chosen and fixed. By means of recording the displacement field and taking the Fourier transformation, we can obtain the eigenmodes from the resonance peaks of the spectrum and draw the dispersion relation curve of acoustic waves. With the large investment in silicon nanofabrication techniques, this makes tungsten/silicon phononic crystal a particularly attractive platform for manipulating thermal phonons. Phononic crystal makes use of the fundamental properties of waves to create band gap over which there can be no propagation of acoustic waves in the crystal. This crystal can be applied to deterministically manipulate the phonon dispersion curve affected by different crystal structures and to modify the phonon thermal conductivity accordingly. We can expect this unique metamaterial is a promising route to creating unprecedented thermal properties for highly-efficient energy harvesting and thermoelectric cooling.

Hsu, Chung-Hao

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Thermal conductivity from first-principles in bulk, disordered, and nanostructured materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal conductivity is an important transport property that plays a vital role in applications such as high efficiency thermoelectric devices as well as in thermal management of electronics. We present a first-principles ...

Garg, Jivtesh

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Solar Thermal Small Power Systems Study. Inventory of US industrial small electric power generating systems. [Less than 10 MW  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This inventory of small industrial electric generating systems was assembled by The Aerospace Corporation to provide a data base for analyses being conducted to estimate the potential for displacement of these fossil-fueled systems by solar thermal electric systems no larger than 10 MW in rated capacity. The approximately 2100 megawatts generating capacity of systems in this category constitutes a potential market for small solar thermal and other solar electric power systems. The sources of data for this inventory were the (former) Federal Power Commission (FPC) Form 4 Industrial Ledger and Form 12-C Ledger for 1976. Table 1 alphabetically lists generating systems located at industrial plants and at Federal government installations in each of the 50 states. These systems are differentiated by type of power plant: steam turbine, diesel generator, or gas turbine. Each listing is designated as a power system rather than a power unit because the FPC Ledgers do not provide a means of determining whether more than one unit is associated with each industrial installation. Hence, the user should consider each listing to be a system capacity rating wherein the system may consist of one or more generating units with less than 10 MW/sub e/ combined rating. (WHK)

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 3000C ���¹�������� 450 0C ) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

D. Y. Goswami

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

303

Thermoelectric Alloys and Devices for Radioisotope Space Power Systems: State of the Art and Current Developments  

SciTech Connect

Lead telluride and silicon germanium type alloys have served over the past several decades as the preferred thermoelectric conversion materials for U. S. radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power systems for planetary deep space exploration missions. The Pioneer missions to Jupiter and Jupiter/Saturn and the Viking Mars Lander missions employed TAGS-2N (lead and germanium telluride derivatives) power conversion devices. Since 1976, silicon germanium (SiGe) alloys, incorporated into the unicouple device, have evolved as the thermoelectric materials of choice for U. S. RTG powered space missions. These include the U. S. Air Force Lincoln Experimental Satellites 8 & 9 for communications, in 1976, followed in 1977 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Voyager 1 and 2 planetary missions. In 1989, advanced SiGe RTGs were used to power the Galileo exploration of Jupiter and, in 1990, will be used to power the Ulysses investigation of the Sun. In addition, SiGe technology has been chosen to provide RTG power for the 1995 Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby mission and the 1996 Cassini Saturn orbiter mission. Summaries of the flight performance data for these systems are presented.; Current U. S. Department of Energy thermoelectric development activities include (1) the development of conversion devices based on hi-density, close packed couple arrays and (2) the development of improved performance silicon germanium type thermoelectric materials. The silicon germanium type "multicouple", being developed in conjunction with the Modular RTG program, is discussed in a companion paper. A lead telluride type close-packed module, discussed herein, offers the promise of withstanding high velocity impacts and, thus, is a candidate for a Mars Penetrator application.; Recent projects sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy, including the Improved Thermoelectric Materials and Modular Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator programs, have shown that improvements in silicon germanium thermoelectric energy conversion capabilities of at least 50 percent can be achieved by tailoring the characteristics of the silicon germanium alloy materials and devices. This paper compares the properties and characteristics of the SiGe alloys now being developed with those used in the operational space power system.

Barnett, W.; Dick, P.; Beaudry, B.; Gorsuch, P.; Skrabek, E.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor with Highly Mismatched Isoelectronic Doping  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the effect of O impurities on the thermoelectric properties of ZnSe from a combination

Grossman, Jeffrey C.

305

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium, Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications II.

306

Thermal properties of nanowires and nanotubes : modeling and experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nanowires and nanotubes have drawn a great deal of recent attention for such potential applications as lasers, transistors, biosensors, and thermoelectric energy converters. Although the thermal properties of nanowires can ...

Dames, Christopher Eric

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Electronic and thermoelectric properties of CoSbS and FeSbS  

SciTech Connect

We present a combined theoretical and experimental study of the potential thermoelectric performance of three transition metal antimonide sulfides, CoSbS, FeSbS and NiSbS. From theory we find that NiSbS is metallic and hence of little interest regarding thermoelectric performance. CoSbS and FeSbS are both semiconductors with rather heavy valence and conduction bands, whose thermopower can exceed 200 $\\mu$V/K at temperatures of 900 K and carrier concentrations of 10$^{21}$cm$^{-3}$, which is similar to the $n$-type high performance thermoelectric filled skutterudites. The experimental results on several non-optimized $n$-type CoSbS samples confirm its semiconducting nature and indicate a potential for good high temperature thermoelectric performance, finding a ZT for two of the samples of 0.35 at 773 K. Substantially higher ZT values may be possible if the lattice thermal conductivity can be reduced by alloying and the effects of extrinsic scattering, which appear to be substantial in the experimental results, are reduced.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Sales, Brian C [ORNL; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; May, Andrew F [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Thermoelectric material development. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have found that there is a limited range of solid solutions between the skutterudite compounds CoSb{sub 3} and RuSb{sub 2}Te (about 5% on each side). For the system (RuSb{sub 2}Te){sub x}(CoSb{sub 3}){sub 1-x}, preliminary results obtained on one n-type sample on the CoSb{sub 3}-rich side show that these alloys have good thermoelectric properties and a maximum ZT of about 0.89 was obtained at about 600 C. More experiments will be started to investigate the possibility of a broader range of miscibility in this system which would allow an even further decrease in the lattice thermal conductivity, resulting in better thermoelectric properties. IrSb{sub 3} and RuSb{sub 2}Te form a complete range of solid solutions. Hot-pressed samples in this system have shown p-type conductivity. The thermoelectric properties of these p-type alloys have been measured and results have shown that their potential for thermoelectric applications is limited mainly because of the relatively low Seebeck coefficient values for p-type materials. Efforts will be directed on preparing n-type samples of the same alloys by doping with various dopants such as Ni and Pd.

Vandersande, J.W.; Caillat, T.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

High three dimensional thermoelectric performance from low dimensional bands  

SciTech Connect

Reduced dimensionality has long been regarded as an important strategy for increasing thermoelectric performance, for example in superlattices and other engineered structures. Here we point out and illustrate by examples that three dimensional bulk materials can be made to behave as if they were two dimensional from the point of view of thermoelectric performance. Implications for the discovery of new practical thermoelectrics are discussed.

Singh, David J [ORNL; Chen, Xin [ORNL; Parker, David S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Potential use of wood and agriculture wastes as steam generator fuel for thermal enhanced oil recovery. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Enhanced oil recovery by steam injection methods produces over 200,000 barrels per day of crude oil in California. A sizeable portion of the produced crude, up to 40% for some projects, may be burned to generate steam for injection into the reservoir. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the potential to use wood and agriculture wastes to replace crude oil as steam generator fuel. The Bakersfield area of California's San Joaquin Valley is the focus for this paper. Production from thermal EOR methods centers around Bakersfield and agriculture and wood wastes are available from the San Joaquin Valley and the nearby Sierra Nevada mountains. This paper documents the production of waste materials by county, estimated energy value of each material, and estimated transportation cost for each material. Both agriculture and wood wastes were found to be available in sizeable quantities and could become attractive steam generation fuels. However, some qualifications need to be made on the use of these materials. Transportation costs will probably limit the range of shipping these materials to perhaps 50 to 100 miles. Availability is subject to competition from existing and developing uses of these materials, such as energy sources in their immediate production area. Existing steam generators probably cannot be retrofitted to burn these materials. Fluidized bed combustion, or low Btu gasification, may be a good technology for utilization. FBC or FBG could accept a variety of waste materials. This will be important because the amount of any single waste may not be large enough to support the energy requirements of a good size thermal f a good size thermal EOR operation.

Kosstrin, H.M.; McDonald, R.K.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae=Ca,Sr,Ba, as thermoelectric materials  

SciTech Connect

We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2 Sn, Sr2 Sn and Ba2 Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli - roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Research on Short-term Load Forecasting of the Thermoelectric Boiler Based on a Dynamic RBF Neural Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As thermal inertia is the key factor for the lag of thermoelectric utility regulation, it becomes very important to forecast its short-term load according to running parameters. In this paper, dynamic radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed based on the RBF neural network with the associated parameters of sample deviation and partial sample deviation, which are defined for the purpose of effective judgment of new samples. Also, in order to forecast the load of sample with large deviation, sensitivity coefficients of input layer is given in this paper. To validate this model, an experiment is performed on a thermoelectric plant, and the experimental result indicates that the network can be put into extensive use for short-term load forecasting of thermoelectric utility.

Dai, W.; Zou, P.; Yan, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Ultrasonic examination techniques for multicouple thermoelectric subcomponents and assemblies: Status report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Since the early 1960s, the United States has been using radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), developed by the US Department of Energy and its predecessors, for a variety of environments including space. A recent concept in building RTGs uses modular components to allow for an advanced, lighter space mission generator that provides scaled power level outputs. The scalability feature of the modular isotopic thermoelectric generator (MITG) represents a major advance over earlier RTG designs. However, special problems are encountered in applying nondestructive testing methods because of the miniature size of parts that require inspection. This report describes the status of ultrasonic inspection methods being developed to examine the subcomponents and assemblies of the; MITG. The principal emphasis has been to evaluate various bonds between subcomponents using ultrasonic techniques that employ focused search units and a pulse-echo method.

Cook, K.V.; McClung, R.W.; Simpson, W.A. Jr.; Cunningham, R.A. Jr.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Characterization of solar thermal concepts for electricity generation: Volume 1, Analyses and evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at providing a relative comparison of the thermodynamic and economic performance in electric applications of several concepts that have been studied and developed in the DOE solar thermal program. Since the completion of earlier systems comparison studies in the late 1970's, there have been a number of years of progress in solar thermal technology. This progress has included development of new solar components, improvements in component and system design detail, construction of working systems, and collection of operating data on the systems. This study provides an updating of the expected performance and cost of the major components and the overall system energy cost for the concepts evaluated. The projections in this study are for the late 1990's time frame, based on the capabilities of the technologies that could be expected to be achieved with further technology development.

Williams, T.A.; Dirks, J.A.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Antoniac, Z.A.; Ross, B.A.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Anneng Thermoelectricity Group | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Anneng Thermoelectricity Group Anneng Thermoelectricity Group Jump to: navigation, search Name Anneng Thermoelectricity Group Place Wuhan, Hubei Province, China Zip 430071 Sector Biomass Product China-based biomass project developer. Coordinates 30.572399°, 114.279121° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":30.572399,"lon":114.279121,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

317

Thermal-hydraulic response and iodine transport during a steam generator tube rupture  

SciTech Connect

Recent reanalyses of the offsite dose consequences following a steam generator tube rupture have identified a possible non-conservatism in original FSAR analyses. Post-trip uncovery of the top of the steam generator U-tubes, in conjunction with a break near the U-tube top, could lead to increased iodine release due to a reduced ''scrubbing'' of the iodine in the primary break fluid by the steam generator secondary liquid. To evaluate this issue, analyses were performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The RELAP5 computer code was used to conduct an analysis of the Surry plant to determine whether the post-trip steam generator secondary mixture level was sufficient to maintain continuous coverage of the U-tubes. The results indicated continuous coverage of the U-tubes. The RELAP5 result was supported by a hand calculation. Additional RELAP5 analyses were conducted to determine magnitudes of iodine release for a steam generator tube rupture. Two sensitivity studies were conducted. The amount of iodine released to the atmosphere was strongly dependent on the assumed value of the partition coefficient. The assumption of steam generator U-tube uncovery, on a collapsed liquid level basis, following reactor trip had a minor effect on the amount of released iodine. 17 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.

Callow, R.A.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd. Place Mishan, Heilongjiang Province, China Zip 158308 Sector Biomass Product Heilongjiang-based developer of a CDM biomass plant. References Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd.[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd. is a company located in Mishan, Heilongjiang Province, China . References ↑ "[ Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd.]" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Heilongjiang_Mudanjiang_Nongken_Xinneng_Thermoelectric_Co_Ltd&oldid=346439"

319

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature-stabilization means  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, C.M.

1981-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

320

Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

Singh, David Joseph

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

322

Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Better Engineered Solutions. Better Engineered Solutions. What Listening Generates. Better Engineered Solutions. What Listening Generates. Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis September 2004 Steve Cohen Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis September 2004 Steve Cohen NREL H 2 Electrolysis - Utility Integration Workshop NREL H 2 Electrolysis - Utility Integration Workshop 2 Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis Hydrogen Generation by Electrolysis  Intro to Teledyne Energy Systems  H 2 Generator Basics & Major Subsystems  H 2 Generating & Storage System Overview  Electrolysis System Efficiency & Economics  Focus for Attaining DOE H 2 Production Cost Goals 3 Teledyne Energy Systems Locations - ISO 9001 Teledyne Energy Systems Locations - ISO 9001 Hunt Valley, Maryland  State-of-the-art thermoelectric,

323

Thermoelectric Property of Mesoporous TiO2 film  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

324

Phase Stability and Thermoelectric Prosperities of Non-stoimetric Pb ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

325

Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

This final report summarizes the final results of the Phase II Innovative Application of Maintenance-Free Phase-Change Thermal Energy Storage for Dish-Engine Solar Power Generation project being performed by Infinia Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-FC36-08GO18157 during the project period of September 1, 2009 - August 30, 2012. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the practicality of integrating thermal energy storage (TES) modules, using a suitable thermal salt phase-change material (PCM) as its medium, with a dish/Stirling engine; enabling the system to operate during cloud transients and to provide dispatchable power for 4 to 6 hours after sunset. A laboratory prototype designed to provide 3 kW-h of net electrical output was constructed and tested at Infinia's Ogden Headquarters. In the course of the testing, it was determined that the system's heat pipe network - used to transfer incoming heat from the solar receiver to both the Stirling generator heater head and to the phase change salt - did not perform to expectations. The heat pipes had limited capacity to deliver sufficient heat energy to the generator and salt mass while in a charging mode, which was highly dependent on the orientation of the device (vertical versus horizontal). In addition, the TES system was only able to extract about 30 to 40% of the expected amount of energy from the phase change salt once it was fully molten. However, the use of heat pipes to transfer heat energy to and from a thermal energy storage medium is a key technical innovation, and the project team feels that the limitations of the current device could be greatly improved with further development. A detailed study of manufacturing costs using the prototype TES module as a basis indicates that meeting DOE LCOE goals with this hardware requires significant efforts. Improvement can be made by implementing aggressive cost-down initiatives in design and materials, improving system performance by boosting efficiencies, and by refining cost estimates with vendor quotes in lieu of mass-based approaches. Although the prototype did not fully demonstrate performance and realize projected cost targets, the project team believes that these challenges can be overcome. The test data showed that the performance can be significantly improved by refining the heat pipe designs. However, the project objective for phase 3 is to design and test on sun the field ready systems, the project team feels that is necessary to further refine the prototype heat pipe design in the current prototype TES system before move on to field test units, Phase 3 continuation will not be pursued.

Qui, Songgang [Temple University] [Temple University; Galbraith, Ross [Infinia] [Infinia

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

326

Nanoscale devices for solid state refrigeration and power generation,” Twentieth Annual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A brief review of various techniques to engineer nanoscale thermal and electrical properties of materials is given. The main emphasis is on various energy conversion mechanisms, particularly, thermo electric refrigeration and power generation. Recent experimental and theoretical results on superlattice and quantum dot thermoelectrics and solidstate and vacuum thermionic thin film devices are reviewed. We also present an overview of the research activities at the multi university Thermionic Energy Conversion Center on the design of solid-state and vacuum devices that could convert heat into electricity with hot side temperatures ranging from 300 to 650C and with high conversion efficiency.

Ali Shakouri

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Large Thermoelectric Power Factor in TiS2 Crystal with Nearly Stoichiometric Composition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A TiS2 crystal with a layered structure was found to have a large thermoelectric power factor. The in-plane power factor S2 /? at 300 K is 37.1 ”W/K2cm with resistivity (?) of 1.7 m?cm and thermopower (S) of-251 ”V/K, and this value is comparable to that of the best thermoelectric material, Bi2Te3 alloy. The electrical resistivity shows both metallic and highly anisotropic behaviors, suggesting that the electronic structure of this TiS2 crystal has a quasi-twodimensional nature. The large thermoelectric response can be ascribed to the large density of state just above the Fermi energy and inter-valley scattering. In spite of the large power factor, the figure of merit, ZT of TiS2 is 0.16 at 300 K, because of relatively large thermal conductivity, 68 mW/Kcm. However, most of this value comes from reducible lattice contribution. Thus, ZT can be improved by reducing lattice thermal conductivity, e.g., by introducing a rattling unit into the inter-layer sites.

H. Imai; Y. Shimakawa; Y. Kubo

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same  

SciTech Connect

High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

DeSteese, John G [Kennewick, WA; Olsen, Larry C [Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA

2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

329

Thermoelectric figure of merit of Ag{sub 2}Se with Ag and Se excess  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the temperature range of 100-300 K, the electric ({sigma}) and thermoelectric ({alpha}{sub 0}) properties of Ag{sub 2}Se with an excess of Ag as high as {approx}0.1 at. % and Se as high as {approx}1.0 at. %, respectively, are investigated. From the data on {sigma}, {alpha}{sub 0}, and {chi}{sub tot} (thermal conductivities), the thermoelectric power {alpha}{sub 0}{sup 2}{sigma} and the figure of merit Z are calculated. It is found that {alpha}{sub 0}{sup 2}{sigma} and Z attain the peak values at room temperature and the electron concentration n {approx} 6.5 x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}.

Aliev, F. F., E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az; Jafarov, M. B.; Eminova, V. I. [Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

330

Transient cooling and heating via a bismuth-telluride thermoelectric device  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric cooling or heating can be used to drive materials to specified temperatures. By way of the Peltier effect, heat is liberated or absorbed when a current flows across a 'unction of two dissimilar conductors. A time history of the temperature cycle can be used to correlate a thermal response as a function of electrical current and initial temperature. In this thesis, the thermoelectric cooling and heating of copper and mercury, in conjunction with bismuth-telluride (Bl2Te3) semiconductors, are measured and compared against a I-D approximation developed by Bhattacharyya, Lagoudas, Waiig, and Kinra.' Based on results published in the aforementioned article and unpublished work of the author, refinements in the experimental setup are meant to further insure that the I-D assumptions are followed as accurately as possible. The improvements however are dwarfed by possible misconceptions assumed in the physics of the setup.

Clancy, Terry L

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermoelectric properties of AgGaTe$_2$ and related chalcopyrite structure materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present an analysis of the potential thermoelectric performance of p-type AgGaTe$_{2}$, which has already shown a $ZT$ of 0.8 with partial optimization, and observe that the same band structure features, such as a mixture of light and heavy bands and isotropic transport, that lead to this good performance are present in certain other ternary chalcopyrite structure semiconductors. We find that optimal performance of AgGaTe$_2$ will be found for hole concentrations between 4 $\\times 10^{19}$ and 2 $\\times 10^{20}$cm$^{-3}$ at 900 K, and 2 $\\times 10^{19}$ and 10$^{20}$ cm$^{-3}$ at 700 K, and that certain other chalcopyrite semiconductors might show good thermoelectric performance at similar doping ranges and temperatures if not for higher lattice thermal conductivity.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Automated Weld Characterization Using The Thermoelectric Method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this paper, we examine a seldom used approach based on the thermoelectric (TE) effect for characterizing welds and their associated heat affected zone (HAZ). The thermoelectric method monitors the thermoelectric power which is sensitive to small changes in the kinetics of the conduction electrons near the Fermi surface that can be caused by changes in the local microstructure. The technique has been applied to metal sorting, quality testing, flaw detection, thickness gauging of layers, and microscopic structural analysis[1-6]. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique for characterizing welds, a series of tungsten-inert-gas welded Inconel-718 samples were scanned with a computer controlled TE probe. The samples were then analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and Rockwell hardness tests to characterize the weld and the associated HAZ. We then correlated the results with the TE measurements to provide quantitative information on the size of the HAZ and the degree of hardness of the material in the weld region. This provides potentially valuable information on the strength and fatigue life of the weld. We begin the paper by providing a brief review of the TE technique and then highlight some of the factors that can effect the measurements. Next, we provide an overview of the experimental procedure and discuss the results. Finally, we summarize our findings and consider areas for future research. INTRODUCTION TO THERMOELECTRICITY The thermoelectric technique is based on an effect first discovered by Seebeck in 1822. Seebeck found that when two dissimilar conductors A and B make a circuit a current will flow when the junctions of the two conductors are at different temperatures (Fig. 1). The Seebeck effect occurs because at the hot end, electrons are excited ...

J. P. Fulton; B. Wincheski; M. Namkung

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Development and Performance Evaluation of High Temperature Concrete for Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Power Generation  

SciTech Connect

Thermal energy can be stored by the mechanism of sensible or latent heat or heat from chemical reactions. Sensible heat is the means of storing energy by increasing the temperature of the solid or liquid. Since the concrete as media cost per kWhthermal is $1, this seems to be a very economical material to be used as a TES. This research is focused on extending the concrete TES system for higher temperatures (500 Ă?ÂșC to 600 Ă?ÂșC) and increasing the heat transfer performance using novel construction techniques. To store heat at high temperature special concretes are developed and tested for its performance. The storage capacity costs of the developed concrete is in the range of $0.91-$3.02/kWhthermal Two different storage methods are investigated. In the first one heat is transported using molten slat through a stainless steel tube and heat is transported into concrete block through diffusion. The cost of the system is higher than the targeted DOE goal of $15/kWhthermal The increase in cost of the system is due to stainless steel tube to transfer the heat from molten salt to the concrete blocks.The other method is a one-tank thermocline system in which both the hot and cold fluid occupy the same tank resulting in reduced storage tank volume. In this model, heated molten salt enters the top of the tank which contains a packed bed of quartzite rock and silica sand as the thermal energy storage (TES) medium. The single-tank storage system uses about half the salt that is required by the two-tank system for a required storage capacity. This amounts to a significant reduction in the cost of the storage system. The single tank alternative has also been proven to be cheaper than the option which uses large concrete modules with embedded heat exchangers. Using computer models optimum dimensions are determined to have an round trip efficiency of 84%. Additionally, the cost of the structured concrete thermocline configuration provides the TES capacity cost of $33.80$/kWhthermal compared with $30.04/kWhthermal for a packed-bed thermocline (PBTC) configuration and $46.11/kWhthermal for a two-tank liquid configuration.

R. Panneer Selvam, Micah Hale and Matt strasser

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

334

Development and Performance Evaluation of High Temperature Concrete for Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two different storage methods are investigated. In the first one heat is transported using molten slat through a stainless steel tube and heat is transported into concrete block through diffusion. The cost of the system is higher than the targeted DOE goal of $15/kWhthermal The increase in cost of the system is due to stainless steel tube to transfer the heat from molten salt to the concrete blocks.The other method is a one-tank thermocline system in which both the hot and cold fluid occupy the same tank resulting in reduced storage tank volume. In this model, heated molten salt enters the top of the tank which contains a packed bed of quartzite rock and silica sand as the thermal energy storage (TES) medium. The single-tank storage system uses about half the salt that is required by the two-tank system for a required storage capacity. This amounts to a significant reduction in the cost of the storage system. The single tank alternative has also been proven to be cheaper than the option which uses large concrete modules with embedded heat exchangers. Using computer models optimum dimensions are determined to have an round trip efficiency of 84%. Additionally, the cost of the structured concrete thermocline configuration provides the TES capacity cost of $33.80$/kWhthermal compared with $30.04/kWhthermal for a packed-bed thermocline (PBTC) configuration and $46.11/kWhthermal for a two-tank liquid configuration.

R. Panneer Selvam, Micah Hale and Matt strasser

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

335

Steam generation in line-focus solar collectors: a comparative assessment of thermal performance, operating stability, and cost issues  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The engineering and system benefits of using direct steam (in situ) generation in line-focus collectors are assessed. The major emphasis of the analysis is a detailed thermal performance comparison of in situ systems (which utilize unfired boilers). The analysis model developed for this study is discussed in detail. An analysis of potential flow stability problems is also provided along with a cursory cost analysis and an assessment of freeze protection, safety, and control issues. Results indicated a significant thermal performance advantage over the more conventional oil and flash systems and the flow stability does not appear to be a significant problem. In particular, at steam temperatures of 220/sup 0/C (430/sup 0/F) under the chosen set of assumptions, annual delivered energy predictions indicate that the in situ system can deliver 15% more energy than an oil system and 12% more energy than a flash system, with all of the systems using the same collector field. Further, the in situ system may result in a 10% capital cost reduction. Other advantages include improvement in simpler control when compared with flash systems, and fluid handling and safety enhancement when compared with oil systems.

Murphy, L.M.; May, E.K.

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

THERMOELECTRICAL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM THE EXHAUST OF A LIGHT TRUCK  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A team formed by Clarkson University is engaged in a project to design, build, model, test, and develop a plan to commercialize a thermoelectric generator (TEG) system for recovering energy from the exhaust of light trucks and passenger cars. Clarkson University is responsible for project management, vehicle interface design, system modeling, and commercialization plan. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (sub-contractor to Clarkson) is responsible for TEG design and construction. Delphi Corporation is responsible for testing services and engineering consultation and General Motors Corporation is responsible for providing the test vehicle and information about its systems. Funds were supplied by a grant from the Transportation Research Program of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), through Joseph R. Wagner. Members of the team and John Fairbanks (Project Manager, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology). Currently, the design of TEG has been completed and initial construction of the TEG has been initiated by Hi-Z. The TEG system consists of heat exchangers, thermoelectric modules and a power conditioning unit. The heat source for the TEG is the exhaust gas from the engine and the heat sink is the engine coolant. A model has been developed to simulate the performance of the TEG under varying operating conditions. Preliminary results from the model predict that up to 330 watts can be generated by the TEG which would increase fuel economy by 5 percent. This number could possibly increase to 20 percent with quantum-well technology. To assess the performance of the TEG and improve the accuracy of the modeling, experimental testing will be performed at Delphi Corporation. A preliminary experimental test plan is given. To determine the economic and commercial viability, a business study has been conducted and results from the study showing potential areas for TEG commercialization are discussed.

Karri, M; Thacher, E; Helenbrook, B; Compeau, M; Kushch, A; Elsner, N; Bhatti, M; O' Brien, J; Stabler, F

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

337

Thermoelectric properties and impedance spectroscopy of polycrystalline samples of the beta-gallia rutile intergrowth, (Ga,In){sub 4}(Sn,Ti){sub 5}O{sub 16}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polycrystalline samples of Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{thermoelectric properties and electrical impedance. Using diffuse reflectance data and assuming a direct band gap, the band gap of the material ranges from 3.58 eV for y=0 to 3.74 eV for y=0.2. The dc conductivity decreased with increasing Ti content and was thermally activated, ranging from {thermoelectric materials. A comparison of dc conductivity and impedance data indicated a substantial ionic contribution for samples containing titanium. - Graphical abstract: The thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{materials are broad-band n-type semiconductors with non-negligible ionic conduction for samples prepared with y>0. The thermoelectric figure of merit is much lower than desired for practical thermoelectric devices. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16}, y{thermoelectric figure of merit for Ga{sub 3}In(Sn{sub 1-y}Ti{sub y}){sub 5}O{sub 16} is lower than desired for practical thermoelectric devices.

Grover, Jeffrey; Arrasmith, Steven [Alfred University, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States); Edwards, Doreen D., E-mail: dedwards@alfred.edu [Alfred University, Kazuo Inamori School of Engineering, 2 Pine Street, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

338

Recent Metrology Research of Thermoelectric Materials at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On-Site Speaker (Planned), Winnie Wong-Ng. Abstract Scope, The increased interest in research and development on thermoelectric materials in recent years is ...

339

Solution)BasedHybridThermoelectric!Materials! ! ! April!4 !2013!  

thermoelectric! technologies! and! offer! a potentially! clean! source! of! energy! to! reduce! fuel! ... how!future!public!policy!will!mandate!LED!us ...

340

Thermoelectricity in Molecular Junctions Science 315, 1568 (2007);  

DOI: 10.1126/science.1137149 Science 315, 1568 (2007); Pramod Reddy, et al. Thermoelectricity in Molecular Junctions www.sciencemag.org (this ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Influence of Milling Time on Microstructure and Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Influence of Milling Time on Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Bi2Te3 Alloys. Author(s), Madavali Babu, Hyo Seob Kim, ...

342

Liquidus Projection of Thermoelectric Ag-Sn-Te Ternary System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Liquidus Projection of Thermoelectric Ag-Sn-Te Ternary ... Ag Decorated Al Nanoparticles as Novel Ink Materials for Printed Electronics ...

343

FORMATION OF THERMOELECTRIC ELEMENTS BY NET SHAPE SINTERING ...  

The net shape powder processing is adapted for the ready incorporation of the net shape thermoelectric elements into a ... Advanced Materials; Biomass and Biofuels;

344

Mismatched Alloys are a Good Match for Thermoelectrics - NERSC...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

without much reduction of electric conductivity, which is not the case for conventional thermoelectric materials," he says. Collaborating with Wu on this work were Joo-Hyoung Lee...

345

Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thin films, the electrical resistivity ratio ? F /? B is BStudies of the electrical resistivity of metallic films [23,calculate the electrical resistivity and the thermoelectric

Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Alloys and Compounds for Thermoelectric and Solar Cell Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 31, 2012 ... TMS: Energy Conversion and Storage Committee ... of the alloys and compounds used in the thermoelectric and solar cell devices. Materials of ...

347

Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation Tests on Material from Tanks 241-U-103, 241-AW-101, 241-S-106, and 241-S-102: Status Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic flammable gas generation in actual Hanford single-shell tank wastes. The work described was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support DE&S Hanford (DESH) and Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies performed by Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company). This report describes the results of laboratory tests of gas generation from actual convective layer wastes from Tank 241-U-103 under thermal and radiolytic conditions. Accurate measurements of gas generation rates from highly radioactive tank wastes are needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the tanks. The gas generation capacity of the waste in Tank 241-U-103 is a high priority for the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for accumulating gases above the flammability limit (Johnson et al, 1997). The objective of this work was to establish the composition of gaseous degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The gas generation tests on Tank 241-U-103 samples focused first on the effect of temperature on the composition and rate of gas generation Generation rates of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and hydrogen increased with temperature, and the composition of the product gas mixture varied with temperature.

King, C.M.; Bryan, S.A.

1999-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

348

Cluster expansion and optimization of thermal conductivity in SiGe nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate the parametrization and optimization of thermal conductivity in silicon-germanium alloy nanowires by the cluster-expansion technique. Si1?xGex nanowires are of interest for thermoelectric applications and ...

Chan, Maria K.

349

Glass-like thermal transport in AgSbTe2 | ORNL  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glass-like thermal transport in AgSbTe2: nano-scale insights to improve thermoelectric efficiency May 16, 2013 Inelastic neutron scattering data showing the phonon dispersions...

350

Synthesis and evaluation of thermoelectric multilayer films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deposition of compositionally modulated (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}(Te{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}){sub 3} thermoelectric multilayer films by magnetron sputtering has been demonstrated. Structures with a period of 140{Angstrom} are shown to be stable to interdiffusion at the high deposition temperatures necessary for growth of single layer crystalline films with ZT {gt} 0.5. These multilayers are of the correct dimension to exhibit the electronic properties of quantum well structures. Furthermore it is shown that the Seebeck coefficient of the films is not degraded by the presence of this multilayer structure. It may be possible to synthesize a multilayer thermoelectric material with enhanced ZT by maximizing the barrier height through optimization of the composition of the barrier.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C.

1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

351

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium-Silicon and Magnesium-Tin Solid Solutions for Thermoelectric Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The environmentally friendly n-type Mg2(Si, Sn) thermoelectric solid solutions have a strong potential of commercial utilization in thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion due to their availability, low density (~3.02 g/cm3), and high stability at middle temperature range (400-600 ?C) that are typically observed from waste heat dissipating systems. The bulk materials were prepared from element powders via slow cooking under vacuum condition and current-assisted hot-press sintering. Temperature vs time curves have been researched in this thesis for fully reacted magnesium-silicide & magnesium-stannide green ingots with doping materials i.e. antimony, bismuth by different doping ratios. These ingots were ground by a high energy ball miller, uniaxial cold pressed into half inch pallets and then sintered by Direct Current-assisted hot pressing. Different synthesis conditions such as ball milling, sintering time, pressure, have been compared by SEM images and XRD tests analysis to figure out optimized process parameters. Several samples’ thermal conductivities (?) were plotted as a function of temperature to study different synthesis strategies and doping materials’ effects on phonon scattering inside bulk thermoelectric materials.

Hu, Fang

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

I8,Temperature-Dependent Thermal Properties of HgCdTe ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

H2, Direct Correlation between Access Region Trap Generation and ... I1, A Tubular Thermoelectric Generator with Piled Conical Rings Structure ..... The electronic measurement setup included a harmonic oscillator used to drive a ...

353

Lunar Nuclear Power Plant With Solid Core Reactor, Heatpipes and Thermoelectric Conversion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is a lunar nuclear power plant with the advantages of minimum mass, with no moving parts, no pumped liquid coolant, a solid metal rugged core, with no single point of failure. The electrical output is 100 kilowatts with a 500 kilowatt thermal reactor. The thermoelectric converters surround the potassium heatpipes from the core and water heatpipes surround the converter and connect to the radiator. The solid core reactor is made from HT9 alloy. The fuel is uranium oxide with 90% enrichment. The thermoelectric converter is bonded to the outside of the 1.10 inch ID heat pipe and is 30 inches long. The thermoelectric couple is Si/SiGe-Si/SiC Quantum Well with over 20% efficiency with an 890 K hot side and a 490 K cold side and produces 625 Watts. 176 converters produce 110 kWe. With less than 10% loss in controls this yields 100 kWe for use. The cylindrical thermoelectric converter is designed and fabricated by HIPing to keep brittle materials in compression and to ensure conductivity. The solid core is fabricated by machining the heatpipe tubes with 6 grooves that are diffusion bonded together by HIPing to form the fuel tubes. The maximum temperature of the heat pipes is 940 K and the return flow temperature is 890 K. The reactor core is hexagonal shaped, 61 cm. wide and 76.2 cm high with 12 rotating control drums surrounding it. There is shielding to protect components and human habitation. The radiator is daisy shaped at 45 degrees with each petal 5.5 meters long. The design life is ten years.

Sayre, Edwin D. [Engineering Consultant, 218 Brooke Acres Drive, Los Gatos, CA 95032 (United States); Ring, Peter J. [Advanced Methods and Materials, 1190 Mountain View-Alviso Rd. Suite P, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Brown, Neil [Engineering Consultant, 5134 Cordoy Lane, San Jose, CA 95124 (United States); Elsner, Norbert B.; Bass, John C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., 7606 Miramar Rd. Suite 7400, San Diego, CA 92126 (United States)

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

354

Thermoelectric figure of merit of LSCoO-Mn perovskites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oxide ceramics with nominal composition of La"0"."8Sr"0"."2Co"1"-"xMn"xO"3(0= Keywords: 72.20.Pa, 84.60.Bk, 84.60.Rb, 85.80.Fi, LSCoO compounds, Thermoelectric figure of merit, Thermoelectric materials

J. E. Rodríguez; D. Cadavid; L. C. Moreno

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Generation of ELF and VLF waves by HF-modulated polar electrojet via a thermal instability process  

SciTech Connect

Generation of ELF and VLF waves via a thermal instability process in a HF-modulated polar electrojet has been investigated. It is shown that a positive feedback through the electron-neutral collisional heating process can cause the transient response of the plasma to the modulated HF heater to grow exponentially. The threshold fields of the instability under normal electrojet conditions are found to be about 2.25 V/m and 1.13 V/m for the operation of the o-mode and x-mode heaters with a 50% duty cycle, respectively. For a heater wave field of, e.g., 1.5 V/m, the instability can be excited by the x-mode heater within a few tens of millisecond. The predicted dependence of the ELF/VLF radiation amplitude on the percentage of the duty cycle of the HF modulation is identical to that of the recent observational results of Barr and Stubbe. 28 refs., 2 figs.

Kuo, S.P. (Polytechnic Univ., Farmingdale, NY (United States)); Lee, M.C. (Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge (United States))

1993-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

356

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a heat engine, such as a steam turbine or sterling enginethese concentrations, a steam turbine achieves roughly 25%ratio can run a steam turbine at 35-50% efficiency, with

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Analysis of Thermal and Mechanical Stress in a Thermoelectric ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This leads to the possibility of forecasting a potential breaking point which is of tremendous interest for both TEG producer and user. Proceedings Inclusion?

358

Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is pumped by a Zalman cooling tower, which is designed forZalman water pump and cooling tower. A closed loop coolingthe heat sink and the cooling tower. This water pump is very

Jackson, Philip Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

The Braginskii model of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. I. Effects of self-generated magnetic fields and thermal conduction in two dimensions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(abridged) There exists a substantial disagreement between computer simulation results and high-energy density laboratory experiments of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability Kuranz et al. (2010). We adopt the Braginskii formulation for transport in hot, dense plasma, implement and verify the additional physics modules, and conduct a computational study of a single-mode RTI in two dimensions with various combinations of the newly implemented modules. We find that magnetic fields reach levels on the order of 11 MG in the absence of thermal conduction. We observe denting of the RT spike tip and generation of additional higher order modes as a result of these fields. Contrary to interpretation presented in earlier work Nishiguchi (2002), the additional mode is not generated due to modified anisotropic heat transport effects but due to dynamical effect of self-generated magnetic fields. The main effects of thermal conduction are a reduction of the RT instability growth rate (by about 20% for conditions considered here)...

Modica, Frank; Zhiglo, Andrey

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Thermoelectric materials evaluation program. Technical summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress on the thermoelectric materials evaluation program is reported covering the period January 1, 1976 to September 30, 1978. Topical reports are presented on (1) hot and cold end ..delta..T's, (2) hardware mobility, (3) p-leg sublimation suppression, (4) thermodynamic stability of p-legs, (5) n-leg material process improvements to reduce extraneous resistance, (6) n-leg cracking, (7) dynamic evaluation of converter, and (8) data base and degradation modes. Twenty attachments are included which present supporting drawings, specifications, procedures, and data. (WHK)

Hinderman, J.D.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Electronically and ionically conducting electrodes for thermoelectric generators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite article comprising a porous cermet electrode on a dense solid electrolyte and method of making same. The cerment electrode comprises beta-type-alumina and refractory metal.

Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); Weber, Neill (Murray, UT)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Program on Technology Innovation: Water Resources for Thermoelectric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to severe drought conditions in the Southwest in recent years, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory have sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Two of the studies assess the use of saline waters in power plants. The third describes the adaptation of a deterministic watershed model to forecast the impact of climate change on river hydrology in t...

2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

363

A Solid State Thermoelectric Power Generator Prototype Designed ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, 2012 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition. Symposium , Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management. Presentation Title, A ...

364

I5, Improving Thermoelectric Power Generation Efficiency with ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

J10, Role of Defect States in Charge Transport in Semiconductor Nanowires · J1, Molecular Surface Passivation Effects on Indium Oxide Nanowire Transistors.

365

I1, A Tubular Thermoelectric Generator with Piled Conical Rings ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Since the present tubular device is simple in structure, future works on optimal design and manufacturing will make firm steps forward to practical geothermal ...

366

Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants ProMIS/Project No.:DE-NT0005647  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improvement to AIr2AIrÂź technology Improvement to AIr2AIrÂź technology to reduce Fresh-WAter evAporAtIve coolIng loss At coAl-BAsed thermoelectrIc poWer plAnts promIs/project no. :de-nt0005647 Background The production of electricity requires a reliable, abundant, and predictable source of freshwater - a resource that is limited in many parts of the United States and throughout the world. The process of thermoelectric generation from fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas is water intensive. According to the 2000 U.S. Geological Survey, thermoelectric-power withdrawals accounted for 48 percent of total water use, 39 percent of total freshwater withdrawals (136 billion gallons per day) for all categories, and 52 percent of fresh surface water withdrawals. As a growing economy drives the need for more electricity, demands on freshwater

367

Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

America’s dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States’ most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Country’s electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

2010-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

369

Composites of Bi{sub 2-x}Sb{sub x}Te{sub 3} nanocrystals and fullerene molecules for thermoelectricity  

SciTech Connect

New nanocomposite thermoelectric material composed from nanocrystallites of Bi-Sb-Te alloys covered by C{sub 60} molecules has been synthesized and studied. An increase of fullerene content leads to the growth of hole concentration in p-type materials and reduction of electron concentration in n-type materials. The fullerene molecules provide additional scattering of phonons reducing lattice heat conductivity. Reduction of heat conductivity exceeds the reduction of electrical conductivity for fullerene content less than 0.5 volume % and essential enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit. The maximum value of thermoelectric figure of merit equals to 1.17 at 450 K was observed in Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} composite containing 0.5 volume % C{sub 60} molecules. The experimental results were analyzed in a frame of the model based on the Boltzmann equation. The analysis considers light and heavy electrons and holes and accounts the intervalley scattering of charge carriers. The calculations of the kinetic coefficients shows that the improvement of the thermoelectric figure of merit originates from the reduction of the lattice heat conductivity caused by fullerene molecules. The dependencies of the thermoelectric figure of merit on the acceptor concentration were calculated. - Graphical abstract: New nanocomposite thermoelectric material composed from nanocrystallites of Bi-Sb-Te alloys covered by C{sub 60} molecules has been synthesized and studied. An increase of fullerene content leads to the growth of hole concentration in p-type materials and reduction of electron concentration in n-type materials. The fullerene molecules provide additional scattering of phonons reducing lattice heat conductivity and enhances the thermoelectric figure of merit. The maximum value of thermoelectric figure of merit equal to 1.17 at 450 K was observed in Bi{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 1.5}Te{sub 3} composite containing 0.5 volume % fullerene molecules. Simulations of thermoelectric properties were made in frame of four bands, 12 valleys Boltzmann equation approach. Simulated and measured temperature dependencies of thermoelectric properties were compared to get unknown model parameters. These parameters were used to calculate dependencies of thermoelectric properties on acceptor concentration. Calculated dependencies of thermoelectric figure of merit on acceptor concentration are presented in the figure for p-type composites with 0 vol.% C{sub 60} (solid lines) and 0.5 vol.% C{sub 60} (dashed lines). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 60} doping of Bi-Sb-Te has acceptor effect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fullerene molecules prevent recrystallization in Bi-Sb-Te nanocomposites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C{sub 60} in Bi-Sb-Te nanocomposites essentially reduces lattice thermal conductivity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric figure of merit in nanocomposite C{sub 60}-Bi-Sb-Te enhanced.

Kulbachinskii, V.A., E-mail: kulb@mig.phys.msu.ru [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Kytin, V.G. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation)] [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory 1-3, Moscow 119991 GSP-1 (Russian Federation); Popov, M.Yu.; Buga, S.G.; Stepanov, P.B.; Blank, V.D. [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation)] [Technological Institute for Superhard and Novel Carbon Materials, Troitsk, Moscow Region 142190 (Russian Federation)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Steam Generator Management Program: Thermal-Hydraulic and Flow-Induced Vibration Analyses of a Representative Model F Steam Generato r  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the Fall 2006 refueling outage of Vogtle 1, circumferential outside-diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) indications were observed in Model F steam generator tubes on the hot leg near the top of the tubesheet at low-row number, high-column number tubes. Additional ODSCC indications were observed in the same region during the Spring 2008 outage. All tubes with cracklike indications were plugged and stabilized. This report summarizes the comprehensive thermal-hydraulic and flow-induced vibrati...

2009-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

371

Materials by computational design -- High performance thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the project was to utilize advanced computing techniques to guide the development of new material systems that significantly improve the performance of thermoelectric devices for solid state refrigeration. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (LMES) was to develop computational approaches to refine the theory of the thermoelectric effect, establish physical limits, and motivate new materials development. Prior to the project, no major activity in thermoelectric research was visible as an observed limit in experimental data was commonly accepted as a practical limit by the majority of informed opinion in the physics and thermoelectric community. Due to the efforts of the project, new compounds have been isolated which indicates that there is a physical reason to search through the remaining uncharacterized compounds from a top down theoretical approach.

Sales, B. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lyon, H. [Marlow Industries, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

372

Low Cost High Performance Generator Technology Program. Volume 5. Heat Pipe Topical  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research progress towards the development of a heat pipe for use in the Low Cost High Performance Thermoelectric Generator Program is reported for the period May 15, 1975 through June 1975. (TFD)

Not Available

1975-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Modeling Water Withdrawal and Consumption for Electricity Generation in the United States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water withdrawals for thermoelectric cooling account for a significant portion of total water use in the United States. Any change in electrical energy generation policy and technologies has the potential to have a major ...

Strzepek, Kenneth M.

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Igneous intrusions and thermal evolution in the Raton Basin, CO-NM: contact metamorphism and coal-bed methane generation .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Tertiary mafic dikes and sills intrude coal-bearing formations of the Raton Basin. This study investigates the role of intrusions in generating methane from coal. Coal… (more)

Cooper, Jennifer Rebecca

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

376

Influence of samarium on the thermoelectric figure of merit of Sm{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x}Te alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The temperature and concentration dependences of the electrical (conductivity {sigma}, the Hall coefficient R), thermoelectric (thermovoltage {alpha}), and thermal (thermal conductivity K{sub tot}) characteristics of Sm{sub x}Pb{sub 1-x}Te alloys (x = 0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08) are studied in the temperature range 100-500 K. Using the data for {sigma}, {alpha}, and K{sub tot}, the thermoelectric power {alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}, figure of merit Z, and efficiency {delta} are calculated. It is established that at room-temperature {alpha}{sup 2}{sigma} and Z peak at the hole concentration p Almost-Equal-To 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}.

Aliev, F. F., E-mail: farzali@physics.ab.az; Hasanov, H. A., E-mail: hummat.hasanov@gmail.com [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2004-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

378

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices.

Saeid Ghamaty; Sal Marchetti

2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

380

Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

Hatzikraniotis, E. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ioannou, M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)] [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Chrissafis, K. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Chung, D.Y. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)] [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Paraskevopoulos, K.M. [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)] [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kyratsi, Th., E-mail: kyratsi@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of half-Heulser alloy YPdSb from first principles calculations  

SciTech Connect

The structural, electronic, thermoelectric and thermodynamic properties of ternary half-Heusler compound YPdSb are investigated using the first principle calculations. It is found that YPdSb is an indirect semiconductor. The calculated band gap is 0.161 eV with spin-orbital coupling including and 0.235 eV without spin-orbital coupling including, respectively. The electronic transport properties are obtained via Boltzman transport theory. The predicted Seebeck coefficient is 240 {mu}V/K and the thermoelectric performance can be optimized by n-type doping at room temperature. Moreover, the lattice dynamical results regarding the phonon dispersion curves, phonon density of states and thermodynamic properties are reported. Thermodynamics (heat capacity and Debye temperature) as well as mean phonon free path and the thermal conductivity in a temperature range of 0-300 K are determined. - Graphical Abstract: (a) The dependence of the Seebeck coefficient on chemical potential at 300 K. (b) The dependence of the thermopower factor on chemical potential at 300 K. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Seebeck coefficient and the thermopower factor are calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lattice dynamics and thermodynamic properties are obtained.

Kong, Fanjie, E-mail: fanjiekong@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Hu, Yanfei [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)] [School of Science, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hou, Haijun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Liu, Yanhua [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [School of information engineering, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Baolin [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China)] [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224051 (China); Wang, Lili [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)] [Computer Application Institute of CAEP, Academy of Engineering Physics of China, Mianyang 621900 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

382

A solid state approach to the production of kilogram quantities of Si[sub 80]Ge[sub 20] thermoelectric alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An important consideration in the development of improved materials for thermal-to-electrical power generation is whether a research-scale process or methodology is amenable to production of kilogram quantities. Research efforts on the solid state technique of mechanical alloying have shown that both n- and p-type Si-20 at. % Ge alloys can be produced which have improved thermoelectric properties compared to state-of-the-art MOD-RTG materials. Studies on the production of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powder alloys using a planetary mill indicate that properties similar to those observed in alloys prepared in smaller quantities by a vibratory mill can be obtained. The characterization of several p-type alloys doped with 0.8 at. % B in the form SiB[sub 4] by X-ray diffraction, scanning laser mass spectroscopy, Hall effect, and high temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements are described. The transport properties of these alloys are shown to be comparable to those measured on similar samples prepared in small quantities by a research-grade vibratory mill.

Cook, B.A.; Harringa, J.L.; Beaudry, B.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Bandgap-Reduced p-Type ZnO Films by Co-Doping of Cu and Ga ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

384

Characterization of Ionic Transport in Gel Derived Electrolytes for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

385

Dielectric Constant of Hydrothermal Barium Titanate Powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

386

Spark Plasma Sintering of Tungsten and Tungsten-Ceria Powders  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

387

Linking Structure to Photocatalytic Activity in Layered Aurivillius Oxides  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems · Oxide Ceramic Materials for ...

388

Thermolectrics and Other Energy Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 27, 2009 ... Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of Thermoelectric Generators and Other Advanced Energy Systems: Ryan Maloney1; ...

389

A protocol for evaluating thermal performance of 14 solar steam generators for the Kogan Creek solar boost project.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The Kogan Creek Solar Boost is a world-first commercial project that sees AREVA Solar designing, supplying and constructing CLFR-based solar steam generators for CS Energy,… (more)

Watson, Bond

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Water Use for Electric Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report analyzes how thermoelectric plants use water and the strengths, limitations, and costs of available technologies for increasing water use efficiency (gal/MWh). The report will be of value to power company strategic planners, environmental managers, and generation managers as well as regulators, water resource managers, and environmentalists.

2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

391

Structural controls, alteration, permeability and thermal regime of Dixie Valley from new-generation MT/galvanic array profiling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

State-of-the-art MT array measurements in contiguous bipole deployments across the Dixie Valley thermal area have been integrated with regional MT transect data and other evidence to address several basic geothermal goals. These include 1), resolve a fundamental structural ambiguity at the Dixie Valley thermal area (single rangefront fault versus shallower, stepped pediment; 2), delineate fault zones which have experienced fluid flux as indicated by low resistivity; 3), infer ultimate heat and fluid sources for the thermal area; and 4), from a generic technique standpoint, investigate the capability of well-sampled electrical data for resolving subsurface structure. Three dense lines cross the Senator Fumaroles area, the Cottonwood Creek and main producing area, and the low-permeability region through the section 10-15 area, and have stand-alone MT soundings appended at one or both ends for local background control. Regularized 2-D inversion implies that shallow pediment basement rocks extend for a considerable distance (1-2 km) southeastward from the topographic scarp of the Stillwater Range under all three dense profiles, but especially for the Senator Fumaroles line. This result is similar to gravity interpretations in the area, but with the intrinsic depth resolution possible from EM wave propagation. Low resistivity zones flank the interpreted main offsetting fault especially toward the north end of the field which may be due to alteration from geothermal fluid outflow and upflow. The appended MT soundings help to substantiate a deep, subvertical conductor intersecting the base of Dixie Valley from the middle crust, which appears to be a hydrothermal conduit feeding from deep crustal magmatic underplating. This may supply at least part of the high temperature fluids and explain enhanced He-3 levels in those fluids.

Philip E. Wannamaker

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

392

White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

Farmer, J C

2007-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

393

Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Jihui Yang, Xun Shi, General Motors  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the Microstructure of Doped Clathrate and the Microstructure of Doped Clathrate and Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials Jihui Yang, Xun Shi, General Motors Hsin Wang and Miaofang Chi, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Scientific challenge/problem: Clathrate and Skutterudite are known to be promising thermoelectric materials. The R&D groups at GM and ORNL have found that doping Clathrate (Ba 0.25 Co 4 Sb 12 ) with Yb and La and doping Skutterudite (Ba 8 Ga 16 Ge 30 ) with Ni improve the thermoelectrical properties significantly. The goal of the microscopy characterization is to fundamentally understand how the dopants control the materials properties. Two questions need to be answered at the current stage of our experimental work: how the microstructures are tailored by the dopants and how the dopants distribute

394

Thermoelectric properties of n-type PbSe revisited  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It was recently predicted \\cite{parker} and experimentally confirmed \\cite{sny_PbSe} that $p$-type PbSe would be a good thermoelectric material. Recent experimental work \\cite{pers2} now suggests that $n$-type PbSe can also be a good thermoelectric material. We now re-examine the thermoelectric performance of PbSe with a revised approximation which improves band gap accuracy. We now find that $n$-type PbSe {\\it can} be a high performance material, with thermopowers as high in magnitude as 250 $\\mu$V/K at 1000 K and 300 $\\mu$V/K at 800 K. Optimal 1000 K $n$-type doping ranges are between 2 $\\times 10^{19}$cm$^{-3}$ and 8 $\\times 10^{19}$cm$^{-3}$, while at 800 K the corresponding range is from 7 $\\times$10$^{18}$ to 4 $\\times $10$^{19}$ cm$^{-3}$.

Parker, David S [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL; Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill; Zhang, Qinyong [Xihua University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and the absolute temperature respectively. These physical properties are interdependent. Therefore, making materials with high ZT is a very challenging task. However, nanoscale materials can overcome some of these limitations. When the size of nanomaterials is comparable to wavelength and mean free path of energy carriers, especially phonons, size effect contributes to the thermal conductivity reduction without bringing about major changes in the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. Therefore, the figure of merit ZT can be manipulated. For example, the thermal conductivities of several silicon nanowires were more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of bulk silicon values due to the enhanced boundary scattering. Among the nanoscale semiconductor materials, Silicon-Germanium(SiGe) alloy nanowire is a promising candidate for thermoelectric materials The thermal conductivities of SiGe core-shell nanowires with core diameters of 96nm, 129nm and 177nm were measured using a batch fabricated micro device in a temperature range of 40K-450K. SiGe nanowires used in the experiment were synthesized via the Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth method. The thermal conductivity data was compared with thermal conductivity of Si and Ge nanowires. The data was compared with SiGe alloy thin film, bulk SiGe, Si/SixGe1-x superlattice nanowire, Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 superlattice thin film and also with the thermal conductivity of Si0.5Ge0.5 calculated using the Einstein model. The thermal conductivities of these SiGe alloy nanowires observed in this work are ~20 times lower than Si nanowires, ~10 times lower than Ge nanowires, ~3-4 times lower than Si/SixGe1-x superlattice thin film, Si/SixGe1-x superlattice nanowire and about 3 time lower than bulk SiGe alloy. The low values of thermal conductivity are majorly due to the effect of alloy scattering, due to increased boundary scattering as a result of nanoscale diameters, and the interface diffuse scattering by core-shell effect. The influence of core-shell effect, alloy scattering and boundary scattering effect in reducing the thermal conductivity of these nanowires opens up opportunities for tuning thermoelectric properties which can pave way to thermoelectric materials with high figures of merit in the future.

Gwak, Yunki

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Evolution of Design Methodologies for Next Generation of Reactor Pressure Vessels and Extensive Role of Thermal-Hydraulic Numerical Tools  

SciTech Connect

The thermal-hydraulic design of the first pressurized water reactors was mainly based on an experimental approach, with a large series of tests on the main equipment [control rod guide tubes, reactor pressure vessel (RPV) plenums, etc.] to check performance.Development of computational fluid dynamics codes and computers now allows for complex simulations of hydraulics phenomena. Provided adequate qualification, these numerical tools are an efficient means to determine hydraulics in the given design and to perform sensitivities for optimization of new designs. Experiments always play their role, first for qualification and then for validation at the last stage of the design. The design of the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR), jointly developed by Framatome ANP, Electricite de France (EDF), and the German utilities, is based on both hydraulics calculations and experiments handled in a complementary approach.This paper describes the collective effort launched by Framatome ANP and EDF on hydraulics calculations for the RPV of the EPR. It concerns three-dimensional calculations of RPV inlets, including the cold legs, the RPV downcomer and lower plenum, and the RPV upper plenum up to and including the hot legs. It covers normal operating conditions but also accidental conditions such as pressurized thermal shock in a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. Those hydraulics studies have provided much useful information for the mechanical design of RPV internals.

Bellet, Serge [Electricite de France - Septen (EDF) (France); Goreaud, Nicolas [Framatome ANP(France); Nicaise, Norbert [Framatome ANP (France)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

398

Evolution of the design methodologies for the next generation of RPV Extensive role of the thermal-hydraulics numerical tools  

SciTech Connect

The thermal-hydraulic design of the first PWR's was mainly based on an experimental approach, with a large series of test on the main equipment (control rod guide tubes, RPV plenums..), to check its performances. Development of CFD-codes and computers now allows for complex simulations of hydraulic phenomena. Provided adequate qualification, these numerical tools are efficient means to determine hydraulics in given design, and to perform sensitivities for optimization of new designs. Experiments always play their role, first for qualification, and for validation at the last stage of the design. The design of the European Pressurized water Reactor (EPR), is based on both hydraulic calculations and experiments, handled in a complementary approach. This paper describes the effort launched by Framatome-ANP on hydraulic calculations for the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) of the EPR reactor. It concerns 3D-calculations of RPV-inlet including cold legs, RPV-downcomer and lower plenum, RPV-upper plenum up to and including hot legs. It covers normal operating conditions, but also accidental conditions as PTS (Pressurized Thermal Shock) in small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA). Those hydraulic studies have provided numerous useful information for the mechanical design of RPV-internals. (authors)

Goreaud, Nicolas; Nicaise, Norbert [Framatome ANP, Tour Areva 92 084 Paris La Defense (France); Stoudt, Roger [Framatome ANP, 3315 Old forest road, Lynchburg, VA 24501 (United States)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Thermoelectric performance of electron and hole doped PtSb2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We investigate the thermoelectric properties of electron and hole doped PtSb2. Our results show that for doping of 0.04 holes per unit cell (1:5 1020 cm 3) PtSb2 shows a high Seebeck coefficient at room temperature, which can also be achieved at other temperatures by controlling the carrier concentration (both electron and hole). The electrical conductivity becomes temperature independent when the doping exceeds some 0.2 electrons/holes per unit cell. The figure of merit at 800 K in electron and hole doped PtSb2 is comparatively low at 0.13 and 0.21, respectively, but may increase significantly with As alloying due to the likely opening of a band gap and reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity

Saeed, Yasir [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Singh, Nirprenda [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Schwingenschlogl, Udo [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Parker, David S [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Heating Up Interest in Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Jul 5, 2011 ... Neutron analysis of the atomic dynamics behind thermal conductivity is helping scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) gain a ...

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401

Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

systems that convert exhaust heat into electricity, concentrate solar energy for power generation and recover waste heat from industrial processes. Controlled thermal...

402

Role of Boron Doping in CoSi for Thermoelectric Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High Thermal Energy Storage Density LiNO3-KNO3-NaNO2-KNO2 Quaternary Molten Salt System for Parabolic Trough Concentrating Solar Power Generation.

403

A COMPACT CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE (CDD{trademark}) FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA GENERATION IN GASOLINE OR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Higher fuel economy targets and hybrid vehicles are increasing the marketability of diesel engines. But in order to implement the growth of diesels to achieve the fuel economy benefits, all emission regulation issues must be met. To do this traps and catalysts are being utilized. One of the main problems is finding a technology that enables the exhaust emission system to not only meet the emission requirements when new, but also to meet them at the regulated intermediate and full life requirements. Work is being done that enables catalysts to remain highly efficient throughout their full life. It is done by using a corona discharge device (CDD{trademark}) that introduces non-thermal plasma into the exhaust ahead of the converter. This low power device creates radicals that alter the chemistry of the exhaust so as to limit the poisoning of the catalyst. This can be done without so called ''purge'' cycles that lower fuel economy and degrade catalyst long-term durability. This device has been developed, not as a laboratory tool, but as a production ready product and is the first of its kind that is commercially available for testing. It is this product, the Corona Discharge Device, CDD{trademark}, which will be described.

Nowak,Victor J.

2000-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

404

New approaches to thermoelectric cooling effects in magnetic fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors review thermoelectric effects in a magnetic field at a phenomenological level. Discussions of the limiting performance and problems with its computation for both Peltier and Ettingshausen coolers are presented. New principles are discussed to guide the materials scientist in the search for better Ettingshausen materials, and a brief review of the subtle measurement problems is presented.

Migliori, A.; Darling, T.W.; Freibert, F.; Trugman, S.A.; Moshopoulou, E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Sarrao, J.L. [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

New approaches to thermoelectric cooling effects in magnetic fields  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The authors review thermoelectric effects in a magnetic field at a phenomenological level. Discussions of the limiting performance and problems with its computation for both Peltier and Ettingshausen coolers are presented. New principles to guide the materials scientists are discussed for magnetic effects, and a brief review of the subtle measurement problems is presented.

Migliori, A.; Darling, T.W.; Freibert, F. [and others

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Enhancing the Thermoelectric Power Factor by Using Invisible Dopants  

SciTech Connect

Nanoparticle dopants that are invisible to conduction electrons and have sharp dips in their electron scattering rate versus electron energy close to the Fermi level. Replacement of such dopants with traditional impurities results in simultaneous enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient and the electron mobility and therefore a large enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved.

Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, B L; Esfarjani, Keivan; Dresselhaus, M S; Chen, Gang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

High-temperature thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We prepared nanostructured Ca{sub 3}Co{sub 4}O{sub 9} (CCO) thin films by promoting localized epitaxial growth on polycrystalline Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. The thermoelectric properties of the CCO films were studied in the temperature range 300 to 1023 K. We confirmed that localized epitaxial growth occurred on the seed grains that dominate the (006) plane. The nanostructured CCO thin films were found to have a maximum Seebeck coefficient of 206 {mu}V/K and a power factor (at 920 K) of 0.514 mW/mK{sup 2}. Moreover, the presence of nanostructure was found to reduce the thermal conductivity, and thus, should enhance the overall performance of CCO films in thermoelectric devices.

Kang, Min-Gyu [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Hwan; Oh, Seung-Min; Kim, Jin-Sang; Kang, Chong-Yun; Yoon, Seok-Jin [Electronic Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-Dong, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Nahm, Sahn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Sungbuk-Ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

408

Development of High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In oxides, a series of homologous indium-free TCOs with intrinsic low thermal ... A10: Defects and Local Compositional Changes in Sn-coated Graphite ... Engineered Nanomaterials for Clean Renewable Energy and Detection Technologies.

409

Synthesis and evaluation of single layer, bilayer, and multilayer thermoelectric thin films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The relative efficiency of a thermoelectric material is measured in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. Though all known thermoelectric materials are believed to have ZT{le}1, recent theoretical results predict that thermoelectric devices fabricated as two-dimensional quantum wells (2D QWs) or one-dimensional (ID) quantum wires could have ZT{ge}3. Multilayers with the dimensions of 2D QWs have been synthesized by alternately sputtering thermoelectric and barrier materials onto a moving single-crystal sapphire substrate from dual magnetrons. These materials have been used to test the thermoelectric quantum well concept and gain insight into relevant transport mechanisms. If successful, research could lead to thermoelectric devices that have efficiencies close to that of an ideal Carnot engine. Ultimately, such devices could be used to replace conventional heat engines and mechanical refrigeration systems.

Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Chapline, G.C. Jr.; Olsen, M.L.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S.; Hicks, L.D. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

410

Synthesis and Evaluation of Single Layer, Bilayer, and Multilayer Thermoelectric Thin Films  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

The relative efficiency of a thermoelectric material is measured in terms of a dimensionless figure of merit, ZT. Though all known thermoelectric materials are believed to have ZT{le}1, recent theoretical results predict that thermoelectric devices fabricated as two-dimensional quantum wells (2D QWs) or one-dimensional (ID) quantum wires could have ZT{ge}3. Multilayers with the dimensions of 2D QWs have been synthesized by alternately sputtering thermoelectric and barrier materials onto a moving single-crystal sapphire substrate from dual magnetrons. These materials have been used to test the thermoelectric quantum well concept and gain insight into relevant transport mechanisms. If successful, research could lead to thermoelectric devices that have efficiencies close to that of an ideal Carnot engine. Ultimately, such devices could be used to replace conventional heat engines and mechanical refrigeration systems.

Farmer, J. C.; Barbee, T. W. Jr.; Chapline, G. C. Jr.; Olsen, M. L.; Foreman, R. J.; Summers, L. J.; Dresselhaus, M. S.; Hicks, L. D.

1995-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thermoelectric Power of Insulators and Reconsideration of Kelvin’s Relations at Low  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric effects in Kondo insulators are attracting interests because of the emerging possibility of developping better thermoelectric materials for a portable refrigerator without liquid coolant. In this article, the theory of thermoelectric effects are reinvestigated for insulators or semiconductors at low temperatures. It is found that the famous relations established by Lord Kelvin for metals in 1851 must be modified for insulators in order to be consistent with the third law of the thermodynamics. Effects of strong correlation are discussed. 1

T Saso

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Mechanical Properties of Thermoelectric Materials PbTe-PbS and ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thermoelectric (TE) materials for a variety of applications, including the conversion of waste heat energy into electricity. LAST (Lead-Antimony-Silver-

413

Electrodeposition of PbTe Thermoelectric Materials in NaOH Solutions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dissolution Kinetics of Steelmaking Slag and Its Promotion for the Growth of Algae · Electrodeposition of PbTe Thermoelectric Materials in NaOH Solutions.

414

Interdiffusion experiments in the thermoelectric Mg2Si/Mg2Sn ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The approach generally taken in order to modify the scattering features of electrons and phonons and improve the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials ...

415

What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials |  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Novel Experiments on Cement Yield Concrete Results Watching a Glycine Riboswitch "Switch" Polyamorphism in a Metallic Glass Under Pressure, Vanadium Won't Turn Down the Volume New Nanoscale Engineering Breakthrough Points to Hydrogen-Powered Vehicles Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed What's in the Cage Matters in Iron Antimonide Thermoelectric Materials MARCH 29, 2007 Bookmark and Share Crystal structure of EuFe4Sb12 showing the cage confined Eu atoms (red) and Fe atoms (brown) surrounded by Sb tilted octahedral (Sb atoms are not shown). Thermoelectric materials such as iron antimonide have drawn intense interest because they offer a pollution-free source of electricity and a

416

Special Applications RTG Technology Program: Thermoelectric module development summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of the Special Applications thermoelectric module development program is to design, develop and demonstrate the performance of a module which provides a significant thermoelectric conversion efficiency improvement over available technology for low power, relatively high voltage RTGS intended for terrestrial applications. ``Low power`` can be construed as an RTG power output of 10 watts or less, and ``high voltage`` can be considered as a load voltage of 5 volts or greater. In particular, the effort is to improve the system efficiency characteristic of the state-of-the-art bismuth telluride-based RTG system (e.g., Five-Watt RTG and Half-Watt RTG), typically 3 to 4%, to the range of 6% or better. This increase in efficiency will also permit reductions in the weight and size of RTGs in the low power range.

Brittain, W.M.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Fabrication and thermoelectric properties of fine-grained TiNiSn compounds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nearly single-phased TiNiSn half-Heusler compound thermoelectric materials were synthesized by combining mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS) in order to reduce its thermal conductivity by refining the grain sizes. Although TiNiSn compound powders were not synthesized directly via MA, dense bulk samples of TiNiSn compound were obtained by the subsequent SPS treatment. It was found that an excessive Ti addition relative to the TiNiSn stoichiometry is effective in increasing the phase purity of TiNiSn half-Heusler phase in the bulk samples, by compensating for the Ti loss caused by the oxidation of Ti powders and MA processing. The maximum power factor value obtained in the Ti-compensated sample is 1720 muW m{sup -1} K{sup -2} at 685 K. A relatively high ZT value of 0.32 is achieved at 785 K for the present undoped TiNiSn compound polycrystals. - Graphical abstract: Nearly single-phased TiNiSn-based half-Heusler compound polycrystalline materials with fine grains were fabricated by combining mechanical alloying (MA) and spark plasma sintering (SPS). A high ZT value for undoped TiNiSn was obtained because of the reduced thermal conductivity.

Zou Minmin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Jingfeng, E-mail: jingfeng@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Du Bing; Liu Dawei [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kita, Takuji [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Vehicle Engineering Group, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in X{sub y}(Y{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-y} (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y{sub 2}S{sub 3} are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of {gamma}-cubic LaSe{sub 1.47-1.48} and NdSe{sub 1.47} was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, {beta} phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the {gamma}-to-{beta} transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

Michiels, J.

1996-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Sputter deposition of semiconductor superlattices for thermoelectric applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Theoretical dramatic improvement of the thermoelectric properties of materials by using quantum confinement in novel semiconductor nanostructures has lead to considerable interest in the thermoelectric community. Therefore, we are exploring the critical materials issues for fabrication of quantum confined structures by magnetron sputtering in the lead telluride and bismuth telluride families of materials. We have synthesized modulated structures from thermoelectric materials with bilayer periods of as little as 3.2 nm and shown that they are stable at deposition temperatures high enough to grow quality films. Issues critical to high quality film growth have been investigated such as nucleation and growth conditions and their effect on crystal orientation and growth morphology. These investigations show that nucleating the film at a temperature below the growth temperature of optimum electronic properties produces high quality films. Our work with sputter deposition, which is inherently a high rate deposition process, builds the technological base necessary to develop economical production of these advanced materials. High deposition rate is critical since, even if efficiencies comparable with CFC based refrigeration systems can be achieved, large quantities of quantum confined materials will be necessary for cost-competitive uses.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Farmer, J.C.; Barbee, T.W.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Nanocrystallization of amorphous M-Si thin film composites (M=Cr, Mn) and their thermoelectric properties  

SciTech Connect

We report on electrical resistivity and thermoelectric power of Cr-Si and Mn-Si composite films at temperatures from 300 K to 1000 K. The films were deposited on unheated Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates by magnetron sputtering from composite targets. The as-deposited films have amorphous structure. We use annealing with in-situ transport properties measurements to transform the films into nanocrystalline state with continuous monitoring their state. Nanocrystallization is considered as a promising way to improve thermoelectric efficiency, primarily due to reduction of lattice thermal conductivity {kappa}. Among variety of methods for fabrication of NC materials, crystallization from amorphous state has features which are crucially important with respect to their electronic transport properties: since the crystallites and their interfaces are formed in this method via solid state reaction, the NC samples are dense and the interfaces are clean. This removes additional factors affecting properties of a nanocrystalline composite, such as contamination of nanocrystal interfaces by elements from environment or nanocrystal lattice distortion during nanocrystallization. Depending on the initial film composition, the films are transformed during annealing into single phase or multi-phase nanocrystalline composites with average grain size of 10 nm to 20 nm. We study the crystallization kinetics, stability of amorphous and nanocrystalline state and relation between electronic transport properties and structural state of the composites.

Burkov, A. T.; Novikov, S. V.; Schumann, J. [A.F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, Sankt-Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation); Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research, Dresden (Germany)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

422

Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications: analysis of electric power generating costs for systems larger than 10 MWe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Seven generic types of collectors, together with associated subsystems for electric power generation, were considered. The collectors can be classified into three categories: (1) two-axis tracking (with compound-curvature reflecting surfaces); (2) one-axis tracking (with single-curvature reflecting surfaces); and (3) nontracking (with low-concentration reflecting surfaces). All seven collectors were analyzed in conceptual system configurations with Rankine-cycle engines. In addition, two of the collectors were analyzed with Brayton-cycle engines, and one was analyzed with a Stirling-cycle engine. With these engine options, and the consideration of both thermal and electrical storage for the Brayton-cycle central receiver, 11 systems were formulated for analysis. Conceptual designs developed for the 11 systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. No attempt was made to perform a detailed optimization of each conceptual design. Rather, designs best suited for a comparative evaluation of the concepts were formulated. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts. The computer code SOLSTEP was used to analyze the thermodynamic performance characteristics and energy costs of the 11 concepts. Year-long simulations were performed using meteorological and insolation data for Barstow, California. Results for each concept include levelized energy costs and capacity factors for various combinations of storage capacity and collector field size.

Apley, W.J.; Bird, S.P.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Patton, W.P.; Williams, T.A.

1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Systematic evaluation of options to avoid generation of noncertifiable transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

At present, >35% of the volume of newly generated transuranic (TRU) waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory is not certifiable for transport to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Noncertifiable waste would constitute 900--1,000 m{sup 3} of the 2,600 m{sup 3} of waste projected during the period of the Environmental Management (EM) Accelerated Cleanup: Focus on 2006 plan (DOE, 1997). Volume expansion of this waste to meet thermal limits would increase the shipped volume to {approximately}5,400 m{sup 3}. This paper presents the results of efforts to define which TRU waste streams are noncertifiable at Los Alamos, and to prioritize site-specific options to reduce the volume of certifiable waste over the period of the EM Accelerated Cleanup Plan. A team of Los Alamos TRU waste generators and waste managers reviewed historic generation rates and thermal loads and current practices to estimate the projected volume and thermal load of TRU waste streams for Fiscal Years 1999--2006. These data defined four major problem TRU waste streams. Estimates were also made of the volume expansion that would be required to meet the permissible wattages for all waste. The four waste streams defined were: (1) {sup 238}Pu-contaminated combustible waste from production of Radioactive Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) with {sup 238}Pu activity which exceeds allowable shipping limits by 10--100X. (2) {sup 241}Am-contaminated cement waste from plutonium recovery processes (nitric and hydrochloric acid recovery) are estimated to exceed thermal limits by {approximately}3X. (3) {sup 239}Pu-contaminated combustible waste, mainly organic waste materials contaminated with {sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Am, is estimated to exceed thermal load requirements by a factor of {approximately}2X. (4) Oversized metal waste objects, (especially gloveboxes), cannot be shipped as is to WIPP because they will not fit in a standard waste box or drum.

Boak, J.M.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Triay, I.; Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Opacified, Reinforced Aerogel for Thermal Insulation of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Any insulation for thermoelectric devices must also be able to be cast into place around the thermoelectric legs, as well as mechanically robust to survive ...

425

New nano structure approaches for bulk thermoelectric materials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct Solar Thermal Energy Conversion”, MRS Bulletin, vol.of electrical energy versus thermal energy inter-conversion[power plants. Besides wasted thermal energy recovery, many

Kim, Jeonghoon

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Compatibility of Pt-3008 with selected components of the selenide isotope generator system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first in a new generation of radioisotopic thermoelectric generators being built by Teledyne Energy Systems and designated the Selenide Isotope Generator has thermoelectric materials that can be degraded by reaction with O/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O, CO, and other gases. Consequently, for at least the first ground demonstration system a protective xenon atmosphere will be maintained over the thermoelectrics. The high-temperature portion of the atmosphere-retaining structure will be fabricated from the alloy Pt-3008 (Pt--30 wt % Rh--8 wt % W), which was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For this application Pt-3008 must be compatible with the various insulations and thermoelectric materials. A study of the compatibility of Pt-3008 with these materials and showed that Pt-3008 was embrittled after exposure to some of the insulations that were not adequately outgassed and by one of the thermoelectric materials (Cu/sub 2/Se) in some of the isothermal tests. It is believed that Pt-3008 will be compatible with the Selenide Isotope Generator materials when they are well outgassed and under the temperature gradient conditions of the operating system.

Keiser, J.R.

1979-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Influence of processing conditions on the thermoelectric properties of La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05)  

SciTech Connect

La{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}CoO{sub 3} (x=0, 0.05) powders were prepared using the citrate-gel (Pechini) process. Pellets formed from these powders were sintered at various temperatures. All samples were characterized by means of X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy in order to investigate their structural and morphological properties. The electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermopower were measured in a wide range of temperatures (2-350K) in order to understand the influence of the different processing conditions on the thermoelectric properties of the compounds.

Papageorgiou, Ch.; Athanasopoulos, G. I.; Kyratsi, Th.; Giapintzakis, J. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 75 Kallipoleos Avenue, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

428

Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

On-site thermal power generation is typically less efficienthighly centralised power generation and delivery systemProduction from US Power Generation Note this is only the

Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

selection of on-site power generation with combined heat andsingle-cycle thermal power generation is typically lesshighly centralized power generation and delivery system

Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. ETG acceptance test plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electrically-Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETGs) shall be subjected to a flight level acceptance test program to certify the design of the SIG/Galileo flight generator. Each test in the test program is designed to simulate critical conditions and environments associated with generator ground handling, spacecraft launch and in-space operations. Successful completion of the test program shall be evidenced by the satisfactory performance of the ETG during and after the application of the various test environments. The ETG Acceptance Test Plan is designed to specify the testing sequence, the severity of the applied test environments and the acceptance criteria for assessing generator performance. Two test facilities shall be required for the execution of the proposed test program. The Teledyne Energy Systems (TES) facility in Timonium, Maryland shall be the site for the ETG thermal performance evaluation testing; and the Naval Surface Weapons Center (NSWC) facility in White Oak, Maryland, shall be the site of the dynamic, mass-properties and magnetic properties testing.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Energy Basics: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal Energy Conversion A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when...

432

Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

generate electricity and thermal energy to serve heating andenergy source for thermal energy loads and the generation of2 emissions. Electricity and thermal energy production from

Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Anisotropy analysis of thermoelectric properties of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} prepared by SPS method  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} materials were synthesized by the direct fusion technique. The polycrystalline samples were fabricated by the uniaxial pressing of powders in spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus. The materials were subjected to the heat treatment in H{sub 2}-Ar atmosphere at 470 K for 24 h. The influence of preparation conditions on the anisotropy of electrical and thermal properties was thoroughly studied for the direction perpendicular and parallel to the pressing force. The microstructure and the chemical composition of both types of samples were examined using a scanning microscope (SEM) equipped with an X-ray energy dispersion detector (EDX). The XRD method was applied for the phase analysis of materials, as well as, for determination of preferred orientation of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 2.9}Se{sub 0.1} grains. The Seebeck coefficient distribution was studied by the scanning thermoelectric microprobe (STM). Temperature dependences of thermoelectric properties (thermal and electrical conductivities, Seebeck coefficient) were measured in the temperature from 300 K to 550 K. The statistical analysis of results has shown strong influence of pressing force direction both on structural and transport properties. The applied heat treatment of materials significantly improves their thermoelectric figure of merit. Particularly, it was found that annealing in H2-Ar atmosphere leads to enhancement of the ZT three times up to {approx}0.7 at 370 K in perpendicular direction to the pressing force.

Zybala, Rafal; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof T. [Thermoelectric Research Laboratory, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH University of Science and Technology, Av. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059, Cracow (Poland)

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

434

Life testing of conductively coupled thermoelectric cells. Final report for task 11  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Four conductively coupled thermoelectric cells, developed under the SP100 program, have been life tested. These cells, referred to as TOC (Task Order Contract) cells, were fourth generation cells, and incorporated design improvements to extend operating life. GS526 glass had been added to suppress the loss of Ge from the MoGe bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite. The previous generation was life limited by the degradation of this electrical bond at the SiGe to graphite hot side interface due to the Ge loss. This led to abnormal internal resistance trends. The TOC cell test data and post test diagnostic have confirmed the effectiveness of the perimeter glass. Three of the four cells demonstrated normal electrical performance trends. The fourth cell (No. 139) tested at JPL showed an abnormal increase in internal resistance and a shift in temperature levels at 12,400 hours following a facility shutdown and restart. When the cell was removed from the test fixture, separation occurred between the hot side compliant pad facesheet and the niobium filament bundles. No degradation of the bond between the SiGe and the barrier graphite was found and the change in slope of the internal resistance was attributed to changes in the rate of dopant precipitation caused by the shift in temperature levels.

Kelley, E.; Klee, P.; Hanson, J.; Nakahara, J.

1997-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

435

C. A. La Electricidad de Caracas: Feasibility-study definitional report. Arreciffs Units 1 through 5 repowering project, electric power generation expansion Venezuela thermal power plant. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

C.A. La Electricidad de Caracas (E.de C.) is a private company which in 1991 served some 830,000 customers in an area of 4,160 square kilometers surrounding Caracas. A program is underway by E.de C. for upgrading equipment and expanding the capacity of several of its existing generating facilities. The Arrecifes repowering project will involve the addition of about 330 MW of new natural gas fired gas turbine generators and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) to five existing thermal power units built 30 to 40 years ago which have steam turbine generator sets of 26 to 41 MW each. The existing steam boilers will be removed. The limited but seemingly sufficient space available is to be a primary focus of the feasibility study.

Not Available

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

A Novel VLSI Technology to Manufacture High-Density Thermoelectric Cooling Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes a novel integrated circuit technology to manufacture high-density thermoelectric devices on a semiconductor wafer. With no moving parts, a thermoelectric cooler operates quietly, allows cooling below ambient temperature, and may be used for temperature control or heating if the direction of current flow is reversed. By using a monolithic process to increase the number of thermoelectric couples, the proposed solid-state cooling technology can be combined with traditional air cooling, liquid cooling, and phase-change cooling to yield greater heat flux and provide better cooling capability.

H. Chen; L. Hsu; X. Wei

2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

437

The Effect of Structural Vacancies on the Thermoelectric Properties of (Cu2Te)1-x(Ga2Te3)x  

SciTech Connect

We have studied the effects of structural vacancies on the thermoelectric properties of the ternary compounds (Cu2Te)1-x(Ga2Te3)x (x = 0.5, 0.55, 0.571, 0.6, 0.625, 0.667 and 0.75), which are solid solutions found in the pseudo-binary phase diagram for Cu2Te and Ga2Te3. This system possesses tunable structural vacancy concentrations. The x= 0.5 phase, CuGaTe2, is nominally devoid of structural vacancies, while the rest of the compounds contain varying amounts of these features, and the volume density of vacancies increases with Ga2Te3 content. The sample with x = 0.5, 0.55, 0.571, 0.6, 0.625 crystallize in the chalcopyrite structure while the x = 0.667 and 0.75 adopt the Ga2Te3 defect zinc blende structure. Strong scattering of heat carrying phonons by structural defects, leads to the reduction of thermal conductivity, which is beneficial to the thermoelectric performance of materials. On the other hand, these defects also scatter charge carriers and reduce the electrical conductivity. All the samples investigated are p-type semiconductors as inferred by the signs of their respective Hall (RH) and Seebeck (S) coefficients. The structural vacancies were found to scatter phonons strongly, while a combination of increased carrier concentration, and vacancies decreases the Hall mobility ( H), degrading the overall thermoelectric performance. The room temperature H drops from 90 cm2/V s for CuGaTe2 to 13 cm2/V s in Cu9Ga11Te21 and 4.6 cm2/V s in CuGa3Te5. The low temperature thermal conductivity decreases significantly with higher Ga2Te3 concentrations (higher vacancy concentration) due to increased point defect scattering which dominate thermal resistance terms. At high temperatures, the dependence of thermal conductivity on the Ga2Te3 content is less significant. The presence of strong Umklapp scattering leads to low thermal conductivity at high temperatures for all samples investigated. The highest ZT among the samples in this study was found for the defect-free CuGaTe2 with ZT ~ 1.0 at 840K.

Ye, Zuxin [GM Research and Development Center; Cho, Jung Y [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Tessema, Misle [GM Research and Development Center; Salvador, James R. [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Waldo, Richard [GM R& D and Planning, Warren, Michigan; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Cai, Wei [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Exploring electron and phonon transport at the nanoscale for thermoelectric energy conversion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials are capable of solid-state direct heat to electricity energy conversion and are ideal for waste heat recovery applications due to their simplicity, reliability, and lack of environmentally harmful ...

Minnich, Austin Jerome

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

A batteryless thermoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit with 35mV startup voltage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A batteryless thermoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit to extract electrical energy from human body heat is implemented in a 0.35 ?m [mu m] CMOS process. A mechanically assisted startup circuit enables operation ...

Ramadass, Yogesh Kumar

440

Structure-fluctuation-induced abnormal thermoelectric properties in semiconductor copper selenide  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoelectric effects and related technologies have attracted a great interest due to the world-wide energy harvesting. Thermoelectricity has usually been considered in the context of stable material phases. Here we report that the fluctuation of structures during the second-order phase transition in Cu2Se semiconductor breaks the conventional trends of thermoelectric transports in normal phases, leading to a critically phase-transition-enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit zT above unity at 400K, a three times larger value than for the normal phases. Dynamic structural transformations introduce intensive fluctuations and extreme complexity, which enhance the carrier entropy and thus the thermopower, and strongly scatter carriers and phonons as well to make their transports behave critically.

Liu, Huili [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shi, Xun [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Li, Qiang [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Uher, Ctirad [University of Michigan; Zhang, Wenqing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (SICCAS); Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermoelectric generators thermal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Nanostructured thin film thermoelectric composite materials using conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermoelectric materials have the ability to convert heat directly into electricity. This clean energy technology has advantages over other renewable technologies in that it requires no sunlight, has no moving parts, and ...

Kuryak, Chris A. (Chris Adam)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. Reliability program plan  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The reliability program plan for the Selenide Isotope Generator (SIG) program is presented. It delineates the specific tasks that will be accomplished by Teledyne Energy Systems and its suppliers during design, development, fabrication and test of deliverable Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Electrical Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETG) and associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The Plan is formulated in general accordance with procedures specified in DOE Reliability Engineering Program Requirements Publication No. SNS-2, dated June 17, 1974. The Reliability Program Plan presented herein defines the total reliability effort without further reference to Government Specifications. The reliability tasks to be accomplished are delineated herein and become the basis for contract compliance to the extent specified in the SIG contract Statement of Work.

Not Available

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Crystal structure, characterization and thermoelectric properties of the type-I clathrate Ba{sub 8-y}Sr{sub y}Al{sub 14}Si{sub 32} (0.6{<=}y{<=}1.3) prepared by aluminum flux  

SciTech Connect

The title compound was prepared as single crystals using an aluminum flux technique. Single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction indicate that this composition crystallizes in the clathrate type-I structure, space group Pm3-bar n. Electron microprobe characterization indicates the composition to be Ba{sub 8-y}Sr{sub y}Al{sub 14.2(2)}Si{sub 31.8(2)} (0.77thermal conductivity have been measured from room temperature to 1200 K on a hot-pressed pellet. Electrical resistivity reveals metallic behavior. The negative Seebeck coefficient indicates transport processes dominated by electrons as carriers. Thermal conductivity is between 22 and 25 mW/cm K. The sample shows n-type conductivity with a maximum figure of merit, zT of 0.3 at 1200 K. A single parabolic band model predicts a five-fold increase in zT at 800 K if carrier concentration is lowered. -- Graphical abstract: The inorganic type-I clathrate phase with nominal composition Ba{sub 7}Sr{sub 1}Al{sub 14}Si{sub 32} has been prepared by Al flux. Single crystal diffraction at 90 and 12 K reveal that the framework is fully occupied with the cation sites nearly fully occupied. The lattice thermal conductivity is low thereby suggesting further optimization of the carrier concentration will lead to a high zT. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Ba{sub 7}Sr{sub 1}Al{sub 14}Si{sub 32} is a light element phase ideal for thermoelectric power generation. {yields} Ba{sub 7}Sr{sub 1}Al{sub 14}Si{sub 32} is a high melting point cubic structure ideal for efficient power generation. {yields} The framework is fully occupied with the cation sites nearly fully occupied. {yields} Further optimization of the carrier concentration is expected to lead to a high zT.

Roudebush, John H. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Toberer, Eric S. [Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hope, Hakon [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Jeffrey Snyder, G. [Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kauzlarich, Susan M., E-mail: smkauzlarich@ucdavis.ed [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

444

Conversion system overview assessment. Volume III. Solar thermal/coal or biomass derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

The three volumes of this report cover three distinct areas of solar energy research: solar thermoelectrics, solar-wind hybrid systems, and synthetic fuels derived with solar thermal energy. Volume III deals with the conversion of synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat. The method is a hybrid combination of solar energy with either coal or biomass. A preliminary assessment of this technology is made by calculating the cost of fuel produced as a function of the cost of coal and biomass. It is shown that within the projected ranges of coal, biomass, and solar thermal costs, there are conditions when solar synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat will become cost-competitive.

Copeland, R. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thermal storage can be interfaced with a variety of high temperature heat generating systems, e.g. nuclear

Authors, Various

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

MEMS BASED PYROELECTRIC THERMAL ENERGY HARVESTER - Energy ...  

A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting apparatus for generating an electric current includes a cantilevered layered pyroelectric capacitor extending ...

447

Thermoelectric properties of fine-grained FeVSb half-Heusler alloys tuned to p-type by substituting vanadium with titanium  

SciTech Connect

Fine-grained Ti-doped FeVSb half-Heusler alloys were synthesized by combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering and their thermoelectric properties were investigated with an emphasis on the influences of Ti doping and phase purity. It was found that substituting V with Ti can change the electrical transport behavior from n-type to p-type due to one less valence electron of Ti than V, and the sample with nominal composition FeV{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.4}Sb exhibits the largest Seebeck coefficient and the maximum power factor. By optimizing the sintering temperature and applying annealing treatment, the power factor is significantly improved and the thermal conductivity is reduced simultaneously, resulting in a ZT value of 0.43 at 500 Degree-Sign C, which is relatively high as for p-type half-Heusler alloys containing earth-abundant elements. - Graphical abstract: Fine-grained Ti-doped FeVSb alloys were prepared by the MA-SPS method. The maximum ZT value reaches 0.43 at 500 Degree-Sign C, which is relatively high for p-type half-Heusler alloys. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-doped FeVSb half-Heusler alloys were synthesized by combining MA and SPS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting V with Ti changes the electrical behavior from n-type to p-type. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties are improved by optimizing sintering temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties are further improved by applying annealing treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high ZT value of 0.43 is obtained at 500 Degree-Sign C for p-type Ti-doped FeVSb alloys.

Zou, Minmin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Jing-Feng, E-mail: jingfeng@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kita, Takuji [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Vehicle Engineering Group, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)] [Advanced Material Engineering Division, Vehicle Engineering Group, Higashifuji Technical Center, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1200, Mishuku, Susono, Shizuoka 410-1193 (Japan)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

448

PERFORMANCE TESTS OF SNAP 10A THERMOELECTRIC ELEMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for the performanee testing of SNAP 10A thermoelectric elements was designed, constructed, and is now in operation. Elements may be tested for any desired length of tfme up to 1400 deg F and in a vacuum of 1 x 10/ sup -5/ of Hg. The equipment used for these tcsts may also be utilized for measuring Seebeck coefficient and resistance as a function of temperature. Element performance is derived from the data on voltages and temperatures. The performance variables which are reported in graphic form are as follows: loaded output voltage at any desired DELTA T; open circuit output voltage at any desired DELTA T; power output under optimum load conditions; current produced under matched load conditions; and internal resistance of the element. (auth)

Bergdorf, C.G.

1961-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

449

Milliwatt Generator Project  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers progress on the Milliwatt Generator Project from April 1986 through March 1988. Activities included fuel processing and characterization, production of heat sources, fabrication of pressure-burst test units, compatibility studies, impact testing, and examination of surveillance units. The major task of the Los Alamos Milliwatt Generator Project is to fabricate MC2893A heat sources (4.0 W) for MC2730A radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGS) and MC3599 heat sources (4.5 W) for MC3500 RTGs. The MWG Project interfaces with the following contractors: Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (designer); E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. (Inc.), Savannah River Plant (fuel); Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility (metal hardware); and General Electric Company, Neutron Devices Department (RTGs). In addition to MWG fabrication activities, Los Alamos is involved in (1) fabrication of pressure-burst test units, (2) compatibility testing and evaluation, (3) examination of surveillance units, and (4) impact testing and subsequent examination of compatibility and surveillance units.

Latimer, T.W.; Rinehart, G.H.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z