National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal-to-electrical energy conversion

  1. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Laboratory | Department of Energy Document provides an in-depth look at side stream filtration at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. PDF icon ssf_evaluation.pdf More Documents & Publications Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Technical Evaluation of Side Stream Filtration for Cooling Towers Cooling Towers: Understanding Key Components of Cooling Towers and How to Improve Water Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules | Department of Energy

    Discusses progress toward the

  2. Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvador, James R.; Cho, Jung Y; Ye, Zuxin; Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Thompson, Alan; Sharp, Jeff W.; Konig, Jan; Maloney, Ryan; Thompson, Travis; Sakamoto, Jeff; Wang, Hsin; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Meisner, G P

    2013-01-01

    The performance of thermoelectric (TE) materials has improved tremendously over the past decade. The intrinsic thermal and electrical properties of state-of-the-art TE materials demonstrate that the potential for widespread practical TE applications is very large and includes TE generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. TE materials for automotive TEG applications must have good intrinsic performance, be thermomechanically compatible, and be chemically stable in the 400 K to 850 K temperature range. Both n-type and p-type varieties must be available at low cost, easily fabricated, and durable. They must also form robust junctions and develop good interfaces with other materials to permit efficient flows of electrical and thermal energy. Among the TE materials of interest for automotive waste heat recovery systems are the skutterudite compounds, which are the antimony-based transition-metal compounds RTE4Sb12, where R can be an alkali metal (e.g., Na, K), alkaline earth (e.g., Ba), or rare earth (e.g., La, Ce, Yb), and TE can be a transition metal (e.g., Co, Fe). We synthesized a considerable quantity of n-type and p-type skutterudites, fabricated TE modules, incorporated these modules into a prototype TEG, and tested the TEG on a production General Motors (GM) vehicle. We discuss our progress on skutterudite TE module fabrication and present module performance data for electrical power output under simulated operating conditions for automotive waste heat recovery systems. We also present preliminary durability results on our skutterudite modules.

  3. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  4. Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atoms to Autos Approach to Automotive Thermoelectric Systems Development Exploration of Melt Spinning as a Route to Large Volume Production of Skutterudite Thermoelectric Materials

  5. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical ...

  6. Ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Avery, W.H.

    1983-03-17

    A brief explanation of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) concept and an estimate of the amount of energy that can be produced from the ocean resource without introducing environmental concerns are presented. Use of the OTEC system to generate electric power and products which can replace fossil fuels is shown. The OTEC program status and its prospects for the future are discussed.

  7. Wind energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  8. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Lawrence M.

    1987-01-01

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

  9. Energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, L.M.

    1985-09-16

    The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

  10. Energy Conversion Efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy ... Hydrogen Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ...

  11. Energy Conversion Devices | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Type Test & Evaluation Partner Partnering Center within NREL National Center for Photovoltaics Partnership Year 2003 Energy Conversion Devices is a company located in Rochester...

  12. thermal energy power conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility Nuclear ... Climate & Earth Systems Climate Measurement & Modeling ... Tribal Energy Program Intellectual Property Current EC ...

  13. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is reviewed briefly. The two types of OTEC system (open and closed) are described and limitations are pointed out. A bibliography of 148 references on OTEC is given for the time period 1975 to 1980. Entries are arranged alphabetically according to the author's name. (MJJ)

  15. Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director's Letter .................. 2 Research ............................. 3 Seminar Series ................. 11 Awards .............................. 12 S p r I N g 2 0 1 1 Intermediate Band Solar Energy Conversion in ZnTe:O and ZnTe/ZnSe Affordable photovoltaic solar cells are highly desirable for achieving a sustainable and renewable energy source. In order for solar energy to become cost-competitive with fossil fuels, technological breakthroughs are needed to both improve solar cell

  16. SCE Societe de Conversion d Energie | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Societe de Conversion d Energie Jump to: navigation, search Name: SCE Societe de Conversion d'Energie Place: Reunion Island, France Product: PV project developer on Reunion Island,...

  17. Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste to Energy Conversion Company GWECC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Global Waste to Energy Conversion Company (GWECC) Place: Washington, DC Product: GWECC is a global...

  18. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New approaches to full spectrum solar energy conversion California Institute of Technology ... offer this free public webinar on New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion. ...

  19. Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Biochemical Conversion This area focuses on the research, development and demonstration of biological processes that convert biomass to biofuels, chemicals, and power. Biochemical processes also complement thermochemical conversion by providing residual materials for further processing. Biochemical conversion will advance in the future by enhancing fuel yields in integrated biorefineries which combine conversion types with heat and power efficiencies to produce fuel and products.

  20. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events ...

  1. "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    "Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News ...

  2. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment ...

  3. Biomass conversion processes for energy and fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sofer, S.S.; Zaborsky, O.R.

    1981-01-01

    The book treats biomass sources, promising processes for the conversion of biomass into energy and fuels, and the technical and economic considerations in biomass conversion. Sources of biomass examined include crop residues and municipal, animal and industrial wastes, agricultural and forestry residues, aquatic biomass, marine biomass and silvicultural energy farms. Processes for biomass energy and fuel conversion by direct combustion (the Andco-Torrax system), thermochemical conversion (flash pyrolysis, carboxylolysis, pyrolysis, Purox process, gasification and syngas recycling) and biochemical conversion (anaerobic digestion, methanogenesis and ethanol fermentation) are discussed, and mass and energy balances are presented for each system.

  4. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New approaches to full spectrum solar energy conversion California Institute of Technology ... Panel Discussion: Enabling Science for Full Spectrum Conversion Harry Atwater Harry ...

  5. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2: Solar Spectrum Control and Conversion RG Leader: John Rogers Affiliated PIs: Paul ... in solar energy conversion efficiency is via exploitation of the full solar spectrum. ...

  6. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lectures from the LMI-EFRC "New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion" ... Discussion: Enabling Science for Full Spectrum Conversion Harry Atwater, California ...

  7. Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion Thermochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office conducts research on heat-, pressure-, and catalyst-based conversion of various biomass feedstocks to biofuels, chemicals, and power. These conversion processes, most notably fast pyrolysis (as well as other forms of direct liquefaction) and gasification, are described in detail in the links on the left. The Thermochemical Platform aims to efficiently produce biobased fuels and co-products via liquefaction and pyrolysis,

  8. Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is to engineer catalysts with atomic scale precision for two key electrochemical energy conversion reactions for water splitting, namely, water oxidation (oxygen evolution),...

  9. NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Laboratory Sector: Energy Topics: Resource assessment Website: www.nrel.govotec NREL-Ocean Energy Thermal Conversion Screenshot References: OTEC1 Logo: NREL-Ocean...

  10. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI) Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), the Resnick Sustainability Institute, and the Quantum Energy and Sustainable Solar Technologies...

  11. Direct Conversion Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  12. Advanced energy conversion methods for cold fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prelas, M.A. )

    1989-09-01

    If cold fusion is verified, then the next important question deals with how it can be used to produce energy. Several direct energy conversion concepts for use with cold fusion are discussed.

  13. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Steven Chu visits Caltech labs For more information or questions about the Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion Energy Frontier Research Center, please email...

  14. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    At minimum, please use this wording: "This work was supported by the DOE 'Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion' Energy Frontier Research Center under grant...

  15. Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  16. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  17. Start Your Energy Conversion Devices

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Department of Energy Start 2015 with an #EnergyResolution to Save Money and Energy All Year Long Start 2015 with an #EnergyResolution to Save Money and Energy All Year Long January 19, 2015 - 9:52am Addthis Create an #EnergyResolution to share how you plan to save money and energy in the New Year. | Graphic courtesy of Joelynn Schroeder, National Renewable Energy Laboratory Create an #EnergyResolution to share how you plan to save money and energy in the New Year. | Graphic courtesy of

  18. Hybrid staging of geothermal energy conversion process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steidel, R.F. Jr.

    1984-05-07

    Progress in the demonstration of the feasibility of hybrid staging in geothermal energy conversion is described, particularly processes involving the Lysholm engine. The performance limitations of the Lysholm engine were studied. (MHR)

  19. MHK technologies include current energy conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technologies include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, e.g., hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering and design and analysis (D&A) of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high-performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  20. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery ...

  1. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion Title: Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a ...

  2. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Project objective: Develop ...

  3. University of Delaware Institute of Energy Conversion | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Institute of Energy Conversion Jump to: navigation, search Name: University of Delaware Institute of Energy Conversion Place: Delaware Product: String representation "University...

  4. MHK Technologies/Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Mobil Stabilized Energy Conversion Platform.jpg...

  5. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    am 101 Guggenheim Lab, Lees-Kubota Hall 2013 workshop Approaches to Ultrahight Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion We are excited to offer this FREE public webinar featuring...

  6. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  7. Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, thermal management (Conference) | SciTech Connect Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, thermal management Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies,

  8. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of RG-3 research efforts (Chris Gladden, LBNL) The Scientific Vision of the "Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion Energy Frontier Research Center" (LMI-EFRC) is to...

  9. WEC up! Energy Department Announces Wave Energy Conversion Prize Administrator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Water Power Program today awarded $6.5 million to a Prize Administration Team for the development and execution of the Energy Department’s Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) Prize Competition. The WEC Prize will continue to advance marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) technology as a viable source for America’s clean energy future, in part by providing an opportunity for developers to test their innovative wave energy conversion (WEC) devices in a wave generating basin.

  10. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean » Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics August 16, 2013 - 4:22pm Addthis A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity. OTEC works best when the temperature difference between the warmer, top layer of the ocean and the colder, deep ocean water is about 36°F (20°C). These conditions exist in tropical coastal areas, roughly between the Tropic of Capricorn and the

  11. Conversion and Resource Evaluation Ltd CARE | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is an independent company providing specialist technical and economic services in the bio-energy and waste conversion sector. References: Conversion and Resource Evaluation Ltd...

  12. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion, or OTEC is a technology that extracts power from the ocean's natural thermal gradient. This technology is being pursued by researchers from many nations; in the United States, OTEC research is funded by the US Department of Energy's Ocean Energy Technology program. The program's goal is to develop the technology so that industry can make a competent assessment of its potential -- either as an alternative or as a supplement to conventional energy sources. Federally funded research in components and systems will help OTEC to the threshold of commercialization. This publication provides an overview of the OTEC technology. 47 refs., 25 figs.

  13. Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the globe, the consumption rate of energy promises to be more rapid than in prior decades. ... Solar energy will play an important role in the future, due its natural abundance. ...

  14. Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Atlantic Biomass Conversions Inc Place: Frederick, Maryland Sector: Biomass Product: Atlantic Biomass Conversions is...

  15. Direct conversion technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  16. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Get Involved The LMI-EFRC is a synergistic, engaged team of researchers devoted to light management for solar energy conversion. If you are interested in learning more about the...

  17. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    one-day workshop focused on new materials and processes for overcoming the Shockley-Queisser limit of solar energy conversion efficiency. event website download flyer 05.23.12...

  18. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) Approaches to ultrahigh efficiency solar energy conversion webinar watch now The recorded presentations and panel discussion are now available for online viewing. Sign up is now closed

  19. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) Lectures from the LMI-EFRC "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" Workshop, July 7, 2010, Caltech Harry Atwater Introduction to the Workshop on Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion Harry A. Atwater, Caltech Eli Yablonovitch Fundamental Limits to Light Absorption and Efficiency in Photovoltaics Eli Yablonovitch, University of California, Berkeley Richard Swanson Efficiency Limits and Cost Challenges in Photovoltaics Richard Swanson,

  20. Environmental impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-04-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising technology for production of energy and usable by-products from solar-generated temperature gradients in the world's oceans. Although considered benign compared to alternative forms of energy generation, deployment of OTEC plants will result in interactions with marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments and in socioeconomic interactions with surrounding areas. The Ocean Energy Technology Program of the Department of Energy has funded research to improve the understanding of these interactions. No insurmountable environmental obstacle to OTEC deployment has been uncovered. This document contains a summary of that research for entrepreneurs, utility engineers, and others interested in pursuing OTEC's potential. In addition, it provides a guide to permits, regulations, and licenses applicable to construction of an OTEC plant.

  1. Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a next-generation thermionic solar energy conversion project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Stanford University, seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of photon-enhanced, microfabricated thermionic energy converters as a high-efficiency topping cycle for CSP electricity generation. With the potential to double the electricity output efficiency of solar-thermal power stations, this topping cycle application can significantly reduce the cost of solar-thermal electricity below that of the lowest-cost, fossil-fuel generated electricity.

  2. Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

    2008-08-28

    Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

  3. Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biofuel Conversion Basics Biofuel Conversion Basics August 14, 2013 - 12:31pm Addthis The conversion of biomass solids into liquid or gaseous biofuels is a complex process. Today, the most common conversion processes are biochemical- and thermochemical-based. However, researchers are also exploring photobiological conversion processes. Biochemical Conversion Processes In biochemical conversion processes, enzymes and microorganisms are used as biocatalysts to convert biomass or biomass-derived

  4. Nanoscale Materials and Architectures for Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grulke, Eric A.; Sunkara, Mahendra K.

    2011-05-25

    The Kentucky EPSCoR Program supported an inter-university, multidisciplinary energy-related research cluster studying nanomaterials for converting solar radiation and residual thermal energy to electrical energy and hydrogen. It created a collaborative center of excellence based on research expertise in nanomaterials, architectures, and their synthesis. The project strengthened and improved the collaboration between the University of Louisville, the University of Kentucky, and NREL. The cluster hired a new faculty member for ultra-fast transient spectroscopy, and enabled the mentoring of one research scientist, two postdoctoral scholars and ten graduate students. Work was accomplished with three focused cluster projects: organic and photoelectrochemical solar cells, solar fuels, and thermionic energy conversion.

  5. Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop DOE introduction slides to the Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop webinar. PDF icon ctab_webinar_doe.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil

  6. Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

  7. Conversation with Paul Brown | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conversation with Paul Brown Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Personal Communication: Conversation with Paul Brown Author Paul Brown Recipient...

  8. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  9. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

    1997-02-11

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

  10. Energy conversion device with improved seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Gerald R.; Virkar, Anil V.

    1980-01-01

    An energy conversion device comprising an improved sealing member adapted to seal a cation-permeable casing to the remainder of the device. The sealing member comprises a metal substrate which (i) bears a nonconductive and corrosion resistant coating on the major surface to which said casing is sealed, and (ii) is corrugated so as to render it flexible, thereby allowing said member to move relative to said casing without cracking the seal therebetween. Corrugations may be circumferential, radial, or both radial and circumferential so as to form dimples. The corrugated member may be in form of a bellows or in a substantially flat form, such as a disc.

  11. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Jay Kohler Eric Minor Johnson Controls, Inc. Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources ...

  12. Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Conversion Technologies » Biochemical Conversion » Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration Biochemical Conversion - Biorefinery Integration One of the essential elements in the economical and efficient production of cellulosic biofuels is the development of biorefineries. Similar in concept to traditional petroleum refineries, biorefineries convert various types of biomass feedstock into marketable chemicals, fuels, and products. By taking advantage of

  13. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  14. Biochemical Conversion Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion » Biochemical Conversion Related Links Biochemical Conversion Related Links Further reading about current Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D in the Biochemical Platform can be found in this website's Information Resources section. Key publications will also be provided on this page. Using Fermentation and Catalysis to Make Fuels and Products: Biochemical Conversion (January 2011) Biochemical Conversion 2009 Peer Review Biochemical Production of Ethanol from Corn Stover: 2007 State

  15. Technology assessment of wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, B. W.; Merson, T. J.

    1980-09-01

    Environmental data for wind energy conversion systems (WECSs) have been generated in support of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) program. Two candidates have been chosen to characterize the WECS that might be deployed if this technology makes a significant contribution to the national energy requirements. One WECS is a large machine of 1.5-MW-rated capacity that can be used by utilities. The other WECS is a small machine that is characteristic of units that might be used to meet residential or small business energy requirements. Energy storage systems are discussed for each machine to address the intermittent nature of wind power. Many types of WECSs are being studied and a brief review of the technology is included to give background for choosing horizontal axis designs for this study. Cost estimates have been made for both large and small systems as required for input to the Strategic Environmental Assessment Simulation (SEAS) computer program. Material requirements, based on current generation WECSs, are discussed and a general discussion of environmental impacts associated with WECS deployment is presented.

  16. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal Resources presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon novel_energy_conversion_equipment_low_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources City of Eagan …Civic Ice Arena Renovation Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility

  17. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Act of 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A legislative proposal to develop ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) facilities for power generation was the subject of hearings held on April 10 and May 1, 1980. Following the test of S. 2492 are the statements of 20 witnesses and additional materials submitted for consideration. The need for a large-scale demonstration of OTEC and the need for a Federal regulatory, siting, and financial-assistance framework are the major commercialization issues. S. 2492 provides one-stop licensing by treating the facilities as vessels and making them eligible for loan guarantees. The bill complements S. 1430, which deals with the demonstration program. OTEC development in Hawaii has progressed to a second pilot project. (DCK)

  18. Processing and Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Processing and Conversion Processing and Conversion The strategic goal of Conversion Research and Development (R&D) is to develop technologies for converting feedstocks into commercially viable liquid transportation fuels, as well as bioproducts and biopower. The diversity of the biomass resource requires the development of multiple conversion technologies that can efficiently deal with the broad range of feedstock materials, as well as their physical and

  19. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 The Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion at the Fall ACS Meeting in Indianapolis, IN

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Perspective and status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the thermal gradient between the warm surface waters and the deep cold waters of tropical oceans was first proposed by J. A. d'Arsonval in 1881 and tried unsuccessfully be George Claude in 1930. Interest in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) and other renewable energy sources revived in the 1970s as a result of oil embargoes. At that time, the emphasis was on large floating plants miles from shore producing 250--400 MW for maintained grids. When the problems of such plants became better understood and the price of oil reversed its upward trend, the emphasis shifted to smaller (10 MW) shore-based plants on tropical islands. Such plants would be especially attractive if they produce fresh water as a by-product. During the past 15 years, major progress has been made in converting OTEC unknowns into knowns. Mini-OTEC proved the closed-cycle concept. Cost-effective heat-exchanger concepts were identified. An effective biofouling control technique was discovered. Aluminum was determined to be promising for OTEC heat exchangers. Heat-transfer augmentation techniques were identified, which promised a reduction on heat-exchanger size and cost. Fresh water was produced by an OTEC open-cycle flash evaporator, using the heat energy in the seawater itself. The current R D emphasis is on the design and construction of a test facility to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the open-cycle process. The 10 MW shore-based, closed-cycle plant can be built with today's technology; with the incorporation of a flash evaporator, it will produce fresh water as well as electrical power -- both valuable commodities on many tropical islands. The open-cycle process has unknowns that require solution before the technical feasibility can be demonstrated. The economic viability of either cycle depends on reducing the capital costs of OTEC plants and on future trends in the costs of conventional energy sources. 7 refs.

  1. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on Aquatic Environments | Department of Energy Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments. PDF icon

  2. Photonic Crystals for Enhancing Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LIN, SHAWN-YU; FLEMING, JAMES G.; MORENO, JOSEPH A.

    2003-03-01

    Thermophotovoltaics (TPV) converts the radiant energy of a thermal source into electrical energy using photovoltaic cells. TPV has a number of attractive features, including: fuel versatility (nuclear, fossil, solar, etc.), quiet operation, low maintenance, low emissions, light weight, high power density, modularity, and possibility for cogeneration of heat and electricity. Some of these features are highly attractive for military applications (Navy and Army). TPV could also be used for distributed power and automotive applications wherever fuel cells, microturbines, or cogeneration are presently being considered if the efficiencies could be raised to around 30%. This proposal primarily examine approaches to improving the radiative efficiency. The ideal irradiance for the PV cell is monochromatic illumination at the bandgap. The photonic crystal approach allows for the tailoring of thermal emission spectral bandwidth at specific wavelengths of interest. The experimental realization of metallic photonic crystal structures, the optical transmission, reflection and absorption characterization of it have all been carried out in detail and will be presented next. Additionally, comprehensive models of TPV conversion has been developed and applied to the metallic photonic crystal system.

  3. Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final ... Evaluation of the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid Syneregy Drive System Burress, T.A.; ...

  4. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  5. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  6. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  7. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  8. News - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    yield better solar cells Recycling waste heat into energy: Researchers take a step toward more efficient conversion ... Aligning Polymers for High-Performance Strategy ...

  9. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical ...

  10. MHK Technologies/Wave Energy Conversion Activator WECA | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Wave Energy Conversion Activator WECA.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Daedalus...

  11. Directors - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Green was a member of the decadal study on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics ... particularly for functional coatings, sensors and energy conversion applications. ...

  12. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on ...

  13. Plasma-Hydrocarbon conversion - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrocarbon conversion Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL's Plasma-Hydrocarbon Conversion process enables conversion of heavy hydrocarbons, such as heavy crude oil and hydrocarbon gases like natural gas, into lighter hydrocarbon materials (e.g. synthetic light oil). Description It can convert hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels/chemicals. The dielectric barrier discharge plasma process that adds carbon and hydrogen simultaneously to heavy

  14. Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion with Photocatalytic Heterostructur...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar to Chemical Energy Conversion with Photocatalytic Heterostructures made of Earth Abundant Materials Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is one of the most promising materials for solar energy...

  15. BETO Conversion Program | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, ... a Refinery 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil 2013 Peer Review Presnentations-Plenari...

  16. Thermochemical Conversion Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes Thermochemical Conversion Processes Gasification In gasification conversion, lignocellulosic feedstocks such as wood and forest products are broken down to synthesis gas, primarily carbon monoxide and hydrogen, using heat. The feedstock is then partially oxidized, or reformed with a gasifying agent (air, oxygen, or steam), which produces synthesis gas (syngas). The makeup of syngas will vary due to the different types of feedstocks, their moisture content, the type of gasifier used,

  17. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

  18. Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, thermal management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chetty, P.R.K.; Jackson, W.D.; Dicks, E.B.

    1996-12-31

    The 148 papers contained in Volume 2 are arranged topically as follows -- (A) Conversion Technologies: Superconductivity applications; Advanced cycles; Heat engines; Heat pumps; Combustion and cogeneration; Advanced nuclear reactors; Fusion Power reactors; Magnetohydrodynamics; Alkali metal thermal to electric conversion; Thermoelectrics; Thermionic conversion; Thermophotovoltaics; Advances in electric machinery; and Sorption technologies; (B) Electrochemical Technologies: Terrestrial fuel cell technology; and Batteries for terrestrial power; (C) Stirling Engines: Stirling machine analysis; Stirling machine development and testing; and Stirling component analysis and testing; (D) Thermal Management: Cryogenic heat transfer; Electronic components and power systems; Environmental control systems; Heat pipes; Numeric analysis and code verification; and Two phase heat and mass transfer. Papers within the scope of the data base have been processed separately.

  19. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) 3 LMI-EFRC Team Meeting March 7-8, 2013 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA [map] Our 2013 Annual Meeting will be at Caltech on Thursday-Friday, March 7-8, 2013. This year, we will kick off the meeting with our first-ever free public webinar on Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion featuring presentations and a panel discussion with some of our expert faculty investigators. The remainder of the meeting will be devoted primarily to student-

  20. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center (LMI-EFRC) Fall Meeting September 3-4, 2015 California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA [map] Our 2015 LMI-EFRC Fall Meeting will be at Caltech on Thursday-Friday, September 3-4, 2015. Our meeting this year will start with a public webinar on New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion featuring some of our LMI experts. This meeting will gather the PIs, students, and postdocs from the five institutions (Caltech, Harvard, LBL, Stanford, and UIUC) for a combination of

  1. DUF6 Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services » PPPO Cleanup Projects - Portsmouth, Paducah, & DUF6 » DUF6 Conversion DUF6 Conversion DUF6 Facility at the Paducah Site DUF6 Facility at the Paducah Site DUF6 Facility at the Portsmouth Site DUF6 Facility at the Portsmouth Site There are more than 63,000 cylinders filled with DUF6 stored in cylinder yards at the Paducah and Portsmouth Sites. There are more than 63,000 cylinders filled with DUF6 stored in cylinder yards at the Paducah and Portsmouth Sites. DUF6 cylinder

  2. Engineering Nanocrystals for Energy Conversion and Storage, and Sensors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Engineering Nanocrystals for Energy Conversion and Storage, and Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Nanocrystals for Energy Conversion and Storage, and Sensors × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information

  3. Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Symposium on the Physical Chemistry of Solar Energy Conversion, Indianapolis American Chemical Society Meetings, Fall 2013 × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product

  4. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J.; DePoy, David Moore; Baldasaro, Paul Francis

    2007-01-23

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  5. Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dziendziel, Randolph J.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; DePoy, David M.

    2010-09-07

    This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

  6. Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

    2013-01-23

    Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

  7. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Energy Technology Perspectives 2012: Executive Summary [Portuguese version] NONE Energy indicators for electricity production : comparing technologies and the nature of the indicators Energy Payback Ratio (EPR), Net Energy Ratio (NER) and Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). [Oestfoldforskning AS] Raadal, Hanne Lerche [Ostfold

  8. Gang Chen | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Professional Activities: Director, DOE EFRC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC Center), 2009 Co-Editor: Annual Review of Heat Transfer Editor, Journal of ...

  9. Mitochondrial complex I - energy conversion by a giant proton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mitochondrial complex I - energy conversion by a giant proton pump Wednesday, November 4, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Volker Zickermann, Goethe...

  10. Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or fuel oil to an alternate fuel or power source excluding propane, butane, napht...

  11. Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

    2014-01-07

    Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

  12. Engineering Nanocrystals for Energy Conversion and Storage, and Sensors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Engineering Nanocrystals for Energy Conversion and Storage, and Sensors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering Nanocrystals for Energy Conversion and Storage, and Sensors Authors: Guo, Shaojun [1] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory [Los Alamos National Laboratory Publication Date: 2013-11-19 OSTI Identifier: 1107119 Report Number(s): LA-UR-13-27347 DOE Contract Number: AC52-06NA25396 Resource Type:

  13. Research Overview | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Overview Despite great progress in developing efficient thermal energy conversion technologies since the industrial revolution, heat-to-electricity conversion has been primarily based on thermal-mechanical systems such as steam and gas turbines and internal combustion engines. Such engines are most suitable for power generation at large scales with high power density energy sources, but their efficiency suffers when they are used for small-scale installations with low power density

  14. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the Inorganic PV thrust, we develop nanostructured materials architectures for solar energy conversion by engineering absorption and transport properties not available in the bulk. In particular, we aim to exploit unique quantum effects at the nanoscale which are promising for the realization of new paradigms in solar energy conversion such as intermediate band or hot carrier solar cells. Thrust Leaders: Prof. Rachel Goldman (MSE)&nbspand Prof. Jamie Phillips (EECS) Recent Publications -

  15. Alternative energy conversion demonstration laboratory at U. S. Naval Academy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.

    1983-12-01

    This paper describes an alternative energy conversion demonstration laboratory which supplements classroom theory in a senior engineering elective course in energy conversion in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. Oil, nuclear energy, and other conventional sources of power have been the dominant sources for industrial society and the U.S. Navy, and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. There are other possibilities, however, including wind power, solar power, ocean thermal power and tidal power. A need for alternative sources of energy for the Navy was recognized at the time of the Arab oil embargo in 1973, and an academic program in alternative energy has been developed to help satisfy that need. Specific demonstrations included in this paper are as follows: Mechanical modeling of the depletion of energy reserve, Computer graphic simulation of energy consumption and energy resource exhaust, Wind model, Thermax helius rotor wind machine, Solar breeze - an electric sailboat project, Vertical axis wind turbine, Helicopter, airplane propeller and windmill models test in wind tunnel, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Device Demonstration, Pneumatic Wave Energy Conversion Device Demonstration, Chemical Energy Storage Device Demonstration, Solar Energy Demonstration.

  16. Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  17. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Introduction to the solid-state solar-thermal energy conversion center plus discussion on phonon transport and solar thermoelectric energy conversion PDF icon chen.pdf More ...

  18. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  19. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Energy Conversion |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ChallengeX_2008_Team_Technologies_Chart.pdf More Documents & Publications The Drive for Energy Diversity and Sustainability: The Impact on Transportation Fuels and Propulsion System Portfolios Vehicle Technologies Office - AVTA: Hybrid-Electric Delivery Vehicles hd_hydrogen_2007.xls Department of Energy

    For years, the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) has tracked which U.S. states have implemented policies designed to encourage greater deployment of combined

  20. Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Solar How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of NREL. How much do you know about solar power? Take our quiz and test your solar energy IQ. | Photo courtesy of NREL. The tremendous growth in the U.S. solar industry is helping to pave the way to a cleaner, more sustainable energy future. Over the past few years, the cost of a solar energy system has dropped significantly -- helping to give more American families and business

  1. Utilizing Nature's Designs for Solar Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Lisa Utschig, Argonne National Laboratory, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  2. Advisors | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advisors Robert Armstrong Director, MIT Energy Initiative Visit Website George W. Crabtree Senior Scientist, Argonne National Laboratory Argonne Distinguished Fellow Visit Website ...

  3. Currency Conversion and Energy Projections: Some Questions and Answers

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Currency Conversion and Energy Projections: Some Questions and Answers Vipin Arora November 2015 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Energy Information Administration Washington, DC 20585 This paper is released to encourage discussion and critical comment. The analysis and conclusions expressed here are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the U.S. Energy Information Administration. WORKING PAPER SERIES November 2015 Vipin Arora | U.S. Energy Information

  4. Staff | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Staff and Contractors Staff and Contractors Watch the video above to hear a message from Secretary Moniz, highlighting the FY 2016 budget request for the Department of Energy and his appreciation for the vital mission and dedicated employees of the Department. As referenced in the video, employees are encouraged to visit the Department's website to view the full FY 2016 budget presentation, which proposes approximately $30 billion to support nuclear security, clean energy, environmental cleanup,

  5. Ocean thermal energy conversion: report to congress - fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-03-31

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) activities related to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) during fiscal year 1982 are described. The agency focus has been in the areas of providing ocean engineering and technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE), in streamlining the administration of the Federal OTEC licensing system, and in environmental assistance.

  6. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientific Grand Challenge LMI researchers brainstorm spectrum splitting, Annual Meeting ... Mechanisms Research Group 2 Solar Spectrum Control and Conversion Research Group 3 ...

  7. Direct Energy Conversion Nano-hybrid Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-07-01

    Most of the exothermic nuclear reactions transfer the mass defect or binding and surplus energy into kinetic energy of the resulting particles. These particles are traveling through material lattices, interacting by ionization and nuclear collisions. Placing an assembly of conductive-insulating layers in the path of such radiation, the ionization energy is transformed into charge accumulation by polarization. The result is a super-capacitor charged by the moving particles and discharged electrically. Another more promising solution is to use bi-material nanoparticles organized such as to act like a serial connection and add the voltage. A spherical symmetry fission products source coated in several nano-layers is desired for such structures. The system may operate as dry or liquid-immersed battery, removing the fission products from the fissile material. There is a tremendous advantage over the current heat flow based thermal stabilization system allowing a power density up to 1000 times higher. (author)

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  9. Thermoelectrics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermoelectrics One of the central themes of S3TEC is to develop more efficient thermoelectric materials to directly convert heat into electricity via the Seebeck effect, or provide cooling via the Peltier effect. Their ability to harvest waste heat and deliver cooling power through solid-state devices without moving parts makes them important candidates of sustainable energy technologies in the future. Despite the benefits, the current bottleneck of thermoelectric technology is its relatively

  10. NREL: Wind Power Research - NWTC Researchers Develop Wave Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology NWTC Researchers Develop Wave Energy Conversion Technology Photo of Bob Thresher, on the left, and Nathan Tom, on the right. NREL Research Fellow Bob Thresher (left) and Postdoctoral Researcher Nathan Tom (right) capture the power potential of wave energy with a new record of invention. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL 35205 April 1, 2016 Robert Thresher may be considered the wizard of wind at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), having worked in the field since 1973.

  11. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Thermoelectric thrust of CSTEC focuses on fundamental transport processes that govern solid state energy conversion, i.e., how the charge and energy flow through the atomic lattice or an array of assembled molecules. The CSTEC team tackles the challenges of thermoelectricity comprehensively by studying transport phenomena from a multi-dimensional perspective that spans charge and energy transport in molecular junctions, conduction processes in two-dimensional films, and the role the

  12. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 337 /> Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 118 /> Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 76 /> Evaluation of 2004 Toyota

  13. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information 4 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 291 /> Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 85 /> Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 68 /> Separation of heavy metals: Removal

  14. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information 5 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 1019 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 229 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 218 An

  15. Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    December 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization: December 2014 Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 322 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 107 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

  16. Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    September 2014 | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information for Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization: September 2014 Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 193 An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman Popil Ph.D.; Michael Shaepe (formerly with IPST, now at Cargill. Inc) (2008) 79 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of

  17. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond tomore » conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient to power larger-scale, tonne per day CO2 conversion systems.« less

  18. Direct Conversion Technology. Progress report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.

    1992-07-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)

  19. Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

  20. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Program Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Combs, R E

    1980-01-01

    The Office of the Associate Laboratory Director for Energy and Environmental Technology has established the OTEC Program Management Office to be responsible for the ANL-assigned tasks of the OTEC Program under DOE's Chicago Operations and Regional Office (DOE/CORO). The ANL OTEC Program Management Plan is essentially a management-by-objective plan. The principal objective of the program is to provide lead technical support to CORO in its capacity as manager of the DOE power-system program. The Argonne OTEC Program is divided into three components: the first deals with development of heat exchangers and other components of OTEC power systems, the second with development of biofouling counter-measures and corrosion-resistant materials for these components in seawater service, and the third with environmental and climatic impacts of OTEC power-system operation. The essential points of the Management Plan are summarized, and the OTEC Program is described. The organization of the OTEC Program at ANL is described including the functions, responsibilities, and authorities of the organizational groupings. The system and policies necessary for the support and control functions within the organization are discussed. These functions cross organizational lines, in that they are common to all of the organization groups. Also included are requirements for internal and external reports.

  1. Ocean thermal energy conversion: a review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuen, P.C.

    1981-10-01

    The OTEC principle is discussed along with general system and cycle types, specific OTEC designs, OTEC applications, and the ocean thermal resource. The historic development of OTEC is briefly reviewed, and the status of French, Japanese, EUROCEAN, and US programs is assessed. US efforts are detailed and DOE's strategy outlined with OTEC-1 and Mini-OTEC information. Power system components of the more technically advanced closed-cycle OTEC concept are discussed. These include: heat exchangers, corrosion and biofouling countermeasures, working fluids, ammonia power systems, and on-platform seawater systems. Several open-cycle features are also discussed. A critical review is presented of the ocean engineering aspects of OTEC power systems. Major subsystems such as platform, cold water pipe, mooring system, dynamic positioning system, power transmission cable system are assessed for their relationships with the ocean environment and with each other. Nine available studies of OTEC costs are reviewed. Tentative comparisons are made between OTEC and traditional fuel costs, and OTEC products and markets are considered. Possible environmental and social effects of OTEC development are discussed. International, national, and local laws regulating OTEC plants and OTEC energy products are reviewed. Tax incentives, attitudes of the utilities, and additional legislative needs are considered. (LEW)

  2. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC): executive briefing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritton, E.C.; Pei, R.Y.; Hess, R.W.

    1980-08-01

    Documentation is provided of a briefing summarizing the results of an independent quantitative evaluation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) for central station applications. The study concentrated on a central station power plant located in the Gulf of Mexico and delivering power to the mainland United States. The evaluation of OTEC is based on three important issues: resource availability, technical feasibility, and cost.

  4. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 - Abstracts and Highlight Slides Efficiency of Thermoelectric Energy Conversion in Biphenyl-dithiol Junctions: Effect of Electron-Phonon Interactions Plasmonic Backscattering Enhanced Inverted Photovoltaics Femtosecond Laser-induced Nanostructure Formation in Sb2Te3 Ideal Diode Equation For Organic Heterojunctions. I and II

  5. Direct conversion technology: Annual summary report CY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Bankston, C.P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L.D.

    1988-12-01

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown. These tabulations are included herein as figures. 43 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Research and development on ocean thermal energy conversion in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uehara, H.

    1982-08-01

    The study of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) in Japan has been conducted under the leadership of a team of the ''Sunshine Project'', a national new energy development project promoted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industries (MITI) since 1974. At present, two experimental OTEC power plants -Nauru's OTEC plant and Imari's OTEC plant are operating. In this paper, the review of research and development activity of these two OTEC plants in Japan is made.

  7. March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information March 2016 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 2444 Automotive vehicle sensors Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J. (1995) 726 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 701 Continuously

  8. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 169 Evaluation of the 2010 Toyota Prius Hybrid Synergy Drive System Burress, Timothy A [ORNL]; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL]; Coomer, Chester [ORNL]; Ayers, Curtis William [ORNL]; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL]; Cunningham,

  9. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 1049 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 285 An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; ,

  10. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 833 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 234 An Improved Method of Manufacturing Corrugated Boxes: Lateral Corrugator Frank C. Murray Ph.D.; , Roman

  11. Most Viewed Documents - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization | OSTI,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information - Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A. () Review of air flow measurement techniques McWilliams, Jennifer (2002) Building a secondary containment system Broder, M.F. (1994) Cost benefit analysis of the night-time ventilative cooling in

  12. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 1446 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 452 Automotive vehicle sensors Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Moscynski, M.J. (1995) 373 An Improved

  13. The Research and Development of the Radioisotope Energy Conversion System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfelds, E.V.; Ghosh, T.K.; Prelas, M.A.; Tompson, R.V.; Loyalka, S.K.

    2001-06-17

    The project of developing radioisotope energy conversion system (RECS) involves analytical computational assisted design and modeling and also laboratory research. The computational analysis consists of selecting various geometries and materials for the main RECS container and the internally located radioisotope, computing the fluxes of the beta{sup (-)} particles and of the visible (or ultraviolet) photons produced by the beta{sup (-)}s, computing the transport of these photons to the photovoltaic cells, and computing the overall efficiency of useful conversion of the radioisotope power.

  14. SPS energy conversion and power management workshop. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    In 1977 a four year study, the concept Development and Evaluation Program, was initiated by the US Department of Energy and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. As part of this program, a series of peer reviews were carried out within the technical community to allow available information on SPS to be sifted, examined and, if need be, challenged. The SPS Energy Conversion and Power Management Workshop, held in Huntsville, Alabama, February 5 to 7, 1980, was one of these reviews. The results of studies in this particular field were presented to an audience of carefully selected scientists and engineers. This first report summarizes the results of that peer review. It is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the subject. Rather, it is designed to look at the SPS energy conversion and power management options in breadth, not depth, to try to foresee any troublesome and/or potentially unresolvable problems and to identify the most promising areas for future research and development. Topics include photovoltaic conversion, solar thermal conversion, and electric power distribution processing and power management. (WHK)

  15. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 /> Continuously variable transmissions: theory and practice Beachley, N.H.; Frank, A.A. (null) 205 /> A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P. (1996) 173 /> Energy

  16. Proceedings of the 31. intersociety energy conversion engineering...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, ... Volume 2: Conversion technologies, electro-chemical technologies, Stirling engines, ...

  17. Research Program - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    We investigate the molecular and structural origins of energy conversion (absorption, carrier generation and recombination processes, transport) phenomena in organic and hybrid material systems with the goal of producing highly efficient materials and morphological structures for OPVs. Our efforts to develop and to maximize the performance/efficiency of OPVs include: (1) a combined experimental/ computational approach to the molecular design and synthesis of new materials; (2) design and develop

  18. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion using photonic bandgap selective emitters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gee, James M.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Fleming, James G.; Moreno, James B.

    2003-06-24

    A method for thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity comprises heating a metallic photonic crystal to provide selective emission of radiation that is matched to the peak spectral response of a photovoltaic cell that converts the radiation to electricity. The use of a refractory metal, such as tungsten, for the photonic crystal enables high temperature operation for high radiant flux and high dielectric contrast for a full 3D photonic bandgap, preferable for efficient thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

  19. Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

    2003-03-21

    The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

  20. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Utilization | OSTI, US Dept of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Process Equipment Cost Estimation, Final Report H.P. Loh; Jennifer Lyons; Charles W. White, III (2002) 567 /> A study of lead-acid battery efficiency near top-of-charge and the impact on PV system design Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P. (1996) 142 /> Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 133 />

  1. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cover advanced energy materials cover nature ... Microscale Solar Cells for High Efficiency Modules (John ... for Ultrathin, Efficient Solar Cells (Eli ...

  2. DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.C. BROWN

    2001-09-30

    OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR FOR THE PERIOD JUNE 1, 2001 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30, 2001

  3. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RG1 Leader Eli Yablonovitch Eli Yablonovitch, Director of the NSF Center for Energy Efficient Electronics Science (E 3S) Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Eli Yablonovitch is...

  4. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Minh Le, U.S. Department of Energy Hameetman ... New Concepts and Materials for High Efficiency Solar Cells Wladek ... Thermodynamically Efficient Noninaging Optics with ...

  5. Advanced Energy Conversion LLC AEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    LLC (AEC) Place: New York Zip: 12020 Product: R&D company focused on power electronics, motion control systems and embedded control. References: Advanced Energy...

  6. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion - Energy Frontier...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Matters Video The LMI-EFRC Video "Light Matters" was the winner of the "Life at the Frontiers of Energy Research" video contest for striking photography and visual impact. An...

  7. Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Page Edit with form History Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Penrose Landfill Gas Conversion LLC Place: Los Angeles, California Product: Owner...

  8. Golden Fuel Systems formerly Greasel Conversions Inc | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fuel Systems formerly Greasel Conversions Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Golden Fuel Systems (formerly Greasel Conversions Inc) Place: Drury, Montana Zip: 65638 Sector:...

  9. Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-02-21

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electronhole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electronhole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.

  10. Carbon dioxide release from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, H.J. ); Guenther, P.R. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents the results of recent measurements of CO{sub 2} release from an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) experiment. Based on these data, the rate of short-term CO{sub 2} release from future open-cycle OTEC plants is projected to be 15 to 25 times smaller than that from fossil-fueled electric power plants. OTEC system that incorporate subsurface mixed discharge are expected to result in no long-term release. OTEC plants can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions when substituted for fossil-fueled power generation. 12 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Heat transfer research for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Bharathan, D.

    1988-02-01

    In this lecture an overview of the heat and mass-transfer phenomena of importance in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is presented with particular emphasis on open-cycle OTEC systems. Also included is a short historical review of OTEC developments in the past century and a comparison of open and closed-cycle thermodynamics. Finally, results of system analyses, showing the effect of plant size on cost and the near-term potential of using OTEC for combined power production and desalination systems, are briefly discussed.

  12. Heat transfer research for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Bharathan, D.

    1987-03-01

    In this lecture an overview of the heat- and mass-transfer phenomena of importance in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is presented with particular emphasis on open-cycle OTEC systems. Also included is a short historical review of OTEC developments in the past century and a comparison of open- and closed-cycle thermodynamics. Finally, results of system analyses, showing the effect of plant size on cost and the near-term potential of using OTEC for combined power production and desalination systems are briefly discussed.

  13. New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion | U.S...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events ...

  14. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, J.; Tokarevsky, V.

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  15. Wind energy conversion system analysis model (WECSAM) computer program documentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Downey, W T; Hendrick, P L

    1982-07-01

    Described is a computer-based wind energy conversion system analysis model (WECSAM) developed to predict the technical and economic performance of wind energy conversion systems (WECS). The model is written in CDC FORTRAN V. The version described accesses a data base containing wind resource data, application loads, WECS performance characteristics, utility rates, state taxes, and state subsidies for a six state region (Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana). The model is designed for analysis at the county level. The computer model includes a technical performance module and an economic evaluation module. The modules can be run separately or together. The model can be run for any single user-selected county within the region or looped automatically through all counties within the region. In addition, the model has a restart capability that allows the user to modify any data-base value written to a scratch file prior to the technical or economic evaluation. Thus, any user-supplied data for WECS performance, application load, utility rates, or wind resource may be entered into the scratch file to override the default data-base value. After the model and the inputs required from the user and derived from the data base are described, the model output and the various output options that can be exercised by the user are detailed. The general operation is set forth and suggestions are made for efficient modes of operation. Sample listings of various input, output, and data-base files are appended. (LEW)

  16. Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Introduction to the solid-state solar-thermal energy conversion center plus discussion on phonon transport and solar thermoelectric energy conversion

  17. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sands, M.Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant acccrmplishments in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power within this decade with subsequent large scale commercialization following by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, the Oceanic Engineering Operations of Interstate Electronics Corporation has prepared several OTEC Environmental Assessments over the past years, in particular, the OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment. The Programmatic EA considers several technological designs (open- and closed-cycle), plant configuratlons (land-based, moored, and plant-ship), and power usages (baseload electricity, ammonia and aluminum production). Potential environmental impacts, health and safetv issues and a status update of the institutional issues as they influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  18. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance 2nd Annual Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-03-30

    The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are pleased to provide the proceedings of the second annual Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Workshop held on March 29-30, 2001 in Arlington. The package includes the presentations made during the workshop, a list of participants, and the results of the breakout sessions. Those sessions covered stack materials and processes, power electronics, balance of plant and thermal integration, fuel processing technologies, and stack and system performance modeling. The breakout sessions have been reported as accurately as possible; however, due to the recording and transcription process errors may have occurred. If you note any significant omissions or wish to provide additional information, we welcome your comments and hope that all stakeholder groups will use the enclosed information in their planning endeavors.

  19. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Edward J.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Dziendziel, Randolph J.

    1997-01-01

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength .lambda..sub.IF approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength .lambda..sub.g of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5.lambda..sub.IF to .lambda..sub.IF and reflect from .lambda..sub.IF to about 2.lambda..sub.IF ; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5.lambda..sub.IF.

  20. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

    1997-12-23

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}. 10 figs.

  1. Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}.

  2. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ace_47_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

  3. Siting handbook for small wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wegley, H.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Orgill, M.M.; Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This handbook was written to serve as a siting guide for individuals wishing to install small wind energy conversion systems (WECS); that is, machines having a rated capacity of less than 100 kilowatts. It incorporates half a century of siting experience gained by WECS owners and manufacturers, as well as recently developed siting techniques. The user needs no technical background in meteorology or engineering to understand and apply the siting principles discussed; he needs only a knowledge of basic arithmetic and the ability to understand simple graphs and tables. By properly using the siting techniques, an owner can select a site that will yield the most power at the least installation cost, the least maintenance cost, and the least risk of damage or accidental injury.

  4. Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    To Hydrocarbons Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons PDF explaining the biological process of bioenergy PDF icon Biological Conversion of Sugars To Hydrocarbons More Documents & Publications Catalytic Upgrading Sugars To Hydrocarbons Catalytic Upgrading of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

  5. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1983-07-01

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the seawater pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHz. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  6. Methods for locating ground faults and insulation degradation condition in energy conversion systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agamy, Mohamed; Elasser, Ahmed; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2015-08-11

    Methods for determining a ground fault or insulation degradation condition within energy conversion systems are described. A method for determining a ground fault within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline waveform of differential current to a waveform of differential current during operation for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. A method for determining insulation degradation within an energy conversion system may include, in part, a comparison of baseline frequency spectra of differential current to a frequency spectra of differential current transient at start-up for a plurality of DC current carrying conductors in an energy conversion system. In one embodiment, the energy conversion system may be a photovoltaic system.

  7. Ocean thermal energy conversion: Historical highlights, status, and forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dugger, G.L.; Avery, W.H.; Francis, E.J.; Richards, D.

    1983-07-01

    In 1881, d'Arsonval conceived the closed-Rankine-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system in which a working fluid is vaporized by heat exchange with cold water drawn from a 700-1200 m depth. In 1930, Claude demonstrated an open-cycle process in Cuba. Surface water was flash-vaporized at 3 kPa to drive a turbine directly (no secondary working fluid) and then was condensed by direct contact with water drawn from a 700-m depth through a 1.6m-diam, 1.75-km-long cold-water pipe (CWP). From a delta T of 14/sup 0/C his undersized turbine generated 22 kW. In 1956 a French team designed a 3.5-MW (net) open-cycle plant for installation off Abidjan on the Ivory Coast of Africa and demonstrated the necessary CWP deployment. The at-sea demonstrations by Mini-OTEC and OTEC-1 and other recent advances in OTEC technology summarized herein represent great progress. All of the types of plants proposed for the DOE's PON program may be worthy of development; certainly work on a grazing plant is needed. Our estimates indicate that the U.S. goals established by Public Law 96-310 leading to 10 GW of OTEC power and energy product equivalents by 1999 are achievable, provided that adequate federal financial incentives are retained to assure the building of the first few plants.

  8. Designing New Alloys to be Used in New Energy Conversion Technologies

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dr. Omer Dogan

    2010-09-01

    Dr. Omer Dogan of NETL Albany discusses using computer simulation and modeling to design new alloys to be used in new energy conversion technologies.

  9. Left Coast Electric Formerly Left Coast Conversions | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Services Product: California-based company that provides services and products for electric cars. References: Left Coast Electric (Formerly Left Coast Conversions)1 This...

  10. Direct conversion technology. Annual summary report CY 1991, January 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.

    1992-01-07

    The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Programmatic Environmental Analysis--Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Authors, Various

    1980-01-01

    The programmatic environmental analysis is an initial assessment of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology considering development, demonstration and commercialization. It is concluded that the OTEC development program should continue because the development, demonstration, and commercialization on a single-plant deployment basis should not present significant environmental impacts. However, several areas within the OTEC program require further investigation in order to assess the potential for environmental impacts from OTEC operation, particularly in large-scale deployments and in defining alternatives to closed-cycle biofouling control: (1) Larger-scale deployments of OTEC clusters or parks require further investigations in order to assess optimal platform siting distances necessary to minimize adverse environmental impacts. (2) The deployment and operation of the preoperational platform (OTEC-1) and future demonstration platforms must be carefully monitored to refine environmental assessment predictions, and to provide design modifications which may mitigate or reduce environmental impacts for larger-scale operations. These platforms will provide a valuable opportunity to fully evaluate the intake and discharge configurations, biofouling control methods, and both short-term and long-term environmental effects associated with platform operations. (3) Successful development of OTEC technology to use the maximal resource capabilities and to minimize environmental effects will require a concerted environmental management program, encompassing many different disciplines and environmental specialties. This volume contains these appendices: Appendix A -- Deployment Scenario; Appendix B -- OTEC Regional Characterization; and Appendix C -- Impact and Related Calculations.

  12. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  13. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  14. Nx-TEC: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy melosh.pdf More Documents & Publications Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion - FY13 Q2 Final Report - Technology Enabling Ultra High Concentration Multi-Junction Cells Download the SunShot Initiative 2014 Portfolio

  15. 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lee, G.T.; Sudhoff, F.A. 30 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION; 20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS; GAS TURBINE...

  16. New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion | U.S. DOE Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Science (SC) New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 08.11.15 New Approaches to Full Spectrum Solar Energy Conversion Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page On September 3, 2015 from 8:30 - 10:30 am (PDT) the Light-Materials Interactions in Energy Conversion EFRC at Caltech

  17. Summary of State-of-the-Art Power Conversion Systems for Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atcitty, S.; Gray-Fenner, A.; Ranade, S.

    1998-09-01

    The power conversion system (PCS) is a vital part of many energy storage systems. It serves as the interface between the storage device, an energy source, and an AC load. This report summarizes the results of an extensive study of state-of-the-art power conversion systems used for energy storage applications. The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for cost reduction and performance improvement in these power conversion systems and to provide recommendations for fiture research and development. This report provides an overview of PCS technology, a description of several state-of-the-art power conversion systems and how they are used in specific applications, a summary of four basic configurations for l:he power conversion systems used in energy storage applications, a discussion of PCS costs and potential cost reductions, a summary of the stancku-ds and codes relevant to the technology, and recommendations for future research and development.

  18. Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI) | U.S. DOE Office of

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Science (SC) Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page LMI Header Director Ralph Nuzzo Lead Institution California Institute of Technology Year Established 2009 Mission To tailor the morphology, complex

  19. Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modeling the Physical and Biochemical Influence of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Discharges into their Adjacent Waters

  20. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 Click on icons for highlight slides. Click on titles or citations for link to papers. Structural Order-Disorder Transitions and Phonon Conductivity of Partially Filled Skutterudites Hyoungchul Kim, Massoud Kaviany, John C. Thomas, Anton van der Ven, Ctirad Uher, and Baoling Huang Physical Review Letters, 105, 265901 (2010) Filled skutterudites are among the most promising of novel thermoelectric materials for power conversion applications. Their effectiveness can be further improved by finding

  1. Better Biomass Conversion with Recyclable GVL Solvent - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Better Biomass Conversion with Recyclable GVL Solvent Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary To recover useful carbohydrates locked in biomass, molecular bonds must be broken while avoiding further reaction of the resulting glucose and xylose sugars. This is a challenge because glucose can degrade quicker than it is produced. Fast, hot reactions try to minimize such degradation, but are impractical. Expensive catalysts

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Catalytic Conversion of Bioethanol to Hydrocarbons Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication 11-G00219_ID2414.pdf (629 KB) Technology Marketing SummaryA method for catalytically converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon without requiring

  3. Conversion of Biomass Sugars via Fermentation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion of Biomass Sugars via Fermentation Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Microorganisms like yeast and Escherichia coli are cultured in labs for many purposes, notably the production of useful chemicals (such as ethanol) via fermentation. The growth media used in these processes are relatively expensive. Cheaper media derived from renewable resources would be a boon to researchers and industries that rely on

  4. Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging Techniques for Self-Powered Nuclear Reactor Wireless Sensor Networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hunter, Scott Robert; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Datskos, Panos G; Clayton, Dwight A

    2014-11-01

    Recent advances in technologies for harvesting waste thermal energy from ambient environments present an opportunity to implement truly wireless sensor nodes in nuclear power plants. These sensors could continue to operate during extended station blackouts and during periods when operation of the plant s internal power distribution system has been disrupted. The energy required to power the wireless sensors must be generated using energy harvesting techniques from locally available energy sources, and the energy consumption within the sensor circuitry must therefore be low to minimize power and hence the size requirements of the energy harvester. Harvesting electrical energy from thermalmore » energy sources can be achieved using pyroelectric or thermoelectric conversion techniques. Recent modeling and experimental studies have shown that pyroelectric techniques can be cost competitive with thermoelectrics in self powered wireless sensor applications and, using new temperature cycling techniques, has the potential to be several times as efficient as thermoelectrics under comparable operating conditions. The development of a new thermal energy harvester concept, based on temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, is outlined. This paper outlines the modeling of cantilever and pyroelectric structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy conversion devices.« less

  5. Pyroelectric Energy Scavenging Techniques for Self-Powered Nuclear Reactor Wireless Sensor Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Scott Robert; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Datskos, Panos G; Clayton, Dwight A

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in technologies for harvesting waste thermal energy from ambient environments present an opportunity to implement truly wireless sensor nodes in nuclear power plants. These sensors could continue to operate during extended station blackouts and during periods when operation of the plant s internal power distribution system has been disrupted. The energy required to power the wireless sensors must be generated using energy harvesting techniques from locally available energy sources, and the energy consumption within the sensor circuitry must therefore be low to minimize power and hence the size requirements of the energy harvester. Harvesting electrical energy from thermal energy sources can be achieved using pyroelectric or thermoelectric conversion techniques. Recent modeling and experimental studies have shown that pyroelectric techniques can be cost competitive with thermoelectrics in self powered wireless sensor applications and, using new temperature cycling techniques, has the potential to be several times as efficient as thermoelectrics under comparable operating conditions. The development of a new thermal energy harvester concept, based on temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy conversion, is outlined. This paper outlines the modeling of cantilever and pyroelectric structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy conversion devices.

  6. Analysis of energy conversion systems, including material and global warming aspects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, M.; Reistad, G.M.

    1998-12-31

    This paper addresses a method for the overall evaluation of energy conversion systems, including material and global environmental aspects. To limit the scope of the work reported here, the global environmental aspects have been limited to global warming aspects. A method is presented that uses exergy as an overall evaluation measure of energy conversion systems for their lifetime. The method takes the direct exergy consumption (fuel consumption) of the conventional exergy analyses and adds (1) the exergy of the energy conversion system equipment materials, (2) the fuel production exergy and material exergy, and (3) the exergy needed to recover the total global warming gases (equivalent) of the energy conversion system. This total, termed Total Equivalent Resource Exergy (TERE), provides a measure of the effectiveness of the energy conversion system in its use of natural resources. The results presented here for several example systems illustrate how the method can be used to screen candidate energy conversion systems and perhaps, as data become more available, to optimize systems. It appears that this concept may be particularly useful for comparing systems that have quite different direct energy and/or environmental impacts. This work should be viewed in the context of being primarily a concept paper in that the lack of detailed data available to the authors at this time limits the accuracy of the overall results. The authors are working on refinements to data used in the evaluation.

  7. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cargill. Inc) (2008) 47 > Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy ... > Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses Rafferty, K. (1996) 32 > ...

  8. power conversion efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power conversion efficiency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  9. Taofang Zeng | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Taofang Zeng Alumni Taofang Zeng Director of Center of Thermal Energy Systems, Huaneng Group Corporation, China

  10. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system having a heavily doped n-type region

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DePoy, David M.; Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.

    2000-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion semiconductor device is provided which incorporates a heavily doped n-type region and which, as a consequence, has improved TPV conversion efficiency. The thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes an emitter layer having first and second opposed sides and a base layer in contact with the first side of the emitter layer. A highly doped n-type cap layer is formed on the second side of the emitter layer or, in another embodiment, a heavily doped n-type emitter layer takes the place of the cap layer.

  11. Emma Anquillare | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type Joyce McLaren, John Miller, Eric O'Shaughnessy, Eric Wood, and Evan Shapiro National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-64852 April 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at

  12. EFRC Director's call | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market Impacts EERE Market Impacts Addthis RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY GENERATION SUCCESS STORIES 1 of 3 RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY GENERATION SUCCESS STORIES EERE's investments in geothermal, solar, water, and wind energy translate into more efficient, affordable technologies and encourage more widespread use of clean energy in the United States. ENERGY-SAVING HOMES, BUILDINGS, AND MANUFACTURING SUCCESS STORIES 2 of 3 ENERGY-SAVING HOMES, BUILDINGS, AND MANUFACTURING SUCCESS STORIES EERE's investments in

  13. Reliable Nanomanufacturing of Ge-Sn Alloys for Solar Energy Conversion |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory Reliable Nanomanufacturing of Ge-Sn Alloys for Solar Energy Conversion Based on the US Department of Energy's International Energy Outlook 2014 report, global consumption of energy is estimated to rise by more than 50% between 2004 and 2030. One of the biggest scientific challenges is finding a clean renewable energy resource that will replace fossil fuels and avoid adverse effects on climate, environment, and health. This project aims to advance our understanding of the

  14. Solar energy conversion via hot electron internal photoemission in metallic nanostructures: Efficiency estimates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leenheer, Andrew J.; Narang, Prineha; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.

    2014-04-07

    Collection of hot electrons generated by the efficient absorption of light in metallic nanostructures, in contact with semiconductor substrates can provide a basis for the construction of solar energy-conversion devices. Herein, we evaluate theoretically the energy-conversion efficiency of systems that rely on internal photoemission processes at metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier diodes. In this theory, the current-voltage characteristics are given by the internal photoemission yield as well as by the thermionic dark current over a varied-energy barrier height. The Fowler model, in all cases, predicts solar energy-conversion efficiencies of <1% for such systems. However, relaxation of the assumptions regarding constraints on the escape cone and momentum conservation at the interface yields solar energy-conversion efficiencies as high as 1%10%, under some assumed (albeit optimistic) operating conditions. Under these conditions, the energy-conversion efficiency is mainly limited by the thermionic dark current, the distribution of hot electron energies, and hot-electron momentum considerations.

  15. Development of Feedforward Control Strategies for Wave Energy Conversion Technologies

    Energy Innovation Portal (Marketing Summaries) [EERE]

    2015-12-29

      The future of wave energy will depend on developing a new generation of wave energy converters (WECs) that maximize energy extraction and mitigate critical loads while reducing costs. Today’s WECs are relatively inefficient compared to their theoretical upper limit and lack the ability to concurrently maximize power capture and minimize structural loads.  The majority of existing WECs consist of fixed geometrical bodies relying predominantly on control of the power...

  16. Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (2002) 322 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem (2005) 107 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial ...

  17. Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, and Utilization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Inc) (2008) 79 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban ... of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil ...

  18. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    1019 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 229 Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of ...

  19. Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion Chinese Academy of Sciences...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and renewable energy utilisation technology and seeking solutions to environmental pollution. Coordinates: 23.107389, 113.267616 Show Map Loading map......

  20. Direct Conversion of Light into Work - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrated sunlight or laser light focused on a highly absorptive material capable of converting light energy into heat generates thermal surface tension gradients that move ...

  1. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a national energy coordinator at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. Hall ... degradation of fish passage, water quality, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats. ...

  2. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    > Fossil fuel-fired peak heating for geothermal greenhouses Rafferty, K. (1996) 29 > ... in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch Stern, ...

  3. Contact - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Contact Prof. Peter Green, CSTEC Director Research Group Leader for Thrust 3 - Energy transport in organic and hybrid systems Materials Science & Engineering Dept. H H Dow ...

  4. Welcome - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To Bridge LEDs' Green Gap, Scientists Think Small ... Really Small Read about CSTEC's latest Research Energy Transport in Organic and Hybrid Systems Absorption and Carrier ...

  5. Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1 Recovery Act: Geothermal Technologies Program Project Type Topic 2 Geothermal Energy Production from Low Temperature Resources, Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells, and...

  6. Sandia Energy thermo-electric power conversion technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia's Supercritical Carbon-DioxideBrayton-Cycle Laboratory Signs Important MOU with Industry Partners http:energy.sandia.govsandias-supercritical-carbon-dioxidebrayton-cycle...

  7. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Scaling the energy conversion rate from magnetic field reconnection to different bodies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mozer, F. S.; Hull, A.

    2010-10-15

    Magnetic field reconnection is often invoked to explain electromagnetic energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres, stellar coronae, and other astrophysical objects. Because of the huge dynamic range of magnetic fields in these bodies, it is important to understand energy conversion as a function of magnetic field strength and related parameters. It is conjectured theoretically and shown experimentally that the energy conversion rate per unit area in reconnection scales as the cube of an appropriately weighted magnetic field strength divided by the square root of an appropriately weighted density. With this functional dependence, the energy release in flares on the Sun, the large and rapid variation of the magnetic flux in the tail of Mercury, and the apparent absence of reconnection on Jupiter and Saturn, may be understood. Electric fields at the perihelion of the Solar Probe Plus mission may be tens of V/m.

  9. "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LMI-EFRC | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News EFRC Events DOE Announcements Publications History Contact BES Home 06.02.10 "Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page July 7, 2010 :: The Light-Material

  10. Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC) | U.S. DOE

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Office of Science (SC) Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC) Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers EFRC External Websites Research Science Highlights News & Events Publications History Contact BES Home Centers Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC) Print Text Size: A A A FeedbackShare Page S<sup>3</sup>TEC Header Director Gang Chen Lead Institution Massachusetts Institute of Technology Year Established 2009

  11. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Choi, S. U.-S. (1998) 45 Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 45 Energy Saving Potentials and Air ...

  12. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Choi, S. U.-S. (1998) 86 > Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil Peters, R.W.; Shem, L. (1993) 76 > Energy Saving Potentials and ...

  13. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and the impact on PV system design Stevens, J.W.; Corey, G.P. (1996) 173 > Energy Saving Potentials and Air Quality Benefits of Urban HeatIslandMitigation Akbari, Hashem ...

  14. Event Archives | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cliff Ho for our monthly seminar Workshop S3TEC Annual Workship Saturday, Feb 13, 2016 9:00 am to 8:00 pm MIT Faculty Club Annual Workshop - Solid State Solar Thermal Energy ...

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) | Seawater Cooling - Depth...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Author National Renewable Energy Laboratory Maintainer Nicholas Langle bureaucode 019:20 Catalog DOE harvestobjectid 3ba3acfd-d54a-4a3d-a971-1cf4ac97fcb0 harvestsourceid...

  16. Light-harvesting materials: Soft support for energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stolley, Ryan M.; Helm, Monte L.

    2014-11-10

    To convert solar energy into viable fuel sources, coupling light-harvesting materials to catalysts is a critical challenge. Now, coupling between an organic supramolecular hydrogel and a non precious metal catalyst has been demonstrated to be effective for photocatalytic H2 production. Ryan M. Stolley and Monte L. Helm are at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA, USA 99352. PNNL is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy. e-mail: Monte.Helm@pnnl.gov

  17. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  18. Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting to alternate energy forms includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past the window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  19. Radiant energy collection and conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1982-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  20. Selective Conversion of Lignin into Simple Aromatic Compounds - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases Todd H. Gardner (todd.gardner@netl.doe.gov, 304-285-4226) David A. Berry (david.berry@netl.doe.gov, 304-285-4430) K. David Lyons (kenneth.lyons@netl.doe.gov, 304-285-4379) Stephen K. Beer (stephen.beer@netl.doe.gov, 304-285-4040) Michael J. Monahan (michael.monahan@netl.doe.gov, 304-285-4408) U. S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory P. O. Box 880 3610 Collins Ferry Road

  1. Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component)- Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator Optimized for the Conditions of Current Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Free Flow Energy (TRL 1 2 3 Component) - Design and Development of a Cross-Platform Submersible Generator Optimized for the Conditions of Current Energy Conversion

  2. Rankine cycle condenser pressure control using an energy conversion device bypass valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C; Nelson, Christopher R; Zigan, James A

    2014-04-01

    The disclosure provides a waste heat recovery system and method in which pressure in a Rankine cycle (RC) system of the WHR system is regulated by diverting working fluid from entering an inlet of an energy conversion device of the RC system. In the system, an inlet of a controllable bypass valve is fluidly coupled to a working fluid path upstream of an energy conversion device of the RC system, and an outlet of the bypass valve is fluidly coupled to the working fluid path upstream of the condenser of the RC system such that working fluid passing through the bypass valve bypasses the energy conversion device and increases the pressure in a condenser. A controller determines the temperature and pressure of the working fluid and controls the bypass valve to regulate pressure in the condenser.

  3. Science Highlights- Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Abstracts and Highlight Slides Energy Level Modulation in Conjugated Polymers for Organic Photovoltaic Applications Aligning Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) Using Ultrafast Laser Irradiation Disordered Interfaces Improve Organic Photovoltaics New Way of Reducing Thermal Conductivity in Thermoelectric Materials Phase-field Simulations of GaN/InGaN Quantum Dot Growth by Selective Area Epitaxy High Performance Thermoelectricity in Earth-Abundant Compounds Based on Natural Mineral Tetrahedrites Effect

  4. A Conversation With Tribal Leaders in Denver | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Lights | Department of Energy A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights A Bright Idea: New Efficiency Standards for Incandescent and Fluorescent Lights July 21, 2009 - 5:18pm Addthis John Lippert Pretty soon, lighting is going to get a lot more efficient. New standards for incandescent reflector bulbs, general purpose fluorescent bulbs, and regular incandescent bulbs are going into effect beginning in approximately three years. You may be curious about

  5. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wittig, J. Michael

    1980-01-01

    A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

  6. Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mekhiche, Mike; Dufera, Hiz; Montagna, Deb

    2012-10-29

    The project conducted under DOE contract DE‐EE0002649 is defined as the Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Converter. The overall project is split into a seven‐stage, gated development program. The work conducted under the DOE contract is OPT Stage Gate III work and a portion of Stage Gate IV work of the seven stage product development process. The project effort includes Full Concept Design & Prototype Assembly Testing building on our existing PowerBuoy� technology to deliver a device with much increased power delivery. Scaling‐up from 150kW to 500kW power generating capacity required changes in the PowerBuoy design that addressed cost reduction and mass manufacturing by implementing a Design for Manufacturing (DFM) approach. The design changes also focused on reducing PowerBuoy Installation, Operation and Maintenance (IO&M) costs which are essential to reducing the overall cost of energy. In this design, changes to the core PowerBuoy technology were implemented to increase capability and reduce both CAPEX and OPEX costs. OPT conceptually envisaged moving from a floating structure to a seabed structure. The design change from a floating structure to seabed structure would provide the implementation of stroke‐ unlimited Power Take‐Off (PTO) which has a potential to provide significant power delivery improvement and transform the wave energy industry if proven feasible.

  7. Conversion of magnetic energy in the magnetic reconnection layer of a laboratory plasma

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Yoo, Jongsoo; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Ji, Hantao; Kulsrud, Russell M.; Myers, Clayton E.

    2014-09-10

    Magnetic reconnection, in which magnetic field lines break and reconnect to change their topology, occurs throughout the universe. The essential feature of reconnection is that it energizes plasma particles by converting magnetic energy. Despite the long history of reconnection research, how this energy conversion occurs remains a major unresolved problem in plasma physics. Here we report that the energy conversion in a laboratory reconnection layer occurs in a much larger region than previously considered. The mechanisms for energizing plasma particles in the reconnection layer are identified, and a quantitative inventory of the converted energy is presented for the first timemore » in a well defined reconnection layer; 50% of the magnetic energy is converted to particle energy, 2/3 of which transferred to ions and 1/3 to electrons. Our results are compared with simulations and space measurements, for a key step toward resolving one of the most important problems in plasma physics.« less

  8. Conversion of magnetic energy in the magnetic reconnection layer of a laboratory plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamada, Masaaki; Yoo, Jongsoo; Jara-Almonte, Jonathan; Ji, Hantao; Kulsrud, Russell M.; Myers, Clayton E.

    2014-09-10

    Magnetic reconnection, in which magnetic field lines break and reconnect to change their topology, occurs throughout the universe. The essential feature of reconnection is that it energizes plasma particles by converting magnetic energy. Despite the long history of reconnection research, how this energy conversion occurs remains a major unresolved problem in plasma physics. Here we report that the energy conversion in a laboratory reconnection layer occurs in a much larger region than previously considered. The mechanisms for energizing plasma particles in the reconnection layer are identified, and a quantitative inventory of the converted energy is presented for the first time in a well defined reconnection layer; 50% of the magnetic energy is converted to particle energy, 2/3 of which transferred to ions and 1/3 to electrons. Our results are compared with simulations and space measurements, for a key step toward resolving one of the most important problems in plasma physics.

  9. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Nichols, G.J.

    1998-06-23

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device are disclosed. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E{sub g}) of 0.4 eV < E{sub g} < 0.7 eV and an emitter fabricated on the substrate formed from one of a p-type or an n-type material. Another thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers. 12 figs.

  10. 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: 2011 Final Report - Nano-Oxide Photocatalysis for Solar Energy Conversion We have very recently discovered a new hydrogen-producing photocatalyst is BiNbO4. BiNbO4 powders prepared by solid state reaction were tested for photocatalytic activity in methanol solutions under UV irradiation. When the material is tested without

  11. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVenergy conversion device includes a host substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material and lattice-matched ternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  12. Efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion powered by renewable energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, Douglas R.; Thakkar, Jay; Siva, Rajan; Matranga, Christopher; Ohodnicki, Paul R.; Zeng, Chenjie; Jin, Rongchao

    2015-06-29

    The catalytic conversion of CO2 into industrially relevant chemicals is one strategy for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Along these lines, electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies are attractive because they can operate with high reaction rates at ambient conditions. However, electrochemical systems require electricity, and CO2 conversion processes must integrate with carbon-free, renewable-energy sources to be viable on larger scales. We utilize Au25 nanoclusters as renewably powered CO2 conversion electrocatalysts with CO2 → CO reaction rates between 400 and 800 L of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour and product selectivities between 80 and 95%. These performance metrics correspond to conversion rates approaching 0.8–1.6 kg of CO2 per gram of catalytic metal per hour. We also present data showing CO2 conversion rates and product selectivity strongly depend on catalyst loading. Optimized systems demonstrate stable operation and reaction turnover numbers (TONs) approaching 6 × 106 mol CO2 molcatalyst–1 during a multiday (36 hours total hours) CO2electrolysis experiment containing multiple start/stop cycles. TONs between 1 × 106 and 4 × 106 molCO2 molcatalyst–1 were obtained when our system was powered by consumer-grade renewable-energy sources. Daytime photovoltaic-powered CO2 conversion was demonstrated for 12 h and we mimicked low-light or nighttime operation for 24 h with a solar-rechargeable battery. This proof-of-principle study provides some of the initial performance data necessary for assessing the scalability and technical viability of electrochemical CO2 conversion technologies. Specifically, we show the following: (1) all electrochemical CO2 conversion systems will produce a net increase in CO2 emissions if they do not integrate with renewable-energy sources, (2) catalyst loading vs activity trends can be used to tune process rates and product distributions, and (3) state-of-the-art renewable-energy technologies are sufficient to power larger-scale, tonne per day CO2 conversion systems.

  13. A History of Geothermal Energy Research and Development in the United States. Energy Conversion 1976-2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mines, Gregory L.

    2010-09-01

    This report, the last in a four-part series, summarizes significant research projects performed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) over 30 years to overcome challenges in energy conversion and to make generation of electricity from geothermal resources more cost-competitive.

  14. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2010-02-04

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  15. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2011-06-08

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  16. Dynamic breakwater and wave energy recovery and conversion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boros, L.J.

    1983-05-24

    A dynamic breakwater system includes at least one and preferably a plurality of dynamic breakwater assemblies, each of which includes a baffle wall member which is pivotally mounted in a body of water about an axis which extends substantially transverse to the direction of wave motion and so that a lower portion thereof is submerged below the water surface while an upper portion thereof extends above the water surface, each baffle wall member being biased such that it has a tendency to move in a direction opposite to the direction of wave motion and wherein apparatus for damping the movement of the baffle wall member when the same moves in the direction of wave motion under the force of waves impinging thereon are provided. Apparatus is provided for recovering at least a portion of the energy imparted to the baffle wall member by the waves impinging thereon and for converting the same to useful energy and generally comprises a fluid circuit supported on a stationary platform assembly and a device operatively interconnecting the baffle wall member and fluid circuit for elevating the pressure of the fluid circulating therein in response to movement of the baffle wall member caused by the waves impinging thereon.

  17. Energy conversion device and method of reducing friction therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Solovyeva, Lyudmila Mikhaylovna; Jansson, Kyle S; Elmoursi, Alaa AbdelAzim; Zhu, Dong; Milner, Robert; Daughterty, Early Eugene; Higdon, Clifton Baxter; Elagamy, Kamel Abdel-Khalik; Hicks, Aaron Michael

    2013-10-08

    A device configured for converting energy includes a first surface, a second surface configured for moving with respect to the first surface during operation of the device, and a coating disposed on at least one of the first surface and the second surface. The coating includes a first layer of a ceramic alloy represented by the general formula AlMgB.sub.14--X, wherein X is present in an amount of from 0 to 70 parts by weight based on 100 parts by weight of the ceramic alloy and is a doping agent selected from the group of Group IV elements and borides and nitrides thereof, and a second layer disposed on the first layer and including carbon in a gradient concentration. The coating has a hardness of from 10 to 20 GPa and a coefficient of friction of less than or equal to 0.12.

  18. DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L.C. BROWN

    2002-02-01

    OAK-B135 DIRECT ENERGY CONVERSION FISSION REACTOR ANNUAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD AUGUST 15,2000 THROUGH SEPTEMBER 30,2001

  19. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; John Noetzel; Larry Chick

    2003-12-08

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from January 1, 2003 to June 30, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; and Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate.

  20. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; Gail Geiger; Kevin Keegan; Larry Chick

    2004-05-07

    The objective of this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with the option of piped-in water (Demonstration System A). Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003, under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks: Task 1 System Design and Integration; Task 2 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3 Reformer Developments; Task 4 Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5 Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6 System Fabrication; Task 7 System Testing; Task 8 Program Management; Task 9 Stack Testing with Coal-Based Reformate; and Task 10 Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program. In this reporting period, unless otherwise noted Task 6--System Fabrication and Task 7--System Testing will be reported within Task 1 System Design and Integration. Task 8--Program Management, Task 9--Stack Testing with Coal Based Reformate, and Task 10--Technology Transfer from SECA CORE Technology Program will be reported on in the Executive Summary section of this report.

  1. S3TEC Annual Workship | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Workship Workshop Saturday Feb 13, 2016 9:00am to 8:00pm Location: MIT Faculty Club Annual Workshop - Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion February 13, 2016 9:00 am-8:00 pm Location: MIT Faculty Club and Conference Center, 50 Memorial Drive, Cambridge, MA

  2. Solar energy conversion: Technological forecasting. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning current forecasting of Earth surface-bound solar energy conversion technology. Topics consider research, development and utilization of this technology in relation to electric power generation, heat pumps, bioconversion, process heat and the production of renewable gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels for industrial, commercial, and domestic applications. Some citations concern forecasts which compare solar technology with other energy technologies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Solar energy conversion: Technological forecasting. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning current forecasting of Earth surface-bound solar energy conversion technology. Topics consider research, development and utilization of this technology in relation to electric power generation, heat pumps, bioconversion, process heat and the production of renewable gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels for industrial, commercial, and domestic applications. Some citations concern forecasts which compare solar technology with other energy technologies. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Compressed Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas Conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Experience N T Y A U E O F E N E R G D E P A R T M E N I T E D S T A T S O F A E R I C M Robert C. Motta Kenneth J. Kelly William W. Warnock Executive Summary The National Renewable Energy

  5. Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing | Direct Thermal Energy Conversion Materials, Devices, and Systems Technology Assessment

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and Modeling for Manufacturing Combined Heat and Power Systems Composite Materials Critical Materials Direct Thermal Energy Conversion Materials, Devices, and Systems Materials for Harsh Service Conditions Process Heating Process Intensification Roll-to-Roll Processing Sustainable Manufacturing - Flow of Materials through Industry Waste Heat Recovery Systems Wide Bandgap Semiconductors for Power Electronics ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology

  6. Current Research on Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, R. M.; Magrini-Bair, K. A.; Nimlos, M. R.; Pepiot, P.; Donohoe, B. S.; Hensley, J. E.; Phillips, S. D.

    2012-04-05

    The thermochemical research platform at the National Bioenergy Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is primarily focused on conversion of biomass to transportation fuels using non-biological techniques. Research is conducted in three general areas relating to fuels synthesis via thermochemical conversion by gasification: (1) Biomass gasification fundamentals, chemistry and mechanisms of tar formation; (2) Catalytic tar reforming and syngas cleaning; and (3) Syngas conversion to mixed alcohols. In addition, the platform supports activities in both technoeconomic analysis (TEA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) of thermochemical conversion processes. Results from the TEA and LCA are used to inform and guide laboratory research for alternative biomass-to-fuels strategies. Detailed process models are developed using the best available material and energy balance information and unit operations models created at NREL and elsewhere. These models are used to identify cost drivers which then form the basis for research programs aimed at reducing costs and improving process efficiency while maintaining sustainability and an overall net reduction in greenhouse gases.

  7. Compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas conversions: The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motta, R.C.; Kelly, K.J.; Warnock, W.W.

    1996-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) contracted with conversion companies in six states to convert approximately 900 light-duty Federal fleet vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The contracts were initiated in order to help the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) during a period of limited original equipment manufacturer (OEM) model availability. Approximately 90% of all conversions were performed on compact of full-size vans and pickups, and 90% of the conversions were to bi-fuel operation. With a positive response from the fleet managers, this program helped the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT for fiscal years 1993 and 1994, despite limited OEM model availability. The conversions also helped to establish the infrastructure needed to support further growth in the use of alternative fuel vehicles. In conclusion, the program has been successful in helping the Federal government meet the vehicle acquisition requirements of EPACT, establishing infrastructure, increasing the displacement of imported oil, and evaluating the emissions performance of converted vehicles. With the relatively widespread availability of OEM vehicles in the 1996 model year, the program is now being phased out.

  8. Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somorjai, G.A.; Frei, H.; Park, J.Y.

    2009-07-23

    The challenge of chemistry in the 21st century is to achieve 100% selectivity of the desired product molecule in multipath reactions ('green chemistry') and develop renewable energy based processes. Surface chemistry and catalysis play key roles in this enterprise. Development of in situ surface techniques such as high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, time-resolved Fourier transform infrared methods, and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy enabled the rapid advancement of three fields: nanocatalysts, biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In materials nanoscience, synthetic methods have been developed to produce monodisperse metal and oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in the 0.8-10 nm range with controlled shape, oxidation states, and composition; these NPs can be used as selective catalysts since chemical selectivity appears to be dependent on all of these experimental parameters. New spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed that operate under reaction conditions and reveal the dynamic change of molecular structure of catalysts and adsorbed molecules as the reactions proceed with changes in reaction intermediates, catalyst composition, and oxidation states. SFG vibrational spectroscopy detects amino acids, peptides, and proteins adsorbed at hydrophobic and hydrophilic interfaces and monitors the change of surface structure and interactions with coadsorbed water. Exothermic reactions and photons generate hot electrons in metal NPs that may be utilized in chemical energy conversion. The photosplitting of water and carbon dioxide, an important research direction in renewable energy conversion, is discussed.

  9. System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M.; Fields, Paul R.

    1981-04-21

    An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

  10. The Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corp.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.J. Brown; P.F. Baldasaro; S.R. Burger; L.R. Danielson; D.M. DePoy; G.J. Nichols; W.F. Topper; T.D. Rahmlow

    2003-01-31

    In a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system, a heated surface radiates in the mid-infrared range onto photodiodes which are sensitive at these energies. Part of the absorbed energy is converted into electric output. Conversion efficiency is maximized by reducing the absorption of non-convertible energy with some form of spectral control. In a TPV system, many technology options exist. The development efforts have concentrated on flat-plate geometries with greybody radiators, low bandgap quaternary diodes, front surface tandem filters and a multi-chip module (MCM) approach that allows selective fabrication processes to match diode performance. Recently, the authors achieved conversion efficiencies of about 20% (radiator 950 C, diodes 22 C) for a module in a prototypic cavity test environment. These tests employed InGaAsSb diodes with 0.52 eV bandgap and front surface filters for spectral control. This paper provides details of the individual system components and describes the measurement technique used to record these efficiencies.

  11. One- and Two-Phase Conversion of Biomass to Furfural - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal One- and Two-Phase Conversion of Biomass to Furfural Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center Contact GLBRC About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryExploiting the energy potential of biomass high in cellulose and lignin-including grasses, shrubs, husks, bark, yard and mill offal not readily digestible by humans-offers a vast and renewable alternative to fossil carbons. In addition to producing gamma-valerolactone (GVL), an organic compound viable in gasoline mixtures, other

  12. Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Rapid Solar-Thermal Conversion of Biomass to Syngas Production of synthesis gas or hydrogen by gasification or pyrolysis of biological feedstocks using solar-thermal energy. University of Colorado Contact CU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The invention provides processes that perform biomass gasification or pyrolysis for production of hydrogen, synthesis gas, liquid fuels, or other

  13. The Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EJ Brown; PF Baldasaro; SR Burger; LR Danielson; DM DePoy; JM Dolatowski; PM Fourspring; GJ Nichols; WF Topper; TD Rahmlow

    2004-07-29

    In a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system, a heated surface radiates in the mid-infrared range onto photocells which are sensitive at these energies. Part of the absorbed energy is converted into electric output. Conversion efficiency is maximized by reducing the absorption of non-convertible energy with some form of spectral control. In a TPV system, many technology options exist. Our development efforts have concentrated on flat-plate geometries with greybody radiators, front surface tandem filters and a multi-chip module (MCM) approach that allows selective fabrication processes to match cell performance. Recently, we discontinued development of GaInAsSb quaternary cell semiconductor material in favor of ternary GaInAs material. In our last publication (Ref. 1), the authors reported conversion efficiencies of about 20% (radiator 950 C, cells 22 C) for small modules (1-4 cm{sup 2}) tested in a prototypic cavity test environment. Recently, we have achieved measured conversion efficiencies of about 12.5% in larger ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) test arrays. The efficiency reduction in the larger arrays was probably due to quality and variation of the cells as well as non-uniform illumination from the hot radiator to the cold plate. Modules in these tests used GaInAsSb cells with 0.52 eV bandgap and front surface filters for spectral control. This paper provides details of the individual system components and the rationale for our technical decisions. It also describes the measurement techniques used to record these efficiencies.

  14. Hybrid chromophore/template nanostructures: A customizable platform material for solar energy storage and conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolpak, AM; Grossman, JC

    2013-01-21

    Challenges with cost, cyclability, and/or low energy density have largely prevented the development of solar thermal fuels, a potentially attractive alternative energy technology based on molecules that can capture and store solar energy as latent heat in a closed cycle. In this paper, we present a set of novel hybrid photoisomer/template solar thermal fuels that can potentially circumvent these challenges. Using first-principles computations, we demonstrate that these fuels, composed of organic photoisomers bound to inexpensive carbon-based templates, can reversibly store solar energy at densities comparable to Li-ion batteries. Furthermore, we show that variation of the template material in combination with the photoisomer can be used to optimize many of the key performance metrics of the fuel-i.e., the energy density, the storage lifetime, the temperature of the output heat, and the efficiency of the solar-to-heat conversion. Our work suggests that the solar thermal fuels concept can be translated into a practical and highly customizable energy storage and conversion technology. (C) 2013 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4773306

  15. Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Čada, Glenn F.

    2007-04-01

    A new generation of hydropower technologies, the kinetic hydro and wave energy conversion devices, offers the possibility of generating electricity from the movements of water, without the need for dams and diversions. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 encouraged the development of these sources of renewable energy in the United States, and there is growing interest in deploying them globally. The technologies that would extract electricity from free-flowing streams, estuaries, and oceans have not been widely tested. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy convened a workshop to (1) identify the varieties of hydrokinetic energy and wave energy conversion devices and their stages of development, (2) identify where these technologies can best operate, (3) identify the potential environmental issues associated with these technologies and possible mitigation measures, and (4) develop a list of research needs and/or practical solutions to address unresolved environmental issues. The article reviews the results of that workshop, focusing on potential effects on freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems, and we describe recent national and international developments.

  16. Graphene-based Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage: Fuel cells, Supercapacitors and Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Junbo; Shao, Yuyan; Ellis, Michael A.; Moore, Robert; Yi, Baolian

    2011-09-14

    Graphene has attracted extensive research interest due to its strictly 2-dimensional (2D) structure, which results in its unique electronic, thermal, mechanical, and chemical properties and potential technical applications. These remarkable characteristics of graphene, along with the inherent benefits of a carbon material, make it a promising candidate for application in electrochemical energy devices. This article reviews the methods of graphene preparation, introduces the unique electrochemical behavior of graphene, and summarizes the recent research and development on graphene-based fuel cells, supercapacitors and lithium ion batteries. In addition, promising areas are identified for the future development of graphene-based materials in electrochemical energy conversion and storage systems.

  17. Chapter 1.12: Solar Radiation Resource Assessment for Renewable Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses measurements, modeling, and databases of solar energy potential that may serve as fuel for solar energy conversion systems. Developing innovative designs for capturing and converting solar radiation is only one part of the equation for solar system deployment. Identifying, locating, and prospecting for the appropriate quantity and quality of solar resources to fuel these systems is critical to system designers, investors, financial backers, utilities, governments, and owner/operators. This chapter addresses the fundamentals and state of the art for measuring, modeling, and applying solar radiation resource data to meet decision-making needs.

  18. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Ocean thermal energy conversion: environmental effects assessment program plan, 1981-85. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Act of 1980 calls for a legal regime to encourage commercial OTEC while protecting the oceanic and coastal environments. The Act also requires a generic plan for assessing the environmental effects of OTEC development. The plan outlined in this report establishes a priority list of nine environmental effects and a research strategy for reducing uncertainties, with an emphasis on large-scale and long-term ecosystem implications and on the impacts of multiple facilities. 70 references, 4 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  20. Ocean thermal energy conversion report to congress: fiscal year 1981. public law 96-320

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    After a section on the background of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, which deals with the national interest and the nature of the industry, this report discusses OTEC technology, the legal regime, environmental considerations and the international impact and future of OTEC. At the current time no amendments to the ACT are recommended. NOAA is analyzing several areas in which technical amendments would clarify the original intent of the Act. The most significant of these relates to the specific requirements for issuance of OTEC licenses for facilities that are located partly on land and partly in ocean waters.

  1. Definitional mission: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, S.R.; Ross, J.M.

    1990-09-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the commercial viability of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) electric power plant at the Majuro Atoll in the Marshall Islands. It was concluded that various technology improvements and economic factors have converged to present a feasible opportunity. United States industrial and research organizations are technically capable of developing a commercial OTEC industry for domestic and export markets. It is estimated that 100% of OTEC equipment and services could be supplied by United States firms. However, Japan has aggressively pursued OTEC development with an apparent goal of dominating the export market.

  2. Kinematic Stirling engine as an energy conversion subsystem for paraboloidal dish solar thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowyer, J.M.

    1984-04-15

    The potential of a suitably designed and economically manufactured Stirling engine as the energy conversion subsystem of a paraboloidal dish-Stirling solar thermal power module has been estimated. Results obtained by elementary cycle analyses have been shown to match quite well the performance characteristics of an advanced kinematic Stirling engine, the United Stirling P-40, as established by current prototypes of the engine and by a more sophisticated analytic model of its advanced derivative. In addition to performance, brief consideration has been given to other Stirling engine criteria such as durability, reliability, and serviceability. Production costs have not been considered here.

  3. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  4. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-09-05

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  5. Modeling Energy Recovery Using Thermoelectric Conversion Integrated with an Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Erik W.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Peterson, Richard B.

    2009-07-01

    Hot engine exhaust represents a resource that is often rejected to the environment without further utilization. This resource is most prevalent in the transportation sector, but stationary engine-generator systems also typically do not utilize this resource. Engine exhaust is a source of high grade thermal energy that can potentially be utilized by various approaches to produce electricity or to drive heating and cooling systems. This paper describes a model system that employs thermoelectric conversion as a topping cycle integrated with an organic Rankine bottoming cycle for waste heat utilization. This approach is being developed to fully utilize the thermal energy contained in hot exhaust streams. The model is composed of a high temperature heat exchanger which extracts thermal energy for driving the thermoelectric conversion elements. However, substantial sensible heat remains in the exhaust stream after emerging from the heat exchanger. The model incorporates a closely integrated bottoming cycle to utilize this remaining thermal energy in the exhaust stream. The model has many interacting parameters that define combined system quantities such as overall output power, efficiency, and total energy utilization factors. In addition, the model identifies a maximum power operating point for the system. That is, the model can identify the optimal amount of heat to remove from the exhaust flow to run through the thermoelectric elements. Removing too much or too little heat from the exhaust stream in this stage will reduce overall cycle performance. The model has been developed such that heat exchanger UAh values, thermal resistances, ZT values, and multiple thermoelectric elements can be investigated in the context of system operation. The model also has the ability to simultaneously determine the effect of each cycle design parameter on the performance of the overall system, thus giving the ability to utilize as much waste heat as possible. Key analysis results are presented showing the impact of critical design parameters on power output, system performance and inter-relationships between design parameters in governing performance.

  6. Strategies to Suppress Cation Vacancies in Metal Oxide Alloys: Consequences for Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-09-01

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are promising alternative materials for inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. However, their conversion efficiency can be deleteriously affected by material imperfections, such as atomic vacancies. In this work, we provide examples showing that in some iron-containing TMOs, iron cation vacancy formation can be suppressed via alloying. We calculate within density functional theory+U theory the iron vacancy formation energy in binary rock-salt oxide alloys that contain iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, and/or magnesium. We demonstrate that formation of iron vacancies is less favorable if we choose to alloy iron(II) oxide with metals that cannot readily accept vacancy-generated holes, e.g., magnesium, manganese, nickel, or zinc. Since there are less available sites for holes and the holes are forced to reside on iron cations, the driving force for iron vacancy formation decreases. These results are consistent with an experiment observing a sharp drop in cation vacancy concentration upon alloying iron(II) oxide with manganese.

  7. Novel Solar Energy Conversion Materials by Design of Mn(II) Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lany, S.; Peng, H.; Ndione, P.; Zakutayev, A.; Ginley, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion materials need to fulfill simultaneously a number of requirements in regard of their band-structure, optical properties, carrier transport, and doping. Despite their desirable chemical properties, e.g., for photo-electrocatalysis, transition-metal oxides usually do not have desirable semiconducting properties. Instead, oxides with open cation d-shells are typically Mott or charge-transfer insulators with notoriously poor transport properties, resulting from large effective electron/hole masses or from carrier self-trapping. Based on the notion that the electronic structure features (p-d interaction) supporting the p-type conductivity in d10 oxides like Cu2O and CuAlO2 occurs in a similar fashion also in the d5 (high-spin) oxides, we recently studied theoretically the band-structure and transport properties of the prototypical binary d5 oxides MnO and Fe2O3 [PRB 85, 201202(R)]. We found that MnO tends to self-trap holes by forming Mn+III, whereas Fe2O3 self-traps electrons by forming Fe+II. However, the self-trapping of holes is suppressed by when Mn is tetrahedrally coordinated, which suggests specific routes to design novel solar conversion materials by considering ternary Mn(II) oxides or oxide alloys. We are presenting theory, synthesis, and initial characterization for these novel energy materials.

  8. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, Jae Eun

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael

    2012-06-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawai’i and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the predicted economies of scale as technology and efficiency improvements are realized and larger more economical plants deployed. Utilizing global high resolution OTEC resource assessment from the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project (an independent DOE project), Global Energy Supply Curves were generated for Grid Connected and Energy Carrier OTEC plants deployed in 2045 when the predicted technology and efficiencies improvements are fully realized. The Global Energy Supply Curves present the LCOE versus capacity in ascending order with the richest, lowest cost resource locations being harvested first. These curves demonstrate the vast ocean thermal resource and potential OTEC capacity that can be harvested with little change in LCOE.

  10. Air pollution control technology for municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities: capabilities and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, J F; Young, J C

    1980-09-01

    Three major categories of waste-to-energy conversion processes in full-scale operation or advanced demonstration stages in the US are co-combustion, mass incineration, and pyrolysis. These methods are described and some information on US conversion facilities is tabulated. Conclusions and recommendations dealing with the operation, performance, and research needs for these facilities are given. Section II identifies research needs concerning air pollution aspects of the waste-to-energy processes and reviews significant operating and research findings for the co-combustion, mass incinceration, and pyrolysis waste-to-energy systems.

  11. Method and apparatus for in-situ characterization of energy storage and energy conversion devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophersen, Jon P. [Idaho Falls, ID; Motloch, Chester G. [Idaho Falls, ID; Morrison, John L. [Butte, MT; Albrecht, Weston [Layton, UT

    2010-03-09

    Disclosed are methods and apparatuses for determining an impedance of an energy-output device using a random noise stimulus applied to the energy-output device. A random noise signal is generated and converted to a random noise stimulus as a current source correlated to the random noise signal. A bias-reduced response of the energy-output device to the random noise stimulus is generated by comparing a voltage at the energy-output device terminal to an average voltage signal. The random noise stimulus and bias-reduced response may be periodically sampled to generate a time-varying current stimulus and a time-varying voltage response, which may be correlated to generate an autocorrelated stimulus, an autocorrelated response, and a cross-correlated response. Finally, the autocorrelated stimulus, the autocorrelated response, and the cross-correlated response may be combined to determine at least one of impedance amplitude, impedance phase, and complex impedance.

  12. An assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion as an advanced electric generation methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heydt, G.T. . School of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-03-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a process that employs the temperature difference between surface and deep ocean water to alternately evaporate and condense a working fluid. In the open-cycle OTEC configuration, the working fluid is seawater. In the closed-cycle configuration, a working fluid such as propane is used. In this paper, OTEC is assessed for its practical merits for electric power generation. The process is not new--and its history is reviewed. Because the OTEC principle operates under a small net temperature difference regime, rather large amounts of seawater and working fluid are required. The energy requirements for pumping these fluids may be greater than the energy recovered from the OTEC engine itself. The concept of net power production is discussed. The components of a typical OTEC plant are discussed with emphasis on the evaporator heat exchanger. Operation of an OTEC electric generating station is discussed, including transient operation. Perhaps the most encouraging aspect of OTEC is the recent experiments and efforts at the Natural Energy Laboratory--Hawaii (NELH). The NELH work is summarized in the paper. Remarks are made on bottlenecks and the future of OTEC as an advanced electric generation methodology.

  13. Potential impact of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) on fisheries. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, E.P.; Hoss, D.E.; Matsumoto, W.M.; Peters, D.S.; Seki, M.P.

    1986-06-01

    The commercial development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) operations will involve some environmental perturbations for which there is no precedent experience. The pumping of very large volumes of warm surface water and cold deep water and its subsequent discharge will result in the impingement, entrainment, and redistribution of biota. Additional stresses to biota will be caused by biocide usage and temperature depressions. However, the artificial upwelling of nutrients associated with the pumping of cold deep water, and the artificial reef created by an OTEC plant may have positive effects on the local environment. Although more detailed information is needed to assess the net effect of an OTEC operation on fisheries, certain assumptions and calculations are made, supporting the conclusion that the potential risk to fisheries is not signnificant enough to deter the early development of OTEC. It will be necessary to monitor a commercial-scale plant in order to remove many of the remaining uncertainties.

  14. Integration of ocean thermal energy conversion power plants with existing power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arunasalam, N.

    1986-01-01

    The problem of integrating an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plant with existing power systems is studied. A nonlinear model of an OTEC power system is developed. The dynamics of the large local induction motor load, and the coaxial cable connection to the mainland are included in the model. The effect of the motor load and the coaxial cable on the steady-state stability of the OTEC power plant is investigated using linearized analysis. The transient stability of the OTEC system is investigated through simulation. The contribution made by the motor load and the coaxial cable to the transient stability is studied. The occurrence of self excitation phenomena is analyzed using linear methods and simulation. The effects of wave and vessel motion on the electrical power output of the OTEC plant is investigated.

  15. Systems analysis research for energy conversion and utilization technologies (ECUT). FY 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberhardt, J.J.; Gunn, M.E.; Levinson, T.M.

    1985-11-01

    This Annual Report highlights ECUT accomplishments in the Systems Analysis Project for FY 1985. The Systems Analysis Project was established in 1980 along with the ECUT Division. The Systems Analysis mission is to identify, analyze, and assess R and D needs and research program strategies for advanced conservation technologies. The PNL Systems Analysis staff conducts topical research, provides technical studies, and plans program activities in three areas related to energy conversion and utilization technologies: (1) technology assessment, (2) engineering analysis, and (3) project evaluation and review. This report summarizes the technical results and accomplishments of the FY 1985 projects. They relate mostly to tribology, improved ctalysts, regenerative heat exchangers, robotics and electronics industries, and bioprocessing.

  16. Fundamental Studies of Charge Migration and Delocalization Relevant to Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Therien

    2012-06-01

    This program aimed to understand the molecular-level principles by which complex chemical systems carry out photochemical charge separation, transport, and storage, and how these insights could impact the design of practical solar energy conversion and storage devices. Towards these goals, this program focused on: (1) carrying out fundamental mechanistic and transient dynamical studies of proton-coupled electron-transfer (PCET) reactions; (2) characterizing and interrogating via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic methods novel conjugated materials that feature large charge delocalization lengths; and (3) exploring excitation delocalization and migration, as well as polaron transport properties of meso-scale assemblies that are capable of segregating light-harvesting antennae, nanoscale wire-like conduction elements, and distinct oxidizing and reducing environments.

  17. Recovery Act: Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Processors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shepard, Kenneth L

    2013-03-31

    In this project, we have developed the use of thin-film magnetic materials to improve in energy efficiency of digital computing applications by enabling integrated dc-dc power conversion and management with on-chip power inductors. Integrated voltage regulators also enables fine-grained power management, by providing dynamic scaling of the supply voltage in concert with the clock frequency of synchronous logic to throttle power consumption at periods of low computational demand. The voltage converter generates lower output voltages during periods of low computational performance requirements and higher output voltages during periods of high computational performance requirements. Implementation of integrated power conversion requires high-capacity energy storage devices, which are generally not available in traditional semiconductor processes. We achieve this with integration of thin-film magnetic materials into a conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process for high-quality on-chip power inductors. This project includes a body of work conducted to develop integrated switch-mode voltage regulators with thin-film magnetic power inductors. Soft-magnetic materials and inductor topologies are selected and optimized, with intent to maximize efficiency and current density of the integrated regulators. A custom integrated circuit (IC) is designed and fabricated in 45-nm CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to provide the control system and power-train necessary to drive the power inductors, in addition to providing a digital load for the converter. A silicon interposer is designed and fabricated in collaboration with IBM Research to integrate custom power inductors by chip stacking with the 45-nm CMOS integrated circuit, enabling power conversion with current density greater than 10A/mm2. The concepts and designs developed from this work enable significant improvements in performance-per-watt of future microprocessors in servers, desktops, and mobile devices. These new approaches to scaled voltage regulation for computing devices also promise significant impact on electricity consumption in the United States and abroad by improving the efficiency of all computational platforms. In 2006, servers and datacenters in the United States consumed an estimated 61 billion kWh or about 1.5% of the nation's total energy consumption. Federal Government servers and data centers alone accounted for about 10 billion kWh, for a total annual energy cost of about $450 million. Based upon market growth and efficiency trends, estimates place current server and datacenter power consumption at nearly 85 billion kWh in the US and at almost 280 billion kWh worldwide. Similar estimates place national desktop, mobile and portable computing at 80 billion kWh combined. While national electricity utilization for computation amounts to only 4% of current usage, it is growing at a rate of about 10% a year with volume servers representing one of the largest growth segments due to the increasing utilization of cloud-based services. The percentage of power that is consumed by the processor in a server varies but can be as much as 30% of the total power utilization, with an additional 50% associated with heat removal. The approaches considered here should allow energy efficiency gains as high as 30% in processors for all computing platforms, from high-end servers to smart phones, resulting in a direct annual energy savings of almost 15 billion kWh nationally, and 50 billion kWh globally. The work developed here is being commercialized by the start-up venture, Ferric Semiconductor, which has already secured two Phase I SBIR grants to bring these technologies to the marketplace.

  18. Waterborne noise due to ocean thermal energy conversion plants. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janota, C.P.; Thompson, D.E.

    1982-06-17

    Public law reflects a United States national commitment to the rapid development of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) as an alternate energy source. OTEC plants extract the stored solar energy from the world's tropical seas and in so doing pose a potential for altering the character of the ambient noise there. The sources of noise from an OTEC plant are analyzed in the context of four configurations, two of which were built and tested, and two which are concepts for future full-scale moored facilities. The analysis indicates that the noise resulting from the interaction of turbulence with the sea-water pumps is expected to dominate in the frequency range 10 Hz to 1 kHZ. Measured radiated noise data from the OTEC-I research plant, located near the island of Hawaii, are compared with the analysis. The measured data diverge from the predicted levels at frequencies above about 60 Hz because of dominant non-OTEC noise sources on this platform. However, at low frequency, the measured broadband noise is comparable to that predicted.

  19. Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen Minh

    2006-07-31

    This report summarizes the work performed for Phase I (October 2001 - August 2006) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41245 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled 'Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Program'. The program focuses on the development of a low-cost, high-performance 3-to-10-kW solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system suitable for a broad spectrum of power-generation applications. During Phase I of the program significant progress has been made in the area of SOFC technology. A high-efficiency low-cost system was designed and supporting technology developed such as fuel processing, controls, thermal management, and power electronics. Phase I culminated in the successful demonstration of a prototype system that achieved a peak efficiency of 41%, a high-volume cost of $724/kW, a peak power of 5.4 kW, and a degradation rate of 1.8% per 500 hours. . An improved prototype system was designed, assembled, and delivered to DOE/NETL at the end of the program. This prototype achieved an extraordinary peak efficiency of 49.6%.

  20. thermo-electric power conversion technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermo-electric power conversion technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  1. Innovative turbine concepts for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of preliminary studies conducted to identify and evaluate three innovative concepts for an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) steam turbine that could significantly reduce the cost of OTEC electrical power plants. The three concepts are (1) a crossflow turbine, (2) a vertical-axis, axial-flow turbine, and (3) a double-flow, radial-inflow turbine with mixed-flow blading. In all cases, the innovation involves the use of lightweight, composite plastic blading and a physical geometry that facilitates efficient fluid flow to and from the other major system components and reduces the structural requirements for both the turbine or the system vacuum enclosure, or both. The performance, mechanical design, and cost of each of the concepts are developed to varying degrees but in sufficient detail to show that the potential exists for cost reductions to the goals established in the US Department of Energy's planning documents. Specifically, results showed that an axial turbine operating with 33% higher steam throughput and 7% lower efficiency than the most efficient configuration provides the most cost-effective open-cycle OTEC system. The vacuum enclosure can be significantly modified to reduce costs by establishing better interfaces with the system. 33 refs., 26 figs., 11 tabs.

  2. IL conversion technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conversion technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  3. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G.; Crow, Susan; DeBeryshe, Barbara; Ha, Richard; Jakeway, Lee; Khanal, Samir; Nakahata, Mae; Ogoshi, Richard; Shimizu, Erik; Stern, Ivette; Turano, Brian; Turn, Scott; Yanagida, John

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development Initiative. Renewable energy assessments included: biomass feedstocks currently being produced by Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar Co., and possibilities of producing methane from agricultural and livestock wastes and the potential of photovoltaic systems for irrigation pumping at HC&S. Finally, the impact of a micro-hydroelectric system on a small-farm economics and the local community was assessed.

  4. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Project: OTEC support services. Monthly technical status report, October 1-31, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1980-11-14

    The objective of this project is to provide technical engineering and management support services for the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) program of the Division of Ocean Energy Systems, DOE. The principal contributions made are outlined for the following tasks: (1) Survey, analysis and recommendation concerning program performance; (2) Program technical monitoring; (3) Technical assessments; (4) OTEC system integration; (5) Environment and siting considerations; and (6) Transmission subsystem considerations.

  5. Progress on Enabling an Interactive Conversation Between Commercial Building Occupants and Their Building To Improve Comfort and Energy Efficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schott, M.; Scheib, J.; Long, N.; Fleming, K.; Benne, K.; Brackney, L.

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have reported energy savings after installing a dashboard, but dashboards provide neither individual feedback to the occupant nor the ability to report individual comfort. The Building Agent (BA) provides an interface to engage the occupant in a conversation with the building control system and the building engineer. Preliminary outcomes of the BA-enabled feedback loop are presented, and the effectiveness of the three display modes will be compared to other dashboard studies to baseline energy savings in future research.

  6. Seawater test results of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, F.; Bharathan, D.; Link, H. ); Panchal, C.B. )

    1994-01-01

    Key components of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion systems--the flash evaporator, mist eliminator, passive predeaerator, two surface condenser stages, and two direct-contact condenser stages--have been tested using seawater. These components operate at lower steam pressures and higher inlet noncondensable gas concentrations than do conventional power plant heat exchangers. The rate of heat exchanged between the evaporator and the condenser is on the order of 1.25MW-thermal, requiring a warm seawater flow of about 0.1 m[sup 3]/s; the cold seawater flow is on the order of half the warm water flow. In addition to characterizing the performance of the various components, the system has produced potable water from condensation of the steam produced in the evaporator. The information obtained in these tests is being used to design a larger scale experiment in which net power production is expected to be demonstrate for the first time using OC-OTEC technology.

  7. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion moored pipe/mobile platform design study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, H.O.; McNatt, T.R.; Ross, J.M.; Stambaugh, K.A.; Watts, J.L.

    1982-07-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Moored Pipe/Mobile Platform (MP-Squared) Design Study was carried out to investigate an innovative approach to the moored floating OTEC plant. In the past, a number of concepts have been examined by NOAA for floating OTEC plants. These concepts have considered various configurations for platforms, cold water pipes and mooring systems. In most cases the cold water pipe (CWP) was permanently attached to the platform and the platform was permanently moored on station. Even though CWP concepts incorporating articulated joints or flexible pipes were used, the CWP stresses induced by platform motion were frequently excessive and beyond the design limits of the CWP. This was especially true in the survival (100-year storm) case. It may be feasible that the concept of a permanently moored CWP attached through a flexible transition CWP to the platform could reduce the degree of technical risk by de-coupling the CWP from the motions of the platform. In addition, if the platform is capable of disconnecting from the CWP during survival conditions, even less technical risk may be inherent in the OTEC system. The MP-Squared Design Study was an engineering evaluation of the concepts described above. The effort has been carried through to the conceptual design level, and culminated in model tests in an experimental wave basin.

  8. Open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion surface-condenser design analysis and computer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Rabas, T.J.

    1991-05-01

    This report documents a computer program for designing a surface condenser that condenses low-pressure steam in an ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power plant. The primary emphasis is on the open-cycle (OC) OTEC power system, although the same condenser design can be used for conventional and hybrid cycles because of their highly similar operating conditions. In an OC-OTEC system, the pressure level is very low (deep vacuums), temperature differences are small, and the inlet noncondensable gas concentrations are high. Because current condenser designs, such as the shell-and-tube, are not adequate for such conditions, a plate-fin configuration is selected. This design can be implemented in aluminum, which makes it very cost-effective when compared with other state-of-the-art vacuum steam condenser designs. Support for selecting a plate-fin heat exchanger for OC-OTEC steam condensation can be found in the sizing (geometric details) and rating (heat transfer and pressure drop) calculations presented. These calculations are then used in a computer program to obtain all the necessary thermal performance details for developing design specifications for a plate-fin steam condenser. 20 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving the predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7 percent to 60 percent of the dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 35 to 9 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20 percent to 60 percent. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures, when flash evaporation in the evaporator occurred, 75 percent to 95 percent of the dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The results were used to find the impact of a single-stage predeaeration scheme on the power to remove noncondensable gases in an OC-OTEC plant.

  10. Comparing Multiple Exciton Generation in Quantum Dots To Impact Ionization in Bulk Semiconductors: Implications for Enhancement of Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beard, Matthew C.; Midgett, Aaron G.; Hanna, Mark C.; Luther, Joseph M.; Hughes, Barbara K.; Nozik, Arthur J.

    2010-07-26

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) in quantum dots (QDs) and impact ionization (II) in bulk semiconductors are processes that describe producing more than one electron-hole pair per absorbed photon. We derive expressions for the proper way to compare MEG in QDs with II in bulk semiconductors and argue that there are important differences in the photophysics between bulk semiconductors and QDs. Our analysis demonstrates that the fundamental unit of energy required to produce each electron-hole pair in a given QD is the band gap energy. We find that the efficiency of the multiplication process increases by at least 2 in PbSe QDs compared to bulk PbSe, while the competition between cooling and multiplication favors multiplication by a factor of 3 in QDs. We also demonstrate that power conversion efficiencies in QD solar cells exhibiting MEG can greatly exceed conversion efficiencies of their bulk counterparts, especially if the MEG threshold energy can be reduced toward twice the QD band gap energy, which requires a further increase in the MEG efficiency. Finally, we discuss the research challenges associated with achieving the maximum benefit of MEG in solar energy conversion since we show the threshold and efficiency are mathematically related.

  11. Identification of types of businesses with potential interest in operating and/or exporting ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    This study describes the characteristics of three selected Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)-based lines of business, examines other lines of business and identifies those with similar characteristics, and indicates the types of businesses/corporations that could be expected to have potential interest in operating and/or exporting OTEC plants. An OTEC line of business model is developed to assist companies in making an internal corporate assessment as to whether OTEC should be in their business plan.

  12. Low work function materials for microminiature energy conversion and recovery applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zavadil, Kevin R.; Ruffner, Judith A.; King, Donald B.

    2003-05-13

    Low work function materials are disclosed together with methods for their manufacture and integration with electrodes used in thermionic conversion applications (specifically microminiature thermionic conversion applications). The materials include a mixed oxide system and metal in a compositionally modulated structure comprised of localized discontinuous structures of material that are deposited using techniques suited to IC manufacture, such as rf sputtering or CVD. The structures, which can include layers are then heated to coalescence yielding a thin film that is both durable and capable of electron emission under thermionic conversion conditions used for microminiature thermionic converters. Using the principles of the invention, thin film electrodes (emitters and collectors) required for microconverter technology are manufactured using a single process deposition so as to allow for full fabrication integration consistent with batch processing, and tailoring of emission/collection properties. In the preferred embodiment, the individual layers include mixed BaSrCaO, scandium oxide and tungsten.

  13. Coal handling, five years after PLC conversion, Centerior Energy, Avon Lake Generating Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olix, G.J.; Vollweiler, F.D.

    1997-09-01

    From 1969 until 1991, Coal conveyors, splitters, and trippers at Avon Lake had been controlled by a General Electric static logic system. During the 1991 scheduled shutdown of the plant`s largest unit (640 MWatt Unit 9), the controls were replaced with a programmable logic controller (PLC) system. The conversion went smoothly, and the system has performed flawlessly. This paper will describe the overall project as well as the control system itself.

  14. Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hazen, Sam [University of Massachusetts

    2013-03-01

    Sam Hazen of the University of Massachusetts on "Genetic Regulation of Grass Biomass Accumulation and Biological Conversion Quality" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  15. Integrated DC-DC Conversion for Energy-Efficient Multicore Microprocessors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-31

    Fact sheet about new power converters that provide versatility in optimizing energy usage for processor chips

  16. Safeguards Options for Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities ? A Collaborative Effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Begovich, John M; Ferrada, Juan J

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) agreed on a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of an NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. The study, completed in early 2007, identified potential safeguards measures and evaluated their effectiveness and impacts on operations. In addition, advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was framed by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Before this policy, only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and, therefore, subject to AEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, and the IAEA. This paper highlights the findings of this joint collaborative effort and identifies technical measures to strengthen international safeguards in NUCPs.

  17. Join the National Conversation on Minorities in Energy: Announcing National Roundtables

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hispanics In Energy, in collaboration with the American Association of Blacks In Energy and the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, plans a gathering of key stakeholder leaders in a series of...

  18. Micropower chemical fuel-to-electric conversion : a "regenerative flip" hydrogen concentration cell promising near carnot efficiency.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wally, Karl

    2006-05-01

    Although battery technology is relatively mature, power sources continue to impose serious limitations for small, portable, mobile, or remote applications. A potentially attractive alternative to batteries is chemical fuel-to-electric conversion. Chemical fuels have volumetric energy densities 4 to 10 times those of batteries. However, realizing this advantage requires efficient chemical fuel-to-electric conversion. Direct electrochemical conversion would be the ideal, but, for most fuels, is generally not within the state-of-the-science. Next best, chemical-to-thermal-to-electric conversion can be attractive if efficiencies can be kept high. This small investigative project was an exploration into the feasibility of a novel hybrid (i.e., thermal-electrochemical) micropower converter of high theoretical performance whose demonstration was thought to be within near-term reach. The system is comprised of a hydrogen concentration electrochemical cell with physically identical hydrogen electrodes as anode and cathode, with each electrode connected to physically identical hydride beds each containing the same low-enthalpy-of-formation metal hydride. In operation, electrical power is generated by a hydrogen concentration differential across the electrochemical cell. This differential is established via coordinated heating and passive cooling of the corresponding hydride source and sink. Heating is provided by the exothermic combustion (i.e., either flame combustion or catalytic combustion) of a chemical fuel. Upon hydride source depletion, the role of source and sink are reversed, heating and cooling reversed, electrodes commutatively reversed, cell operation reversed, while power delivery continues unchanged. This 'regenerative flip' of source and sink hydride beds can be cycled continuously until all available heating fuel is consumed. Electricity is efficiently generated electrochemically, but hydrogen is not consumed, rather the hydrogen is regeneratively cycled as an electrochemical 'working fluid'.

  19. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds for photovoltaic applications and solar energy conversion of carbon dioxide to fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Vaidyanathan; Murugesan, Sankaran

    2014-04-29

    The present invention relates to formation of nanocubes of sillenite type compounds, such as bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, via a hydrothermal synthesis process, with the resulting compound(s) having multifunctional properties such as being useful in solar energy conversion, environmental remediation, and/or energy storage, for example. In one embodiment, a hydrothermal method is disclosed that transforms nanoparticles of TiO.sub.2 to bismuth titanate, i.e., Bi.sub.12TiO.sub.20, nanocubes, optionally loaded with palladium nanoparticles. The method includes reacting titanium dioxide nanotubes with a bismuth salt in an acidic bath at a temperature sufficient and for a time sufficient to form bismuth titanate crystals, which are subsequently annealed to form bismuth titanate nanocubes. After annealing, the bismuth titanate nanocubes may be optionally loaded with nano-sized metal particles, e.g., nanosized palladium particles.

  20. Ab initio study on noncompensated CrO codoping of GaN for enhanced solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Hui; Gu, Baohua; Eres, Gyula; Zhang, Zhenyu

    2010-03-01

    We describe a novel photocatalyst obtained by codoping GaN with CrO, according to a new "noncompensated" codoping concept based on first-principles calculations. The approach enables controllable narrowing of the GaN band gap with significantly enhanced carrier mobility and photocatalytic activity in the visible light region and thus offers immense potential for application in solar energy conversion, water splitting, and a variety of solar-assisted photocatalysis. Our calculations indicate that the formation energy for the cation doping is greatly reduced by noncompensated codoping with an anion. Although Cr doping alone can split the band gap with the formation of an intermediate band, the mobility is low due to carrier trapping by the localized states. The first-principles calculations also demonstrate that CrO codoping of GaN shifts the Fermi level into the conduction band resulting in high carrier density and mobility.

  1. Proceedings of the fourth biennial conference and workshop on wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kottler, R.J. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Separate abstracts are included for papers presented concerning research and development requirements and utility interface and institutional issues for small-scale systems; design requirements and research and development requirements for large-scale systems; economic and operational requirements of large-scale wind systems; wind characteristics and wind energy siting; international activities; wind energy applications in agriculture; federal commercialization and decentralization plans; and wind energy innovative systems.

  2. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the cost and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.

  3. Development of a concentrating solar power system using fluidized-bed technology for thermal energy conversion and solid particles for thermal energy storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Z.; Mehos, M.; Glatzmaier, G.; Sakadjian, B. B.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is an effective way to convert solar energy into electricity with an economic energy-storage capability for grid-scale, dispatchable renewable power generation. However, CSP plants need to reduce costs to be competitive with other power generation methods. Two ways to reduce CSP cost are to increase solar-to-electric efficiency by supporting a high-efficiency power conversion system, and to use low-cost materials in the system. The current nitrate-based molten-salt systems have limited potential for cost reduction and improved power-conversion efficiency with high operating temperatures. Even with significant improvements in operating performance, these systems face challenges in satisfying the costmore » and performance targets. This paper introduces a novel CSP system with high-temperature capability that can be integrated into a high-efficiency CSP plant and that meets the low-cost, high-performance CSP targets. Unlike a conventional salt-based CSP plant, this design uses gas/solid, two-phase flow as the heat-transfer fluid (HTF); separated solid particles as storage media; and stable, inexpensive materials for the high-temperature receiver and energy storage containment. We highlight the economic and performance benefits of this innovative CSP system design, which has thermal energy storage capability for base-load power generation.« less

  4. Electromagnetic energy conversion in downstream fronts from three dimensional kinetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapenta, Giovanni [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)] [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Goldman, Martin; Newman, David [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States); Markidis, Stefano [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Divin, Andrey [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-05-15

    The electromagnetic energy equation is analyzed term by term in a 3D simulation of kinetic reconnection previously reported by Vapirev et al. [J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 118, 1435 (2013)]. The evolution presents the usual 2D-like topological structures caused by an initial perturbation independent of the third dimension. However, downstream of the reconnection site, where the jetting plasma encounters the yet unperturbed pre-existing plasma, a downstream front is formed and made unstable by the strong density gradient and the unfavorable local acceleration field. The energy exchange between plasma and fields is most intense at the instability, reaching several pW/m{sup 3}, alternating between load (energy going from fields to particles) and generator (energy going from particles to fields) regions. Energy exchange is instead purely that of a load at the reconnection site itself in a region focused around the x-line and elongated along the separatrix surfaces. Poynting fluxes are generated at all energy exchange regions and travel away from the reconnection site transporting an energy signal of the order of about S?10{sup ?3}W/m{sup 2}.

  5. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to-Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    John Cirucci Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. U.S. DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office Peer Review Meeting Washington, D.C. May 6-7, 2014 This presentation does not contain any proprietary, confidential, or otherwise restricted information. Project Objective Develop a novel system that produces electricity or hydrogen from waste heat conversion and waste effluent oxidation waste water effluent treated effluent dual benefit process waste heat electricity or hydrogen Issues with existing,

  6. Improved Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) for Higher Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Curves (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Improved Dark Energy Constraints From ~ 100 New CfA Supernova Type Ia Light Curves We combine the CfA3 supernovae Type Ia (SN Ia) sample with samples from the literature to calculate improved constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w. The CfA3 sample is added to the Union set of Kowalski

  7. Coupling Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion technology (OTEC) with nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, M.K.; Rezachek, D.; Chen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The prospects of utilizing an OTEC Related Bottoming Cycle to recover waste heat generated by a large nuclear (or fossil) power plant are examined. With such improvements, OTEC can become a major energy contributor. 12 refs.

  8. Composites for Multi-energy conversion & waste heat recovery | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Energy Discusses development of a composite that transfers energy between thermal, electrical, magnetic, and mechanical types and a composite material that improves performance through in situ strengthening PDF icon deer11_liang.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructured Materials by Machining Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Origins of the DC-Resistance Increase in HCMRTM Cathodes Roll-to-Roll Electrode Processing and Materials NDE for Advanced Lithium Secondary

  9. Conceptual design of an open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment (OC-OTEC NPPE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bharathan, D.; Green, H.J.; Link, H.F.; Parsons, B.K.; Parsons, J.M.; Zangrando, F.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of an experiment to investigate heat and mass transfer and to assess the viability of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). The experiment will be developed in two stages, the Heat- and Mass-Transfer Experimental Apparatus (HMTEA) and the Net Power-Producing Experiment (NPPE). The goal for the HMTEA is to test heat exchangers. The goal for the NPPE is to experimentally verify OC-OTEC's feasibility by installing a turbine and testing the power-generating system. The design effort met the goals of both the HMTEA and the NPPE, and duplication of hardware was minimal. The choices made for the design resource water flow rates are consistent with the availability of cold and warm seawater as a result of the seawater systems upgrade carried out by the US Department of Energy (DOE), the state of Hawaii, and the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research. The choices regarding configuration of the system were made based on projected performance, degree of technical risk, schedule, and cost. The cost for the future phase of the design and the development of the HMTEA/NPPE is consistent with the projected future program funding levels. The HMTEA and NPPE were designed cooperatively by PICHTR, Argonne National Laboratory, and Solar Energy Research Institute under the guidance of DOE. The experiment will be located at the DOE's Seacoast Test Facility at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. 71 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs.

  10. Self Adaptive Air Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion Using Shutter Valve and OWC Heoght Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di Bella, Francis A

    2014-09-29

    An oscillating water column (OWC) is one of the most technically viable options for converting wave energy into useful electric power. The OWC system uses the wave energy to “push or pull” air through a high-speed turbine, as illustrated in Figure 1. The turbine is typically a bi-directional turbine, such as a Wells turbine or an advanced Dennis-Auld turbine, as developed by Oceanlinx Ltd. (Oceanlinx), a major developer of OWC systems and a major collaborator with Concepts NREC (CN) in Phase II of this STTR effort. Prior to awarding the STTR to CN, work was underway by CN and Oceanlinx to produce a mechanical linkage mechanism that can be cost-effectively manufactured, and can articulate turbine blades to improve wave energy capture. The articulation is controlled by monitoring the chamber pressure. Funding has been made available from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to CN (DOE DE-FG-08GO18171) to co-share the development of a blade articulation mechanism for the purpose of increasing energy recovery. However, articulating the blades is only one of the many effective design improvements that can be made to the composite subsystems that constitute the turbine generator system.

  11. Impact of sub-cell internal luminescence yields on energy conversion efficiencies of tandem solar cells: A design principle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Lin Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Shintaroh; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko

    2014-01-20

    To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency ?{sub sc} and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies E{sub g} in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailed-balance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal luminescence quantum yields y{sub int} of the top and bottom sub-cell materials. A strong drop in the maximum ?{sub sc} occurs when y{sub int} slightly drops from 1 to 0.9, where the drop in y{sub int} of the bottom cell causes a stronger effect than that of the top cell. For low values of y{sub int}, the maximum ?{sub sc} has a simple logarithmic dependence on the geometric mean of the two sub-cells'y{sub int}.

  12. 16th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference. CDIF - activation completion and initial MHD test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Staats, G.E.; DeJong, V.J.; Karvinen, R.J.; Carrington, R.A.; Bauman, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) is one of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) experimental test facilities. The scope of this paper is limited to a brief description of the facility activation and results from the initial MHD testing using an oil fired ash injected combustor (AIC) and a supersonic channel. 1 ref.

  13. A review and critique of the socioeconomic impact assessment for the Kahe Point Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowen, R; Gopalakrishnan, C; Samples, K

    1988-01-01

    This report addresses the adequacy of Ocean Thermal Corporation's socioeconomic impact assessment of its 40-MWe closed-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plant proposed for Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii. The socioeconomic impacts identified as relevant to the plant were assessed in detail, including potential economic-demographic, public-service and fiscal, ocean-use, aesthetic, cultural, and energy impacts. The economic-demographic impact assessment does not estimate the full extent of population and income changes or second-order effects associated with the plant. There is no subjective assessment of perceptions on the part of local communities concerning probable changes in land values, housing, and population. Anticipated public-service and fiscal impacts are found to be relatively unimportant; however, the measurement of the impact of the plant on tax revenues needs improvement. The assessment does not sufficiently consider the objective and subjective assessment of ocean-use, aesthetic, and cultural impacts, which are of major significance to the local communities. The quantification of physical impacts, perceptions of impacts, and potential mitigation measures is inadequate. The energy impacts need to be updated to reflect the recent declines in oil prices and price projections. An assessment of low-probability, high-risk occurrences may be necessary. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. First production of potable water by OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) and its potential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, A.; Hillis, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment--the Heat and Mass Transfer Scoping Test Apparatus--was built to obtain design data for a larger test that will assess the technical feasibility of the open-cycle OTEC process. (The closed-cycle concept was successfully demonstrated in 1979.) The DOE-funded project is a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI). The apparatus was erected at the Natural Energy Laboratory of Hawaii and became operational in the summer of 1987. It is used by both ANL and SERI to conduct open-cycle OTEC experiments. After initial debugging, it produced 350 gallons per hour of potable water having a salinity of 86 ppM, one-fifth that of local tap water available at the test site. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  15. New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M. )

    1993-01-01

    This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

  16. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  17. A Process for the Conversion of Cyclic Amines Into Lactams - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    global leader in natural gas engines. Powering transportation. Driving change. The Future of Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel A Presentation for the DOE EIA 2013 Energy Conference, Washington, DC Dr. Michael Gallagher June 17, 2013 Secretary's Request Examine ways to accelerate future transportation fuels prospects through 2050 Address four critical areas: fuel demand, supply, infrastructure and technology Answer this key question: How can governments stimulate the technological advances and

  18. Energy conversion system involving change in the density of an upwardly moving liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Petrick, Michael (Jolliet, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A system for converting thermal energy into electrical energy includes a fluid reservoir, a relatively high boiling point fluid such as lead or a lead alloy within the reservoir, a downcomer defining a vertical fluid flow path communicating at its upper end with the reservoir and an upcomer defining a further vertical fluid flow path communicating at its upper end with the reservoir. A variable area nozzle of rectangular section may terminate the upper end of the upcomer and the lower end of the of the downcomer communicates with the lower end of the upcomer. A mixing chamber is located at the lower end portion of the upcomer and receives a second relatively low boiling point fluid such as air, the mixing chamber serving to introduce the low boiling point fluid into the upcomer so as to produce bubbles causing the resultant two-phase fluid to move at high velocity up the upcomer. Means are provided for introducing heat into the system preferably between the lower end of the downcomer and the lower end of the upcomer. Power generating means are associated with the one of the vertical fluid flow paths one such power generating means being a magneto hydrodynamic electrical generator.

  19. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  20. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  1. Geopressure geothermal energy conversion: the supercritical propane cycle for power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldsberry, F.L.; Bebout, D.G.; Bachman, A.L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the geopressure geothermal unconventional gas resource has been the object of a drilling and reservoir testing program. One aspect of the assessment has been to look at the geothermal component of the energy base as a source of power generation. The basic production unit for the resource has been estimated to be a well capable of producing fluid at a rate of 15,000 to 40,000 BPD at temperatures of 240 to 360/sup 0/F (.0276 to .0736 M/sup 3//sec at 338 to 455/sup 0/K). The spacing of these wells will be approximately 2 to 4 km for effective reservoir drainage. This limits the generation capacity, per well from 700 to 3000 kW per site. It is assumed that interconnecting pipelines to carry brine from each well to a central location and then return it to salt water disposal wells will be impractical. Single well power plants with electrical gathering systems are considered to be the probable mode of development. The thermodynamic envelope within which the plant must operate is defined by the linear cooling curve of the brine and the ambient air temperature. The low resource temperature calls for a Rankine cycle. A supercritical propane cycle was selected. The only component of the thermal power system subject to uncertainty is the brine/propane heater. At the present time a scale/corrosion pilot plant is being operated on a number of geopressure test wells to determine inexpensive scale and corrosion inhibitors that may be used to reduce fouling of the exchanger tubes.

  2. A Comparison of the Performance Capabilities of Radioisotope Energy Conversion Systems, Betavoltaic Cells, and other Nuclear Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinfelds, Eric V; Prelas, Mark A.; Sudarshan, Loyalka K.; Tompson, Robert V.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper we compare the potential performance capabilities of several types of nuclear batteries to the Radioisotope Thermocouple Generators (RTG's) currently in use. There have been theoretical evaluations of, and some experimental testing of, several types of nuclear batteries including Radioisotope Energy Conversion Systems (RECS), Direct Energy Conversion (DEC) systems, and Betavoltaic Power Cells (BPC's). It has been theoretically shown, and to some extent experimentally demonstrated, that RECS, capacitive DEC systems, and possibly BPC's are all potentially capable of efficiencies well above the 9% maximum efficiency demonstrated to date in RTG's customized for deep space probe applications. Even though RTG's have proven their reliability and have respectable power to mass ratios, it is desirable to attain efficiencies of at least 25% in typical applications. High fuel efficiency is needed to minimize the quantities of radioisotopic or nuclear fuels in the systems, to maximize power to mass ratios, and to minimize housing requirements. It has been shown that RECS can attain electric power generation efficiencies greater than 18% for devices which use Sr-90 fuel and where the accompanying material is less than roughly twice the mass of the Sr-90 fuel. Other radioisotopic fuels such as Pu-238 or Kr-85 can also be placed into RECS in order to attain efficiencies over 18%. With the likely exception of one fuel investigated by the authors, all of the promising candidates for RECS fuels can attain electric power to mass ratios greater than 15 W kg{sup -1}. It has been claimed recently [1] that the efficiency of tritium-fueled BPC's can be as high as 25%. While this is impressive and tritium has the benefit of being a 'soft' radioisotopic fuel, the silicon wafer that holds the tritium would have to be considerably more massive than the tritium contained within it and immediately adjacent to the wafer. Considering realistic mass requirements for the presence of silicon in the bulk of the wafer, a tritium cell would thus be limited to power to mass ratios <3 W kg{sup -1}. Even RECS designs with more energetic fuels and higher shielding burdens can attain >3 W kg{sup -1} and efficiencies exceeding 20%. Capacitive DEC systems can also offer significant benefits. With larger fuel quantities and larger dimensions, DEC systems can attain power efficiencies >50%. For small nuclear batteries of low or medium power, RECS appear highly desirable since the efficiency of a RECS does not vary with the amount of fuel present nor does it vary with temperature to any significant degree. (authors)

  3. Covariance statistics of turbulence velocity components for wind-energy-conversion system design-homogeneous, isotropic case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fichtl, G.H.

    1983-09-01

    When designing a wind energy converison system (WECS), it may be necessary to take into account the distribution of wind across the disc of rotation. The specific engineering applications include structural strength, fatigue, and control. This wind distribution consists of two parts, namely that associated with the mean wind profile and that associated with the turbulence velocity fluctuation field. The work reported herein is aimed at the latter, namely the distribution of turbulence velocity fluctuations across the WECS disk of rotation. A theory is developed for the two-time covariance matrix for turbulence velocity vector components for wind energy conversion system (WECS) design. The theory is developed for homogeneous and iotropic turbulance with the assumption that Taylor's hypothesis is valid. The Eulerian turbulence velocity vector field is expanded about the hub of the WECS. Formulae are developed for the turbulence velocity vector component covariance matrix following the WECS blade elements. It is shown that upon specification of the turbulence energy spectrum function and the WECS rotation rate, the two-point, two-time covariance matrix of the turbulent flow relative to the WECS bladed elements is determined. This covariance matrix is represented as the sum of nonstationary and stationary contributions. Generalized power spectral methods are used to obtain two-point, double frequency power spectral density functions for the turbulent flow following the blade elements. The Dryden turbulence model is used to demonstrate the theory. A discussion of linear system response analysis is provided to show how the double frequency turbulence spectra might be used to calculate response spectra of a WECS to turbulent flow. Finally the spectrum of the component of turbulence normal to the WECS disc of rotation, following the blade elements, is compared with experimental results.

  4. Technology Development Plan: Geotechnical survey systems for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) cold water pipes: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valent, P.J.; Riggins, M.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides an overview of current and developing technologies and techniques for performing geotechnical investigations for siting and designing Cold Water Pipes (CWP) for shelf-resting Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants. The geotechnical in situ tools used to measure the required parameters and the equipment/systems used to deploy these tools are identified. The capabilities of these geotechnical tools and deployment systems are compared to the data requirements for the CWP foundation/anchor design, and shortfalls are identified. For the last phase of geotechnical data gathering for design, a drillship will be required to perform soil boring work, to obtain required high-quality sediment samples for laboratory dynamic testing, and to perform deep-penetration in situ tests. To remedy shortfalls and to reduce the future OTEC CWP geotechnical survey costs, it is recommended that a seafloor-resting machine be developed to advance the friction cone penetrometer, and also probably a pressuremeter, to provide geotechnical parameters to shallow subseafloor penetrations on slopes of 35/degree/ and in water depths to 1300 m. 74 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Results of scoping tests for open-cycle OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) components operating with seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zangrando, F; Bharathan, D; Green, H J; Link, H F; Parsons, B K; Parsons, J M; Pesaran, A A; Panchal, C B

    1990-09-01

    This report presents comprehensive documentation of the experimental research conducted on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) components operating with seawater as a working fluid. The results of this research are presented in the context of previous analysis and fresh-water testing; they provide a basis for understanding and predicting with confidence the performance of all components of an OC-OTEC system except the turbine. Seawater tests have confirmed the results that were obtained in fresh-water tests and predicted by the analytical models of the components. A sound technical basis has been established for the design of larger systems in which net power will be produced for the first time from OC-OTEC technology. Design and operation of a complete OC-OTEC system that produces power will provide sufficient confidence to warrant complete transfer of OC-OTEC technology to the private sector. Each components performance is described in a separate chapter written by the principal investigator responsible for technical aspects of the specific tests. Chapters have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. Far-field model of the regional influence of effluent plumes from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, D.P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  7. Study to develop an inspection, maintenance, and repair plan for OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) modular experiment plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    The inspection, maintenance and repair (IM and R) of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Modular Experiment Plant (Pilot Plant) have been studied in two phases: Task I and Task II. Task I phase developed IM and R identification forms, identified requirements for routine and post casualty IM and R, and categorized and outlined potential procedures to perform IM and R activities. The efforts of the Task II phase have been directed to meet the following objectives: to provide feedback to the OTEC marine systems designs to assure that such designs reflect appropriate consideration of IM and R methods and unit costs, resulting in designs with reduced life cycle costs; to include technical information concerning OTEC IM and R possibilities to NOAA/DOE; to outline a basis in which the anticipated IM and R contributions to life cycle costs can be developed for any specific OTEC plant design; to identify IM and R methods within the state-of-the-art in the offshore industry; to determine the application of potential IM and R procedures for the commercial operation of OTEC 10/40 Pilot Plant(s); and input into the US government formulation of statutory and regulatory IM and R requirements for OTEC plants.

  8. Experiments on oxygen desorption from surface warm seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports the results of scoping deaeration experiments conducted with warm surface seawater under open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC). Concentrations of dissolved oxygen in seawater at three locations (in the supply water, water leaving a predeaerator, and discharge water from an evaporator) were measured and used to estimate oxygen desorption levels. The results suggest that 7% to 60% of dissolved oxygen in the supply water was desorbed from seawater in the predeaerator for pressures ranging from 9 to 35 kPa. Bubble injection in the upcomer increased the oxygen desorption rate by 20% to 60%. The dependence of oxygen desorption with flow rate could not be determined. The data also indicated that at typical OC-OTEC evaporator pressures when flashing occurred, 75% to 95% of dissolved oxygen was desorbed overall from the warm seawater. The uncertainty in results is larger than one would desire. These uncertainties are attributed to the uncertainties and difficulties in the dissolved oxygen measurements. Methods to improve the measurements for future gas desorption studies for warm surface and cold deep seawater under OC-OTEC conditions are recommended. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Revisiting Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Spectra of Nickel Oxide from First Principles: Implications for Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-07-17

    We use two different ab initio quantum mechanics methods, complete active space self-consistent field theory applied to electrostatically embedded clusters and periodic many-body G?W? calculations, to reanalyze the states formed in nickel(II) oxide upon electron addition and ionization. In agreement with interpretations of earlier measurements, we find that the valence and conduction band edges consist of oxygen and nickel states, respectively. However, contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that the oxygen states of the valence band edge are localized whereas the nickel states at the conduction band edge are delocalized. We argue that these characteristics may lead to low electron-hole recombination and relatively efficient electron transport, which, coupled with band gap engineering, could produce higher solar energy conversion efficiency compared to that of other transition-metal oxides. Both methods find a photoemission/inverse-photoemission gap of 3.6-3.9 eV, in good agreement with the experimental range, lending credence to our analysis of the electronic structure of NiO.

  10. Study of domestic social and economic impacts of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) commercial development. Volume II. Industry profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-12-22

    Econoimc profiles of the industries most affected by the construction, deployment, and operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) powerplants are presented. Six industries which will contribute materials and/or components to the construction of OTEC plants have been identified and are profiled here. These industries are: steel industry, concrete industry, titanium metal industry, fabricated structural metals industry, fiber glass-reinforced plastics industry, and electrical transmission cable industry. The economic profiles for these industries detail the industry's history, its financial and economic characteristics, its technological and production traits, resource constraints that might impede its operation, and its relation to OTEC. Some of the historical data collected and described in the profile include output, value of shipments, number of firms, prices, employment, imports and exports, and supply-demand forecasts. For most of the profiled industries, data from 1958 through 1980 were examined. In addition, profiles are included on the sectors of the economy which will actualy construct, deploy, and supply the OTEC platforms.

  11. Ocean thermal energy conversion gas desorption studies. Volume 1. Design of experiments. [Open-cycle power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golshani, A.; Chen, F.C.

    1980-10-01

    Seawater deaeration is a process affecting almost all proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) open-cycle power systems. If the noncondensable dissolved air is not removed from a power system, it will accumulate in thecondenser, reduce the effectiveness of condensation, and result in deterioration of system performance. A gas desorption study is being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the goal of mitigating these effects; this study is designed to investigate the vacuum deaeration process for low-temperature OTEC conditions where conventional steam stripping deaeration may not be applicable. The first in a series describing the ORNL studies, this report (1) considers the design of experiments and discusses theories of gas desorption, (2) reviews previous relevant studies, (3) describes the design of a gas desorption test loop, and (4) presents the test plan for achieving program objectives. Results of the first series of verification tests and the uncertainties encountered are also discussed. A packed column was employed in these verification tests and test data generally behaved as in previous similar studies. Results expressed as the height of transfer unit (HTU) can be correlated with the liquid flow rate by HTU = 4.93L/sup 0/ /sup 25/. End effects were appreciable for the vacuum deaeration system, and a correlation of them to applied vacuum pressure was derived.

  12. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Egley, James L.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device and a method for making the thermophotovoltaic device. The device includes an n-type semiconductor material substrate having top and bottom surfaces, a tunnel junction formed on the top surface of the substrate, a region of active layers formed on top of the tunnel junction and a back surface reflector (BSR). The tunnel junction includes a layer of heavily doped n-type semiconductor material that is formed on the top surface of the substrate and a layer of heavily doped p-type semiconductor material formed on the n-type layer. An optional pseudomorphic layer can be formed between the n-type and p-type layers. A region of active layers is formed on top of the tunnel junction. This region includes a base layer of p-type semiconductor material and an emitter layer of n-type semiconductor material. An optional front surface window layer can be formed on top of the emitter layer. An optional interference filter can be formed on top of the emitter layer or the front surface window layer when it is used.

  13. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  14. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charache, G.W.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Egley, J.L.

    1998-05-19

    A thermophotovoltaic device and a method for making the thermophotovoltaic device are disclosed. The device includes an n-type semiconductor material substrate having top and bottom surfaces, a tunnel junction formed on the top surface of the substrate, a region of active layers formed on top of the tunnel junction and a back surface reflector (BSR). The tunnel junction includes a layer of heavily doped n-type semiconductor material that is formed on the top surface of the substrate and a layer of heavily doped p-type semiconductor material formed on the n-type layer. An optional pseudomorphic layer can be formed between the n-type and p-type layers. A region of active layers is formed on top of the tunnel junction. This region includes a base layer of p-type semiconductor material and an emitter layer of n-type semiconductor material. An optional front surface window layer can be formed on top of the emitter layer. An optional interference filter can be formed on top of the emitter layer or the front surface window layer when it is used. 1 fig.

  15. Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leslie Pezzullo Office of the Biomass Program U.S. Department of Energy Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Biomass Program Introduction Report-Out Webinar February 9, 2012 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov 2 3 2 1 The need to reduce dependence on foreign oil and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has renewed the urgency for developing sustainable biofuels, bioproducts, and biopower. The transportation sector accounts for about two- thirds of U.S. oil

  16. Project Profile: Brayton Solar Power Conversion System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Power Conversion System Project Profile: Brayton Solar Power Conversion System Brayton Energy logo Brayton Energy, under the CSP R&D FOA, is looking to demonstrate the ...

  17. Novel Biomass Conversion Process Results in Commercial Joint Venture; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describing DuPont/NREL cooperative research and development agreement that resulted in biomass-to-ethanol conversion process used as a basis for DuPont Danisco Cellulosic Ethanol, LLC and cellulosic ethanol demonstration plant.

  18. Thermochemical Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCE AND COST EFFECTIVENESS OF NINE SMALL WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS FUNDED BY THE DOE SMALL GRANTS PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kay, J.

    1982-04-01

    This report presents an analysis of the technical performance and cost effectiveness of nine small wind energy conversion systems (SWECS) funded during FY 1979 by the U.S. Department of Energy. Chapter 1 gives an analytic framework with which to evaluate the systems. Chapter 2 consists of a review of each of the nine projects, including project technical overviews, estimates of energy savings, and results of economic analysis. Chapter 3 summarizes technical, economic, and institutional barriers that are likely to inhibit widespread dissemination of SWECS technology.

  20. Technical Note: Exploring the limit for the conversion of energy-subtracted CT number to electron density for high-atomic-number materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, Masatoshi; Tsukihara, Masayoshi

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: For accurate tissue inhomogeneity correction in radiotherapy treatment planning, the authors had previously proposed a novel conversion of the energy-subtracted CT number to an electron density (ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion), which provides a single linear relationship between ΔHU and ρ{sub e} over a wide ρ{sub e} range. The purpose of this study is to address the limitations of the conversion method with respect to atomic number (Z) by elucidating the role of partial photon interactions in the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion process. Methods: The authors performed numerical analyses of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion for 105 human body tissues, as listed in ICRU Report 46, and elementary substances with Z = 1–40. Total and partial attenuation coefficients for these materials were calculated using the XCOM photon cross section database. The effective x-ray energies used to calculate the attenuation were chosen to imitate a dual-source CT scanner operated at 80–140 kV/Sn under well-calibrated and poorly calibrated conditions. Results: The accuracy of the resultant calibrated electron density,ρ{sub e}{sup cal}, for the ICRU-46 body tissues fully satisfied the IPEM-81 tolerance levels in radiotherapy treatment planning. If a criterion of ρ{sub e}{sup cal}/ρ{sub e} − 1 is assumed to be within ±2%, the predicted upper limit of Z applicable for the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion under the well-calibrated condition is Z = 27. In the case of the poorly calibrated condition, the upper limit of Z is approximately 16. The deviation from the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} linearity for higher Z substances is mainly caused by the anomalous variation in the photoelectric-absorption component. Conclusions: Compensation among the three partial components of the photon interactions provides for sufficient linearity of the ΔHU–ρ{sub e} conversion to be applicable for most human tissues even for poorly conditioned scans in which there exists a large variation of effective x-ray energies owing to beam-hardening effects arising from the mismatch between the sizes of the object and the calibration phantom.

  1. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue University report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on Carbohydrates Production. PDF icon ctab_webinar_carbohydrates_production.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading

  2. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  3. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  4. Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  5. The Southern California Conversion Technology Demonstration Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conversion Technology Demonstration Project Sector: Energy, Land Focus Area: - Waste to Energy Phase: Create a Vision Resource Type: Publications User Interface: Website...

  6. Progress on Enabling an Interactive Conversation Between Commercial Building Occupants and Their Building To Improve Comfort and Energy Efficiency: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Automotive Technologies 1000 Independence Avenue, S.W. Washington, DC 20585-0121 FY 1999 FY 1999 FY 1999 FY 1999 Progress Report for Advanced Automotive Fuels Progress Report for Advanced Automotive Fuels Progress Report for Advanced Automotive Fuels Progress Report for Advanced Automotive Fuels Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Transportation Technologies

  7. Studies in the photogalvanic effect in mixed reductants system for solar energy conversion and storage: Dextrose and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-Azur A system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangotri, K.M.; Indora, Vinod

    2010-02-15

    A mixture of two reductants (Dextrose and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) is used as a mixed reductants with Azur A as photosensitizer in the photogalvanic cell for solar energy conversion and storage with the aim to reduce the cost of construction for commercial viability. The photogeneration of photopotential and photocurrent were 778.0 mV and 55.0 {mu}A, respectively, whereas maximum power of the cell was 42.79 {mu}W. The observed power at power point of the cell was 10.87 {mu}W and conversion efficiency was 0.1045%.The determined fill factor was 0.1942. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 115.0 min in dark where it was irradiated for 175.0 min. A mechanism for the photogeneration of electricity has also been proposed. (author)

  8. NREL Demonstrates Photocatalytic Conversion With Mutant Microbe (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Breakthrough will facilitate future research on photosynthetic production of biofuels. Oxygenic photosynthetic microbes (i.e., algae and cyanobacteria) have great potential to produce fuels from sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide. However, cellular growth competes with conversion of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) into biofuels and necessitates disposal or recycling of biomass. A solution would be to arrest biomass accumulation, while simultaneously redirecting photosynthetically fixed carbon to

  9. Evaluation of annual efficiencies of high temperature central receiver concentrated solar power plants with thermal energy storage.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrhart, Brian David; Gill, David Dennis

    2013-07-01

    The current study has examined four cases of a central receiver concentrated solar power plant with thermal energy storage using the DELSOL and SOLERGY computer codes. The current state-of-the-art base case was compared with a theoretical high temperature case which was based on the scaling of some input parameters and the estimation of other parameters based on performance targets from the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. This comparison was done for both current and high temperature cases in two configurations: a surround field with an external cylindrical receiver and a north field with a single cavity receiver. There is a fairly dramatic difference between the design point and annual average performance, especially in the solar field and receiver subsystems, and also in energy losses due to the thermal energy storage being full to capacity. Additionally, there are relatively small differences (<2%) in annual average efficiencies between the Base and High Temperature cases, despite an increase in thermal to electric conversion efficiency of over 8%. This is due the increased thermal losses at higher temperature and operational losses due to subsystem start-up and shut-down. Thermal energy storage can mitigate some of these losses by utilizing larger thermal energy storage to ensure that the electric power production system does not need to stop and re-start as often, but solar energy is inherently transient. Economic and cost considerations were not considered here, but will have a significant impact on solar thermal electric power production strategy and sizing.

  10. Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

  11. Heat transfer in ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) systems. Proceedings of the wanter mnnual Meeting, Chicago, IL, November 16-21, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: condensation heat transfer on long vertical, axially ridged tubes tests of the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University (APL/JHU) folded-tube, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) heat exchanger the design of a 1.0-MW OTEC heat exchanger for ocean testing and convective vaporization and condensation in serrated-fin channels. Also considered are: heat tranfer studies of an improved heat transfer monitor for OTEC an analysis of the mist lift process for mist flow, open-cycle OTEC the heat transfer characteristics of working fluids for OTEC and a comparison of major OTEC power system characteristics.

  12. Study the performance of photogalvanic cells for solar energy conversion and storage: Rose Bengal-D-Xylose-NaLS system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangotri, K.M.; Bhimwal, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-07-15

    The Rose Bengal is used as photosensitizer with D-Xylose as reductant and sodium lauryl sulphate (NaLS) as surfactant for the enhancement of the conversion efficiency and storage capacity of photogalvanic cell for its commercial viability. The observed value of the photogeneration of photopotential was 885.0 mV and photocurrent was 460.0 {mu}A whereas maximum power of the cell was 407.10 {mu}W. The observed power at power point was 158.72 {mu}W and the conversion efficiency was 1.52%. The fill factor 0.3151 was experimentally determined at the power point of the cell. The rate of initial generation of photocurrent was 63.88 {mu}A min{sup -1}. The photogalvanic cell so developed can work for 145.0 min in dark on irradiation for 165.0 min, i.e. the storage capacity of the photogalvanic cell is 87.87%. A simple mechanism for the photogeneration of photocurrent has also been proposed. (author)

  13. IECEC '91; Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, Boston, MA, Aug. 4-9, 1991. Vol. 5 - Renewable resource systems, Stirling engines and applications, systems and cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on energy conversion engineering are presented. The general topics considered are: developments in nuclear power, energy from waste and biomass, system performance and materials in photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, wind energy systems, Stirling cycle analysis, Stirling cycle power, Stirling component technology, Stirling cooler/heat pump developments, Stirling engine concepts, Stirling engine design and optimization, Stirling engine dynamics and response, Stirling engine solar terrestrial, advanced cogeneration, AMTC, fossil fuel systems and technologies, marine energy.

  14. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by GMZ Energy Inc. at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about nanostructured high...

  15. Join The Conversation: Apps for Energy Twitter Q&A with U.S. CTO Todd Park

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join us this Tuesday, April 17, at 2 PM EDT for an Apps for Energy Twitter Q&A with U.S. Chief Technology Officer Todd Park.

  16. TU-F-18C-02: Increasing Amorphous Selenium Thickness in Direct Conversion Flat-Panel Imagers for Contrast-Enhanced Dual-Energy Breast Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scaduto, DA; Hu, Y-H; Zhao, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Contrast-enhanced (CE) breast imaging using iodinated contrast agents requires imaging with x-ray spectra at energies greater than those used in mammography. Optimizing amorphous selenium (a-Se) flat panel imagers (FPI) for this higher energy range may increase lesion conspicuity. Methods: We compare imaging performance of a conventional FPI with 200 μm a-Se conversion layer to a prototype FPI with 300 μm a-Se layer. Both detectors are evaluated in a Siemens MAMMOMAT Inspiration prototype digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) system using low-energy (W/Rh 28 kVp) and high-energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) x-ray spectra. Detectability of iodinated lesions in dual-energy images is evaluated using an iodine contrast phantom. Effects of beam obliquity are investigated in projection and reconstructed images using different reconstruction methods. The ideal observer signal-to-noise ratio is used as a figure-of-merit to predict the optimal a-Se thickness for CE lesion detectability without compromising conventional full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and DBT performance. Results: Increasing a-Se thickness from 200 μm to 300 μm preserves imaging performance at typical mammographic energies (e.g. W/Rh 28 kVp), and improves the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for high energy (W/Cu 49 kVp) by 30%. While the more penetrating high-energy x-ray photons increase geometric blur due to beam obliquity in the FPI with thicker a-Se layer, the effect on lesion detectability in FBP reconstructions is negligible due to the reconstruction filters employed. Ideal observer SNR for CE objects shows improvements in in-plane detectability with increasing a-Se thicknesses, though small lesion detectability begins to degrade in oblique projections for a-Se thickness above 500 μm. Conclusion: Increasing a-Se thickness in direct conversion FPI from 200 μm to 300 μm improves lesion detectability in CE breast imaging with virtually no cost to conventional FFDM and DBT. This work was partially supported by a research grant from Siemens Healthcare.

  17. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading PNNL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates upgrading. PDF icon ctab_webinar_carbohydrates_upgrading.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels

  18. Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Chargers | Electrical Power Conversion and Storage 625 West A Street | Lincoln, NE 68522-1794 ... TO: United States Department of Energy (DOE), Via Email, ...

  19. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. (DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology Program: NBS Measurement Technology Project): Quarterly progress report, January-March 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semerjian, H.G.

    1982-01-01

    Proper understanding of sooting processes will aid in assessing the impact of alternative fuels on hardware durability, combustion and heat transfer efficiency, and the environment. These efforts are in direct support of ECUT projects dealing with open cycle/engine combustion technology, direct heating and conversion, physical processes, and chemical processes. Soot formation entails a number of complex processes that occur within and about the combustion zone. These include hydrocarbon cracking, nucleation, growth, agglomeration and burnout. The importance of free radical processes, the involvement of aromatic and acetylenic intermediates, and the effect of inorganic components on the soot formation processes will be investigated. The effect of physical properties (such as boiling point and viscosity) on the droplet formation, evaporation, combustion and subsequent soot formation processes will also be examined. The effect of flow field parameters on the chemical, as well as physical processes will be studied. Initial studies toward investigation of chemical effects on soot formation are being carried out in laboratory-scale diffusion flames of various configurations. Investigations of physical effects on soot formation are carried out in the NBS experimental furnace. A combination of optical diagnostic techniques are used. 8 refs.

  1. Dose-to-water conversion for the backscatter-shielded EPID: A frame-based method to correct for EPID energy response to MLC transmitted radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zwan, Benjamin J. OConnor, Daryl J.; King, Brian W.; Greer, Peter B.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop a frame-by-frame correction for the energy response of amorphous silicon electronic portal imaging devices (a-Si EPIDs) to radiation that has transmitted through the multileaf collimator (MLC) and to integrate this correction into the backscatter shielded EPID (BSS-EPID) dose-to-water conversion model. Methods: Individual EPID frames were acquired using a Varian frame grabber and iTools acquisition software then processed using in-house software developed inMATLAB. For each EPID image frame, the region below the MLC leaves was identified and all pixels in this region were multiplied by a factor of 1.3 to correct for the under-response of the imager to MLC transmitted radiation. The corrected frames were then summed to form a corrected integrated EPID image. This correction was implemented as an initial step in the BSS-EPID dose-to-water conversion model which was then used to compute dose planes in a water phantom for 35 IMRT fields. The calculated dose planes, with and without the proposed MLC transmission correction, were compared to measurements in solid water using a two-dimensional diode array. Results: It was observed that the integration of the MLC transmission correction into the BSS-EPID dose model improved agreement between modeled and measured dose planes. In particular, the MLC correction produced higher pass rates for almost all Head and Neck fields tested, yielding an average pass rate of 99.8% for 2%/2 mm criteria. A two-sample independentt-test and fisher F-test were used to show that the MLC transmission correction resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the mean and the standard deviation of the gamma values, respectively, to give a more accurate and consistent dose-to-water conversion. Conclusions: The frame-by-frame MLC transmission response correction was shown to improve the accuracy and reduce the variability of the BSS-EPID dose-to-water conversion model. The correction may be applied as a preprocessing step in any pretreatment portal dosimetry calculation and has been shown to be beneficial for highly modulated IMRT fields.

  2. 40-MW(e) OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii: a case study of potential biological impacts. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, J.T.

    1987-02-01

    Construction and operation of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) facility will affect marine, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments. The nature and degree of OTEC environmental impacts have been subjects of numerous studies and reports. The proposed 40-MWe OTEC plant at Kahe Point, Oahu, Hawaii has been the focus of much of the work. The first section provides a summary of pertinent design features of the proposed plant, including standard operating parameters. Next, salient elements of the biological oceanography in the region of the proposed development are summarized. The following sections discuss expected impacts of construction and operation of the plant, and finally, significant aspects of modeling studies conducted in support of the Kahe OTEC plant development are presented.

  3. Commercialization and cost-sharing potential for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plantships and facilities by industry, utilities and government

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis, E.J.

    1980-01-01

    Following the introduction and summary on the US energy situation and the potential for OTEC, the remaining chapters deal with the OTEC-ammonia model; legal aspects of OTEC commercialization; the formation of SOLARAMCO, a joint venture of ammonia companies; electric power from OTEC, fuel cells and direct cables, potential cost-sharing; and OTEC production of ammonia for fertilizer.

  4. EPA Redesigns Conversion Certification Policies

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    EPA Redesigns Conversion Certification Policies At a recent meeting held in Washington, DC, officials from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) opened dialogue about proposed changes to its emission certification policies that affect alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). "We are trying to accommo- date the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) and Executive Order requirements while trying to change enforce- ment policies and guidance with respect to conversions," said Rich Ackerman of EPA's

  5. Aquion Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage ...

  6. Energy Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency ...

  7. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Development and Validation of Multidimensional Models of Supercritical CO2 Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Podowski, Michael Z.

    2015-01-22

    A general objective of this project was to develop, verify and validate mechanistic multidimensional models of local flow and heat transfer in supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) devices and systems, and to demonstrate the application of the new models to selected components of S-CO2 nuclear energy transport systems. Both steady-state and time-dependent operating conditions have been investigated. The overall workscope consisted of the following three major parts: Development, testing and validation of a mechanistic model of forced-convection heat transfer in heated channels cooled using S-CO2 at slightly supercritical pressures; Development, testing and verification/validation of a new model of the dynamics of closed- loop S-CO2 heat transport systems; and, Formulation, testing and verification of a mechanistic model for the analysis of flow and pressure distribution in S-CO2 compressors. The results of the work performed for the project have been documented in several publications.

  9. Artificial layered perovskite oxides A(B{sub 0.5}B?{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} as potential solar energy conversion materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Hungru; Umezawa, Naoto

    2015-02-07

    Perovskite oxides with a d{sup 0} electronic configuration are promising photocatalysts and exhibit high electron mobilities. However, their band gaps are too large for efficient solar energy conversion. On the other hand, transition metal cations with partially filled d{sup n} electronic configurations give rise to visible light absorption. In this study, by using hybrid density functional theory calculations, it is demonstrated that the virtues of the two categories of materials can be combined in perovskite oxide A(B{sub 0.5}B?{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} with a layered B-site ordering along the [001] direction. The electronic structures of the four selected perovskite oxide compounds, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, La(Ti{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5})O{sub 3}, and Sr(Nb{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} are calculated and discussed.

  10. Significant Reduction in NiO Band Gap upon Formation of LixNi1?xO Alloys: Applications to Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alidoust, Nima; Toroker, Maytal; Keith, John A.; Carter, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Long-term sustainable solar energy conversion relies on identifying economical and versatile semiconductor materials with appropriate band structures for photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications (e.g., band gaps of ?1.52.0 eV). Nickel oxide (NiO) is an inexpensive yet highly promising candidate. Its charge-transfer character may lead to longer carrier lifetimes needed for higher efficiencies, and its conduction band edge is suitable for driving hydrogen evolution via water-splitting. However, NiOs large band gap (?4 eV) severely limits its use in practical applications. Our first-principles quantum mechanics calculations show band gaps dramatically decrease to ?2.0 eV when NiO is alloyed with Li2O. We show that LixNi1?xO alloys (with x=0.125 and 0.25) are p-type semiconductors, contain states with no impurity levels in the gap and maintain NiOs desirable charge-transfer character. Lastly, we show that the alloys have potential for photoelectrochemical applications, with band edges well-placed for photocatalytic hydrogen production and CO2 reduction, as well as in tandem dye-sensitized solar cells as a photocathode.

  11. Enhancement in current density and energy conversion efficiency of 3-dimensional MFC anodes using pre-enriched consortium and continuous supply of electron donors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A

    2011-01-01

    Using a pre-enriched microbial consortium as the inoculum and continuous supply of carbon source, improvement in performance of a three-dimensional, flow-through MFC anode utilizing ferricyanide cathode was investigated. The power density increased from 170 W/m3 (1800 mW/m2) to 580 W/m3 (6130 mW/m2), when the carbon loading increased from 2.5 g/l-day to 50 g/l-day. The coulombic efficiency (CE) decreased from 90% to 23% with increasing carbon loading. The CEs are among the highest reported for glucose and lactate as the substrate with the maximum current density reaching 15.1 A/m2. This suggests establishment of a very high performance exoelectrogenic microbial consortium at the anode. A maximum energy conversion efficiency of 54% was observed at a loading of 2.5 g/l-day. Biological characterization of the consortium showed presence of Burkholderiales and Rhodocyclales as the dominant members. Imaging of the biofilms revealed thinner biofilms compared to the inoculum MFC, but a 1.9-fold higher power density.

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  14. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  15. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Programs Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado. PDF icon obp_thermochem_conversion_platform_review_2009.pdf More Documents &

  16. Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ... Laboratory PV Regional Test Centers Scaled Wind Farm Technology Facility Climate & Earth ...

  17. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process.

  18. Soild State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of 35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of 30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of {<=}$400/kW.

  19. Soild State Energy Conversion Energy Alliance (SECA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack that can be economically produced in high volumes and mass customized for different applications in transportation, stationary power generation, and military market sectors. In Phase I, work will be conducted on system design and integration, stack development, and development of reformers for natural gas and gasoline. Specifically, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW stationary power generation system consisting of a SOFC stack, a steam reformer for natural gas, and balance-of-plant (BOP) components, having an expected efficiency of {>=}35 percent (AC/LHV). In Phase II and Phase III, the emphasis will be to improve the SOFC stack, reduce start-up time, improve thermal cyclability, demonstrate operation on diesel fuel, and substantially reduce materials and manufacturing cost by integrating several functions into one component and thus reducing the number of components in the system. In Phase II, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and demonstrate two SOFC systems: an improved stationary power generation system consisting of an improved SOFC stack with integrated reformation of natural gas, and the BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}40 percent (AC/LHV), and a mobile 5 kW system for heavy-duty trucks and military power applications consisting of an SOFC stack, reformer utilizing anode tailgate recycle for diesel fuel, and BOP components, with an expected efficiency of {>=}30 percent (DC/LHV). Finally, in Phase III, Delphi-Battelle will fabricate and test a 5 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) for mass-market automotive application consisting of an optimized SOFC stack, an optimized catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) reformer for gasoline, and BOP components, having an expected efficiency of {>=}30 percent (DC/LHV) and a factory cost of {<=}$400/kW.

  20. Energy Conversion, an Energy Frontier Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Figure 1. Schematic diagram of electron injection from a sensitizing dye to a ... Bottom: 2DE-FSRS data for Rhodamine 6G in methanol at a time delay of 300 fs, showing ...

  1. Algal Polyculture Conversion & Analysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... conversion: Sugar & Protein Fermentation * 70% of theoretical protein ... costly CO 2 supply &or co-location w industrial sources - Can avoid commercial ...

  2. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. PDF icon ctab_webinar_bio_oils_upgrading.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil

  3. Sandia Energy - Water Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas...

  4. energy-water interdependency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    water interdependency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  5. Energy/Water History

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    History - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion ...

  6. Conversations and Connections - The Expertise of our Small Business Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Managers (Energy.gov) | Jefferson Lab Conversations and Connections - The Expertise of our Small Business Program Managers (Energy.gov) External Link: http://energy.gov/diversity/articles/conversations-and-connections-expertise-our... By jlab_admin on Mon, 2012-08-20

  7. Systems and methods for solar energy storage, transportation, and conversion utilizing photochemically active organometallic isomeric compounds and solid-state catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vollhardt, K. Peter C.; Segalman, Rachel A; Majumdar, Arunava; Meier, Steven

    2015-02-10

    A system for converting solar energy to chemical energy, and, subsequently, to thermal energy includes a light-harvesting station, a storage station, and a thermal energy release station. The system may include additional stations for converting the released thermal energy to other energy forms, e.g., to electrical energy and mechanical work. At the light-harvesting station, a photochemically active first organometallic compound, e.g., a fulvalenyl diruthenium complex, is exposed to light and is photochemically converted to a second, higher-energy organometallic compound, which is then transported to a storage station. At the storage station, the high-energy organometallic compound is stored for a desired time and/or is transported to a desired location for thermal energy release. At the thermal energy release station, the high-energy organometallic compound is catalytically converted back to the photochemically active organometallic compound by an exothermic process, while the released thermal energy is captured for subsequent use.

  8. Suite of Cellulase Enzyme Technologies for Biomass Conversion...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Suite of Cellulase Enzyme Technologies for Biomass Conversion National Renewable Energy Laboratory...

  9. Pretreatment Methods for Biomass Conversion into Biofuels and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Pretreatment Methods for Biomass Conversion into Biofuels and Biopolymers National Renewable Energy...

  10. NUCLEAR CONVERSION APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1960-09-13

    A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.

  11. Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production RTI International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production. PDF icon ctab_webinar_bio_oils_production.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Bio-oil Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils

  12. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the biochemical conversion sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program Booklet. PDF icon biochemical_conversion_nagle_0110.pdf PDF icon

  13. 1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

  14. Nonrenewable Energy Sources - Energy Explained, Your Guide To...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sources Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) ...

  15. Secondary Energy Sources - Energy Explained, Your Guide To Understandi...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sources Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) ...

  16. Thermo-fluid dynamic design study of single and double-inflow radial and single-stage axial steam turbines for open-cycle thermal energy conversion net power-producing experiment facility in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlbeiri, T. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-03-01

    The results of the study of the optimum thermo-fluid dynamic design concept are presented for turbine units operating within the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems. The concept is applied to the first OC-OTEC net power producing experiment (NPPE) facility to be installed at Hawaii's natural energy laboratory. Detailed efficiency and performance calculations were performed for the radial turbine design concept with single and double-inflow arrangements. To complete the study, the calculation results for a single-stage axial steam turbine design are also presented. In contrast to the axial flow design with a relatively low unit efficiency, higher efficiency was achieved for single-inflow turbines. Highest efficiency was calculated for a double-inflow radial design, which opens new perspectives for energy generation from OC-OTEC systems.

  17. Structured luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

    2012-12-11

    An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

  18. DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plants | Department of Energy Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants DOE Extends Contract to Operate Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion Plants December 24, 2015 - 11:06am Addthis LEXINGTON, Ky. (Dec. 24, 2015) - The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management (EM) today announced it is extending its contract for Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Facilities at Paducah, Kentucky and Portsmouth, Ohio for a

  19. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Programs Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting, held on February 16...18, 2011, at the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Downtown Denver, Colorado." PDF icon 2011_thermochem_review.pdf More Documents &

  20. International Energy Statistics - EIA

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    CO2 Emissions Carbon Intensity Energy Intensity Conversions Population Coal Prices ... emissions, fuel heat contents, and conversion factors as available for all countries ...

  1. Cellulosic Biomass Sugars to Advantage Jet Fuel: Catalytic Conversion of Corn Stover to Energy Dense, Low Freeze Point Paraffins and Naphthenes: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-462

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elander, Rick

    2015-08-04

    NREL will provide scientific and engineering support to Virent Energy Systems in three technical areas: Process Development/Biomass Deconstruction; Catalyst Fundamentals; and Technoeconomic Analysis. The overarching objective of this project is to develop the first fully integrated process that can convert a lignocellulosic feedstock (e.g., corn stover) efficiently and cost effectively to a mix of hydrocarbons ideally suited for blending into jet fuel. The proposed project will investigate the integration of Virent Energy System’s novel aqueous phase reforming (APR) catalytic conversion technology (BioForming®) with deconstruction technologies being investigated by NREL at the 1-500L scale. Corn stover was chosen as a representative large volume, sustainable feedstock.

  2. water for energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  3. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Melissa Klembara Office of the Biomass Program U.S. Department of Energy Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils Report-Out Webinar February 9, 2012 2 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov Focus of 2007 Roadmap 2007 Roadmap "Thrust" Areas * Selective thermal processing * Syngas conversion * Utilization of conventional refinery technologies * Liquid-phase catalytic processing * Process engineering & design * Crosscutting issues 3

  4. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

    1988-07-19

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

  5. Digital optical conversion module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.

    1991-02-26

    A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

  6. Energy and Water Data Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Data Portal - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee ... Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  7. Power conversion apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-02-07

    A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

  8. A Conversation with Blake Simmons, Vice President, Deconstruction Division, and Jon Magnuson, Director, Fungal Biotechnology Group, Joint BioEnergy Institute, Emeryville, CA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake A.; Magnuson, Jon K.

    2013-05-03

    An interview of myself and Blake Simmons conducted by Vicki Glaser, Executive Editor of Industrial Biotechnology. The subject of the interview was the relatively new PNNL led Fungal Biotechnology Group within the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI).

  9. Use of Energy in the United States - Energy Explained, Your Guide...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Energy Energy Explained - Home What Is Energy? Forms of Energy Sources of Energy Laws of Energy Units and Calculators Energy Conversion Calculators British Thermal Units (Btu) ...

  10. Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy ... Hydrogen Infrastructure Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells ...

  11. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation system leads to higher thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency. However, in a CSP system, higher operating temperature also leads to greater thermal losses. These two effects combine to give an optimal system-level operating temperature that may be less than the upper operating temperature limit of system components. The overall efficiency may be improved by developing materials, power cycles, and system-integration strategies that enable operation at elevated temperature while limiting thermal losses. This is particularly true for the TES system and its components. Meeting the SunShot cost target will require cost and performance improvements in all systems and components within a CSP plant. Solar collector field hardware will need to decrease significantly in cost with no loss in performance and possibly with performance improvements. As higher temperatures are considered for the power block, new working fluids, heat-transfer fluids (HTFs), and storage fluids will all need to be identified to meet these new operating conditions. Figure 1 shows thermodynamic conversion efficiency as a function of temperature for the ideal Carnot cycle and 75% Carnot, which is considered to be the practical efficiency attainable by current power cycles. Current conversion efficiencies for the parabolic trough steam cycle, power tower steam cycle, parabolic dish/Stirling, Ericsson, and air-Brayton/steam Rankine combined cycles are shown at their corresponding operating temperatures. Efficiencies for supercritical steam and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) are also shown for their operating temperature ranges.

  12. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  13. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrell, John

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  14. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  15. LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Research & Development » Technology Application R&D » Municipal Consortium » News & Events » LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety, held November 13, 2013, in Seattle, WA. Presentations and Materials State of

  16. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Bio-Oils Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils Introduction presentation report-out at the CTAB webinar on bio-oils. PDF icon ctab_webinar_bio_oils_intro.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading 2013 Peer Review Presnentations-Plenaries

  17. 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biochemical Conversion 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2013 Project Peer Review on May 20-24, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the biochemical conversion session are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2013 Project Peer Review Program Booklet. PDF icon biochem_baez_2316.pdf PDF icon

  18. 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Thermochemical Conversion | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Thermochemical Conversion 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Thermochemical Conversion The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted its 2015 Project Peer Review on March 23-27, 2015, at the Hilton Mark Center in Alexandria, Virginia. The presentations from the thermochemical conversion sessions are available to view and download below. For detailed session descriptions and presentation titles, view the 2015 Project Peer Review Program Booklet. PDF icon

  19. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover | Department of Energy Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon

  20. Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Wastewater | Department of Energy Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Algae-to-Fuel: Integrating Thermochemical Conversion, Nutrient Recycling, and Wastewater Jordi Perez, Scientist, SRI International PDF icon

  1. Addressing the Water and Energy Nexus

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water and Energy Nexus - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  2. Fundamental Challenges in Solar to Fuel Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ager, NERSC, 2/4/14 - 1 Fundamental Challenges in Solar to Fuel Conversion aka Improving on Photosynthesis Joel Ager Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA February 4, 2014 NERSC User Meeting Berkeley, CA The Joint Center for Artificial Photosynthesis is a DOE Energy Innovation Hub, supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy Ager, NERSC, 2/4/14 - 2 What is "artificial

  3. Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, Solar Pool Heating, Wind (Small), Geothermal Direct-Use Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  5. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microturbines Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities...

  6. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  7. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Anaerobic Digestion Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  8. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric, Municipal Solid Waste, Tidal, Wave, Wind (Small), Hydroelectric (Small) Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  9. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Electric Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  10. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for the primary purpose of converting natural gas or...

  11. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for...

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Microturbines Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for...

  13. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for...

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Small), Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for...

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Digestion, Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels, Other Distributed Generation Technologies Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  16. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Solar Photovoltaics, Wind (All), Biomass, Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small) Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  17. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are...

  18. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that...

  19. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Non-Renewable Fuels Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  20. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    using Renewable Fuels Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  1. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat recovery Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities...

  2. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Heat Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities...

  3. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat & Power Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion...

  4. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydroelectric, Landfill Gas, Wind (Small) Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption Qualifying energy conversion facilities are those that are used for the...

  5. New concepts for high efficiency energy conversion: The avalanche heterostructure and superlattice solar cells. Subcontract report, 1 June 1987--31 January 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Summers, C.J.; Rohatgi, A.; Torabi, A.; Harris, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes investigation into the theory and technology of a novel heterojunction or superlattice, single-junction solar cell, which injects electrons across the heterointerface to produce highly efficient impact ionization of carriers in the lowband-gap side of the junction, thereby conserving their total energy. Also, the superlattice structure has the advantage of relaxing the need for perfect lattice matching at the p-n interface and will inhibit the cross diffusion of dopant atoms that typically occurs in heavy doping. This structure avoids the use of tunnel junctions that make it very difficult to achieve the predicted efficiencies in cascade cells, thus making it possible to obtain energy efficiencies that are competitive with those predicted for cascade solar cells with reduced complexity and cost. This cell structure could also be incorporated into other solar cell structures designed for wider spectral coverage.

  6. Direct Carbon Conversion: Application to the Efficient Conversion of Fossil Fuels to Electricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooper, J F; Cherepy, N; Berry, G; Pasternak, A; Surles, T; Steinberg, M

    2001-03-07

    We introduce a concept for efficient conversion of fossil fuels to electricity that entails the decomposition of fossil-derived hydrocarbons into carbon and hydrogen, and electrochemical conversion of these fuels in separate fuel cells. Carbon/air fuel cells have the advantages of near zero entropy change and associated heat production (allowing 100% theoretical conversion efficiency). The activities of the C fuel and CO{sub 2} product are invariant, allowing constant EMF and full utilization of fuel in single pass mode of operation. System efficiency estimates were conducted for several routes involving sequential extraction of a hydrocarbon from the fossil resource by (hydro) pyrolysis followed by thermal decomposition. The total energy conversion efficiencies of the processes were estimated to be (1) 80% for direct conversion of petroleum coke; (2) 67% HHV for CH{sub 4}; (3) 72% HHV for heavy oil (modeled using properties of decane); (4) 75.5% HHV (83% LHV) for natural gas conversion with a Rankine bottoming cycle for the H{sub 2} portion; and (5) 69% HHV for conversion of low rank coals and lignite through hydrogenation and pyrolysis of the CH{sub 4} intermediate. The cost of carbon fuel is roughly $7/GJ, based on the cost of the pyrolysis step in the industrial furnace black process. Cell hardware costs are estimated to be less than $500/kW.

  7. Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels Thermochemical Conversion Proceeses to Aviation Fuels This is a presentation from the November 27, 2012, Sustainable Alternative Fuels Cost Workshop given by John Holladay, PNNL PDF icon holladay_caafi_workshop.pdf More Documents & Publications Technology Pathway Selection Effort Pathways for Algal Biofuels U.S., Canada, and Finland Pyrolysis Collaborations

  8. Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Carbohydrates Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates DOE report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates. PDF icon ctab_webinar_carbohydrates_intro.pdf More Documents & Publications Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels

  9. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engine-Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

  10. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

  11. Sandia Energy - Solar Resource Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Resource Assessment Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Resource Assessment Solar Resource AssessmentTara...

  12. Sandia Energy - Transmission Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Transmission Grid Integration Transmission Grid...

  13. Sandia Energy - Solar Market Transformation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Market Transformation Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Solar Market Transformation Solar Market TransformationTara...

  14. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  15. Sandia Energy - Inverter Reliability Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inverter Reliability Program Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability Inverter Reliability Program Inverter Reliability...

  16. Sandia Energy - Advanced Research & Development

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Research & Development Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Advanced Research & Development Advanced Research & DevelopmentCoryne...

  17. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Unraveling the Voltage-Fade Mechanism in High-Energy-Density Lithium-Ion Batteries: Origin of the Tetrahedral Cations for Spinel Conversion

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Abraham, Daniel P.; Huq, Ashfia; Payzant, E. Andrew; Wood, David L.; Daniel, Claus

    2014-09-30

    Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cationmore » intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct →LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct → LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.« less

  19. DNV-GL-Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, ... variable-pitch Vestas V27 turbines and two 60 m anemometer ...

  20. Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Conversion A key starting point for material management and minimization is reducing the civilian use of and demands for weapon-grade nuclear material. The Office of Conversion works around the world to convert, or verify the shutdown of, civilian research and test reactors that use or produce weapons-usable nuclear material to materials not of proliferation concern. In support of this, the Office of Conversion works to develop and qualify new fuels and technologies to support conversion efforts

  1. Sandia Energy - WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator) Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Water Power WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter SIMulator) WEC-Sim (Wave Energy Converter...

  2. Sandia Energy - Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems...

  3. Wind Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWind Energy Wind EnergyTara Camacho-Lopez2016-04-18T19:53:27+00:00 Conducting applied research to increase the viability of wind ...

  4. Internal electron conversion of the isomeric {sup 57}Fe nucleus state with an energy of 14.4 keV excited by the radiation of the plasma of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Golovin, G V; Savel'ev-Trofimov, Andrei B; Uryupina, D S; Volkov, Roman V

    2011-03-31

    We recorded the spectrum of delayed secondary electrons ejected from the target, which was coated with a layer of iron enriched with the {sup 57}Fe isotope to 98%, under its irradiation by fluxes of broadband X-ray radiation and fast electrons from the plasma produced by a femtosecond laser pulse at an intensity of 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. Maxima were identified at energies of 5.6, 7.2, and 13.6 keV in the spectrum obtained for a delay of 90 - 120 ns. The two last-listed maxima owe their origin to the internal electron conversion of the isomeric level with an energy of 14.4 keV and a lifetime of 98 ns to the K and L shells of atomic iron, respectively; the first-named level arises from a cascade K - L{sub 2}L{sub 3} Auger process. Photoexcitaion by the X-ray plasma radiation is shown to be the principal channel of the isomeric level excitation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  5. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  6. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  7. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pezzullo, Leslie

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  8. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review. Thermochemical Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grabowski, Paul E.

    2012-02-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the 2011 U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review meeting.

  9. Wavelength Conversion Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Water Water America has vast wave, tidal and hydropower resources -- but much of this energy remains untapped. The Energy Department is committed to driving critical research and development efforts to expand electricity generation from these clean energy resources. This includes investments in existing hydropower facilities to equip them with the necessary infrastructure to produce electricity and leading marine and hydrokinetic technology advancements to generate energy from waves,

  10. Beemer Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: Beemer Energy Place: Delaware Product: Engaged in the development of green-field ethanol sites, the conversion of existing industrial facilities to ethanol production and the...

  11. DOE Publishes Report on Detroit's Street Lighting Conversion | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy Report on Detroit's Street Lighting Conversion DOE Publishes Report on Detroit's Street Lighting Conversion October 7, 2015 - 12:00pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy has released a new report on the comprehensive street lighting restoration currently being undertaken by the City of Detroit, which includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to LED. Entitled Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System, the report provides an objective review of the

  12. Word in the Square: Conversation Monitoring and Analysis Report |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Word in the Square: Conversation Monitoring and Analysis Report Word in the Square: Conversation Monitoring and Analysis Report Prepared for the Hydrogen Education Foundation December 10, 2007. This report summarizes online discussions about hydrogen within the context of alternative energy, environment, technology and sustainability. This report focuses on the online discussions for the month of November 2007. PDF icon word_square_nha.pdf More Documents &

  13. 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program's Biochemical Platform Review meeting, held on February 14-16, 2011, at the Crowne Plaza Hotel in Downtown Denver, Colorado. PDF icon 2011_biochem_review.pdf More Documents & Publications 2011 Biomass Program Peer

  14. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    energy source" includes energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, conversion of biomass, fuel cells that do not require hydrocarbon fuel, small......

  15. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Generation Facility Corporate Tax Exemptions "Alternative renewable energy source" includes energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, conversion of...

  16. Monthly Energy Review The Monthly Energy Review

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Publication of this report is in keeping with...

  17. Farasis Energy Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Farasis Energy Inc Place: California Zip: CA 94545 Product: An advanced energy storage and conversion technology company focused on developing and commercializing...

  18. Crimson Renewable Energy LP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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  19. Lion Energy SA | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Lion Energy SA Place: Athens, Greece Zip: GR 152 35 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Solar Product: Lion Energy owns proprietary technologies for conversion of waste...

  20. Gyroharmonic conversion experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K. [Omega-P, Inc., New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); LaPointe, M.A. [Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}