National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal treatment unit

  1. EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the...

  2. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  3. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  4. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  5. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-31

    Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  7. Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Paducah, KY EM Project: Building C400 Thermal Treatment ETR Report Date: August 2007 ETR-8 United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) External...

  8. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  9. Overview of Integrated Waste Treatment Unit

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Environmental Management Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Overview Overview for the DOE High Level Waste Corporate Board March 5, 2009 safety performance cleanup closure...

  10. Thermal desorption treatability test conducted with VAC*TRAX Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment standards. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, where off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed waste with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of mixed waste. DOE-AL manages nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment units (MTUs) to treat waste at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed wastes must remove the hazardous component (i.e., meet RCRA treatment standards) and contain the radioactive component in a form that will protect the worker, public, and environment. On the basis of the recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) include thermal desorption (TD), evaporative oxidation, and waste water evaporation.

  11. PSERC 97-12 "Thermal Unit Commitment Including

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PSERC 97-12 "Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints" Carlos Murillo-562-3966. #12;Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints Carlos Murillo S anchez Robert a new algorithm for unit commitment that employs a Lagrange relaxation technique with a new augmentation

  12. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

  13. Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Unit Commitment Including Optimal AC Power Flow Constraints Carlos Murillo{Sanchez Robert J algorithm for unit commitment that employs a Lagrange relaxation technique with a new augmentation. This framework allows the possibility of committing units that are required for the VArs that they can produce

  14. Hydro unit commitment in hydro-thermal optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, C.; Hsu, E.; Svoboda, A.J.; Tseng, C.; Johnson, R.B. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    In this paper the authors develop a model and technique for solving the combined hydro and thermal unit commitment problem, taking into full account the hydro unit dynamic constraints in achieving overall economy of power system operation. The combined hydrothermal unit commitment problem is solved by a decomposition and coordination approach. Thermal unit commitment is solved using a conventional Lagrangian relaxation technique. The hydro system is divided into watersheds, which are further broken down into reservoirs. The watersheds are optimized by Network Flow Programming (NFP). Priority-list-based Dynamic Programming is used to solve the Hydro Unit Commitment (HUC) problem at the reservoir level. A successive approximation method is used for updating the marginal water values (Lagrange multipliers) to improve the hydro unit commitment convergence, due to the large size and multiple couplings of water conservation constraints. The integration of the hydro unit commitment into the existing Hydro-Thermal Optimization (HTO) package greatly improves the quality of its solution in the PG and E power system.

  15. PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM R. Gollmer1 , A. Moller comprising thermal and pumped-storage hydro units a large-scale mixed-integer optimization model is developed hydro units. The variable ut i 2 f0;1g; i = 1;:::;I;t = 1;:::;T indicates whether the thermal unit i

  16. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R.

    2012-05-07

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  17. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  18. Baldwin Thermal Treatment Facility, Baldwin, Illinois: Organics and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kipin, P.

    1997-12-31

    The Baldwin Thermal Treatment Facility is located at the Illinois Power Company`s Baldwin Power Plant, east of St. Louis, Missouri. It consists of two coal fired cyclone boilers and one pulverized coal boiler. Wastes are fed to the two cyclone boilers, at present. Future expansion to the pulverizer unit is planned. The boilers burn at 3,000 F with six seconds retention. This exceeds blast furnaces and most incinerators. An added feature is that the coal and waste materials are injected directly into the hottest zone immediately preventing any possible creation of dioxins. Up to 600 tons of waste per day can be fed to the boilers. This will increase when the third boiler is added to the permit. The facility can take a wide range of sizes and concentrations of coal tars and oils. The on-site process equipment will process these with on-site coal in varying proportions as required to ensure a stable uniform feed to the boiler. The on-site process equipment can process intermixed rock, metal, concrete, soil into a uniform blend with coal tars and coal. On-site decontamination of scrap metal is also provided for.

  19. Method for determining thermal conductivity and thermal capacity per unit volume of earth in situ

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method for determining the thermal conductivity of the earth in situ is based upon a cylindrical probe (10) having a thermopile (16) for measuring the temperature gradient between sets of thermocouple junctions (18 and 20) of the probe after it has been positioned in a borehole and has reached thermal equilibrium with its surroundings, and having means (14) for heating one set of thermocouple junctions (20) of the probe at a constant rate while the temperature gradient of the probe is recorded as a rise in temperature over several hours (more than about 3 hours). A fluid annulus thermally couples the probe to the surrounding earth. The recorded temperature curves are related to the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and to the thermal capacity per unit volume, (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin., by comparison with calculated curves using estimates of k.sub..infin. and (.gamma.c.sub.p).sub..infin. in an equation which relates these parameters to a rise in the earth's temperature for a known and constant heating rate.

  20. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  1. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  2. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    S. A. (2004). "Solar thermal collectors and applications".for High Temperature Solar Thermal Collector Units A thesisfor Solar Thermal Collectors……………………………..7 Solar Thermal

  3. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  4. Development of a simplified thermal analysis procedure for insulating glass units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klam, Jeremy Wayne

    2009-06-02

    A percentage of insulating glass (IG) units break each year due to thermally induced perimeter stresses. The glass industry has known about this problem for many years and an ASTM standard has recently been developed for ...

  5. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  6. Vaporization of actinide oxides in thermal treatment processes for mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.; Krikorian, O.H.; Adamson, M.G.

    1994-10-04

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the volatilities of U, Pu, and Am in thermal treatment processes for mixed wastes. The thermodynamics of vaporization U and Pu oxides in the presence of oxygen and water vapor and of U oxide in the presence of oxygen and chlorine were studied. Experimental studies of U oxide volatilities by previous authors have also been reviewed. For species where data are unavailable estimation methods were used to obtain free energies of formation of the gaseous species, The data are applied to thermal treatment processes in general and then more specifically to conditions representative of the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Unit. (RFP FBU), molten salt oxidizer, and an incinerator. U volatilities are greatest ranging from 2.67 x 10{sup -7} gU/h in the RFP FBU to 4. 00 gU/h for typical incinerator conditions. Pu volatilities are almost 5 orders of magnitude less than U and Am volatilities are about 3 orders of magnitude less than Pu.

  7. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  8. A genetic algorithm for solving the unit commitment problem of a hydro-thermal power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolf, A.; Bayrleithner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The paper presents a two layer approach to solve the unit commitment problem of a hydro-thermal power system. The first layer uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to decide the on/off status of the units. The second layer uses a non-linear programming formulation solved by a Lagrangian relaxation to perform the economic dispatch while meeting all plant and system constraints. In order to deal effectively with the constraints of the problem and prune the search space of the GA in advance, the difficult minimum up/down-time constraints of thermal generation units and the turbine/pump operating constraint of storage power stations are embedded in the binary strings that are coded to represent the on/off-states of the generating units. The other constraints are handled by integrating penalty costs into the fitness function. In order to save execution time, the economic dispatch is only performed if the given unit commitment schedule is able to meet the load balance, energy, and begin/end level constraints. The proposed solution approach was tested on a real scaled hydro-thermal power system over a period of a day in half-hour time-steps for different GA-parameters. The simulation results reveal that the features of easy implementation, convergence within an acceptable execution time, and highly optimal solution in solving the unit commitment problem can be achieved.

  9. Soil thermal dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Qianlai

    ). Thus, the heat stored in soil and temperature variations cannot be ignored when studying airSoil thermal dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems of the conterminous United States from 1948 to 2008 to changes in vegetation, snow, soil moisture, and other climate variables (i.e., precipitation, solar

  10. Thermal characteristics and durability of sealed insulated glass units incorporating muntin bars under ultraviolet exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elmahdy, A.H. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Inst. for Research in Construction

    1998-10-01

    Recent developments in glazing manufacturing have resulted in the introduction of a variety of glazing systems to meet the consumers demand and, in many cases, with better thermal performance than conventional glazing. Insulating glass (IG) units are now available where air is replaced with argon and other heavy gases (or mixtures of gases), low emissivity coatings on glass or plastic films, and muntin bars in the cavity between the sheets of glass. Muntin bars are made of various materials such as aluminum (anodized or painted), vinyl, or silicone foam. Although muntin bars are used for aesthetic reasons, they may cause adverse effects on the IG units performance, which may be attributed to the improper preparation of the muntin bars or the use of interior paints. Ultraviolet (fogging) tests were performed on a number of argon-filled IG units with and without muntin bars. The test results indicate that most of the IG units with muntin bars fail the UV test when viewed at off-angle. Meanwhile, when viewed at right angle, most of the IG units with muntin bars passed the UV test. Test results also showed that the R-value and condensation resistance of IG units with muntin bars are 4% to 7% lower than those units without muntin bars. The thermal bridging effect of the muntin bars contribute to the lower glass surface temperature in the area adjacent to the muntin bars.

  11. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P.; Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A.

    2008-07-15

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  12. THERMAL TREATMENT REVIEW . WTE I THERMAL TREATMENT Since the beginning of this century, global waste-to-energy capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of new waste-to gasification process at an industrial scale The Waste-To-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT), headquartered at Columbia University in New York City, keeps a close watch on the thermal waste-to-energy capacity has increased steadily at the rate of about four million tonnes of MSW per year

  13. Standard guide for characterization of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes for thermal treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This guide identifies methods to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of radioactive and/or hazardous wastes before a waste is processed at high temperatures, for example, vitrification into a homogeneous glass ,glass-ceramic, or ceramic waste form. This includes waste forms produced by ex-situ vitrification (ESV), in-situ vitrification (ISV), slagging, plasma-arc, hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) and/or cold-pressing and sintering technologies. Note that this guide does not specifically address high temperature waste treatment by incineration but several of the analyses described in this guide may be useful diagnostic methods to determine incinerator off-gas composition and concentrations. The characterization of the waste(s) recommended in this guide can be used to (1) choose and develop the appropriate thermal treatment methodology, (2) determine if waste pretreatment is needed prior to thermal treatment, (3) aid in development of thermal treatment process control, (4) develop surrogate wa...

  14. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermalš,,ThomasDimensional

  15. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermalš,,ThomasDimensionalNational

  16. Liquefaction and storage of thermal treatment off-gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M. . Rocky Flats Plant); Golden, J.O. )

    1992-09-08

    A fluidized bed catalytic oxidation unit is being developed for use in the destruction of mixed waste at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cyclones, filters, in situ neutralization of acid gases, and a catalytic converter are used to meet emission standards. Because there is concern by the public that these measures may not be adequate, two off-gas capture systems were evaluated. Both systems involve liquefaction of carbon dioxide produced in the oxidation process. The carbon dioxide would be released only after analysis proved that all appropriate emission standards are met.

  17. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  18. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA.

  19. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  20. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  1. Pressurized heat treatment of glass-ceramic to control thermal expansion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P. (Dayton, OH)

    1985-01-01

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  2. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen; Phillips, Rhiannon; Coleman, Terry; Rampling, Terence

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  3. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    et al. (2003). Low-Cost Distributed Solar- Thermal-Electriccooling with solar energy, leading to a more cost effectiveSolar Thermal Collector Units Introduction Increased production costs

  4. Comparison of discrete and continuous thermal neutron scattering treatments in MCNP5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlou, A. T. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The standard discrete thermal neutron S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment in MCNP5 is compared with a continuous S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment using a criticality suite of 119 benchmark cases and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data. In the analysis, six bound isotopes are considered: beryllium metal, graphite, hydrogen in water, hydrogen in polyethylene, beryllium in beryllium oxide and oxygen in beryllium oxide. Overall, there are only small changes in the eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) between discrete and continuous treatments. In the comparison of 64 cases that utilize S({alpha},{beta}) scattering, 62 agreed at the 95% confidence level, and the 2 cases with differences larger than 3 {sigma} agreed within 1 {sigma} when more neutrons were run in the calculations. The results indicate that the changes in eigenvalue between continuous and discrete treatments are random, small, and well within the uncertainty of measured data for reactor criticality experiments. (authors)

  5. Thermal-Light-Induced Coherent Dynamics in Atoms and Molecules -- an Exact Quantum Mechanical Treatment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Avisar; Asaf Eilam; A. D. Wilson-Gordon

    2015-05-01

    The question of whether sunlight induces coherent dynamics in biological systems is under debate. Here we show, on the basis of an exact fully quantum mechanical treatment, that thermal light induces excited-state coherences in matter similar to those induced by a coherent state. We demonstrate the phenomenon on a V-type model system and a two-state Born-Oppenheimer molecular system. Remarkably, wavepacket-like dynamics is induced in the excited molecular potential-energy surface.

  6. An Economic Analysis of the Self Commitment of Thermal Units Simon Ede, Ray Zimmerman, Timothy Mount, Robert Thomas, William Schulze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    An Economic Analysis of the Self Commitment of Thermal Units Simon Ede, Ray Zimmerman, Timothy a series of economic experiments conducted at Cornell University's Laboratory for Experimental Economics Commitment In the most conventional form of economic dispatch, the problem facing the system operator

  7. An investigation of gas separation membranes for reduction of thermal treatment emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, D.M.; Logsdon, B.W.; Pellegrino, J.J.

    1994-05-16

    Gas permeable membranes were evaluated for possible use as air pollution control devices on a fluidized bed catalytic incineration unit. The unit is a candidate technology for treatment of certain mixed hazardous and radioactive wastes at the Rocky Flats Plant. Cellulose acetate and polyimide membranes were tested to determine the permeance of typical off-gas components such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and oxygen. Multi-component permeation studies included gas mixtures containing light hydrocarbons. Experiments were also conducted to discover information about potential membrane degradation in the presence of organic compounds.

  8. Influence of surface modification adopting thermal treatments on dispersion of detonation nanodiamond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Xiangyang . E-mail: xiangyang.xu@sohu.com; Yu Zhiming; Zhu Yongwei; Wang Baichun

    2005-03-15

    In order to improve the dispersion of detonation nanodiamonds (ND) in aqueous and non-aqueous media, a series of thermal treatments have been conducted in air ambient to modify ND surface. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were introduced to observe the primary size of ND. Differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) methodology, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were adopted to analyze the structure, bonds at surfaces of the treated ND. Malvern instrument Zetasizer3000HS was used for measuring the surface electric potential and the size distribution of ND. As thermal treatments can cause graphitization and oxidization of functional groups at the surface, ND treated at high temperature is correspondingly more negatively charged in an aqueous medium, and the increased absolute value of zeta potential ensures the electrostatic stability of ND particles. Specially, after being treated at a temperature more than 850K, ND can be well dispersed in various media.

  9. Non-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffre, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) processes can be improved for NOx reduction by a Non- Thermal Plasma. European norm (standard specification) EURO 6 im- poses a reduction of 50% on automotive NOx emissionsNon-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffr´e, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual Ecole Centrale de

  10. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin; Bhat, Vinay V; Gallego, Nidia C; Contescu, Cristian I

    2012-01-01

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  11. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

  12. 1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP OXYGEN DEFECT FORMATION AND HYDROGEN EFFUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States BACKGROUND THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP was partially supported by a DOE grant through United Solar Ovonics, Inc., under the Solar America Initiative

  13. Independent dose per monitor unit review of eight U.S.A. proton treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyers, M. F.; Ibbott, G. S.; Grant, R. L.; Summers, P. A.; Followill, D. S.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Compare the dose per monitor unit at different proton treatment facilities using three different dosimetry methods. Methods: Measurements of dose per monitor unit were performed by a single group at eight facilities using 11 test beams and up to six different clinical portal treatment sites. These measurements were compared to the facility reported dose per monitor unit values. Results: Agreement between the measured and reported doses was similar using any of the three dosimetry methods. Use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method gave results approximately 3% higher than both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods. Conclusions: Any single dosimetry method could be used for multi-institution trials with similar conformity between facilities. A multi-institutional trial could support facilities using both the ICRU 59 N{sub X} based and ICRU 78 (TRS-398) N{sub D,w} based methods but use of the ICRU 59 N{sub D,w} based method should not be allowed simultaneously with the other two until the difference is resolved.

  14. A method to characterize the influence of air distribution on the composting treatment: monitoring of the thermal fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A method to characterize the influence of air distribution on the composting treatment of air distribution on the composting treatment: monitoring of the thermal fields Hénon Florent a:anne.tremier@cemagref.fr Abstract In a composting process the monitoring of heat flows is a useful tool in terms of phenomenological

  15. The influence of thermal treatment on the preparation of PMN and PMN-PT thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnol, P.D.; Valadares, L.F.; Varela, J.A.; Bertochi, M.A.Z

    2003-03-15

    Ferroelectric thin films belong to a class of materials with great technological importance in optic fibers, microelectromechanical systems, and microprocessors and computers memories. The (1-x)PbMg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 3}(x)PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) thin films, with x=0, 0.1, 0.35 and 0.5, were prepared by Pechini's process and deposited by spin-coating on Si(100), Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) and quartz substrates. The goal of the present paper is to verify the thermal treatment influence on the perovskite phase formation, which is desirable for these applications. The phase formation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The film's surface was characterized by atomic force microscopy to analyze the roughness and the homogeneity. The results of this study indicate that the optimum conditions for obtaining the perovskite phase using a Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrate, were drying each deposited layer at 140 deg. C (heating plate), and a final thermal treatment at 600 deg. C for 3 h in a closed system with a lead-rich atmosphere.

  16. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure sumamry for the Uranium Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-05-01

    This closure summary has been prepared for the Uranium Treatment Unit (UTU) located at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The actions required to achieve closure of the UTU area are outlined in the Closure Plan, submitted to and approved by the Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation staff, respectively. The UTU was used to store and treat waste materials that are regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. This closure summary details all steps that were performed to close the UTU in accordance with the approved plan.

  17. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  18. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance System for a Dedicated Intracranial Radiosurgery Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruschin, Mark; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Ansell, Steve; Menard, Cynthia; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ; Bootsma, Gregory; Cho, Young-Bin; Chung, Caroline; Jaffray, David; Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Image guidance has improved the precision of fractionated radiation treatment delivery on linear accelerators. Precise radiation delivery is particularly critical when high doses are delivered to complex shapes with steep dose gradients near critical structures, as is the case for intracranial radiosurgery. To reduce potential geometric uncertainties, a cone beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance system was developed in-house to generate high-resolution images of the head at the time of treatment, using a dedicated radiosurgery unit. The performance and initial clinical use of this imaging system are described. Methods and Materials: A kilovoltage cone beam CT system was integrated with a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit. The X-ray tube and flat-panel detector are mounted on a translational arm, which is parked above the treatment unit when not in use. Upon descent, a rotational axis provides 210 Degree-Sign of rotation for cone beam CT scans. Mechanical integrity of the system was evaluated over a 6-month period. Subsequent clinical commissioning included end-to-end testing of targeting performance and subjective image quality performance in phantoms. The system has been used to image 2 patients, 1 of whom received single-fraction radiosurgery and 1 who received 3 fractions, using a relocatable head frame. Results: Images of phantoms demonstrated soft tissue contrast visibility and submillimeter spatial resolution. A contrast difference of 35 HU was easily detected at a calibration dose of 1.2 cGy (center of head phantom). The shape of the mechanical flex vs scan angle was highly reproducible and exhibited <0.2 mm peak-to-peak variation. With a 0.5-mm voxel pitch, the maximum targeting error was 0.4 mm. Images of 2 patients were analyzed offline and submillimeter agreement was confirmed with conventional frame. Conclusions: A cone beam CT image guidance system was successfully adapted to a radiosurgery unit. The system is capable of producing high-resolution images of bone and soft tissue. The system is in clinical use and provides excellent image guidance without invasive frames.

  19. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  20. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  1. Effects of thermal treatment of nanostructured trititanates on their crystallographic and textural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, Edisson; Jardim, Paula M.; Araujo, Antonio S.

    2007-09-04

    Nanostructured titanates (TTNT) with general formula Na {sub x}H{sub 2-x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O were synthesized by hydrothermally reacting different TiO{sub 2} anatase (distinct crystal sizes) with NaOH at 120 deg. C followed by washing with water or diluted acid and drying of the precipitate. The resulting powders with different sodium contents were submitted to various calcination temperatures up to 800 deg. C and each calcined product was characterized as for its phase structure, composition, crystallite size and textural properties, namely BET surface area, mesopore volume and pore size distribution. Thermal transformations of TTNT samples were investigated by monitoring the modifications on crystallographic (X-ray diffraction) and textural (N{sub 2} desorption isotherms) properties, revealing the influence of the type of starting anatase and sodium content over the stability of TTNT. Moreover, a detailed study on the reduction of the interlayer distance in TTNT samples upon thermal treatment allowed corroborating the formation of an intermediate nanostructured hexatitanate, just before phase transformation into the corresponding TiO{sub 2} polymorphs and/or titanate crystals, depending on the sodium content and calcination temperature.

  2. Characterization of the solid low level mixed waste inventory for the solid waste thermal treatment activity - III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-24

    The existing thermally treatable, radioactive mixed waste inventory is characterized to support implementation of the commercial, 1214 thermal treatment contract. The existing thermally treatable waste inventory has been identified using a decision matrix developed by Josephson et al. (1996). Similar to earlier waste characterization reports (Place 1993 and 1994), hazardous materials, radionuclides, physical properties, and waste container data are statistically analyzed. In addition, the waste inventory data is analyzed to correlate waste constituent data that are important to the implementation of the commercial thermal treatment contract for obtaining permits and for process design. The specific waste parameters, which were analyzed, include the following: ``dose equivalent`` curie content, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) content, identification of containers with PA-related mobile radionuclides (14C, 12 79Se, 99Tc, and U isotopes), tritium content, debris and non-debris content, container free liquid content, fissile isotope content, identification of dangerous waste codes, asbestos containers, high mercury containers, beryllium dust containers, lead containers, overall waste quantities, analysis of container types, and an estimate of the waste compositional split based on the thermal treatment contractor`s proposed process. A qualitative description of the thermally treatable mixed waste inventory is also provided.

  3. Radioactive Water Treatment at a United States Environmental Protection Agency Superfund Site - 12322

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beckman, John C.

    2012-07-01

    A water treatment system at a United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Superfund site impacted by radiological contaminants is used to treat water entering the site. The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is actively managing the remedial action for the USEPA using contracts to support the multiple activities on site. The site is where former gas mantle production facilities operated around the turn of the century. The manufacturing facilities used thorium ores to develop the mantles and disposed of off-specification mantles and ore residuals in the surrounding areas. During Site remedial actions, both groundwater and surface water comes into contact with contaminated soils and must be collected and treated at an on-site treatment facility. The radionuclides thorium and radium with associated progeny are the main concern for treatment. Suspended solids, volatile organic compounds, and select metals are also monitored during water treatment. The water treatment process begins were water is pumped to a collection tank where debris and grit settle out. Stored water is pumped to a coagulant tank containing poly-aluminum chloride to collect dissolved solids. The water passes into a reaction tube where aspirated air is added or reagent added to remove Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC'S) by mass transfer and convert dissolved iron to a solid. The water enters the flocculent polymer tank to drop solids out. The flocculated water overflows to a fluidized bed contact chamber to increase precipitation. Flocculation is where colloids of material drop out of suspension and settle. The settled solids are periodically removed and disposed of as radioactive waste. The water is passed through filters and an ion exchange process to extract the radionuclides. Several million liters of water are processed each year from two water treatment plants servicing different areas of the remediation site. Ion exchange resin and filter material are periodically replaced and disposed of as radioactive waste. A total of 0.85 m{sup 3} of waste sludge per year requires disposal on average, in addition to another 6.6 m{sup 3} of waste cartridge filters. All water discharges are regulated by a state of New Jersey Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit implemented by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (Clean Water Act). Laboratory analyses are required to satisfy requirements of the state NPDES permit. Specific monitoring parameters and discharge rates will be provided. Use of the water treatment systems drastically reduces the amount of contaminated water requiring solidification and water disposal to near zero. Millions of liters of potentially contaminated water from excavation activities is treated and released within permit limits. A small volume of solid radioactive waste (21 cubic meters) is generated annually from water treatment process operations. Management of ground and surface water is effectively controlled in remediation areas by the use of sumps, erosion control measures and pumping of water to storage vessels. Continued excavations can be made as water impacting the site is effectively controlled. (authors)

  4. Composition of Municipal Solid Waste-Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    , Biomethanation, pelletization with or without energy recovery and other thermal processes for adoption

  5. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  6. Thermal Use of Biomass in The United States | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) |InformationThe2009) | Open Energy2008)|Al.,ProductThermal

  7. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Seed-Blanket Unit Duplex Fuel Assemblies with VIPRE-01 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Patrick 1987-

    2012-11-15

    analysis report HM heavy metal HS Hashin-Shtrikman HEM homogeneous equilibrium model IMF inert matrix fuel INL Idaho National Laboratory LHGR linear heat generation rate LOFA loss-of-flow accident LWR light water reactor MA minor actinides ME... component of the fluid/wall interface ? gravity vector l distance between centroids of adjacent cells ? unit outward normal vector hydrostatic pressure component of the stress tensor ? heat flux vector ? rate of internal heat generation...

  8. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-10

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJth of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  9. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-06-10

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJthmore »of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.« less

  10. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  11. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  12. Geothermal Resource/Reservoir Investigations Based on Heat Flow and Thermal Gradient Data for the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. D. Blackwell; K. W. Wisian; M. C. Richards; J. L. Steele

    2000-04-01

    Several activities related to geothermal resources in the western United States are described in this report. A database of geothermal site-specific thermal gradient and heat flow results from individual exploration wells in the western US has been assembled. Extensive temperature gradient and heat flow exploration data from the active exploration of the 1970's and 1980's were collected, compiled, and synthesized, emphasizing previously unavailable company data. Examples of the use and applications of the database are described. The database and results are available on the world wide web. In this report numerical models are used to establish basic qualitative relationships between structure, heat input, and permeability distribution, and the resulting geothermal system. A series of steady state, two-dimensional numerical models evaluate the effect of permeability and structural variations on an idealized, generic Basin and Range geothermal system and the results are described.

  13. Fouling and thermal-performance characteristics of the Humboldt Bay Unit 2 power-plant condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Elliott, E.S. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (US)

    1993-07-01

    An experimental program was conducted at the Humboldt Bay condenser using eight clusters of four neighboring tubes with different conditions. In each cluster, there were (1) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being distilled water; (2) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being plant circulating water (seawater) and no cleaning; (3) an old tube, plant circulating water with no cleaning; and (4) an old tube, plant circulating water with normal periodic manual cleaning (blowing plugs or sponge balls). These tube clusters were located at four different locations within both the first and second passes of this two-pass condenser. Because of the different conditions, the fouling and cleaning characteristics can be obtained with measurements of the flow rate and inlet, outlet, and saturation temperatures. In addition to the fouling data, the thermal performance can be compared to that obtained with the standard rating method. There was a reduction in the thermal performance of the new, distilled-water tubes for about the first 80 days, and then the performance remained essentially constant. This performance change was most likely the result of the change from dropwise to filmwise condensation on the 7/8-in OD, 18 BWG Admiralty tubes. There was a continued increase of the tubeside fouling resistance with time (no asymptotic behavior) for the tubes that were not cleaned in each cluster using the plant circulating water. The fouling rates were somewhat larger for the first or lower temperature pass initially for the new tubes and after about 100 days for the old tubes. However, the fouling resistance values were substantially larger for the old tubes.

  14. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to receive KOP material, enhances heat conduction, and functions as a heat source and sink during drying operations. This use of the copper insert represents a significant change to the thermal model compared to that used for the fuel calculations. A number of cases were run representing a spectrum of normal and upset conditions for the drying process. Dozens of cases have been run on cold vacuum drying of fuel MCOs. Analysis of these previous calculations identified four cases that provide a solid basis for judgments on the behavior of MCO in drying operations. These four cases are: (1) Normal Process; (2) Degraded vacuum pumping; (3) Open MCO with loss of annulus water; and (4) Cool down after vacuum drying. The four cases were run for two sets of input parameters for KOP MCOs: (1) a set of parameters drawn from safety basis values from the technical data book and (2) a sensitivity set using parameters selected to evaluate the impact of lower void volume and smaller particle size on MCO behavior. Results of the calculations for the drying phase cases are shown in Table ES-2. Cases using data book safety basis values showed dry out in 9.7 hours and heat rejection sufficient to hold temperature rise to less than 25 C. Sensitivity cases which included unrealistically small particle sizes and corresponding high reactive surface area showed higher temperature increases that were limited by water consumption. In this document and in the attachment (Apthorpe, R. and M.G. Plys, 2010) cases using Technical Databook safety basis values are referred to as nominal cases. In future calculations such cases will be called safety basis cases. Also in these documents cases using parameters that are less favorable to acceptable performance than databook safety values are referred to as safety cases. In future calculations such cases will be called sensitivity cases or sensitivity evaluations Calculations to be performed in support of the detailed design and formal safety basis documentation will expand the calculations presented in this document to include: additional features of th

  15. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  16. Utilization of Common Automotive Three-Way NO{sub x} Reduction Catalyst for Managing Off- Gas from Thermal Treatment of High-Nitrate Waste - 13094

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foster, Adam L.; Ki Song, P.E.

    2013-07-01

    Studsvik's Thermal Organic Reduction (THOR) steam reforming process has been tested and proven to effectively treat radioactive and hazardous wastes streams with high nitrate contents to produce dry, stable mineral products, while providing high conversion (>98%) of nitrates and nitrites directly to nitrogen gas. However, increased NO{sub x} reduction may be desired for some waste streams under certain regulatory frameworks. In order to enhance the NO{sub x} reduction performance of the THOR process, a common Three-Way catalytic NO{sub x} reduction unit was installed in the process gas piping of a recently completed Engineering Scale Technology Demonstration (ESTD). The catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit was located downstream of the main THOR process vessel, and it was designed to catalyze the reduction of residual NO{sub x} to nitrogen gas via the oxidation of the hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds that are inherent to the THOR process gas. There was no need for auxiliary injection of a reducing gas, such as ammonia. The unit consisted of four monolith type catalyst sections positioned in series with a gas mixing section located between each catalyst section. The process gas was monitored for NO{sub x} concentration upstream and downstream of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. Conversion efficiencies ranged from 91% to 97% across the catalytic unit, depending on the composition of the inlet gas. Higher concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the THOR process gas increased the NO{sub x} reduction capability of the catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit. The NO{sub x} destruction performance of THOR process in combination with the Three-Way catalytic unit resulted in overall system NO{sub x} reduction efficiencies of greater than 99.9% with an average NO{sub x} reduction efficiency of 99.94% for the entire demonstration program. This allowed the NO{sub x} concentration in the ESTD exhaust gas to be maintained at less than 40 parts per million (ppm), dry basis with an average concentration of approximately 17 ppm, dry basis. There were no signs of catalyst deactivation throughout the 6 day demonstration program, even under the high steam (>50%) content and chemically reducing conditions inherent to the THOR process. Utilization of the common Three-Way automotive catalyst may prove to be a cost effective method for improving NO{sub x} emissions from thermal treatment processes that utilize similar processing conditions. This paper will discuss the details of the implementation and performance of the Three-Way catalytic DeNO{sub x} unit at the THOR ESTD, as well as a discussion of future work to determine the long-term durability of the catalyst in the THOR process. (authors)

  17. An Archaeological Survey for the Wallace Pack Unit Wastewater Treatment Plant Project in Grimes County Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, William

    2015-07-15

    Brazos Valley Research Associates (BVRA) conducted archaeological survey and monitoring at the Wallace Pack Unit, Grimes County, Texas in October 2004 under Antiquities Permit 3570. This investigation examined the site of a proposed lift station...

  18. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  19. Development of US Navy Shipboard Systems for solid and liquid waste thermal treatment. Report for July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullet, B.K.

    1996-07-01

    The paper describes the U.S. Navy`s shipboard environmental challenges and a few of its research programs for meeting its needs for solid and liquid waste treatment. This objective is particularly important in environmentally sensitive areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, where fleet deployment time is significant. Prohibitions on ocean dumping and anticipated requirements on effluent discharge quality have led the Navy to continue the research, development, and demonstration of shipboard systems to treat their unpreventable wastes. For solid, non-hazardous wastes, post-minimization efforts are geared toward long-term development of systems to thermally pyrolyze and oxidize the wastes into significantly reduced volume and weight.

  20. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Missimer, David M.; Guenther, Chris P.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; VanEssendelft, Dirk T.; Means, Nicholas C.

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion in process piping and materials, in excessive off-gas absorbent loading, and in undesired process emissions. The ash content of the coal is important as the ash adds to the DMR and other vessel products which affect the final waste product mass and composition. The amount and composition of the ash also affects the reaction kinetics. Thus ash content and composition contributes to the mass balance. In addition, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and maybe silica and alumina in the ash may contribute to wall-scale formation. Sodium, potassium, and alumina in the ash will be overwhelmed by the sodium, potassium, and alumina from the feed but the impact from the other ash components needs to be quantified. A maximum coal particle size is specified so the feed system does not plug and a minimum particle size is specified to prevent excess elutriation from the DMR to the Process Gas Filter (PGF). A vendor specification was used to procure the calcined coal for IWTU processing. While the vendor supplied a composite analysis for the 22 tons of coal (Appendix A), this study compares independent analyses of the coal performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Three supersacks a were sampled at three different heights within the sack in order to determine within bag variability and between bag variability of the coal. These analyses were also compared to the vendor’s composite analyses and to the coal specification. These analyses were also compared to historic data on Bestac coal analyses that had been performed at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) between 2004-2011.

  1. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14

    This work is aimed at developing a systematic approach for designing treatment systems for wastewater streams resulting from upstream production and downstream processing of oil and gas systems. The approach will provide an optimum and integrated...

  2. EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State...

  3. Effects of thermal treatment on the co-rolled U-Mo fuel foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Brady L. Mackowiak; Glenn A. Moore; Barry H. Rabin; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-11-01

    A monolithic fuel type is being developed to convert US high performance research and test reactors such as Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). The interaction between the cladding and the U-Mo fuel meat during fuel fabrication and irradiation is known to have negative impacts on fuel performance, such as mechanical integrity and dimensional stability. In order to eliminate/minimize the direct interaction between cladding and fuel meat, a thin zirconium diffusion barrier was introduced between the cladding and U-Mo fuel meat through a co-rolling process. A complex interface between the zirconium and U-Mo was developed during the co-rolling process. A predictable interface between zirconium and U-Mo is critical to achieve good fuel performance since the interfaces can be the weakest link in the monolithic fuel system. A post co-rolling annealing treatment is expected to create a well-controlled interface between zirconium and U-Mo. A systematic study utilizing post co-rolling annealing treatment has been carried out. Based on microscopy results, the impacts of the annealing treatment on the interface between zirconium and U-Mo will be presented and an optima annealing treatment schedule will be suggested. The effects of the annealing treatment on the fuel performance will also be discussed.

  4. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  5. Adsorption and thermal treatments of 1-dodecene on Si(100) investigated by STM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, H. W.; Fujikawa, Y.; Sadowski, J. T.; Xue, Q. -K.; Sakurai, T.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the atomic behaviour of long-chain 1-dodecene adsorbed on Si(100) using a scanning tunnelling microscope with an exposure of 30 to 2.4 Langmuirs. Unlike previous reports on short-chain molecules, remarkable self-ordered assembly of molecules is not observed at room temperature, which is possibly attributed to the asymmetric molecular structure with long chains of 1-dodecene. After annealing at 500–580 °C, ordered patterns form with a c(4 × 4) structure, accompanied with thermal decomposition of molecules.

  6. Case report of a near medical event in stereotactic radiotherapy due to improper units of measure from a treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gladstone, D. J.; Li, S.; Jarvis, L. A.; Hartford, A. C.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: The authors hereby notify the Radiation Oncology community of a potentially lethal error due to improper implementation of linear units of measure in a treatment planning system. The authors report an incident in which a patient was nearly mistreated during a stereotactic radiotherapy procedure due to inappropriate reporting of stereotactic coordinates by the radiation therapy treatment planning system in units of centimeter rather than in millimeter. The authors suggest a method to detect such errors during treatment planning so they are caught and corrected prior to the patient positioning for treatment on the treatment machine. Methods: Using pretreatment imaging, the authors found that stereotactic coordinates are reported with improper linear units by a treatment planning system. The authors have implemented a redundant, independent method of stereotactic coordinate calculation. Results: Implementation of a double check of stereotactic coordinates via redundant, independent calculation is simple and accurate. Use of this technique will avoid any future error in stereotactic treatment coordinates due to improper linear units, transcription, or other similar errors. Conclusions: The authors recommend an independent double check of stereotactic treatment coordinates during the treatment planning process in order to avoid potential mistreatment of patients.

  7. Environmental Assessment Offsite Thermal Treatment of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    1999-05-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) needs to demonstrate the economics and feasibility of offsite commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste (LLMW), containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) and other organics, to meet existing regulatory standards for eventual disposal.

  8. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  9. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E.

    1996-08-01

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  10. Negative Thermal Expansion in ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Mechanisms, Rigid Unit Modes, and Neutron Total Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Matthew G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Keen, David A. [Physics Department, Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Wells, Stephen A. [Biological Physics, Bateman Physical Sciences Building, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Evans, John S.O. [Department of Chemistry, University Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-16

    The local structure of the low-temperature ordered phase of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) material ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} has been investigated by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of neutron total scattering data. We obtain, for the first time, quantitative measurements of the extent to which the WO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 6} polyhedra move as rigid units, and we show that these values are consistent with the predictions of rigid unit mode theory. We suggest that rigid unit modes are associated with the NTE. Our results do not support a recent interpretation of x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy data in terms of a larger rigid structural component involving the Zr-O-W linkage.

  11. Combined Therapies for the Treatment of Technically Unresectable Liver Malignancies: Bland Embolization and Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation within the Same Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonomo, Guido, E-mail: guido.bonomo@ieo.it; Della Vigna, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.dellavigna@ieo.it; Monfardini, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.monfardini@ieo.it; Orgera, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigi.orgera@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Chiappa, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.chiappa@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Biliopancreatic Surgery (Italy); Bianchi, Paolo Pietro, E-mail: paolo.bianchi@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Minimally-Invasive Surgery (Italy); Zampino, Maria Giulia, E-mail: maria.zampino@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology (Italy); Orsi, Franco, E-mail: franco.orsi@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: This retrospective study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of combining transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) in a single session for the treatment of technically unresectable liver-only malignancies. Methods: From May 2006 to January 2011, a total of 30 patients affected by liver metastases with single or multiple unresectable liver-only lesions underwent a combined treatment with TAE followed by RFA in the same session, for a total of 36 treated lesions. Patients were extrapolated from a cohort of patients discussed within the weekly institutional tumor board. TAE was performed by using 100 {mu}m microspheres; RFA was performed immediately after TAE by positioning the electrode needle via ultrasound and/or computed tomographic guidance. Local tumor responses and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Results: Completion of both procedures was obtained in all patients for all 36 lesions. Liver lesions had a maximum axial diameter ranging 16-59 mm. Postintervention unenhanced ablated areas ranged 28-104 mm in maximum axial diameter. Safety margins ranged 1-30.5 mm. Complete response, defined as complete devascularization at computed tomography, was obtained in all treated lesions for a maximum period of 12 months. Tumor relapse was observed in one patient at 12 months. Sixteen patients developed new liver lesions or progressive systemic disease during follow-up. Nine patients were still disease-free. Seven patients died as a result of systemic progressive disease. One major treatment-related complication was observed. Conclusions: In patients with technically unresectable liver-only malignancies, single-session combined TAE-RFA is an effective and safe treatment.

  12. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R.; Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M.; Takai, K.; Haniu, H.

    2011-09-15

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  13. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  14. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further testing, demonstration and economic analysis as described in the Phase II effort is warranted and should be pursued.

  15. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    and future of solar thermal energy as a primary source ofon harnessing solar thermal energy for water desalinationas an alternative. Solar thermal energy has the potential to

  16. Thermal stability, acidity, catalytic properties, and deactivation behaviour of SAPO-5 catalysts: Effect of silicon content, acid treatment, and Na exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akolekar, D.B.

    1994-09-01

    Crystalline microporous SAPO-5 molecular sieves with different silicon content, acid-treated SAPO-5 and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 were investigated for their thermal stability, and acidic and catalytic properties. SAPO-5 materials with increasing SI framework content exhibited lower thermal stability. The effects of the thermal treatment and Na exchange on the N{sub 2}-sorption capacity (at 78 K) of these materials were studied. In situ IR spectroscopic investigations of pyridine chemisorbed on the aluminophosphate catalysts revealed that the concentration of Broensted and Lewis acid sites are strongly affected by the Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework, acid treatment, and Na exchange. The results of temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and stepwise thermal desorption of pyridine suggest that there exists a broad site energy distribution over the aluminophosphate catalysts increases with the increasing Si content in the AlPO{sub 4} framework. The acid treatment and Na exchange showed a decrease in the number of strong acid sites on SAPO-5. The TPD of pyridine over SAPO-5, acid-treated SAPO-5, and Na-exchanged SAPO-5 indicated the presence of two types of acid sites. Correlation between the number of strong acid sites (measured in terms of the chemisorption of pyridine at 673 K) and framework charge on the aluminophosphate catalysts has also been obtained. The catalytic activities of SAPO-5 catalysts in the ethanol, n-hexane, isooctane, toluene, and o-xylene conversion reactions were studied. 22 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. REVIEW REPORT: BUILDING C-400 THERMAL TREATMENT 90 PERCENT REMEDIAL DESIGN REPORT AND SITE INVESTIGATION, PGDP, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; Jed Costanza, J; Eva Davis, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Lloyd (Bo) Stewart, L; Hans Stroo, H

    2007-08-15

    On 9 April 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation (EM-22) initiated an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the 90% Remedial Design Report (RDR) and Site Investigation (RDSI) for thermal treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of Building C-400 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The general ITR goals were to assess the technical adequacy of the 90% RDSI and provide recommendations sufficient for DOE to determine if modifications are warranted pertaining to the design, schedule, or cost of implementing the proposed design. The ultimate goal of the effort was to assist the DOE Paducah/Portsmouth Project Office (PPPO) and their contractor team in ''removing'' the TCE source zone located near the C-400 Building. This report provides the ITR findings and recommendations and supporting evaluations as needed to facilitate use of the recommendations. The ITR team supports the remedial action objective (RAO) at C-400 to reduce the TCE source area via subsurface Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH). Further, the ITR team commends PPPO, their contractor team, regulators, and stakeholders for the significant efforts taken in preparing the 90% RDR. To maximize TCE removal at the target source area, several themes emerge from the review which the ITR team believes should be considered and addressed before implementing the thermal treatment. These themes include the need for: (1) Accurate and site-specific models as the basis to verify the ERH design for full-scale implementation for this challenging hydrogeologic setting; (2) Flexible project implementation and operation to allow the project team to respond to observations and data collected during construction and operation; (3) Defensible performance metrics and monitoring, appropriate for ERH, to ensure sufficient and efficient clean-up; and (4) Comprehensive (creative and diverse) contingencies to address the potential for system underperformance, and other unforeseen conditions These themes weave through the ITR report and the various analyses and recommendations. The ITR team recognizes that a number of technologies are available for treatment of TCE sources. Further, the team supports the regulatory process through which the selected remedy is being implemented, and concurs that ERH is a potentially viable remedial technology to meet the RAOs adjacent to C-400. Nonetheless, the ITR team concluded that additional efforts are needed to provide an adequate basis for the planned ERH design, particularly in the highly permeable Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA), where sustaining target temperatures present a challenge. The ERH design modeling in the 90% RDR does not fully substantiate that heating in the deep RGA, at the interface with the McNairy formation, will meet the design goals; specifically the target temperatures. Full-scale implementation of ERH to meet the RAOs is a challenge in the complex hydrogeologic setting at PGDP. Where possible, risks to the project identified in this ITR report as ''issues'' and ''recommendations'' should be mitigated as part of the final design process to increase the likelihood of remedial success. The ITR efforts were organized into five lines of inquiry (LOIs): (1) Site investigation and target zone delineation; (2) Performance objectives; (3) Project and design topics; (4) Health and safety; and (5) Cross cutting and independent cost evaluation. Within each of these LOIs, the ITR team identified a series of unresolved issues--topics that have remaining uncertainties or potential project risks. These issues were analyzed and one or more recommendations were developed for each. In the end, the ITR team identified 27 issues and provided 50 recommendations. The issues and recommendations are briefly summarized below, developed in Section 5, and consolidated into a single list in Section 6. The ITR team concluded that there are substantive unresolved issues and system design uncertainties, resulting in technical and financial risks to DOE.

  18. Small Units inside Large Units 8.1 Experimental units bigger than observational units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, R. A.

    Chapter 8 Small Units inside Large Units 8.1 Experimental units bigger than observational units 8, but it is individual people that are measured. In general, suppose that there are m experimental units, each of which consists of k observational units, and that there are t treatments, each of which is applied

  19. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A.

    1980-06-01

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  20. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Cost Distributed Solar- Thermal-Electric Power Generation.S. A. (2004). "Solar thermal collectors and applications".The present and future of solar thermal energy as a primary

  1. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  2. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01

    This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

  3. SU-E-J-70: Feasibility Study of Dynamic Arc and IMRT Treatment Plans Utilizing Vero Treatment Unit and IPlan Planning Computer for SRS/FSRT Brain Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, S; Lee, S; Dagan, R; Malyapa, R; Mendenhall, N; Mendenhall, W; Ho, M; Hough, D; Yam, M; Li, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing Dynamic Arc (DA) and IMRT with 5mm MLC leaf of VERO treatment unit for SRS/FSRT brain cancer patients with non-invasive stereotactic treatments. The DA and IMRT plans using the VERO unit (BrainLab Inc, USA) are compared with cone-based planning and proton plans to evaluate their dosimetric advantages. Methods: The Vero treatment has unique features like no rotational or translational movements of the table during treatments, Dynamic Arc/IMRT, tracking of IR markers, limitation of Ring rotation. Accuracies of the image fusions using CBCT, orthogonal x-rays, and CT are evaluated less than ? 0.7mm with a custom-made target phantom with 18 hidden targets. 1mm margin is given to GTV to determine PTV for planning constraints considering all the uncertainties of planning computer and mechanical uncertainties of the treatment unit. Also, double-scattering proton plans with 6F to 9F beams and typical clinical parameters, multiple isocenter plans with 6 to 21 isocenters, and DA/IMRT plans are evaluated to investigate the dosimetric advantages of the DA/IMRT for complex shape of targets. Results: 3 Groups of the patients are divided: (1) Group A (complex target shape), CI's are same for IMRT, and DGI of the proton plan are better by 9.5% than that of the IMRT, (2) Group B, CI of the DA plans (1.91+/?0.4) are better than cone-based plan, while DGI of the DA plan is 4.60+/?1.1 is better than cone-based plan (5.32+/?1.4), (3) Group C (small spherical targets), CI of the DA and cone-based plans are almost the same. Conclusion: For small spherical targets, cone-based plans are superior to other 2 plans: DS proton and DA plans. For complex or irregular plans, dynamic and IMRT plans are comparable to cone-based and proton plans for complex targets.

  4. SU-E-T-572: Beam Characteristics and Treatment Planning Commissioning for a New Proton Therapy Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, T; Sun, B; Grantham, K; Santanam, L; Goddu, S; Klein, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A single-room proton system, the Mevion S250, was introduced into the arena of proton radiotherapy by Mevion Medical Systems. The first unit was installed and operates at the S. Lee Kling Proton Therapy Center at Barnes-Jewish Hospital. The objective of this abstract is to report the system's beam characteristics and Eclipse commissioning. Methods: Commissioning data were acquired for modelling longitudinal fluence, virtual source position, effective source position, source size and Bragg peaks in Eclipse. Stoichiometric CT calibration was generated via ICRU44 human. Spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) were measured with Parallel Plate Chamber and profiles with solid state detector for model validation. Heterogeneity effects were measured with bone and lung inserts in the beam line. RT dose was computed in a virtual water phantom, and exported from Eclipse to compare with measurements at various depths and axis. SOBPs were fine-tuned with partial shining correction and entry correction to match measurements. Output factor was measured for each individual field with an ADCL ion chamber in a water tank and fitted to a polynomial function to cross-check the monitor unit verification. Results: Ranges of all 24 options were measured within ±1mm tolerance. Modulations met a ±1mm or ±2% tolerance. SOBP flatness met a ±3% tolerance. Distal fall off (80%-20%) were measured between 6mm and 7mm for all options. Virtual source positions varied between 177cm and 195cm, decreasing with field size and range. SOBP generated by Eclipse agreed with measurements within ±3% in the entry region, and ±1%/±1mm in other regions. Sanity check for output achieved 5% accuracy in 98% of cases. Conclusion: The commissioning of the first Mevions S250 proton therapy system met specifications. The unit has been put in clinical operation since 12/17/2013.

  5. Automated treatment planning for a dedicated multi-source intra-cranial radiosurgery treatment unit accounting for overlapping structures and dose homogeneity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghobadi, Kimia; Ghaffari, Hamid R.; Aleman, Dionne M.; Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto, Ontario M5T 3M6; Techna Institute, University Health Network, Ontario M5G 1P5 ; Jaffray, David A.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Ontario M5G 2M9; Institute of Biomaterial and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7; Techna Institute, University Health Network, Ontario M5G 1P5; Ontario Cancer Institute, Ontario M5G 0A3 ; Ruschin, Mark; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to advance the two-step approach for Gamma Knife{sup ®} Perfexion™ (PFX) optimization to account for dose homogeneity and overlap between the planning target volume (PTV) and organs-at-risk (OARs).Methods: In the first step, a geometry-based algorithm is used to quickly select isocentre locations while explicitly accounting for PTV-OARs overlaps. In this approach, the PTV is divided into subvolumes based on the PTV-OARs overlaps and the distance of voxels to the overlaps. Only a few isocentres are selected in the overlap volume, and a higher number of isocentres are carefully selected among voxels that are immediately close to the overlap volume. In the second step, a convex optimization is solved to find the optimal combination of collimator sizes and their radiation duration for each isocentre location.Results: This two-step approach is tested on seven clinical cases (comprising 11 targets) for which the authors assess coverage, OARs dose, and homogeneity index and relate these parameters to the overlap fraction for each case. In terms of coverage, the mean V{sub 99} for the gross target volume (GTV) was 99.8% while the V{sub 95} for the PTV averaged at 94.6%, thus satisfying the clinical objectives of 99% for GTV and 95% for PTV, respectively. The mean relative dose to the brainstem was 87.7% of the prescription dose (with maximum 108%), while on average, 11.3% of the PTV overlapped with the brainstem. The mean beam-on time per fraction per dose was 8.6 min with calibration dose rate of 3.5 Gy/min, and the computational time averaged at 205 min. Compared with previous work involving single-fraction radiosurgery, the resulting plans were more homogeneous with average homogeneity index of 1.18 compared to 1.47.Conclusions: PFX treatment plans with homogeneous dose distribution can be achieved by inverse planning using geometric isocentre selection and mathematical modeling and optimization techniques. The quality of the obtained treatment plans are clinically satisfactory while the homogeneity index is improved compared to conventional PFX plans.

  6. Assessing the perception and reality of arguments against thermal waste treatment plants in terms of property prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, K.J.O.; Longhurst, P.J.; Wagland, S.T., E-mail: s.t.wagland@cranfield.ac.uk

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Previous research studies have shown that EfW facilities negatively impact the local house prices. • In this study property prices surrounding 3 operational EfW plants were analysed. • No significant negative effect on property prices due to an incinerator was found. - Abstract: The thermal processing of waste materials, although considered to be an essential part of waste management, is often sharply contested in the UK. Arguments such as health, depletion of resources, cost, noise, odours, traffic movement and house prices are often cited as reasons against the development of such facilities. This study aims to review the arguments and identify any effect on property prices due to the public perception of the plant. A selection of existing energy from waste (EfW) facilities in the UK, operational for at least 7 years, was selected and property sales data, within 5 km of the sites, was acquired and analysed in detail. The locations of the properties were calculated in relation to the plant using GIS software (ArcGIS) and the distances split into 5 zones ranging from 0 to 5 km from the site. The local property sale prices, normalised against the local house price index, were compared in two time periods, before and after the facility became operational, across each of the 5 zones. In all cases analysed no significant negative effect was observed on property prices at any distance within 5 km from a modern operational incinerator. This indicated that the perceived negative effect of the thermal processing of waste on local property values is negligible.

  7. Assessment of optical performance of three non-tracking, non-imaging, external compound parabolic concentrators designed for high temperature solar thermal collector units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cisneros, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    a motorized sun-tracker to the collectors, designing a non-the sun onto each of the three solar thermal collectors. ix

  8. Transitions of bandgap and built-in stress for sputtered HfZnO thin films after thermal treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chih-Hung; Chen, Jian-Zhang [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Applied Mechanics, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China); Cheng, I-Chun [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)] [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-28

    HfZnO thin films with various Hf contents are sputter-deposited on glass substrates from Hf{sub x}Zn{sub 1?x}O (x = 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 at. %) targets at room temperature. The incorporation of Hf in the ZnO film leads to the amorphorization of the materials. The amorphous structures of high-Hf-content films remain after annealing at 600 °C for 30 min. The built-in stresses of as-deposited films are compressive. As the annealing temperature increases, the stresses are relaxed and even become tensile. The films exhibit a high transmission of 80% in the visible region. The optical bandgap increases with the Hf content, but it decreases with the annealing temperature. This can be attributed to the alteration of strain (stress) status in the films and atomic substitution. The reduction of bandgap partly results from the grain growth, which is due to the quantum confinement effect of the small grains. Hf doping increases the resistivity of ZnO owing to the disorder of the material structure and the higher bandgap, which result in more carrier traps and less thermally excited carriers in the conduction bands.

  9. Studentnumber:Name:Degree: Unit:Unit:Unit:Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobar, Michael

    Studentnumber:Name:Degree: Semester: Semester: Unit:Unit:Unit:Unit: Unit:Unit:Unit:Unit: Year the Undergraduate Degree Course Rules. Have you included units that will lead to at least one degree-specific major that the units you choose in first year will lead to at least one degree-specific major. It is a requirement

  10. Termination unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  11. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01

    VITA 36 37 40 40 40 40 44 45 47 48 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Unit cell for derivation of model Page Heat Conduction Solution 22 3 Fission Gas Release Model 26 4A Metal Matrix Thermal Conductivity 4B Ceramic Fuel Thermal Conductivity 5... is based on the simple heat conduction equation. It is assumed that there is a uniform distribution of fuel particles in a regular array. A unit cell consists of a cube of matrix material of side length L, containing a spherical fuel particle of radius, r...

  12. Preliminary development of an integrated approach to the evaluation of pressurized thermal shock as applied to the Oconee Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, T J; Cheverton, R D; Flanagan, G F; White, J D; Ball, D G; Lamonica, L B; Olson, R

    1986-05-01

    An evaluation of the risk to the Oconee-1 nuclear plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been Completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This evaluaion was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants: Oconee-1, a Babcock and Wilco reactor plant owned and operated by Duke Power Company; Calvert Cliffs-1, a Combustion Engineering reactor plant owned and operated by Baltimore Gas and Electric company; and H.B. Robinson-2, a Westinghouse reactor plant owned and operated by Carolina Power and Light Company. Studies of Calvert Cliffs-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 are still underway. The specific objectives of the Oconee-1 study were to: (1) provide a best estimate of the probability of a through-the-wall crack (TWC) occurring in the reactor pressure vessel as a result of PTS; (2) determine dominant accident sequences, plant features, operator and control actions and uncertainty in the PTS risk; and (3) evaluate effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  13. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  14. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  15. Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Laminate H. Malekpour,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Conductivity of Graphene Laminate H. Malekpour, K.-H. Chang, J.-C. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, D. L, Manchester, United Kingdom *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: We have investigated thermal conductivity and a set of suspended samples with the graphene laminate thickness from 9 to 44 m. The thermal conductivity

  16. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  17. Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan

    2014-10-28

    A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.

  18. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review This report documents the results of an...

  19. Independent Oversight Review, Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2012 Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Contractor Operational Readiness Review This report documents the results of an...

  20. Thermal cycler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benett, William J.; Andreski, John T.; Dzenitis, John M.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; Hadley, Dean R.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2014-07-15

    A thermalcycler includes a first thermalcycler body section having a first face and a second thermalcycler body section having a second face. A cavity is formed by the first face and the second face. A thermalcycling unit is positioned in the cavity. A heater trace unit is connected to a support section, to the first thermalcycler body section, to the second thermalcycler body section, and to the thermalcycling unit. The first thermalcycler body section and the second thermalcycler body section are positioned together against the support section to enclose the thermalcycling unit and the heater trace unit.

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  3. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal models power density cost lifetime Advanced Thermal Interface Materials Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Air Cooling Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  4. Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-02-01

    Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in vacuum; however ignition by resistively-heated tungsten wire was possible. Thin films of thermite were fabricated using a dispersed mixture of aluminum and iron oxide particles, but ignition and propagation of these films was difficult. The only ignition and propagation observed was in a preheated sample.

  5. Automated rapid thermal imaging systems technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phan, Long N., 1976-

    2012-01-01

    A major source of energy savings occurs on the thermal envelop of buildings, which amounts to approximately 10% of annual energy usage in the United States. To pursue these savings, energy auditors use closed loop energy ...

  6. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  7. POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY C.C. Car e1, M.P. Nowak2, W. Romisch2 and pumped-storage hydro units is developed. For its compu- tational solution two di erent decompo- sition-burning) thermal units, pumped-storage hydro plants and delivery con- tracts and describe an optimization model

  8. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2000-08-29

    causan enfermedades, un tanque bomba para dosificar el agua y rociadores para distribuir el agua sobre el suelo. Para mayor informaci?n sobre los componentes de desinfecci?n, el tanque bomba y la distribuci?n por rociado, vea la publicaci?n de Extensi?n L...&M Toda la serie de publicaciones, ?Sistemas individuales para el tratamiento de aguas negras,? puede obtenerse gratis del World Wide Web en: http://texaserc.tamu.edu Los programas educacionales del Servicio de Extensi?n Agr?cola de Texas est?n disponibles...

  9. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    varying solar energy inputs and thermal or power demands. Itusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  10. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  12. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    of such an aquifer thermal storage system were studied andusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  13. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    This requires no thermal storage tanks, but can have athe need for large thermal storage equipment, the evaporatorinclude analysis of thermal storage. A way of keeping the

  14. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  15. Examination of Thermal Impacts from Stormwater BMPs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Examination of Thermal Impacts from Stormwater BMPs In a study in Durham, New Hampshire, four years treatment by infiltration and filtration can moderate runoff temperatures by thermal exchange with cool · Bioretention · Storm Tech Isolator Row · Detention Pond · Gravel Wetland · ADS Infiltration System · Retention

  16. Thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koros, William John; Kratochvil, Adam Michal

    2014-03-04

    The various embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions and methods of making thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a composition comprising: a first polymer comprising a first repeat unit, the first repeat unit comprising a carboxyl group, wherein the first polymer crosslinks to a second polymer formed from a second repeat unit, and wherein the first polymer crosslinks to the second polymer without formation of an ester group.

  17. Thermal Transport in Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Conductivity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal ConductivityThermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal

  18. Unit and student details Unit code Unit title

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sekercioglu, Y. Ahmet

    Unit and student details Unit code Unit title If this is a group assignment, each student must submitted Has any part of this assessment been previously submitted as part of another unit/course? Yes not be copied. No part of this assignment has been previously submitted as part of another unit/course. I

  19. Unit Unit Desc Unit Unit Desc Program Program Desc OLD ACCOUNT FORMAT NEW ACCOUNT FORMAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit Unit Desc Unit Unit Desc Program Program Desc OLD ACCOUNT FORMAT NEW ACCOUNT FORMAT 001113 AP Old O/S A/P NonResCk 0000 General 000000 General #12;Unit Unit Desc Unit Unit Desc Program Program

  20. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  1. Thermal and quantum noise in active systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Michel Courty; Francesca Grassia; Serge Reynaud

    2001-10-03

    We present a quantum network approach to the treatment of thermal and quantum fluctuations in measurement devices. The measurement is described as a scattering process of input fluctuations towards output ones. We present the results obtained with this method for the treatment of a cold damped capacitive accelerometer.

  2. Study on the thermal resistance in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel by molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China); Department of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, L., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zheng, X. H., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this article, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the heat transport in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel. The two adjacent particles as the basic heat transport unit were modelled to characterize the heat transfer through the calculation of thermal resistance and vibrational density of states (VDOS). The total thermal resistance of two contact particles was predicted by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD). The defects were formed by deleting atoms in the system randomly first and performing heating and quenching process afterwards to achieve the DLCA (diffusive limited cluster-cluster aggregation) process. This kind of treatment showed a very reasonable prediction of thermal conductivity for the silica aerogels compared with the experimental values. The heat transport was great suppressed as the contact length increased or defect concentration increased. The constrain effect of heat transport was much significant when contact length fraction was in the small range (<0.5) or the defect concentration is in the high range (>0.5). Also, as the contact length increased, the role of joint thermal resistance played in the constraint of heat transport was increasing. However, the defect concentration did not affect the share of joint thermal resistance as the contact length did. VDOS of the system was calculated by numerical method to characterize the heat transport from atomic vibration view. The smaller contact length and greater defect concentration primarily affected the longitudinal acoustic modes, which ultimately influenced the heat transport between the adjacent particles.

  3. Active People Recognition using Thermal and Grey Images on a Mobile Security Robot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duckett, Tom

    Active People Recognition using Thermal and Grey Images on a Mobile Security Robot Andr´e Treptow is an ActivMedia PeopleBot mobile robot that is equipped with several sensors including a thermal camera and a pan-tilt camera unit (see figure 1). Fig. 1. ActivMedia Peoplebot, thermal camera (NEC Thermal Tracer

  4. UNITED STEELWORKERS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administrationfollowing tableUNITED FERC

  5. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United States

  6. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United States7

  7. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United States78

  8. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 United

  9. United States

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowing YouNeedof EnergyMeeting - MarchUSPS:1 UnitedDuke-4-E

  10. United States Department of Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , is composed of representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Nuclear Regulatory Commission at Publicly Owned Treatment Works Developed by the Sewage Sludge Subcommittee United States Nuclear Regulatory associated with this project: Lee Abramson, NRC/Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Kevin Aiello, Middlesex

  11. Ultralow Thermal Conductivity in Organoclay Nanolaminates Synthesized via Simple Self-Assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Information ABSTRACT: Because interfaces impede phonon transport of thermal energy, nanostructuring canUltralow Thermal Conductivity in Organoclay Nanolaminates Synthesized via Simple Self-Assembly Mark of Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana Illinois 61801, United States § Materials and Manufacturing

  12. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " 1Total U.S. includes all primary occupied housing units in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Vacant housing units, seasonal units, second homes, military...

  13. United States Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al Faruque, Mohammad Abdullah

    Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency United States Consumer Product Safety Commission United States Department of Housing and Urban Development

  14. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  15. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) by vessel to nations with which the United States has not entered into a free trade agreement providing for national treatment...

  16. Conventional regression models Auto-generated units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullagh, Peter

    Conventional regression models Auto-generated units Consequences of auto-generation Inference regression models Auto-generated units Consequences of auto-generation Inference and prediction Outline 1 Conventional regression models Gaussian models Binary regression model Attenuation of treatment effect Problems

  17. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Yuhei Miyamoto; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-12-25

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  19. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  20. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  1. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  2. DNA Engine Thermal Cycler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ® Peltier Thermal Cycler PTC-0200 DNA Engine Cycler Operations Manual Version 4.0 #12;ii Tech Support: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi The DNA Engine® Peltier Thermal Cycler Introduction

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  4. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    thermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solarsolar energy systems, aquifer energy storage provides a buffer between time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal

  5. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  6. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  7. Unit Commitment 1.0 Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    , since high wind penetration increases demand forecast uncertainty (the demand that the thermal units of the solution method, however, the solutions may not save much money if the forecast of the demand that needs to be met contains significant error. Having a "perfect" solution for a particular demand forecast

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marks, Laurence D.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Modeling of Thermal-Assisted Dislocation Friction Y. Liao · L. D. Marks Received: 25 decades of research has shown that for bulk crys- talline materials the fundamental unit of plasticity of misfit dislocations to include the effect of thermally activated transitions across barriers. We obtain

  9. Thermal initiation caused by fragment impact on cased explosives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnurr, N.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been used to predict the velocity threshold for thermal initiation of a cased explosive caused by fragment impact. A structural analysis code was used to determine temperature profiles and a thermal analysis code was used to calculate reaction rates. Results generated for the United States Air Force MK 82 bomb indicate that the velocity threshold for thermal initiation is slightly higher than that for the shock-to-detonation process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Thermal Regimes of Northeast Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Loading (USGS) Stormwater and Streams ­ Optimizing Stormwater Management to Protect the Thermal

  11. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  12. United Nations Programme on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schrijver, Karel

    United Nations Programme on Space Applications UNITED NATIONS UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR OUTER SPACE, Sputnik 1. Soon after that event, the Member States of the United Nations declared that space should and natural resources management. At the first United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses

  13. Babel of Units. The Evolution of Units Systems in Classical Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carron, Neal

    2015-01-01

    We recount the history of development of units systems in electrodynamics, and fully derive how each system is constructed. Done for Electromagnetic (emu), Electrostatic (esu), Gaussian, a variant-Gaussian, Heaviside-Lorentz, and SI systems. The article fills in large gaps in standard textbook treatments of units.

  14. What is an anti-aging treatment? Institute of Healthy Ageing, and Genetics, Evolution and Environment, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gems, David

    What is an anti-aging treatment? David Gems Institute of Healthy Ageing, and Genetics, Evolution Accepted 10 July 2014 Available online 11 July 2014 Section Editor: T.E. Johnson Keywords: Aging of aging and to translate scientific insight into in- terventions that improve late-life health -- or anti-aging

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range symposium dealing with this subject in the western United States, the papers presented address current ........................................................................................................................................ 1 Annosus Root Disease in Europe and the Southeastern United States: Occurrence, Research

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Forest Experiment Station research unit in New Hampshirein 1957, where he studied problemsof regenerationandthinning research unit at Warren, Pennsylvania, where he headed a program of research on problems related

  18. Unit 35 - Raster Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit 35, CC in GIS; Peuquet, Donna

    1990-01-01

    in GIS - 1990 Page 8 Unit 35 - Raster Storage GIS to whichNCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS - 1990 Page 9 Unit 35 - RasterStorage UNIT 35 IMAGES NCGIA Core Curriculum in GIS - 1990

  19. Thermal energy storage apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thoma, P.E.

    1980-04-22

    A thermal energy storage apparatus and method employs a container formed of soda lime glass and having a smooth, defectfree inner wall. The container is filled substantially with a material that can be supercooled to a temperature greater than 5* F., such as ethylene carbonate, benzophenone, phenyl sulfoxide, di-2-pyridyl ketone, phenyl ether, diphenylmethane, ethylene trithiocarbonate, diphenyl carbonate, diphenylamine, 2benzoylpyridine, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, 4methylbenzophenone, 4-bromobenzophenone, phenyl salicylate, diphenylcyclopropenone, benzyl sulfoxide, 4-methoxy-4prmethylbenzophenone, n-benzoylpiperidine, 3,3pr,4,4pr,5 pentamethoxybenzophenone, 4,4'-bis-(Dimethylamino)-benzophenone, diphenylboron bromide, benzalphthalide, benzophenone oxime, azobenzene. A nucleating means such as a seed crystal, a cold finger or pointed member is movable into the supercoolable material. A heating element heats the supercoolable material above the melting temperature to store heat. The material is then allowed to cool to a supercooled temperature below the melting temperature, but above the natural, spontaneous nucleating temperature. The liquid in each container is selectively initiated into nucleation to release the heat of fusion. The heat may be transferred directly or through a heat exchange unit within the material.

  20. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  1. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General assigned to the Station's research unit studying the regeneration of California forests

  2. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture MIX: A Computer Program to Evaluate Forest Service, a research entomologist, is in charge of the unit developing improved technology for integrated management

  3. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Programs: A Review of Cognitive and Behavioral Studies Introduction Recent wildfires in the Western United

  4. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range to the Chaparral Prescribed Fire Research Unit, headquartered at Riverside, California. Publisher: Pacific

  5. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General is a Research Ecologist at the Station's Timber Management/Wildlife Habitat Interactions Unit, Redwood Sciences

  6. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General scientist with the Station's Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Unit, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive

  7. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurapov, Alexander

    A United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station General, land management, carbon sequestration, carbon markets, United States. #12;ii Executive Summary

  8. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General acrossthe United States provide estimates of the amount of erosion reductionon forest roadsfrom

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    94701 United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range of California, Berkeley, and a cooperator with the Research Unit. #12;Acknowledgments We especially acknowledge

  10. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range to the Station's chaparral and related ecosystems research unit, with headquarters at Riverside, California. He

  11. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of California Oaks: A Bibliography Agriculture Forest Service Pacific forester in the Station's Forest Regeneration Research Unit, at Redding, California. He holds bachelor

  12. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Changlu

    United States Department of Agriculture Rural Business- Cooperative Service Research Report 157, concentration, globalization, agency theory Cooperatives in a Changing Global Food System United States

  13. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General is a supervisory research entomologist in the Station's Regeneration Insect Research Unit in Berkeley. W. WAYNE

  14. POWER MANAGEMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY BY LAGRANGIAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    POWER MANAGEMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY BY LAGRANGIAN RELAXATION NICOLE GR power in a hydro-thermal system under uncertainty in load, inflow to reservoirs and prices for fuel to successive decom- position into single thermal and hydro unit subproblems that are solved by dynamic

  15. Exfoliation of Graphite Oxide in Propylene Carbonate and Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as a "green" route to suspensions of RG-O.23 Direct thermal treatment at elevated tem- peratures provides of 5230 S/m. By adding tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEA BF4) to the reduced graphene oxide

  16. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  18. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal or powerthermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solar

  20. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  1. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  2. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  3. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, E.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  4. Engineering design and test plan for demonstrating DETOX treatment of mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldblatt, S.; Dhooge, P.

    1995-03-01

    DETOX is a cocatalyzed wet oxidation process in which the catalysts are a relatively great concentration of iron ions (typically as iron(III) chloride) in the presence of small amounts of platinum and ruthenium ions. Organic compounds are oxidized completely to carbon dioxide, water, and (if chlorinated) hydrogen chloride. The process has shown promise as a non-thermal alternative to incineration for treatment and/or volume reduction of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes. Design and fabrication of a demonstration unit capable of destroying 25. Kg/hr of organic material is now in progress. This paper describes the Title 2 design of the demonstration unit, and the planned demonstration effort at Savannah River Site (SRS) and Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP).

  5. Heat extraction for the CSPonD thermal storage unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas, Folkers Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Three coiled tube heat exchanger prototypes were designed to extract heat from containers holding 0.5 kg, 2.3 kg, and 10.5 kg of Sodium Nitrate-Potassium Nitrate salt. All of the prototypes were left with an open surface ...

  6. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  7. Data report TRUPACT-I, Unit 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihalovich, G.S.; Hudson, M.; Joseph, B.J.; Romesberg, L.E.

    1985-09-01

    TRUPACT-I was tested to evaluate the design under the regulatory testing requirements defined in DOE Order No. 5480.1, Chapter 3. Tests were conducted both at the Drop Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. The program consisted of 12-inch and 30-foot drop tests onto an essentially unyielding surface, 40-inch drop tests onto a puncture bar, and a thermal test. Instrumentation for the tests included accelerometers, strain gages, and thermocouples. Data from each test was stored on magnetic tape for later analysis. The test unit met all of the structural regulatory requirements during the impact events, with the possible exception of damage to the seal retainer bond line discovered during disassembly. The adhesive bonds on the seal retainer did not hold after the thermal test. The foam behind the puncture panel on the outer door burned during the thermal test, overheating and deteriorating the seals; the seals failed. This report presents the raw data from the testing program of TRUPACT-I, Unit 0. An analysis report interpreting the data will be published as ''TRUPACT-I, Unit 0 Test Data Analysis,'' SAND85-0943 (TTC-0555), Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  8. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  9. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture DESIGN: A Program to Create Data Forest Service Entry Research Work Unit at the Station's Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507

  10. United Sates Environmental Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    United Sates Environmental Protection Agency Office of Water (4305) EPA/823/B/95/003 August 1995 QUAL2E Windows Interface User's Guide #12;QUAL2E Windows Interface User's Guide United States

  11. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General Observatory in Stinson Beach, Calif. Thomas E. Martin is Assistant Unit Leader--Wildlife at the U.S. Fish

  12. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range, objectives, and targets and specific work plans for the field units--the National Forests and their Ranger

  13. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Research, and export from 1997 to 2010, for main world regions and the United States. Detailed tables by country

  14. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Peelflc Southwest Forest and Range that are expressed in tems familim to the user. Theboard footand cubic footare mdiriond units of measure, altlnough

  15. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper-Central United States (Monserud and Ek 1977; Monserud 1987). This model was used within the framework of FOREST

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station for the Station's Wildland Recreation and the Urban Culture Research Work Unit, located at the Forest Fire

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops million acres of barley were harvested in the United States (U.S.) during 1996. After reaching a peak

  18. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research Station Research, import, and export from 1997 to 2010, for main world regions and the United States. Detailed tables

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  20. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  1. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    pp. 67-73, 2003. [17] "Energy Requirements of Desalinationof solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solarapplications," Applied Energy, pp. 538-553, 2013. [20] P. G.

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  3. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Estimated UseofWaterintheUnitedStatesin2005 Trends in estimated water use in the United States.L., Hutson, S.S., Linsey, K.S., Lovelace, J.K., and Maupin, M.A., 2009, Estimated use of water in the United

  4. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range unit investigating measurement and analysis techniques for management planning, with headquarters in Berkeley, Calif. ELLIOT L. AMIDON is now assigned to the Station's unit at Arcata, Calif., that is studying

  5. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Research Research Station's Riparian-Stream Ecology and Management Research Work Unit at Boise, ID. He re- ceived with the Intermountain Research Station's Riparian-Stream Ecology and Man- agement Research Work Unit at the Forestry

  6. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Estimates for Forest Types of the United States James E. Smith Linda S. Heath Kenneth E. Skog Richard A forest types within 10 regions of the United States. Separate tables were developed for afforestation

  7. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service General Technical #12;- TH ,a geneticist, is assigned to the Station's research unit dyin etics of western forest trees, with headquarters in Berkeley, Berkeley. PAUL D. cal technician with the genetics research unit, isa forestry gra California, Berkeley

  8. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clements, Craig

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station Ogden, UT. He was project leader of the fire fundamentals research work unit from 1966 until 1979 and is currently project leader of the fire behavior research work unit at the fire sciences laboratory. RALPH A

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liebhold, Andrew

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper of the Eastern United States have been devastated by invasive pests. We used existing data to predict-quarter in total host density. Gypsy moth occupies only 23 percent of its potential range in the Eastern United

  10. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Thomas J. Mills Frederick W. Bratten #12;The Authors: are with the Station's research unit studying fire J. MILLS, a forest economist, is in charge of the unit. He earned degrees at Michigan State

  11. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station General,000 xylem resin samples of pine (Pinus) species and hybrids--largely from the western United States locations in the eastern and southern United States. Cover Image: Chapter 6, Figure 6-2. #12;Xylem

  12. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range ecosystemsresearch unit located in Riverside. California. PAUL H. DUNN was project leader at that time and is now project leader of the atmospheric deposition research unit in Riverside. Calif. SUSAN C. BARRO

  13. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Proceedings of the Agriculture Pacific Southwest Symposium on Social of Agriculture; 96 p. The growing demand for recreation at the wildland-urban interface throughout the United and the Urban Culture Research Unit headquartered at the Forest Fire Laboratory, 4955 Canyon Crest Dr

  14. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station http. Arbaugh is a statistician with the Station's Atmospheric Deposition Effects Research Unit at Riverside and associate professor with the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit, College of Forest

  15. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holberton, Rebecca L.

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General Technical Report NE-318 Atlas of Climate Change Effects in 150 Bird Species of the Eastern United States Service 359 Main Road Delaware, OH 43015 USA #12;United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service

  16. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station Research Paper NE-722 James E. Smith Linda S. Heath A Model of Forest Floor Carbon Mass for United States Forest contiguous United States. Manuscript received for publication 22 April 2002 #12;A Model of Forest Floor

  17. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Southern Research Station General Technical United States. In: Rauscher, H. Michael, and Kurt Johnsen, eds. Southern forest science: past, present Trends in the Southern United States Robert A. Mickler, James E. Smith, and Linda S. Heath1 Abstract

  18. UNITED STATES PARTMENT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNITED STATES PARTMENT OF lMMERCE J8l1CATION SEATTLE, WA IOVEMBER 1973 FISHERY FACTS-6 U. S of foreign fishing off United States coastal waters, and the aevelopment and enforce- ment of international;ABSTRACT Dungeness crabs, Cancer magister, occur in the inshore waters of t he west coast of the United

  19. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Northeastern Research Station General reported in USDA Forest Service surveys for forests of the conterminous United States. Developed for use estimates are provided for regional tree-mass totals using summary forest statistics for the United States

  20. United States Nuclear Regulatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission United States Department of Energy United States.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Washington, DC 20555-0001 E-mail: DISTRIBUTION@nrc.gov Facsimile: 301; and Commission papers and their attachments. NRC publications in the NUREG series, NRC regulations, and Title 10

  1. Unit Testing Discussion C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Unit Testing Discussion C #12;Unit Test public Method is smallest unit of code Input/output transformation Test if the method does what it claims Not exactly black box testing #12;Test if (actual result Expected Computed Input #12;Functionality Computation ­ Easy to test Time based Asynchronous interaction

  2. The Macroscopic Cortical Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    The Macroscopic Brain Will Penny Cortical Unit Neural Mass Model Cell Populations Differential Will Penny 21st April 2011 #12;The Macroscopic Brain Will Penny Cortical Unit Neural Mass Model Cell as formulated in David et al. (2006). #12;The Macroscopic Brain Will Penny Cortical Unit Neural Mass Model Cell

  3. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to the thermal analysis at chip architecture level for efficient dynamic thermal management. Our new approach

  4. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF FOSSIL...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    export liquefied natural gas (LNG) to any country with which the United States has a free trade agreement (FTA) that requires national treatment for trade in natural gas (FTA...

  5. Thermal Conductivity Of Rubble Piles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Rubble piles are a common feature of solar system bodies. They are composed of monolithic elements of ice or rock bound by gravity. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume of a rubble pile. They can exist up to pressure $P\\approx \\epsy\\mu$, where $\\epsy$ is the monolithic material's yield strain and $\\mu$ its rigidity. At low $P$, contacts between neighboring elements are confined to a small fraction of their surface areas. As a result, the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile, $\\kcon\\approx k(P/(\\epsy\\mu))^{1/2}$, can be orders of magnitude smaller than, $k$, the thermal conductivity of its monolithic elements. In a fluid-free environment, only radiation can transfer energy across voids. It contributes an additional component, $\\krad=16\\ell\\sigma T^3/3$, to the total effective conductivity, $\\keff=\\kcon +\\krad$. Here $\\ell$, the inverse of the opacity per unit volume, is of order the size of the elements and voids. An important distinction between $\\kcon$ and $\\krad$ is that the former i...

  6. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giebink, Noel C.

    2015-01-31

    This program set out to explore a scattering-based approach to concentrate sunlight with the aim of improving collector field reliability and of eliminating wind loading and gross mechanical movement through the use of a stationary collection optic. The approach is based on scattering sunlight from the focal point of a fixed collection optic into the confined modes of a sliding planar waveguide, where it is transported to stationary tubular heat transfer elements located at the edges. Optical design for the first stage of solar concentration, which entails focusing sunlight within a plane over a wide range of incidence angles (>120 degree full field of view) at fixed tilt, led to the development of a new, folded-path collection optic that dramatically out-performs the current state-of-the-art in scattering concentration. Rigorous optical simulation and experimental testing of this collection optic have validated its performance. In the course of this work, we also identified an opportunity for concentrating photovoltaics involving the use of high efficiency microcells made in collaboration with partners at the University of Illinois. This opportunity exploited the same collection optic design as used for the scattering solar thermal concentrator and was therefore pursued in parallel. This system was experimentally demonstrated to achieve >200x optical concentration with >70% optical efficiency over a full day by tracking with <1 cm of lateral movement at fixed latitude tilt. The entire scattering concentrator waveguide optical system has been simulated, tested, and assembled at small scale to verify ray tracing models. These models were subsequently used to predict the full system optical performance at larger, deployment scale ranging up to >1 meter aperture width. Simulations at an aperture widths less than approximately 0.5 m with geometric gains ~100x predict an overall optical efficiency in the range 60-70% for angles up to 50 degrees from normal. However, the concentrator optical efficiency was found to decrease significantly with increasing aperture width beyond 0.5 m due to parasitic waveguide out-coupling loss and low-level absorption that become dominant at larger scale. A heat transfer model was subsequently implemented to predict collector fluid heat gain and outlet temperature as a function of flow rate using the optical model as a flux input. It was found that the aperture width size limitation imposed by the optical efficiency characteristics of the waveguide limits the absolute optical power delivered to the heat transfer element per unit length. As compared to state-of-the-art parabolic trough CPV system aperture widths approaching 5 m, this limitation leads to an approximate factor of order of magnitude increase in heat transfer tube length to achieve the same heat transfer fluid outlet temperature. The conclusion of this work is that scattering solar thermal concentration cannot be implemented at the scale and efficiency required to compete with the performance of current parabolic trough CSP systems. Applied within the alternate context of CPV, however, the results of this work have likely opened up a transformative new path that enables quasi-static, high efficiency CPV to be implemented on rooftops in the form factor of traditional fixed-panel photovoltaics.

  7. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  8. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  9. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Ĺbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  10. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LASP's mechanical analysts also lead mechanical verification testing including: random vibration, forceMechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has

  11. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. King

    2000-06-19

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

  12. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  13. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Unit 51 - GIS Application Areas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unit 51, CC in GIS; Cowen, David; Ferguson, Warren

    1990-01-01

    51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS UNIT 51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS1990 Page 1 Unit 51 - GIS Application Areas Computers inyour students. UNIT 51 - GIS APPLICATION AREAS Compiled with

  15. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  16. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  17. Pathways to Parenthood: Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Kellee Jo

    2012-12-31

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 10.8 percent of women and 7.5 percent of men in the United States have sought infertility treatment. With advances in medical technology, treatment options range from drug therapy...

  18. Thermal Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A; Orselli, Marta; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    2012-01-01

    We study the giant graviton solution as the AdS_5 X S^5 background is heated up to finite temperature. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe technique based on the blackfold approach. We focus mainly on the thermal giant graviton corresponding to a thermal D3-brane probe wrapped on an S^3 moving on the S^5 of the background at finite temperature. We find several interesting new effects, including that the thermal giant graviton has a minimal possible value for the angular momentum and correspondingly also a minimal possible radius of the S^3. We compute the free energy of the thermal giant graviton in the low temperature regime, which potentially could be compared to that of a thermal state on the gauge theory side. Moreover, we analyze the space of solutions and stability of the thermal giant graviton and find that, in parallel with the extremal case, there are two available solutions for a given temperature and angular momentum, one stable and one unstable. In order to write down the equations of mot...

  19. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  20. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  1. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ..............................................................................2 Solid Waste Management .........................................................................3 ....................................................................................4 Solid Waste ManagementUnited States Department of Returns on InvestmentsAgriculture Forest Service in Management Sciences

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Structural and Geographic Characteristics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)"...

  3. Sandia Energy - Phasor Measurement Units

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Units Home Stationary Power Safety, Security & Resilience of Energy Infrastructure Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Phasor Measurement Units...

  4. Case Study Walnut Hill United Methodist Church - Dallas, Texas, Chiller Replacement Analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1998-01-01

    In March of 1992 Walnut Hill United Methodist Church in Dallas, Tx. decided that their existing thermal storage and electric reciprocating chiller system were both in need of replacement. After analyzing several options, they chose to install 150...

  5. Climate change impacts on freshwater recreational fishing in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Russell

    We estimated the biological and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries in the United States (U.S.). Changes in stream temperatures, flows, and the spatial extent of suitable thermal habitats for fish ...

  6. Quantum-coupled single-electron thermal to electric conversion scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, D. M.

    Thermal to electric energy conversion with thermophotovoltaics relies on radiation emitted by a hot body, which limits the power per unit area to that of a blackbody. Microgap thermophotovoltaics take advantage of evanescent ...

  7. Boundary Creek Thermal areas of Yellowstone National Park I: thermal activity and geologic setting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutchinson, R.A.

    1980-09-01

    Proposed geothermal leasing in the Island Park Geothermal Area (IPGA) in national forest and public lands adjacent to Yellowstone National Park has called attention to the moderate to high temperature springs of the Boundary Creek Thermal Areas. Up until late 1977 no description or geochemical inventory studies had been conducted in these areas. The thermal springs are scattered in four major groups along the Boundary Creek drainage with three to six km. of the IPGA - park border. Observations and analyses of physical and chemical indicators suggest that the source is under the Madison Plateau and that the waters are generally similar in the lower three thermal units. These hot springs should be monitored so as to provide early warning of change in the event that geothermal development in the IPGA causes withdrawal of groundwater from Yellow Stone National Park.

  8. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  9. Thermal Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  10. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  11. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  12. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  13. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  14. Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress Anthony J. Bellantuono1 thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained

  15. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  16. FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

  17. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  18. Department of Chemical Engineering Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    Aug.2013 Department of Chemical Engineering Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory Ron Zevenhoven Course 424101 Processteknikens grunder ("PTG") Introduction to Process Engineering v. 2013 0 > V (m3/s; equations, variables and units 1.1 Process engineering, this course 1.2 Process calculations, equations

  19. Thermal Degradation Studies of Polyurethane/POSS Nanohybrid Elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J P; Pielichowski, K; TremblotDeLaCroix, P; Janowski, B; Todd, D; Liggat, J J

    2010-03-05

    Reported here is the synthesis of a series of Polyurethane/POSS nanohybrid elastomers, the characterization of their thermal stability and degradation behavior at elevated temperatures using a combination of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Thermal Volatilization Analysis (TVA). A series of PU elastomers systems have been formulated incorporating varying levels of 1,2-propanediol-heptaisobutyl-POSS (PHIPOSS) as a chain extender unit, replacing butane diol. The bulk thermal stability of the nanohybrid systems has been characterized using TGA. Results indicate that covalent incorporation of POSS into the PU elastomer network increase the non-oxidative thermal stability of the systems. TVA analysis of the thermal degradation of the POSS/PU hybrid elastomers have demonstrated that the hybrid systems are indeed more thermally stable when compared to the unmodified PU matrix; evolving significantly reduced levels of volatile degradation products and exhibiting a {approx}30 C increase in onset degradation temperature. Furthermore, characterization of the distribution of degradation products from both unmodified and hybrid systems indicate that the inclusion of POSS in the PU network is directly influencing the degradation pathways of both the soft and hard block components of the elastomers: The POSS/PU hybrid systems show reduced levels of CO, CO2, water and increased levels of THF as products of thermal degradation.

  20. Development of a Thermal Oxidizer for Distributed Microturbine Based Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-01

    This project concerns the replacement of the catalytic bed in a microturbine with a thermal oxidizer. The advantage of a thermal oxidizer over a traditional combustion chamber is that the length and temperature of the device allows the volatile species to oxidize relatively slowly and without a flame front. With no flame, the temperature increase throughout the unit is spread over a much larger volume so there is no hot spot for thermal NO{sub x} formation, and the gas Btu level does not have to be above the ignition concentration. Project specific objectives included assessment of the materials and performance requirements of the thermal oxidizer, design the thermal oxidizer system, fabrication of the thermal oxidizer, testing of the oxidizer's performance in concert with the microturbine and comparison of the performance of the oxidizer with catalytic beds and traditional combustion chambers. The thermal oxidizer was designed and fabricated with the assistance of High Country Fabrication of Casper, Wyoming. The design consists of a long set of tubes surrounded by a packed bed of loose ceramic material. The outer vessel containing the tubes and packing is a 3-foot diameter steel shell with multiple layers of thermal insulation. After the metal components were fabricated, the vessel was shipped to Denver where the insulation was poured. The unit was shipped to the cosponsor site for integration with the 100 kW microturbine device. Connection of the thermal oxidizer to the Elliot microturbine turned out to be problematic. The high flow rate of gas tended to push the hot zone out of the oxidizer as assembled. The research team identified several approaches to improve the oxidizer performance including a longer gas path, increased residence time, higher surface area packing material and improved combustion catalysts. The cosponsor is working with an engineering form with oxidizer experience to reconfigure the hardware before moving to a field trial on landfill gas.

  1. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko Laboratory of Environmental Research, University of Nova-beam Instruments 5 3.3 Differential Thermal Lens Instruments 7 3.4 Multiwavelength and Tunable Thermal Lens Spectrometers 8 3.5 Circular Dichroism TLS Instruments 9 3.6 Miniaturization of Thermal Lens Instruments 9 4

  2. Thermal ground state and nonthermal probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandou, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The Euclidean formulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics admits periodic, (anti)selfdual solutions to the fundamental, classical equation of motion which possess one unit of topological charge: (anti)calorons. A spatial coarse graining over the central region in a pair of such localised field configurations with trivial holonomy generates an inert adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, effectively describing the pure quantum part of the thermal ground state in the induced quantum field theory. The latter's local vertices are mediated by just-not-resolved (anti)caloron centers of action $\\hbar$. This is the basic reason for a rapid convergence of the loop expansion of thermodynamical quantities, polarization tensors, etc., their effective loop momenta being severely constrained in entirely fixed and physical unitary-Coulomb gauge. Here we show for the limit of zero holonomy how (anti)calorons associate a temperature independent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability to the thermal ground state of SU(2)$_{\\t...

  3. Thermal ground state and nonthermal probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Grandou; Ralf Hofmann

    2015-08-24

    The Euclidean formulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics admits periodic, (anti)selfdual solutions to the fundamental, classical equation of motion which possess one unit of topological charge: (anti)calorons. A spatial coarse graining over the central region in a pair of such localised field configurations with trivial holonomy generates an inert adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, effectively describing the pure quantum part of the thermal ground state in the induced quantum field theory. Here we show for the limit of zero holonomy how (anti)calorons associate a temperature independent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability to the thermal ground state of SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$, the Yang-Mills theory conjectured to underlie photon propagation.

  4. Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2005-06-21

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  5. 6.0 TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL UNIT PROCESS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-InspiredAtmosphericdevicesPPONeApril351APPLICATION OF kV Spare|LiMessage6-1 6.0

  6. The Unit Coordinator Handbook About the Unit Coordinator Handbook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mucina, Ladislav

    1 The Unit Coordinator Handbook About the Unit Coordinator Handbook This Handbook will assist you in fulfilling your responsibilities as a Unit Coordinator and has been developed with input from Unit staff, however, more resources are available at the Unit Coordinator website: http

  7. Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketov, S. V.; Sun, Y. H.; Nachum, S.; Lu, Z.; Checchi, A.; Beraldin, A. R.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Carpenter, M. A.; Greer, A. L.

    2015-08-12

    be compared with the property improvements (hardness, wear resistance) obtained by deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) of steels22. DCT, however, works through phase changes (transformation of residual austenite, precipitation of fine carbides) on holding at low... treatment on the thermal decomposition of Fe–C martensite. J. Mater. Sci. 49, 8183–8191 (2014). 23. Ma, B. M. Nuclear Reactor Materials and Applications, Sect. 6.7.2. Thermal-cycling growth, pp. 149?151 (Van Nostrand, New York, 1983). 24. Yuan, C., Wang...

  8. Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Effect of temperature and pore size on the hydraulic properties and flow of a hydrocarbon oil in the subsurface, Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 16:55-86, 1994. Davis, E.L., Hot...

  9. United States Conservation Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    United States Shorebird Conservation Plan M A N O M E T C E N T E R F O R C O N S E R V A T I O N T I O N #12;United States Shorebird Conservation Plan Council Organizations #12;1 U n i t e d S t a t e s S h o r e b i r d C o n s e r v a t i o n P l a n 2 0 0 1 The United States Shorebird

  10. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  11. Thermal noise driven computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2006-10-28

    The possibility of a new type of computing, where thermal noise is the information carrier and the clock in a computer, is studied. The information channel capacity and the lower limit of energy requirement/dissipation are studied in a simple digital system with zero threshold voltage, for the case of error probability close to 0.5, when the thermal noise is equal to or greater than the digital signal. In a simple hypothetical realization of a thermal noise driven gate, the lower limit of energy needed to generate the digital signal is 1.1*kT/bit. The arrangement has potentially improved energy efficiency and it is free of leakage current, crosstalk and ground plane electromagnetic interference problems. Disadvantage is the large number of redundancy elements needed for low-error operation.

  12. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  13. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  14. Unit Clause: Summary Benny Applebaum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, Benny

    Unit Clause: Summary Benny Applebaum Tel-Aviv University Spring Semester, 2012 #12;Unit Clause: Reminder Unit Clause Input: chosen uniformly from F3(n, rn). 1 If there exists unit clause (Forced step) pick at random unit clause { i} and satisfy it 2 Otherwise, (Free step) pick a random literal i

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Household Demographics of U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Air Conditioning in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  20. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  1. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 3Use of heating equipment for another housing unit also includes the use of...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy and Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). 3Housing units are classified as urban or rural using definitions created by...

  4. Automatically clustering similar units for unit selection in speech synthesis. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for synthesizing speech by concatenating sub-word units from a database of labelled speech. A large unit inventory is created by automatically clustering units of the same phone class ...

  5. Pressurized heat treatment of glass ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.

    1984-04-19

    A method of producing a glass-ceramic having a specified thermal expansion value is disclosed. The method includes the step of pressurizing the parent glass material to a predetermined pressure during heat treatment so that the glass-ceramic produced has a specified thermal expansion value. Preferably, the glass-ceramic material is isostatically pressed. A method for forming a strong glass-ceramic to metal seal is also disclosed in which the glass-ceramic is fabricated to have a thermal expansion value equal to that of the metal. The determination of the thermal expansion value of a parent glass material placed in a high-temperature environment is also used to determine the pressure in the environment.

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  8. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  9. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  10. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  11. UNIT SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR JAPANESE SPEECH SYNTHESIS BASED ON BOTH PHONEME UNIT AND DIPHONE UNIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duh, Kevin

    UNIT SELECTION ALGORITHM FOR JAPANESE SPEECH SYNTHESIS BASED ON BOTH PHONEME UNIT AND DIPHONE UNIT ABSTRACT This paper proposes a novel unit selection algorithm for Japanese Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems, CV units are basic to con- catenative TTS systems for Japanese. However, speech syn- thesized with CV

  12. Conventional regression models Unlabelled units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCullagh, Peter

    Conventional regression models Unlabelled units Consequences Sampling bias in logistic models Peter effects #12;Conventional regression models Unlabelled units Consequences Outline 1 Conventional regression models Gaussian models Binary regression model Properties of conventional models 2 Unlabelled units Point

  13. Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    9, CCTP; Dodson, Rustin

    1998-01-01

    UNIT 9: SPATIAL DATA CONVERSION Written by Rustin Dodson,Programs Page 1 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion freezingPrograms Page 2 Unit 9: Spatial Data Conversion Export USGS

  14. Best Buys and Unit Pricing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2000-02-02

    This guide explains how to determine a unit price--the cost of an item based on a specific unit such as pound or ounce. Unit pricing can be used to identify foods that are the most economical....

  15. Stochastic Unit Commitment in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    the interestofpowerutilitiesindevelopingmodelsandoptimizationtechniquesforthegeneration and trading of electric power under uncertainty. Utilities participating in deregulated markets be supplied by the power system or by trading activities. The competitive environment forces the utilities-Thermal Power Production Planning Nicole Gröwe-Kuska and Werner Römisch 30.1 Introduction Economic needs

  16. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  17. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  18. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  19. Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

    1984-06-26

    Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

  20. Process for thermal hydrocracking of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamashita, K.; Kimura, M.

    1983-11-01

    A process for liquefying and gasifying coal by thermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen gas for hydrocracking is disclosed. The process comprises a sequence of the following two steps: (1) coal fines are injected into a heated hydrogen gas stream at a pressure of from 35 to 250 kg/cm G such that they are rapidly heated to a temperature of from 750/sup 0/ to 1100/sup 0/ C. for thermal cracking thereof; and (2) the resulting liquid product is subjected to hydrocracking for a period of from 1.0 to 60 seconds at a temperature that is lower than the temperature used in the first step and which is in the range of from 570/sup 0/ to 850/sup 0/ C.

  1. Thermal denitration and mineralization of waste constituents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nenni, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1997-08-01

    In order to produce a quality grout from LLW using hydraulic cements, proper conditioning of the waste is essential for complete cement curing. Several technologies were investigated as options for conditions. Since the LLW is dilute, removal of all, or most, of the water will significantly reduce the final waste volume. Neutralization of the LLW is also desirable since acidic liquids to not allow cement to cure properly. The nitrate compounds are very soluble and easily leached from solid waste forms; therefore, denitration is desirable. Thermal and chemical denitration technologies have the advantages of water removal, neutralization, and denitration. The inclusion of additives during thermal treatment were investigated as a method of forming insoluable waste conditions.

  2. Giant Thermal Rectification from Polyethylene Nanofiber Thermal Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    The realization of phononic computing is held hostage by the lack of high performance thermal devices. Here we show through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations that unprecedented thermal rectification factors (as large as 1.20) can be achieved utilizing the phase dependent thermal conductivity of polyethylene nanofibers. More importantly, such high thermal rectifications only need very small temperature differences (< 20 oC) across the device, which is a significant advantage over other thermal diodes which need temperature biases on the order of the operating temperature. Taking this into consideration, we show that the dimensionless temperature-scaled rectification factors of the polymer nanofiber diodes range from 12 to 25 - much larger than other thermal diodes (< 8). The polymer nanofiber thermal diode consists of a crystalline portion whose thermal conductivity is highly phase-sensitive and a cross-linked portion which has a stable phase. Nanoscale size effect can be utilized t...

  3. Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desalination and Water Treatment www.deswater.com 1944-3994 / 1944-3986 © 2011 Desalination 1. Introduction Membrane distillation (MD) is a thermally driven desalination process that involves. / Desalination and Water Treatment 32 (2011) 234­241 235 100% rejection of ions, dissolved non-volatile organics

  4. Mechanical Properties, Thermal Stability and Radiation Damage of Ferritic Steels Processed by Thermal Mechanical Treatments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Miao

    2014-08-04

    for extending the operation life of current reactors and the design of generation IV nuclear reactors and future fusion reactors. Due to their superior radiation tolerance, ferrite steels are currently the primary candidate under examination for generation IV...

  5. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  6. Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method Chung-Li Tsengy,Chao-an Liz, Shmuel S. Oren x October 14, 1997 Abstract In this paper, we present an e cient and robust method for solving unit commit- ment problem using a unit decommitment method. 1 Introduction A problem that must be frequently solved

  7. UCL Migration Research Unit 2013 Migration Research Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    UCL Migration Research Unit ANNUAL REPORT 2013 Migration Research Unit UCL DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY in the Migration Research Unit. Two key members of the research unit are on the move. JoAnn McGregor moves highly successful MSc in Global Migration and her involvement in the degree will be missed as well as her

  8. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  9. Removal of Pollutants by Atmospheric Non Thermal Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khacef, Ahmed; Pouvesle, Jean Michel; Van, Tiep Le

    2008-01-01

    Results on the application of non thermal plasmas in two environmentally important fields: oxidative removal of VOC and NOx in excess of oxygen were presented. The synergetic application of a plasma-catalytic treatment of NOx in excess of oxygen is also described.

  10. Modeling the Thermal Response of Porcine Cartilage to Laser Irradiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    with experiments. The model simulations will provide insights to the relationship between the laser treatment advantage of using laser radiation to generate thermal energy in tissue is the precise control of the space animal and human studies have demonstrated clinical feasibility [2,3] the fundamental biophysical

  11. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  12. Harvesting nanoscale thermal radiation using pyroelectric materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin; Frederich, Hugo; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    the other hand, energy transfer by thermal radiation betweenit was shown that energy transfer by thermal radi- ationpyroelectric energy conversion and nanoscale thermal

  13. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  14. Modeling thermal comfort in stratified environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, H.; Huizenga, C.; Arens, Edward A; Yu, T.

    2005-01-01

    non-uniform thermal environments", European Journal of7730, 1994, Moderate Thermal Environments – Determination offor assessing complex thermal environments,” Building and

  15. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    field measurement of thermal environment and questionnaireand non-uniform thermal environments, PhD Thesis, Center forPerception of transient thermal environments: Pleasure and

  16. Thermal Transport in Graphene Multilayers and Nanoribbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subrina, Samia

    2011-01-01

    1 CHAPTER 2 Thermal transport atvalues of graphene’s thermal conductivity and different1 Thermal conductivity : metals and non - metallic

  17. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    control in offices for thermal comfort and energy savings.ANSI/ASHRAE 55-2013: Thermal environmental conditions forA global database of thermal comfort field experiments.

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Polycrystalline Semiconductors and Ceramics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhaojie

    2012-01-01

    35, (3-6), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity ofProperties of Matter: Thermal conductivity: nonmetallicSociety), Dames, C. ; Chen, G. , Thermal Conductivity of

  19. Thermal Conduction in Graphene and Graphene Multilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Suchismita

    2009-01-01

    1 1.2 Thermal transport atxv Introduction xii 1.1 Thermal conductivity and65 4.13 Thermal conductivity of graphene as a function of

  20. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Energy can be saved and thermal pollution reduced if a totalnatural flow, and thermal pollution caused by simultaneousStored Heat Energy and Thermal Pollution Daily stored heat

  1. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of air and thermal pollution are additionalsubsidence or upliftu thermal pollution, water chemistry,or ponds to avoid thermal pollution. Because periods of heat

  2. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    the possibility of thermal stratification, i.e. the tendencyratio is very large. Thermal stratification A simple model (ef- fects of thermal stratification. This ideal- ized model

  3. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Integrated Vehicle Thermal Management...

  4. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    the prob- lem of seasonal storage of thermal energy (Matheyto study seasonal storage of thermal energy: winter storagewithin the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program managed

  5. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  6. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridgefor Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of the DOE-

  7. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solarsolar captors, thermal effluents, low cost energy duringSeale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and Solar

  8. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of natural gas, including LNG, from and to a nation with which there is in effect a free trade agreement requiring national treatment for trade in natural gas and the import of...

  9. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A process called ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the heat energy stored in the Earth's oceans to generate electricity.

  10. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  11. ,{ MO. REV. NO. THERMAL DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    ,{ MO. REV. NO. LRRR 300 THERMAL DESIGN FINAL REPORT ATM-931 PAGE i OF iv DATE 1 S Dec 1970 The results of thermal design/analyses performed on the 300 corner Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LRRR 300 performance profiles are contained herein, The entire LRRR thermal design effort is des- cribed commendng

  12. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  13. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  14. Steroid estrogens in primary and tertiary wastewater treatment plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braga, Olga; Smythe, George A.; Schäfer, Andrea; Feitz, Andrew J.

    2005-01-01

    The concentrations of two natural estrogens (Estrone (E1) and Estradiol (E2)) and one synthetic progestin (Ethinylestradiol (EE2)) were measured for different unit operations in an advanced sewage treatment plant and in ...

  15. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  16. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  17. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit Buildings",19.1,4.4,3.7,6.2,4.7 "Mobile Homes",6.9,0.5,1.1,3.9,1.4 "Year of Construction" "Before 1940",14.4,5.6,4.6,2.4,1.9 "1940 to 1949",5.2,1.3,1.4,1.6,0.9 "1950 to...

  19. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are thought to contribute to carbon sequestration, including current debates on this topic. The science regarding forestry and carbon sequestration is more advanced and less controversial than that for range, land management, carbon sequestration, carbon markets, United States. #12;ii Executive Summary

  20. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to moisture availability and solar radiation. We describe research results pertaining to global climate change Technical Report PSW-GTR-235 June 2011 A Review of the Potential Effects of Climate Change on Quaking Aspen of the potential effects of climate change on quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the Western United States

  1. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  2. Time and motion study for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Vetromile, J.; Teheranian, B.

    1997-02-01

    The time and motion study was developed to look at time-related aspects of the technologies and systems studied in the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS) and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) studies. The INTS and ITTS studies combined technologies into systems and subsystems for evaluation. The system approach provides DOE a method of measuring advantages and disadvantages of the many technologies currently being researched. For example, technologies which are more likely to create secondary waste or require extensive pretreatment handling may be less desirable than technologies which require less support from other processes. The time and motion study was designed to address the time element in the INTS and ITTS systems studies. Previous studies have focused on material balance, cost, technical effectiveness, regulatory issues, community acceptance, and operability. This study looks at system dynamics by estimating the treatment time required for a unit of waste, from receipt to certification for shipping. Labor estimates are also developed, based on the time required to do each task for each process. This focus on time highlights critical path processes and potential bottlenecks in the INTS and ITTS systems.

  3. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  4. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  5. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  6. Characterization of a new acne vulgaris treatment device combining light and thermal treatment methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    on the tip and 39.7 1C in the porcine skin samples. The peak intensity of the light-emitting diode (LED

  7. Mathematical structure of unit systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masao Kitano

    2013-05-04

    We investigate the mathematical structure of unit systems and the relations between them. Looking over the entire set of unit systems, we can find a mathematical structure that is called preorder (or quasi-order). For some pair of unit systems, there exists a relation of preorder such that one unit system is transferable to the other unit system. The transfer (or conversion) is possible only when all of the quantities distinguishable in the latter system are always distinguishable in the former system. By utilizing this structure, we can systematically compare the representations in different unit systems. Especially, the equivalence class of unit systems (EUS) plays an important role because the representations of physical quantities and equations are of the same form in unit systems belonging to an EUS. The dimension of quantities is uniquely defined in each EUS. The EUS's form a partially ordered set. Using these mathematical structures, unit systems and EUS's are systematically classified and organized as a hierarchical tree.

  8. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  9. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    .2,7.1,4.4,2.6,1.3,3,6.8 "Central Warm-Air Furnace",19.1,4.6,5.5,3.6,2.2,1.2,0.6,1.4,3.5 "Heat Pump",9.8,1.4,2,2,1.4,1,0.6,1.3,0.9 "Built-In Electric Units",5.7,1.9,1.6,0.9,0.6,0.3...

  11. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  12. Response microcantilever thermal detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Joseph P.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Evans III, Boyd M.

    2004-10-19

    A "folded leg" thermal detector microcantilever constructed of a substrate with at least one leg interposed between a fixed end and a deflective end, each leg having at least three essentially parallel leg segments interconnected on alternate opposing ends and aligned in a serpentine pattern with only the first leg segment attached to the fixed end and only the last leg segment attached to the deflective end. Alternate leg segment are coated on the pentalever with coating applied to the top of the first, third, and fifth leg segments of each leg and to the bottom of the second and fourth leg segments of each leg.

  13. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  14. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  15. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  16. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  17. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  18. Solid state thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayman, C.M.

    1981-01-27

    An improved solid state thermal engine utilizes as a drive member a braided belt fabricated from a memory alloy such as nickel-titanium and nickel-titanium ternary alloys, copper-zinc and copper-zinc ternary alloys, and the like. The braided belt is mounted on a set of pulleys to provide passage through a hot zone where the belt contracts and develops tension, and through a cold zone where it relaxes and stretches. Since more energy is delivered by contraction than is required for relaxation, positive work output results with an efficiency of between onefifth and one-third of the carnot cycle.

  19. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  20. Thermally Oxidized Silicon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week DayDr. JeffreyThermal Multi-layer4 Anneli Munkholm

  1. 80 units of core courses 70 units of core courses 70 units of core courses 80 units of core courses Semester 1 Semester 1 Semester 1 Semester 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Andrew J.

    80 units of core courses 70 units of core courses 70 units of core courses 80 units of core courses Semester 1 Semester 1 Semester 1 Semester 1 ARBE1303 10 units ARBE2101 10 units ARBE3100 10 units ARBE4101 10 units Introduction to the Construction Industry Construction Ecology 2 Construction Technology 3

  2. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Jonathan

    . Twery Mike Rechlin Abstract Five forest harvest methods (single-tree selection, group selection, two harvest treatments look like and how various logging methods affect different communities of forest plants a clean and perpetual supply of clean water, and nourishing the human spirit by providing numerous

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  4. Development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatiuk, P.A.; Cassel, D.E.; McCabe, M.; Scarbrough, C.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the development of thermal performance criteria for residential passive solar buildings, thermal design characteristics and anticipated performance for 266 projects in the HUD Passive Residential Design Competition and the HUD Cycle 5 Demonstration Program were analyzed. These passive residences are located in all regions of the United States requiring space heating, and they represent a variety of passive solar system types including direct gain, indirect gain, and solarium (isolated gain) systems. The results of this statistical analysis are being used to develop proposed minimum acceptable levels of thermal performance for passive solar buildings for the residential performance criteria. A number of performance measures were examined, including net solar contribution, solar fraction, and auxiliary energy use. These and other design and climate-related parameters were statistically correlated using the DATAPLOT computer program and standard statistical analysis techniques.

  5. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  6. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  7. Idaho Site Launches Corrective Actions Before Restarting Waste Treatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – The Idaho site and its cleanup contractor have launched a series of corrective actions they will complete before safely resuming startup operations at the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) following an incident in June that caused the new waste treatment facility to shut down.

  8. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-09-09

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  9. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  10. Energy Management in Olefins Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, T. A.

    1982-01-01

    to the point where waste heat from pyrolysis generates more than enough steam to power the olefins unit recovery section. Furthermore, incorporating gas turbine driven electrical generators or process compressors adds to the utility export potential of the unit...

  11. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolkova, Elena

    UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Carlos M. Gutierrez Secretary NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC in a modeled tsunami caused by each of 804 unit earthquakes (tsunami sources) in the Pacific and 194

  12. Thermal Flipping of Interstellar Grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph C. Weingartner

    2008-08-27

    In interstellar dust grains, internal processes dissipate rotational kinetic energy. The dissipation is accompanied by thermal fluctuations, which transfer energy from the vibrational modes to rotation. Together, these processes are known as internal relaxation. For the past several years, internal relaxation has been thought to give rise to thermal flipping, with profound consequences for grain alignment theory. I show that thermal flipping is not possible in the limit that the inertia tensor does not vary with time.

  13. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01

    recovery of styrene and improved precision when compared with thermal desorption. In addition, thermal desorption tended to breakdown sty- rene, which is vulnerable to heat. The breakdown product may interfere with the analysis results if thermal desorp... of the activation processes. (12, 1&) The first step in the production of activated carbon is carbonization, which is the formation of a char from a source material. The source materials may be coconut shells, peach pits, sawdust, wood char, etc ~ Carbonization...

  14. Energy Exchange Continuing Education Units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    International Association for Continuing Education and Training (IACET) continuing education units (CEUs) will be available for designated training sessions.

  15. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  16. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    cell. The solar cell’s power conversion efficiency, ? is theEfficiency ..5 Thermal Managements of SolarTemperature on Efficiency Photons incident on a solar cell

  17. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  18. Overview of solar thermal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The solar-thermal overview section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes the technical and economic status of this emerging renewable energy option for electricity supply.

  19. Underfloor air distribution: thermal stratification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, T.; Bauman, Fred; Reese, J.

    2002-01-01

    Air Distribution: Thermal Stratification By Tom Webster, Pthermal bypassing of convective loads that occurs above the stratificationthermal plumes that develop over heat sources in the room. A stratification

  20. Entanglement Storage Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Caneva; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

    2012-09-27

    We introduce a protocol based on optimal control to drive many body quantum systems into long-lived entangled states, protected from decoherence by big energy gaps, without requiring any apriori knowledge of the system. With this approach it is possible to implement scalable entanglement-storage units. We test the protocol in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model, a prototype many-body quantum system that describes different experimental setups, and in the ordered Ising chain, a model representing a possible implementation of a quantum bus.

  1. Unite2 States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , c 1afr+39J t% (3740~ - Unite2

  2. l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and700, 1. .&. ' , cMarchW W e e luse-_ ._UNITED

  3. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278 United States Government Department

  4. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278 United States Government

  5. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278 United States Government. v-w. ' ;H;

  6. United States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278 United States Government. v-w. '

  7. United States Government DATE:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278 United States Government. v-w.

  8. Uniter+ States Government

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouthReport for the WeldonB10081278 United States Government.EP AEFG

  9. UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE:Administrationfollowing tableUNITED STATES-ANSWER

  10. FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SH 11 .A443X FISH FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES ^ 1951 &ch 3. \\§^ ^/'· m:^ STATISTICAL DIGEST. Farley, Director Statistical Digest 30 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1951 BY A. W. ANDERSON;Fishery Statistics of the United States and Alaska are compiled and published annually to make available

  11. United States Department of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    United States Department of Agriculture Keys to Soil Taxonomy Ninth Edition, 2003 #12;#12;Keys to Soil Taxonomy By Soil Survey Staff United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service Ninth Edition, 2003 #12;The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits

  12. B. Joseph Guglielmo, EDUCATION UNIT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, David

    AND ADVISORY UNITS ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS Dean's Office Management Staff Susan Abby, executive assistant Pharmaceutical Services, UCSF Medical Center Daniel Wandres, PharmD, associate dean; vice chair, DepartmentD, chair Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences James Wells, PhD, chair ORGANIZED RESEARCH UNIT Molecular

  13. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regnier, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    including cost, energy and thermal comfort analysis, whichfor greatest energy benefits, prioritize thermal comfortMinimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort Cindy

  14. Human thermal sensation and comfort in transient and non-uniform thermal environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, H.

    2003-01-01

    the Human and the Thermal Environment." ASHRAE TransactionA field Study of Thermal Environment and Comfort in OfficeISO 7730 - Moderate Thermal Environments - Determination of

  15. Thermal sensation and comfort in transient non-uniform thermal environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Hui; Huizenga, Charlie; Arens, Edward; Wang, Danni

    2004-01-01

    for assessing complex thermal environments. Building andand non-uniform thermal environment. ” Ph.D. thesis,Non-Uniform Thermal Environments Hui Zhang, Charlie

  16. Evaluating thermal environments by using a thermal manikin with controlled skin surface temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanabe, S.; Arens, Edward A; Bauman, Fred; Zhang, H.; Madsen, T.

    1994-01-01

    betweenhumans their thermal and environment. WinslowandErgonomics of the thermal environment--Estimation of theSymposium on Man-Thermal Environment System, Tokyo. Olesen,

  17. Thermal Properties of Graphene and Applications for Thermal Management of High-Power Density Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy and Thermal Properties of Graphenegraphite heat spreaders for thermal management of high-powerthe Raman spectroscopy and thermal properties of a novel

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    well a molten salt thermal storage system could be utilizedof Solar Two [2] Thermal storage in these plants is anper kilowatt goes towards thermal storage[3]. Considering a

  19. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants A ThesisStorage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants by Coreysystems for concentrated solar thermal power (CSP) systems.

  20. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  1. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  2. On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity Igor Sevostianov Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, New: Composite material Thermal expansion Cross-property Microstructure Thermal conductivity a b s t r a c

  3. Catalog Year: 2014 Fall Quarter Units Winter Quarter Units Spring Quarter Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THIRD YEAR FOURTH YEAR ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING To earn a B.S., you must complete all CollegeCatalog Year: 2014 Fall Quarter Units Winter Quarter Units Spring Quarter Units CS 010* 4 CS 013 4 Linear Methodsfor Engr. Analysis ENGL 001A 4 MATH 009B 4 MATH 009C 4 Beginning Composition First Year

  4. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  5. Thermal Evolution of Strange Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Xia; Wang Lingzhi; Zhou Aizhi

    2007-09-03

    We investigated the thermal evolution of rotating strange stars with the deconfinement heating due to magnetic braking. We consider the stars consisting of either normal quark matter or color-flavor-locked phase. Combining deconfinement heating with magnetic field decay, we find that the thermal evolution curves are identical to pulsar data.

  6. Thermal entanglement of bosonic modes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Asoudeh

    2006-07-21

    We study the change of entanglement under general linear transformation of modes in a bosonic system and determine the conditions under which entanglement can be generated under such transformation. As an example we consider the thermal entanglement between the vibrational modes of two coupled oscillators and determine the temperature above which quantum correlations are destroyed by thermal fluctuations.

  7. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  8. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29

    . Samples were taken for two seasons, winter (Nov 03 ?? Jan 03) and summer (Jun 04 ?? Aug 04), from each of the four treatment units: the inlet tank, equalization tank, aeration tank and the outfall tank. The population of aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders...

  9. LMFBR thermal-striping evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunings, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    Thermal striping is defined as the fluctuating temperature field that is imposed on a structure when fluid streams at different temperatures mix in the vicinity of the structure surface. Because of the uncertainty in structural damage in LMFBR structures subject to thermal striping, EPRI has funded an effort for the Rockwell International Energy Systems Group to evaluate this problem. This interim report presents the following information: (1) a Thermal Striping Program Plan which identifies areas of analytic and experimental needs and presents a program of specific tasks to define damage experienced by ordinary materials of construction and to evaluate conservatism in the existing approach; (2) a description of the Thermal Striping Test Facility and its operation; and (3) results from the preliminary phase of testing to characterize the fluid environment to be applied in subsequent thermal striping damage experiments.

  10. 303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group LASP's Thermal Engineering Group is involved in all of the component, as well as on-orbit trending and operations planning. Design Experience The Thermal Engineering Systems Engineering The group has formulated general thermal design and thermal interface requirements

  11. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  12. Unsuspected Pulmonary Embolism in Observation Unit Patients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limkakeng, Alexander T.; Glickman, Seth W; Cairns, Charles B; Chandra, Abhinav

    2009-01-01

    department observation unit. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2001;ED) managed acute care unit on ED overcrowding and emergencyof a chest pain observation unit compared with routine care.

  13. Unit 100 - Data Quality Measurement and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    100, CC in GIScience; Veregin, Howard; Hunter, Gary

    2000-01-01

    Page 18 Unit 100 - Data Quality Measurement and AssessmentPage 19 Unit 100 - Data Quality Measurement and AssessmentData Quality Measurement and Assessment Unit 100 - Data

  14. Mexico-United States Migration: Health Issues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, Elena; Wallace, Steven P.; Berumen, Salvador; Castaneda, Xotichl; al., et

    2005-01-01

    Americans. Mexico-United States Migration • Health issuesMexico-United States Migration Health Issues © ConsejoMéxico D. F. Mexico-United States Migration Health Issues

  15. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  16. Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ramsey

    2002-08-29

    The purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). The Tptpul is the layer directly above the repository host layers, which consist of the Tptpmn, Tptpll, and the Tptpln. Current design plans indicate that the largest portion of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll (Board et al. 2002 [157756]). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large scale (cm-m) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity and perhaps repository system performance as well. To assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity, a model is proposed that is functionally dependent on the volume fraction of lithophysae and the thermal conductivity of the matrix portion of the rock. In this model, void space characterized as lithophysae is assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions, while void space characterized as matrix may be either water- or air-saturated. Lithophysae are assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions since the units being studied are all located above the water table in the region of interest, and the relatively strong capillary forces of the matrix will, under most conditions, preferentially retain any moisture present in the rock.

  17. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  18. Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric Machines Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  19. Treatment of radionuclide contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pettis, S.A.; Kallas, A.J.; Kochen, R.L.; McGlochlin, S.C.

    1988-06-01

    Rockwell, International, Rocky Flats Plants, is committed to remediating within the scope of RCRA/CERCLA, Solid Waste Managements Units (SWMUs) at Rocky Flats found to be contaminated with hazardous substances. SWMUs fund to have radionuclide (uranium, plutonium, and/or americium) concentrations in the soils and/or groundwater that exceed background levels or regulatory limits will also be included in this remediation effort. This paper briefly summarizes past and present efforts by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, to identify treatment technologies appropriate for remediating actinide contaminated soils. Many of the promising soil treatments evaluated in Rocky Flats' laboratories during the late 1970's and early 1980's are currently being revisited. These technologies are generally directed toward substantially reducing the volume of contaminated soils, with the subsequent intention of disposing of a small remaining concentrated fraction of contaminated soil in a facility approved to receive radioactive wastes. Treatment processes currently will be treated to remove actinides, and recycled back to the process. Past investigations have included evaluations of dry screening, wet screening, scrubbing, ultrasonics, chemical oxidation, calcination, desliming, flotation, and heavy-liquid density separation. 8 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ?ť system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  1. Microelectromechanical (MEM) thermal actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fulcher, Clay W. G. (Sandia Park, NM)

    2012-07-31

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) buckling beam thermal actuators are disclosed wherein the buckling direction of a beam is constrained to a desired direction of actuation, which can be in-plane or out-of-plane with respect to a support substrate. The actuators comprise as-fabricated, linear beams of uniform cross section supported above the substrate by supports which rigidly attach a beam to the substrate. The beams can be heated by methods including the passage of an electrical current through them. The buckling direction of an initially straight beam upon heating and expansion is controlled by incorporating one or more directional constraints attached to the substrate and proximal to the mid-point of the beam. In the event that the beam initially buckles in an undesired direction, deformation of the beam induced by contact with a directional constraint generates an opposing force to re-direct the buckling beam into the desired direction. The displacement and force generated by the movement of the buckling beam can be harnessed to perform useful work, such as closing contacts in an electrical switch.

  2. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    the arrival Stored Heat Energy and Thermal Pollution DailyAn Answer to Energy Conservation and Thermal validity of ourWells for Conserving Energy and Reducing Thermal Pollution,"

  3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    Resources Res. 14: 273-280. THERMAL STORAGE OF COLD WATER INR.C. HARE, 1972. Thermal Storage for Eco-Energy Utilities,W.J. MASICA, 1977. "Thermal Storage for Electric Utilities,"

  4. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01

    R. C. 1 1972 1 Thermal storage for eco=energy utilities: GE-and Harris, w. B. 0 1978 0 Thermal storage of cold water induration EXPERIMENTS Thermal storage radius (m) thickness

  5. Lake thermal structure influences macroinvertebrate predation on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnott, Shelley

    . KEYWORDS: thermal stratification; climate warming; Chaoborus; notonectid; Boreal Shield; mesocosm INTRODUCTION Climate change is expected to alter the timing, strength and depth of thermal stratificationLake thermal structure influences macroinvertebrate predation on crustacean zooplankton SHANNON A

  6. Thermal properties of soils and soils testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-17

    The thermal properties of soils are reviewed with reference to the use of soils as heat sources, heat sinks, or thermal storage. Specific heat and thermal conductivity are discussed. (ACR)

  7. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01

    20) E. B. Quale. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in waterE.B. , 1976. "Seasonal Storage of Thermal Energy in Water ina truly worthwhile goal. Seasonal Storage of Thermal Energy

  8. Advanced nanofabrication of thermal emission devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurley, Fergus (Fergus Gerard)

    2008-01-01

    Nanofabricated thermal emission devices can be used to modify and modulate blackbody thermal radiation. There are many areas in which altering thermal radiation is extremely useful, especially in static power conversion, ...

  9. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    ocean thermal energy, distributed solar thermal energy,heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demand

  10. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy, andfor efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  11. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  12. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  13. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  14. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  15. Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  16. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  17. Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Continuous Processing of High Thermal Conductivity Polyethylene Fibers and Sheets Massachusetts Institute of...

  18. Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 Thermally Activated Technologies Technology Roadmap, May 2003 The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a...

  19. United Nations TD/B/WP/203 United Nations Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    country DFQF duty-free and quota-free DITC Division on International Trade in Goods and ServicesUnited Nations TD/B/WP/203 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Distr.: General 31 July 2008 Original: English GE.08- Trade and Development Board Working Party on the Medium-term Plan

  20. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  1. Acknowledgments Hard and Thermal Photon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Acknowledgments Hard and Thermal Photon Absorption in a QGP Eric Palmerduca 1,2 Advisor: Dr. Rainer Fries 2 1 Colgate University 2 Cyclotron Institute, Department of Physics and...

  2. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  3. Thermally activated technologies: Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this Technology Roadmap is to outline a set of actions for government and industry to develop thermally activated technologies for converting America’s wasted heat resources into a reservoir of pollution-free energy for electric power, heating, cooling, refrigeration, and humidity control. Fuel flexibility is important. The actions also cover thermally activated technologies that use fossil fuels, biomass, and ultimately hydrogen, along with waste heat.

  4. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  5. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell (Knoxville, TN); Morris, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  6. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  7. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-21

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  8. Survey reveals nature of corrosion in HF alky units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobis, J.D. (BP Oil Co., Marcus Hook, PA (United States)); Clarida, D.R. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Richert, J.P. (Saudi Aramco/Mobil, Yanbu (Saudi Arabia))

    1995-03-06

    The results of a National Association of Corrosion Engineers survey of 62 HF alkylation units reveal relatively low incidence of service-related cracking of carbon steel. Hydrogen blistering, however, is prevalent, especially in the main acid circuit and overhead condensers. Based on these and other survey results, several recommendations are made to enable refiners to monitor and reduce corrosion in these special units. The paper discusses the survey results, construction materials, post-weld heat treatments, small-diameter piping, construction inspection, bolting, gaskets, block valves, maintenance practices, cracking, blistering, areas of vulnerability, and recommendations.

  9. Emergency Medical Treatment Required

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McQuade, D. Tyler

    Emergency Medical Treatment Required Non-Emergency Medical Treatment Required If possible, get help from colleague or supervisor Call 911 or go to hospital emergency room (for chemical exposure, bring Investigation Report" to Environmental Health & Safety within 48 hours Emergency Medical Treatment Required

  10. Boryeong Thermal Power Complex, Boryeong-Si, Chungcheongnam-do Province, South Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neville, J.D.

    2008-10-15

    From tall skyscrapers and flashing neon signs to Buddhist temples and pagodas, South Korea is a mixture of the new and old Asia. Doing its part to help modernise this country, the Boryeong thermal power complex operates six coal-fired 500-MW units that provide electricity to power South Korea's economic growth. One of the important reasons for this facility's overall success is its operational reliability. An example of this is Boryeong Unit 3's outstanding achievement of 3,000 days of trouble-free operation. The Complex also has a dozen 150 MW combined cycle units burning imported liquefied natural gas for electrical system peaking. 4 photos.

  11. Lunar mare basalt flow units: Thicknesses determined from crater size-frequency distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Head III, James William

    . Hiesinger and J. W. Head III Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA U, and Insularum) allowed us to identify flow units that have not been detected in low-sun images. We found and their relation to the thermal evolution of the Moon [Head and Wilson, 1992]. Early work focused on estimating

  12. Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    by Arthur D. Little, Inc. Acorn Park Cambridge, Massachusetts 02140 under Subcontract 7255 for Oak Ridge by the Thermal Energy Technology Unit of Arthur D. Little, Inc., managed by W. David Lee. Richard F. Topping had that was both manufacturable and marketable. Arthur D. Little, Inc., continued as principal contractor to Oak

  13. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A. Atchley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A purposes. #12;ABSTRACT Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have

  14. Dynamic Thermal Management in 3D Multicore Architectures Ayse K. Coskun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simunic, Tajana

    approach to overcome the power consumption and delay problems associated with the interconnects by reducing due to the high power density resulting from placing computational units on top of each other. In this work, we first investigate how the existing thermal management, power management and job scheduling

  15. Quantifying surface watergroundwater interactions using time series analysis of streambed thermal records

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Andrew

    of variable streambed hydraulic conductivity. This new approach should facilitate wider use of thermal methods streams in the western United States have declined during the summer and fall in recent years, when in base flow and changes in groundwater recharge [e.g., Bredehoeft et al., 1982], but measuring

  16. Effects of Matrix Cracks on the Thermal Diffusivity of a Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    Effects of Matrix Cracks on the Thermal Diffusivity of a Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composite conductances coupled with a unit cell model for a fiber composite containing a periodic array of matrix cracks tolerance and notch insensitivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs).1 These mechanisms play

  17. Thermal resistance of bridged cracks in fiber-reinforced ceramic John Dryden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    -reinforced ceramic composites obtain high toughness is through the de- velopment of multiple matrix cracksThermal resistance of bridged cracks in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites John Dryden Department in a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite is analyzed. The problem is cast in terms of a unit cell comprising

  18. Distributed Porosity as a Control Parameter for Oxide Thermal Barriers Made by Physical Vapor Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Deposition Tian Jian Lu Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, United Kingdom (typically yttria- stabilized zirconia (YSZ)), an oxidation protection metallic sub- layer, and a thermally depend upon engine design details. Usually, a lower k enables higher engine gas temperature and reduced

  19. International Journal of Computer Vision 71(2), 215233, 2007 c 2006 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Manufactured in the United States.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koschan, Andreas

    the faces in varying illumination conditions. Thermal IR sensors measure energy radiations from the object to provide useful information around the eyes since glass blocks a large portion of thermal energy Media, LLC. Manufactured in the United States. DOI: 10.1007/s11263-006-6655-0 Multiscale Fusion

  20. International Journal of Computer Vision 71(2), 215233, 2007 c 2006 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Manufactured in the United States.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abidi, Mongi A.

    Media, LLC. Manufactured in the United States. DOI: 10.1007/s11263-006-6655-0 Multiscale Fusion Abstract. This paper describes a new software-based registration and fusion of visible and thermal infrared the faces in varying illumination conditions. Thermal IR sensors measure energy radiations from the object

  1. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  2. Thermal to Visible Face Recognition Jonghyun Choi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daume III, Hal

    Thermal to Visible Face Recognition Jonghyun Choi , Shuowen Hu , S. Susan Young and Larry S. Davis surveillance, thermal imaging is commonly used because of the intrinsic emissivity of thermal radiation from the human body. However, matching thermal images of faces acquired at nighttime to the predominantly visible

  3. Thermal diffusion shock waves Sorasak Danworaphong1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Walter

    Thermal diffusion shock waves Sorasak Danworaphong1 , Walter Craig3 , Vitalyi Gusev4 , and Gerald J and are concentrated by a thermal gradient imposed on a salt solution, the separation of the components of a mixture in a thermal field, known as "thermal diffusion", or the Ludwig-Soret effect has been found not only in liquids

  4. Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

    2006-10-01

    Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

  5. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  6. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-04-19

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  7. Active Thermal Extraction of Near-field Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    Radiative heat transport between materials supporting surface-phonon polaritons is greatly enhanced when the materials are placed at sub-wavelength separation as a result of the contribution of near-field surface modes. However, the enhancement is limited to small separations due to the evanescent decay of the surface waves. In this work, we propose and numerically demonstrate an active scheme to extract these modes to the far-field. Our approach exploits the monochromatic nature of near-field thermal radiation to drive a transition in a laser gain medium, which, when coupled with external optical pumping, allows the resonant surface mode to be emitted into the far-field. Our study demonstrates a new approach to manipulate thermal radiation that could find applications in thermal management.

  8. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  9. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  10. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

    2008-01-07

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  11. Treatment-resistant pyoderma gangrenosum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosari, Payman; Feldman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    of compliance with psoriasis treatment. J Cutan Med Surg .in the treatment of psoriasis: a systematic review.acid gel for plaque psoriasis treatment. Arch Dermatol 141(

  12. Considering biomedical/CAM treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, JX; Widjaja, F; Choi, JE; Hendren, RL

    2013-01-01

    and possible use of biomedical CAM treatments, including24 April 2013 ? 6:40 pm Biomedical Complementary Treatment24 April 2013 ? 6:40 pm Biomedical Complementary Treatment

  13. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  14. THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    THERMALLY ACTIVATED MARTENSITE: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO NON-THERMALLY ACTIVATED (ATHERMAL) MARTENSITE Keywords: Thermal Activation, Isothermal, Athermal, Activation Energy Abstract The classification of no thermal activation. Processes with no thermal activation do not depend on time, as there is no need

  15. Thermal properties of graphene and multilayer graphene: Applications in thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal properties of graphene and multilayer graphene: Applications in thermal interface materials 2012 Accepted by L. Bery Available online 25 April 2012 Keywords: A. Graphene A. Thermal interface materials C. Graphene composites D. Thermal properties a b s t r a c t We review the thermal properties

  16. Thermal Signature: A Simple Yet Accurate Thermal Index for Floorplan Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    Thermal Signature: A Simple Yet Accurate Thermal Index for Floorplan Optimization ABSTRACT evaluation should be done extremely fast with high accuracy. A new thermal index, named thermal signature's function and power density in- tegrated over space. The correlation coefficient between thermal signature

  17. UNH Thermal WorkshopUNH Thermal Workshop or how important isor how important is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNH Thermal WorkshopUNH Thermal Workshop or how important isor how important is stream) EPA grants to UNH for thermal regimes of Northeast g g Streams and Thermal Impacts of Stormwater BMPsResponse curves created for original R1 RARE Extension to fish communities Build on UNH BMP Thermal work

  18. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  19. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  20. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.