Sample records for thermodynamik pfaffenwaldring 38-40

  1. AK Hartmann, Thermodynamik und Statistische Physik 103 Auf Koexistenzkurve p(T): 1(T, p(T)) -2(T, p(T)) = 0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartmann, Alexander K.

    AK Hartmann, Thermodynamik und Statistische Physik 103 26.1.2006 Auf Koexistenzkurve p(T): µ1(T, p(T)) - µ2(T, p(T)) = 0 totale Ableitung d dT = 0: 0 ! = dµ1(T) dT - dµ2(T) dT = µ1 T p - µ2 T p + µ1 p T - µ2 p T dp dT = 1 N S - 1 N V dp dT (S = 0, V = 0) dp dT = S V = Ql TV (14.3) Gleichung von Clausius

  2. Solar Atlas for the Mediterranean Carsten Hoyer-Klick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Thermodynamics, Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, 70569 Stuttgart for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency), Cairo, Egypt 8 United Nations Environmental Programme, Paris. Introduction Solar energy has a large potential for renewable energy generation. Solar energy is highly

  3. Neurocomputing 38}40 (2001) 1633}1641 Towards a federated neuroscienti"c knowledge management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ludäscher, Bertram

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LudaK scher , Amarnath Gupta , Rolf KoK tter Knowledge Mechanics Research Group, USC, Los Angeles, USA

  4. Data:6dff9d43-7f38-40db-b211-20c01616717e | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2. Demand 3. Energy << Previous 1 2 3 Next >> Basic Information Utility name: Platte-Clay Electric Coop, Inc Effective date: 20130101 End date if known: Rate name: SL - 500...

  5. Solar Atlas for the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Carsten Hoyer-Klick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Technical Thermodynamics, Department of Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment, Pfaffenwaldring 38 (Regional Center for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency), Cairo, Egypt 8 United Nations Environmental, solar energy potentials. 1. Introduction Solar energy has a large potential for renewable energy

  6. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 703710, 2007 www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/11/703/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 703710, 2007 www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/11/703/2007/ Author, Pfaffenwaldring 61, 70550 Stuttgart, Germany Received: 24 April 2006 Published in Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci

  7. Defektlinien in Isingsystemen Diplomarbeit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Usadel, K. D.

    Systems. Der Faktor 1 2 in (1.1) tritt auf, da man in der Doppelsumme jedes Spinpaar doppelt zählt. Im der Thermodynamik bekannt ist, tritt im thermischen Gleichgewicht bei einer Temperatur T eine

  8. ps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    linaire, C. r. Acad. sci., 236 (1953), 3840. [7] A. Goldberg, Some questions of value distribution theory, (Russian). Ap-. pendix to the Russian translation of [16].

  9. On a Routing and Scheduling Problem Concerning Multiple Edge Traversals in Graphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Vuuren, Jan H.

    include bus routing [1, 4, 5, 8, 10], meter reading [38, 40], control of plotting and drilling machines [24], optimiza- tion of laserplotter beam movements [22], mail delivery [32, 37], garbage collection

  10. New Cross-Layer Channel Switching Policy for TCP Transmission on 3G UMTS Downlink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INRIA 2004 Route des Lucioles Sophia Antipolis, France dkumar@sophia.inria.fr Dhiman Barman Computer Sc Lucioles Sophia Antipolis, France altman@sophia.inria.fr Jean-Marc Kelif France Telecom R&D 38-40 Rue du

  11. Laser correcting mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved laser correction mirror (10) for correcting aberrations in a laser beam wavefront having a rectangular mirror body (12) with a plurality of legs (14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28) arranged into opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) along the long sides (30, 32) of the mirror body (12). Vector force pairs (49, 50, 52, 54) are applied by adjustment mechanisms (42, 44, 46, 48) between members of the opposing pairs (34, 36, 38, 40) for bending a reflective surface 13 of the mirror body 12 into a shape defining a function which can be used to correct for comatic aberrations.

  12. Functional photoacoustic tomography of animal brains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xueding

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As described in previous literatures, 38,40 the photoacoustic signal ),( tp r at position r and time t is related to a heating source ),( tH r by the following wave equation: t tH C tp tc tp ps ? ? ?= ? ? ?? ),( ),( 1 ),( 2 2 2 2 r rr ? (1) where c...

  13. JB RISOE 20-05-2003 Advanced 700C PF Power Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    prices of imported coal Security of supply is threatened without coal Clean Coal Technology in efficiency of Elsam's coal-fired power plants 1950 19701960 19901980 20202000 2010 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 of Coal Based Power Generation Abundant reserves Many independent producers of coal Low and stable

  14. I Heard The Music and other poems and translations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Freddie S

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Merry-Go-Round The Shepherds A Birth Palm Sunday 30 31 33 35 37 38 40 41 43 45 47 49 51 53 55 56 58 59 60 62 63 64 67 69 Page TRANSLATIONS 71 Come Back to the Garden Magbalik sa Hardin Song of Leveriza Awit Leveriza In Praise of Picasso Alay...

  15. Estimation of Absolute Free Energies of Hydration using Continuum Methods: Accuracy of Partial Charge Models and Optimization of Nonpolar Contributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzo, Robert C.

    Estimation of Absolute Free Energies of Hydration using Continuum Methods: Accuracy of Partial, and Irwin D. Kuntz Supporting Information Table S1. Experimental Free Energies of Hydration (Ghyd) in kcal,2-dimethylcyclohexane 1.58 36 trans-1,4-dimethylcyclohexane 2.11 37 ethene 1.28 38 propene 1.32 39 but-1-ene 1.38 40

  16. Aged asphalt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Kenneth Lloyd

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dorchester Asphalts Exxon Asphalts CONCLUSIONS RECOMMENDATIONS LITERATURE CITED APPENDIX 41 42 48 59 70 84 90 93 96 99 103 105 106 A. GEL PERMEATION CHROMATOGRAMS OF TEST ASPHALTS 108 B. FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTRUMS OF TEST... Apparatus 5. Abson Method Apparatus 6. ASTM D 2171 Apparatus 7. Sample Pellet Die 8. Sample Pellet Holder 21 23 27 29 38 40 9. GPC of Lufkin Exxon AC-20 Extracted by Two Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 10. GPC of Dickens Exxon AC-20 51...

  17. The western river steamboat: structure and machinery, 1811 to 1860

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kane, Adam Isaac

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Jeffersonville, Indiana, showing two steamboat hulls being framed and behind them another steamer being fitted with braces for the hogging chains. . . . . . . . . 43 Fig. B. Photograph of the Howard Ship Yard showing the vast amount of timber needed... . The Steamboat and the Cotton Economy . Population Increase . Ancillary Industries . Steamboat Building Foundry Work . Lumbering 25 28 30 32 33 36 38 40 41 43 44 IV: INTRODUCTORY PHASE (1811 TO 1820) 47 Individual Steamboats Structural...

  18. Avoidance behavior in a fixed-ratio three free-operant avoidance situation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    King, Thomas Michael

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    discrimination. The results did not lend support to the Conditioned Aversive Temporal Stimuli theory of reinforcement in free-operant avoidance proposed by Anger (1963). The notion that a response-contingent stimulus, in a free-operant avoidance situation... 37 38 40 42 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In discriminative avoidance procedures, a warning signal increases the probability of a response which allows the sub]ect to avoid a noxious stimulus (Kimble, 1961). Reinforcement of this avoidance behavior...

  19. Speed-line for 3D animation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Won Chan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    point moved to a CV on the circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 39 Ending point placed between the starting point and the goal object . 38 40 Speed-lines with another cartoon effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ix FIGURE Page 41 Image sequences... from the result animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION One of the earliest artists who tried to convey dynamic movement in a static image is Hokusai Katsushika, who is one of the best known Ukiyo-e1 artists. He is called...

  20. A continuous traffic study as a source of input data for the computation of operating ratios for selected weight brackets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, James Davis

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose Scope Need for Adequate Cost Data Methods and Procedures HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF FREIGHT TRAFFIC STUDIES Xn tro due t ion Waybill Studies Special Purpose Studies General Purpose Studies Continuous Waybi, ll Sample Sample Selection... Uses of Waybill Data Freight Bill Studies One' Day Studies Fixed Period Studies Continuous Traffic Studies Continuous Traffic Study and the Regulatory Body Summary METHODOLOGY sge 1 2 4 ) 'I 1 1 2i 21 22 26 27 27 37 38 40 42...

  1. Resolving the dynamics of photo-induced phase transition of eumelanin by femtosecond pump-probe techniques using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -probe experiment by Simon et al., the optical absorption spectrum of the monomer and tetramer composing of four] Efthimios Kaxiras time-dependent density functional theory [7]2006(tetramer) 1.3(porphyrin ring)26 1.3: (:C Kaxiras 2006 [7](tetramer) (monomer)( 10 ) 100 10 0.1M1010 75 40040 #12;34 3 3.8: (40 fs) 3

  2. State 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Alabama 16 13 6 9 7 7 -56%

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    3 CA 50 OR 5 WA 13 WY 0 ND 5 SD 0 NE 9 KS 5 OK 7 MN 14 WI 12 MI 43 IA 7 MO 19 IL 55 AR 4 AL 7 AK 2 5 6 200% Vermont 5 6 6 5 6 9 80% Virginia 38 40 41 45 49 52 37% Washington 8 8 6 12 13 13 63% West Virginia 6 7 4 2 6 7 17% Wisconsin 10 13 17 18 19 12 20% Wyoming 0 0 0 1 0 0 0% Total States 26,166 26

  3. Applications for Microwave Generators in the Process Industries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Humphrey, J. L.; Vasilakos, N. P.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 14. Fix, S. R. "Microwave Devulcanization of Rub ber." (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., lincoln, NE, USA). US 4,104,205, Elastomerics, Vol. 112, No.6, pp. 1980, 38-40 (Eng). 15. Yamashita, I., Yamamoto, N., and Mima, S., "Decomposition of Waste... August 1978. 18. Novotny, D. S., et al. "Devulcanization of Sulfer-Vulcanized Elastomers." (Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.) Ger. Offen. 2,700,306, 18 August 1977, US Appl. 646,821, 6 January 1976. 19. "Microwave Hardenable Molding Sand." (Ko matsu...

  4. The application of boundary layer removal to a 90 degree bend used as a flow turing device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Edward Harrison

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attached to Nozzle; High Velocity 30 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend. Attached to Nozzle; Low Velocity 31 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend Attached to 1. 5 Foot Duct; High Velocity 32 Efficiency vs Percent Flow Removed; Bend Attached... to 1. 5 Foot Duct; Low Velocity 33 Static Pressure vs Angle of Bend 37 38 40 41 A C K N 0 W L E D G E M E N T S The author wishes to express his appreciation to Profes- sor Alfred E. Cronk for his advice and patience; and to his wife, Annabelle...

  5. Characterization of Mugil cephalus liver microsomal mixed function oxidase enzymes and metabolism: and their induction in response to #2 fuel oil water soluble fraction and benzpyrene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodin, Bruce Ray

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using the frozen livers of plaice tti ~l) 11 d f h ' 4 h A C d'* oil spill and a neighboring control bay. No significant difference was observed between the cytochrome P-450 levels in the livers of plaice from the two collection sites... of Benzpyrene Exposure on Mullet. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Freezing on the Stability of Microsomal Enzymes Cy h F-4501 1 Z1: dft 1 t Amoco Cadiz Oil Spill 22 26 33 33 35 38 40 40 45 50 50 53 60 63 63 DISCUSSION...

  6. Lesquerella lindheimeri (Native)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanda B. Cemper

    2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    CHAPI'ER VI. CONCLUSIONS Page V1 1X 14 21 21 21 25 27 37 37 38 40 46 54 Page REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B VITA S7 LIST OF TABLES Table Page Pellet fabrication parameters for Maine Yankee Unit I and Oconee Unit 2 fuel rods 22... and bumup. t ( o) -Q/RgT 100B/ u a2 ' (7) where R& is the universal gas constant (cal/moh K), Q is the activation energy, 72 300 cal/mol, Do/a2 is an empirical cpnstant, 0. 61 s 1, and 20 Bu is an empirical constant, 28 000 MWd/mtU During transient...

  7. Design of composite plastic foams for improved cushioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eskew, James Oliver

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Polyethylene Foams at 0. 5G w/ 0. 444 psi Static Load 36 37 41 16. Example of a Parallel Configuration with Polyurethane and Polyethylene Foams at 0. 5G w/ 0. 311 psi Static Load on Composite . 41 17. Single Polyurethane Foam at 0. 5G w/ 0. 156 psi... w/ 0. 444 psi Static Load 45 45 53 54 55 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Figure Page 33 34 35 36 37 38. 40. 41 42. 43 44. 45 Single Polyethylene Foam at 0. 5G w/ 0. 156 psi Static Load Single...

  8. Effect of Parkinson's Disease on the Step Response to a Backwards Pull

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McVey, Molly Ann

    2007-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    ,092 Parkinsons patients by Wielinski et al., 65% of those who fell sustained an injury, 22% of those who fell sustained fractures, and 41% of those sustaining fractures required surgery. In addition, approximately 27% of the entire study group required... between PD patients with and without a history of falls, however most of those studies involve severe cases of PD who already exhibit major balance problems and it is not predictive of fall risk [27, 38, 40, 41]. Recently, more quantitative laboratory...

  9. Semiconductor laser diode facet reflectivity measurement techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Michael John

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , support and patience during my studies at Texas A&M. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION Page 1 II. THEORY A. Laser Model B. Laser Model with Feedback III. THEORETICAL CALCULATIONS A. Power Ratio Method B. Fabry-Perot Method 5 6 10 10 11 IV... APPENDIX F VITA 14 14 14 19 21 22 22 24 27 27 28 29 31 35 38 38 40 42 43 49 51 57 78 99 120 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. 1 2. 1 Setup by Wang Laser Model without Feedback Page 2. 2 Laser Model with Feedback 3. 1 3. 2 4. 1...

  10. Use of neural networks to correlate enzymatic hydrolysis with biomass properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narayan, Ramasubramanian

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    % 38 40 42 prediction interval. 44 Page 3. 9 Correlation between 1-h total sugar conversions and L/G, A/G, L/X, A/X, Xo, and CrI. The dotted lines describe 95% prediction interval . . 45 3. 10 Correlation between 3-d total sugar conversions... Conversion (%) 100 op 0 0 8 ~ rs egest ~ 0-, a t e 0 pY ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ e gs & ~ ~ ~ A R* ~ 9. 8N7 ~ ~ ? ? 95% PraItiegon t~ N Catculraad ~ Total Sugar Conversion (%1 Figure 1. 4 Correlation between total sugar conversions and L/G, A/G, L...

  11. The gas phase reactions of methylene with propionaldehyde

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuqua, Peter Joseph

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 03 2. 93 2. 01 11. 08 11. 03 9. 95 15. 82 14. 06 9. 80 11. 29 15. 96 11. 70 11, 49 9. 27 10. 56 2Z. 30 7. 96 7. 90 4. 64 1. 83 5. 97 2. 05 3. 41 2. 51 Z. 9Z 2. 74 3. 18 2. 87 1. 78 1. 94 2. 20 1. 86 2. 11 1. 73 1. 97... of the data in table IU fit to equa- tions 38-40 gave the f'ol lowing results. slope (eq. 38) ? 53~30 torr slope (eq. 39) =- 2~3 torr slope (eq. 40) = 14-22 torr intercept (eq. 48) = 21. 9. 4. 6 intercept (eq. 39) = 2. 46a0. 45 intercept (eq. 40) = 10...

  12. On the Weddell-Scotia Confluence and the Scotia Front

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephen Gregory

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the ACC is separated from that oi' the Weddell Gyre by the Weddell-Scotia, Confluence. The 4 0 CO at I o o o o t 'cu o o d\\ 0 0 IA 0 o ' o c;- j d I o. . O dp Og 'Ig 0 pg Xgpg ' ' ~ ~ ', ' 'Od Ott a! co M ut OO Ch 0 0 cd... of the continental SAP PFZ PF AAZ C)NB CZ 26 27 28 29 (30 32 34 36 38 )40 42 43 44 45 46 4 48 49 0 0 l. s (m) /' / / I. O 05 ( / / I ~ I (m) 57 S 59 61' 62 0 IOO 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 km Figure 3. Vertical section of potential temperature ('C...

  13. CMC vane assembly apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiavo, Anthony L; Gonzalez, Malberto F; Huang, Kuangwei; Radonovich, David C

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A metal vane core or strut (64) is formed integrally with an outer backing plate (40). An inner backing plate (38) is formed separately. A spring (74) with holes (75) is installed in a peripheral spring chamber (76) on the strut. Inner and outer CMC shroud covers (46, 48) are formed, cured, then attached to facing surfaces of the inner and outer backing plates (38, 40). A CMC vane airfoil (22) is formed, cured, and slid over the strut (64). The spring (74) urges continuous contact between the strut (64) and airfoil (66), eliminating vibrations while allowing differential expansion. The inner end (88) of the strut is fastened to the inner backing plate (38). A cooling channel (68) in the strut is connected by holes (69) along the leading edge of the strut to peripheral cooling paths (70, 71) around the strut. Coolant flows through and around the strut, including through the spring holes.

  14. Overview of Solar Energy Research: 1990 to Present

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for shaded fenestration test box. Page 32 July 2004 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University -50 0 50 100 150 200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Time (Hr) Heat Transfer (Btu/hr) Heat Removed by Fan (Q-fan) Q-conv,w ,in Q-cond,tot Q-conv,w ,out...,200 1,300 1,400 Insulation Marble Paint Gypsum Ceramic Tile Cement Ti le Frame Gl ass Wall Wood Steel Concr et e Tot al Embodied Energy (MMBtu) Base Case Alternative 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 Wall Conduction...

  15. Pulsed particle beam vacuum-to-air interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cruz, Gilbert E. (Pleasanton, CA); Edwards, William F. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum-to-air interface (10) is provided for a high-powered, pulsed particle beam accelerator. The interface comprises a pneumatic high speed gate valve (18), from which extends a vacuum-tight duct (26), that termintes in an aperture (28). Means (32, 34, 36, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46, 48) are provided for periodically advancing a foil strip (30) across the aperture (28) at the repetition rate of the particle pulses. A pneumatically operated hollow sealing band (62) urges foil strip (30), when stationary, against and into the aperture (28). Gas pressure means (68, 70) periodically lift off and separate foil strip (30) from aperture (28), so that it may be readily advanced.

  16. Corn Hybrids for Texas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, J. S.; Bockholt, A. J.; Collier, J. W.

    1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Root Stalk Unsound Worm dam- Shelling, % Days to Ears per Entries bushels lodging, % breakage, % ears, % age score1 silk plant Texas 28 ."-' Texas 26 Texas 32 Texas 30 Texas 15W Texas 17W Asgrow lOlW United U72 Keystone 222 Funk G711 De....0 6.3 8.2 9.9 10.1 13.0 13.1 16.9 193 16.7 38 40 43 Texas 28 Texas 26 Texas 30 Texas 15W United U72 Keystone 222 Funk G711 TRF 3 Surcropper Ferguson's Yellow Dent Number of tests included 6-YEAR AVERAGE, 1951-56 'Refers to the relative...

  17. Turbine airfoil with controlled area cooling arrangement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liang, George

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A gas turbine airfoil (10) includes a serpentine cooling path (32) with a plurality of channels (34,42,44) fluidly interconnected by a plurality of turns (38,40) for cooling the airfoil wall material. A splitter component (50) is positioned within at least one of the channels to bifurcate the channel into a pressure-side channel (46) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the pressure side (24) and a suction-side channel (48) passing in between the outer wall (28) and the inner wall (30) of the suction side (26) longitudinally downstream of an intermediate height (52). The cross-sectional area of the pressure-side channel (46) and suction-side channel (48) are thereby controlled in spite of an increasing cross-sectional area of the airfoil along its longitudinal length, ensuring a sufficiently high mach number to provide a desired degree of cooling throughout the entire length of the airfoil.

  18. Particle separating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (9756 49th Ave. NE., Seattle, WA 98195)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A disposable first tube (68) extends axially through, and is detachably connected to, an annular main body (10'). An input piezo electric element (38) is attached to a first end of the tubular main body (10'). A second, sensor piezo electric element (40) is attached to the opposite end of the main body (10'). A nozzle (20') having a nozzle passageway (110) and a discharge opening (112) is detachably secured to an outlet end of the first tube (68). A second tube (102) within the first tube (68) delivers a core liquid to the nozzle passageway (110). A sheath liquid is delivered through a space in the first tube (68) surrounding the second tube (102). The nozzle passageway (110) forms the core and sheath liquids into a small diameter jet stream. Electrical energy is delivered to the input piezo electric element (38), to vibrate the nozzle (20') and break the jet stream into droplets. The sensor element (40) determines the amplitude of vibration at the nozzle (20') and delivers this information to a control circuit that adjusts the electrical energy input to the input piezo electric element (38) for maintaining a desired amplitude of vibration at the nozzle (20'). The frequency of vibration is determined by the length of the main body (10') between the two piezo electric elements (38, 40). The first and second tubes (68, 102) are disposable and are replaced after a use rather than being cleaned and sterilized.

  19. Particle separating apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A disposable first tube (68) extends axially through, and is detachably connected to, an annular main body (10'). An input piezo electric element (38) is attached to a first end of the tubular main body (10'). A second, sensor piezo electric element (40) is attached to the opposite end of the main body (10'). A nozzle (20') having a nozzle passageway (110) and a discharge opening (112) is detachably secured to an outlet end of the first tube (68). A second tube (102) within the first tube (68) delivers a core liquid to the nozzle passageway (110). A sheath liquid is delivered through a space in the first tube (68) surrounding the second tube (102). The nozzle passageway (110) forms the core and sheath liquids into a small diameter jet stream. Electrical energy is delivered to the input piezo electric element (38), to vibrate the nozzle (20') and break the jet stream into droplets. The sensor element (40) determines the amplitude of vibration at the nozzle (20') and delivers this information to a control circuit that adjusts the electrical energy input to the input piezo electric element (38) for maintaining a desired amplitude of vibration at the nozzle (20'). The frequency of vibration is determined by the length of the main body (10') between the two piezo electric elements (38, 40). The first and second tubes (68, 102) are disposable and are replaced after a use rather than being cleaned and sterilized.