Sample records for thermal treatment unit

  1. EA-0821: Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the U.S. Department of Energy's Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to use an existing glass melter thermal treatment unit (also known as a Penberthy Pyro-Converter joule-heated glass furnace) for the...

  2. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  3. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  4. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  5. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerobic units treat wastewater using the same process, only scaled down, as municipal wastewater treatment systems. This publication explains how aerobic units work, what their design requirements are, and how to maintain them....

  6. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?˘ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?˘ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?˘ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?˘ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  7. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  8. Conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suer, A.

    1996-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a conceptual Thermal Treatment Technologies Feasibility Study (FS) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) focusing exclusively on thermal treatment technologies for contaminated soil, sediment, or sludge remediation projects.

  9. Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

  10. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  11. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment Technology available for licensing: A 3D technique to detect early skin changes due to radiation treatment in breast...

  12. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  13. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, J.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  14. Interim Status Closure Plan Open Burning Treatment Unit Technical Area 16-399 Burn Tray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vigil-Holterman, Luciana R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This closure plan describes the activities necessary to close one of the interim status hazardous waste open burning treatment units at Technical Area (TA) 16 at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Facility), hereinafter referred to as the 'TA-16-399 Burn Tray' or 'the unit'. The information provided in this closure plan addresses the closure requirements specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 265, Subparts G and P for the thermal treatment units operated at the Facility under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. Closure of the open burning treatment unit will be completed in accordance with Section 4.1 of this closure plan.

  15. Low level mixed waste thermal treatment technical basis report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Place, B.G.

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed characterization of the existing and projected Hanford Site Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) inventory was initiated in 1993 (Place 1993). This report presents an analysis of the existing and projected RMW inventory. The subject characterization effort continues to be in support of the following engineering activities related to thermal treatment of Hanford Site RMW: (1) Contracting for commercial thermal treatment; (2) Installation and operation of an onsite thermal treatment facility (Project W-242); (3) Treatment at another Department of Energy (DOE) site. The collation of this characterization information (data) has emphasized the establishment of a common data base for the entire existing RMW inventory so that the specification of feed streams destined for different treatment facilities can be coordinated.

  16. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W. [NUKEM GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste.

  17. PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    PRIMAL AND DUAL METHODS FOR UNIT COMMITMENT IN A HYDRO-THERMAL POWER SYSTEM R. Gollmer1 , A. Moller comprising thermal and pumped-storage hydro units a large-scale mixed-integer optimization model is developed aims at the cost optimal scheduling of on/o decisions and output levels for generating units. The power

  18. Baldwin Thermal Treatment Facility, Baldwin, Illinois: Organics and contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kipin, P.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Baldwin Thermal Treatment Facility is located at the Illinois Power Company`s Baldwin Power Plant, east of St. Louis, Missouri. It consists of two coal fired cyclone boilers and one pulverized coal boiler. Wastes are fed to the two cyclone boilers, at present. Future expansion to the pulverizer unit is planned. The boilers burn at 3,000 F with six seconds retention. This exceeds blast furnaces and most incinerators. An added feature is that the coal and waste materials are injected directly into the hottest zone immediately preventing any possible creation of dioxins. Up to 600 tons of waste per day can be fed to the boilers. This will increase when the third boiler is added to the permit. The facility can take a wide range of sizes and concentrations of coal tars and oils. The on-site process equipment will process these with on-site coal in varying proportions as required to ensure a stable uniform feed to the boiler. The on-site process equipment can process intermixed rock, metal, concrete, soil into a uniform blend with coal tars and coal. On-site decontamination of scrap metal is also provided for.

  19. Potential for supplying solar thermal energy to industrial unit operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, E.K.

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies have identified major industries deemed most appropriate for the near-term adoption of solar thermal technology to provide process heat; these studies have been based on surveys that followed standard industrial classifications. This paper presents an alternate, perhaps simpler analysis of this potential, considered in terms of the end-use of energy delivered to industrial unit operations. For example, materials, such as animal feed, can be air dried at much lower temperatures than are currently used. This situation is likely to continue while economic supplies of natural gas are readily available. However, restriction of these supplies could lead to the use of low-temperature processes, which are more easily integrated with solar thermal technology. The adoption of solar technology is also favored by other changes, such as the relative rates of increase of the costs of electricity and natural gas, and by energy conservation measures. Thus, the use of low-pressure steam to provide process heat could be replaced economically with high-temperature hot water systems, which are more compatible with solar technology. On the other hand, for certain operations such as high-temperature catalytic and distillation processes employed in petroleum refining, there is no ready alternative to presently employed fluid fuels.

  20. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  1. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durrani, H.A.; Schmidt, L.J.; Erickson, T.A.; Sondreal, E.A.; Erjavec, J.; Steadman, E.N.; Fabrycky, W.J.; Wilson, J.S.; Musich, M.A.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report analyzes three systems engineering (SE) studies performed on integrated thermal treatment systems (ITTSs) and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTSs) for the remediation of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) stored throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), the Waste Policy Institute (WPI), and Virginia Tech (VT). The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1--issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2--issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study--drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions taken in the studies might bias the resulting economic evaluations of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to produce sound SE applications.

  2. Process modeling for the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebelt, K.H.; Brown, B.W.; Quapp, W.J.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the integrated thermal treatment system (ITTS) study, Phases 1 and 2. ITTS consists of an integrated systems engineering approach for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for treatment of the contact-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) currently stored in the U.S. Department of Energy complex. In the overall study, 19 systems were evaluated. Preconceptual designs were developed that included all of the various subsystems necessary for a complete installation, from waste receiving through to primary and secondary stabilization and disposal of the processed wastes. Each system included the necessary auxiliary treatment subsystems so that all of the waste categories in the complex were fully processed. The objective of the modeling task was to perform mass and energy balances of the major material components in each system. Modeling of trace materials, such as pollutants and radioactive isotopes, were beyond the present scope. The modeling of the main and secondary thermal treatment, air pollution control, and metal melting subsystems was done using the ASPEN PLUS process simulation code, Version 9.1-3. These results were combined with calculations for the remainder of the subsystems to achieve the final results, which included offgas volumes, and mass and volume waste reduction ratios.

  3. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  4. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  5. B Plant treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) units inspection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, T.G.

    1996-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This inspection plan is written to meet the requirements of WAC 173-303 for operations of a TSD facility. Owners/operators of TSD facilities are required to inspection their facility and active waste management units to prevent and/or detect malfunctions, discharges and other conditions potentially hazardous to human health and the environment. A written plan detailing these inspection efforts must be maintained at the facility in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173-303, ``Dangerous Waste Regulations`` (WAC 173-303), a written inspection plan is required for the operation of a treatment, storage and disposal (TSD) facility and individual TSD units. B Plant is a permitted TSD facility currently operating under interim status with an approved Part A Permit. Various operational systems and locations within or under the control of B Plant have been permitted for waste management activities. Included are the following TSD units: Cell 4 Container Storage Area; B Plant Containment Building; Low Level Waste Tank System; Organic Waste Tank System; Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) Tank System; Low Level Waste Concentrator Tank System. This inspection plan complies with the requirements of WAC 173-303. It addresses both general TSD facility and TSD unit-specific inspection requirements. Sections on each of the TSD units provide a brief description of the system configuration and the permitted waste management activity, a summary of the inspection requirements, and details on the activities B Plant uses to maintain compliance with those requirements.

  6. Metal behavior during fluidized bed thermal treatment of soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, T.C.; Lee, H.T.; Shiao, C.C.; Hopper, J.R. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Bostick, W.D. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemistry Dept.] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemistry Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Superfund dumpsites are frequently composed of soils contaminated with hazardous organic constituents and toxic heavy metals. While thermal treatment is an effective method of remediating the contaminated soils, the major environmental concerns are the emissions of toxic metal fumes during the treatment and the leaching of metals from the treated soil. The US EPA has reported that metals can account for almost all of the identified cancer risks from waste incineration systems. Research leading to better understanding of their behavior and better controlling of their emissions is urgently needed. In this study, the behavior of metals during the fluidized bed thermal treatment of artificially prepared metal-contaminated clay was experimentally and theoretically investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of operating conditions on metal volatilization and metal leachability associated with the process. Metal experiments were carried out in a well instrumented 76 mm (3 inch) i.d. fluidized bed incinerator. The metals involved were compounds of lead and cadmium and the operating parameters included metal concentration, air flow rate, treatment temperature and treatment duration. The observed results indicated that metal volatilization is mainly a function of treatment temperature and treatment duration. The degree of volatilization was observed to range from 5 to 40% depending on the operating conditions. Cadmium leachability was observed to be relatively high compared to that of lead. In addition to the experimental study, a theoretical model based on the laws of heat and mass transfer operations and reaction kinetics was derived to simulate the metal volatilization process. The derived model was found to predict reasonably well the experimental observations.

  7. Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

  8. Thermal Treatment of Solid Wastes Using the Electric Arc Furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal waste treatment facility has been developed at the Albany Research Center (ARC) over the past seven years to process a wide range of heterogeneous mixed wastes, on a scale of 227 to 907 kg/h (500 to 2,000 lb/h). The current system includes a continuous feed system, a 3-phase AC, 0.8 MW graphite electrode arc furnace, and a dedicated air pollution control system (APCS) which includes a close-coupled thermal oxidizer, spray cooler, baghouse, and wet scrubber. The versatility of the complete system has been demonstrated during 5 continuous melting campaigns, ranging from 11 to 25 mt (12 to 28 st) of treated wastes per campaign, which were conducted on waste materials such as (a) municipal incinerator ash, (b) simulated low-level radioactive, high combustible-bearing mixed wastes, (c) simulated low-level radioactive liquid tank wastes, (d) heavy metal contaminated soils, and (e) organic-contaminated dredging spoils. In all cases, the glass or slag products readily passed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxicity Characteristic Leachability Program (TCLP) test. Additional studies are currently under way on electric utility wastes, steel and aluminum industry wastes, as well as zinc smelter residues. Thermal treatment of these solid waste streams is intended to produce a metallic product along with nonhazardous glass or slag products.

  9. Development of a simplified thermal analysis procedure for insulating glass units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klam, Jeremy Wayne

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A percentage of insulating glass (IG) units break each year due to thermally induced perimeter stresses. The glass industry has known about this problem for many years and an ASTM standard has recently been developed for the design of monolithic...

  10. Development of a simplified thermal analysis procedure for insulating glass units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klam, Jeremy Wayne

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    glass plates for thermal stresses induced by solar irradiance. It is believed that a similar standard can be developed for IG units if a proper understanding of IG thermal stresses can be developed. The objective of this research is to improve...

  11. The proposed combustion standards and DOE thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFee, J. [IT Corp. (United States); Hinman, M.B. [Carter and Hinman, P.A. (United States); Eaton, D.; NcNeel, K. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under the provisions of the Clean Air Act (CAA) concerning emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the proposed Revised Standards for Hazardous Waste Combustors on April 19, 1996 (EPA, 1996). These standards would apply to the existing Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive and mixed waste incinerators, and may be applied to several developing alternatives to incineration. The DOE has reviewed the basis for these regulations and prepared extensive comments to present concerns about the bases and implications of the standards. DOE is now discussing compliance options with the EPA for regulation of radioactive and mixed waste thermal treatment systems.

  12. Selective gel treatments in the Countyline Unit, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jasti, J.K.; Zambrano, L.G.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A waterflood optimization work program was conducted in a ``Type`` fault block in the Countyline Unit, Sho-Vel-Tum Field, Oklahoma. Selective gels were used to block random thief zones in the Upper Fusulinia Formation. There were eleven workovers, selective gel treatments in five injection wells, and a shift of water injection to downdip wells. Results show that the program has been successful in increasing production and ultimate recovery with significant improvements in the water injection profiles. in addition, a new gel injection procedure has been discovered while carrying out the project. The procedure involves pulsing the reservoir to increase the amount of gel that can be injected into the matrix (while maintaining the injection pressure below the formation fracture pressure), thereby improving the gel`s blocking capability.

  13. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  14. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit GFSI Risk Management Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. A. Owca

    2007-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This GFSI Risk Management Plan (RMP) describes the strategy for assessing and managing project risks for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) that are specifically within the control and purview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and identifies the risks that formed the basis for the DOE contingency included in the performance baseline. DOE-held contingency is required to cover cost and schedule impacts of DOE activities. Prior to approval of the performance baseline (Critical Decision-2) project cost contingency was evaluated during a joint meeting of the Contractor Management Team and the Integrated Project Team for both contractor and DOE risks to schedule and cost. At that time, the contractor cost and schedule risk value was $41.3M and the DOE cost and schedule risk contingency value is $39.0M. The contractor cost and schedule risk value of $41.3M was retained in the performance baseline as the contractor's management reserve for risk contingency. The DOE cost and schedule risk value of $39.0M has been retained in the performance baseline as the DOE Contingency. The performance baseline for the project was approved in December 2006 (Garman 2006). The project will continue to manage to the performance baseline and change control thresholds identified in PLN-1963, ''Idaho Cleanup Project Sodium-Bearing Waste Treatment Project Execution Plan'' (PEP).

  15. Thermal Treatment of PtNiCo Electrocatalysts: Effects of Nanoscale...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of an investigation of the thermal treatment temperature on nanoengineered platinum-nickel-cobalt catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction, focusing on understanding the effects...

  16. Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and high temperature cooling_REHVA Guidebook, Federation ofEvaluation of cooling performance of thermally activatedsystem with evaporative cooling source for typical United

  17. Grand Junction projects office mixed-waste treatment program, VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, R.R.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented VAC*TRAX mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses an indirectly heated, batch vacuum dryer to thermally desorb organic compounds from mixed wastes. This process hazards analysis evaluated 102 potential hazards. The three significant hazards identified involved the inclusion of oxygen in a process that also included an ignition source and fuel. Changes to the design of the MTU were made concurrent with the hazard identification and analysis; all hazards with initial risk rankings of 1 or 2 were reduced to acceptable risk rankings of 3 or 4. The overall risk to any population group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  18. Effect of thermal treatment of bisphenol-A polycarbonate on its photodegradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rufus, I.B.; Shah, H.; Hoyle, C.E. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial polycarbonates are often subjected to high temperatures. Hence the effect of thermal treatment of polycarbonate on its photodegradation has been investigated by fluorescence and UV-absorption spectral techniques. Thermal treatment of polycarbonate leads to a structured fluorescence emission around 350 nm. The structural emission arises from a mixture of thermal degradation products formed in the back-bone of polycarbonate. The photolysis of thermal degradation products leads to the formation of photoproducts, but has a relatively marginal effect on the ultimate photostability of polycarbonate.

  19. aerobic treatment units: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (g) Settling time (min) Time (days) Time (days) Biomass 25 Field investigation on the treatment of partially-treated pigfarm wastewater by a constructed wetland. Open Access...

  20. Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P. ['Leningradskii Metallicheskii Zavod', branch of JSC 'Silovye mashiny' (Russian Federation); Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A. ['Institut Teploenergoproekt', branch of JSC 'Inzhenernyi tsentr EES' (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

  1. Thermal Imaging of Canals for Remote Detection of Leaks: Evaluation in the United Irrigation District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yanbo; Fipps, Guy

    . Procedures A main canal in United Irrigation District was one of several canals which was flown over with an air-borne thermal imager in Fall of 2001. The section of canal analyzed in this report consists of a 6.6 mile unlined (earth) segment and an 11... airborne multispectral remote sensing to determine leakage from rural aqueducts. Daedalus AADS 1268 Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) multispectral scanner remotely sensed data were obtained over the Vyrnwy Aqueduct, North West England. True color aerial...

  2. Pressurized thermal shock evaluation of the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abbott, L [ed.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of the risk to the Calvert Cliffs Unit 1 nuclear power plant due to pressurized thermal shock (PTS) has been completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) with the assistance of several other organizations. This evaluation was part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission program designed to study the PTS risk to three nuclear plants, the other two plants being Oconee Unit 1 and H.B. Robinson Unit 2. The specific objectives of the program were to (1) provide a best estimate of the frequency of a through-the-wall crack in the pressure vessel at each of the three plants, together with the uncertainty in the estimated frequency and its sensitivity to the variables used in the evaluation; (2) determine the dominant overcooling sequences contributing to the estimated frequency and the associated failures in the plant systems or in operator actions; and (3) evaluate the effectiveness of potential corrective measures.

  3. Children's Unit for Treatment and Evaluation Dr. R.G. Romanczyk, Director

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Children's Unit for Treatment and Evaluation Dr. R.G. Romanczyk, Director P.O. Box 6000 Binghamton are subject to clearance through the State Central Register of Child Abuse / Maltreatment and fingerprint instruction and care to children enrolled in the Children's Unit. 1. implement individualized educational

  4. Summary - Building C-400 Thermal Treatment Remedial Design Report...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Decision. What the ETR Team Recommended The data provide an initial basis for designoperation; however, characterization should include expanding the target treatment zones in...

  5. THERMAL TREATMENT REVIEW . WTE I THERMAL TREATMENT Since the beginning of this century, global waste-to-energy capacity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    of new waste-to gasification process at an industrial scale The Waste-To-Energy Research and Technology Council (WTERT), headquartered at Columbia University in New York City, keeps a close watch on the thermal waste-to-energy capacity has increased steadily at the rate of about four million tonnes of MSW per year

  6. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2010-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  7. Thermal and high magnetic field treatment of materials and associated apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger A.; Wilgen, John B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.; Jaramillo, Roger A.; Mackiewicz-Ludtka, Gail

    2007-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for altering characteristics, such as can include structural, magnetic, electrical, optical or acoustical characteristics, of an electrically-conductive workpiece utilizes a magnetic field within which the workpiece is positionable and schemes for thermally treating the workpiece by heating or cooling techniques in conjunction with the generated magnetic field so that the characteristics of the workpiece are effected by both the generated magnetic field and the thermal treatment of the workpiece.

  8. Review of the integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment system studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a review and evaluation of three systems analysis studies performed by LITCO on integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for the remediation of mixed low-level waste stored throughout the US Department of Energy weapons complex. The review was performed by an independent team of nine researchers from the Energy and Environmental Research Center, Science Applications International Corporation, the Waste Policy Institute, and Virginia Tech. The three studies reviewed were as follows: Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 1 -- issued July 1994; Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study, Phase 2 -- issued February 1996; and Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System Study -- drafted March 1996. The purpose of this review was to (1) determine whether the assumptions of the studies were adequate to produce an unbiased review of both thermal and nonthermal systems, (2) to identify the critical areas of the studies that would benefit from further investigation, and (3) to develop a standard template that could be used in future studies to assure a sound application of systems engineering.

  9. Energy implications of the thermal recovery of biodegradable municipal waste materials in the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnley, Stephen, E-mail: s.j.burnley@open.ac.uk [Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Phillips, Rhiannon, E-mail: rhiannon.jones@environment-agency.gov.uk [Strategy Unit, Welsh Assembly Government, Ty Cambria, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP (United Kingdom); Coleman, Terry, E-mail: terry.coleman@erm.com [Environmental Resources Management Ltd, Eaton House, Wallbrook Court, North Hinksey Lane, Oxford OX2 0QS (United Kingdom); Rampling, Terence, E-mail: twa.rampling@hotmail.com [7 Thurlow Close, Old Town Stevenage, Herts SG1 4SD (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: > Energy balances were calculated for the thermal treatment of biodegradable wastes. > For wood and RDF, combustion in dedicated facilities was the best option. > For paper, garden and food wastes and mixed waste incineration was the best option. > For low moisture paper, gasification provided the optimum solution. - Abstract: Waste management policies and legislation in many developed countries call for a reduction in the quantity of biodegradable waste landfilled. Anaerobic digestion, combustion and gasification are options for managing biodegradable waste while generating renewable energy. However, very little research has been carried to establish the overall energy balance of the collection, preparation and energy recovery processes for different types of wastes. Without this information, it is impossible to determine the optimum method for managing a particular waste to recover renewable energy. In this study, energy balances were carried out for the thermal processing of food waste, garden waste, wood, waste paper and the non-recyclable fraction of municipal waste. For all of these wastes, combustion in dedicated facilities or incineration with the municipal waste stream was the most energy-advantageous option. However, we identified a lack of reliable information on the energy consumed in collecting individual wastes and preparing the wastes for thermal processing. There was also little reliable information on the performance and efficiency of anaerobic digestion and gasification facilities for waste.

  10. Non-Thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DOE proposes to transport contact-handled LLMW from the Hanford Site to the Allied Technology Group (ATG) Mixed Waste Facility (MWF) in Richland, Washington, for non-thermal treatment and to return the treated waste to the Hanford Site for eventual land disposal. Over a 3-year period the waste would be staged to the ATG MWF, and treated waste would be returned to the Hanford Site. The ATG MWF would be located on an 18 hectare (ha) (45 acre [at]) ATG Site adjacent to ATG's licensed low-level waste processing facility at 2025 Battelle Boulevard. The ATG MWF is located approximately 0.8 kilometers (km) (0.5 miles [mi]) south of Horn Rapids Road and 1.6 km (1 mi) west of Stevens Drive. The property is located within the Horn Rapids triangle in northern Richland (Figure 2.1). The ATG MWF is to be located on the existing ATG Site, near the DOE Hanford Site, in an industrial area in the City of Richland. The effects of siting, construction, and overall operation of the MWF have been evaluated in a separate State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) EIS (City of Richland 1998). The proposed action includes transporting the LLMW from the Hanford Site to the ATG Facility, non-thermal treatment of the LLMW at the ATG MWF, and transporting the waste from ATG back to the Hanford Site. Impacts fi-om waste treatment operations would be bounded by the ATG SEPA EIS, which included an evaluation of the impacts associated with operating the non-thermal portion of the MWF at maximum design capacity (8,500 metric tons per year) (City of Richland 1998). Up to 50 employees would be required for non-thermal treatment portion of the MWF. This includes 40 employees that would perform waste treatment operations and 10 support staff. Similar numbers were projected for the thermal treatment portion of the MWF (City of Richland 1998).

  11. Plutonium Finishing Plan (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit Interim Status Closure Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PRIGNANO, A.L.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the planned activities and performance standards for closing the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Treatment and Storage Unit. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit is located within the 234-52 Building in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility. Although this document is prepared based upon Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 265, Subpart G requirements, closure of the unit will comply with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 regulations pursuant to Section 5.3 of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Action Plan (Ecology et al. 1996). Because the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit manages transuranic mixed (TRUM) waste, there are many controls placed on management of the waste. Based on the many controls placed on management of TRUM waste, releases of TRUM waste are not anticipated to occur in the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit. Because the intention is to clean close the PFP Treatment and Storage Unit, postclosure activities are not applicable to this closure plan. To clean close the unit, it will be demonstrated that dangerous waste has not been left onsite at levels above the closure performance standard for removal and decontamination. If it is determined that clean closure is not possible or is environmentally impractical, the closure plan will be modified to address required postclosure activities. The PFP Treatment and Storage Unit will be operated to immobilize and/or repackage plutonium-bearing waste in a glovebox process. The waste to be processed is in a solid physical state (chunks and coarse powder) and will be sealed into and out of the glovebox in closed containers. The containers of immobilized waste will be stored in the glovebox and in additional permitted storage locations at PFP. The waste will be managed to minimize the potential for spills outside the glovebox, and to preclude spills from reaching soil. Containment surfaces will be maintained to ensure integrity. In the unlikely event that a waste spill does occur outside the glovebox, operating methods and administrative controls will require that waste spills be cleaned up promptly and completely, and a notation will be made in the operating record. Because dangerous waste does not include source, special nuclear, and by-product material components of mixed waste, radionuclides are not within the scope of this documentation. The information on radionuclides is provided only for general knowledge.

  12. Composition of Municipal Solid Waste-Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Composition of Municipal Solid Waste- Need for Thermal Treatment in the present Indian context of an eternally inherent low heating value on the other. Current status of Solid Waste Management The MSW Rules front in India17 . None of the major metros have any projects of significant scale of Solid Waste

  13. Thermal-treatment effect on the photoluminescence and gas-sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Shibin [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)] [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China); Chang, Xueting [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China)] [Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong (China); Li, Zhenjiang, E-mail: zjli126@126.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)] [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266061, Shandong (China)

    2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-crystalline non-stoichiometric tungsten oxide nanowires were initially prepared using a simple solvothermal method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigations indicate that the tungsten oxide nanowires exhibit various crystal defects, including stacking faults, dislocations, and vacancies. A possible defect-induced mechanism was proposed to account for the temperature-dependent morphological evolution of the tungsten oxide nanowires under thermal processing. Due to the high specific surface areas and non-stoichiometric crystal structure, the original tungsten oxide nanowires were highly sensitive to ppm level ethanol at room temperature. Thermal treatment under dry air condition was found to deteriorate the selectivity of room-temperature tungsten oxide sensors, and 400 {sup o}C may be considered as the top temperature limit in sensor applications for the solvothermally-prepared nanowires. The photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of tungsten oxide nanowires were also strongly influenced by thermal treatment.

  14. Hanford facility dangerous waste permit application, 325 hazardous waste treatment units. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains the Hanford Facility Dangerous Waste Permit Application for the 325 Hazardous Waste Treatment Units (325 HWTUs) which consist of the Shielded Analytical Laboratory, the 325 Building, and the 325 Collection/Loadout Station Tank. The 325 HWTUs receive, store, and treat dangerous waste generated by Hanford Facility programs. Routine dangerous and/or mixed waste treatment that will be conducted in the 325 HWTUs will include pH adjustment, ion exchange, carbon absorption, oxidation, reduction, waste concentration by evaporation, precipitation, filtration, solvent extraction, solids washing, phase separation, catalytic destruction, and solidification/stabilization.

  15. Comparison of discrete and continuous thermal neutron scattering treatments in MCNP5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavlou, A. T. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brown, F. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Martin, W. R. [Univ. of Michigan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, 2355 Bonisteel Boulevard, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kiedrowski, B. C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Monte Carlo Codes Group, MS A143, PO Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard discrete thermal neutron S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment in MCNP5 is compared with a continuous S({alpha},{beta}) scattering treatment using a criticality suite of 119 benchmark cases and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data. In the analysis, six bound isotopes are considered: beryllium metal, graphite, hydrogen in water, hydrogen in polyethylene, beryllium in beryllium oxide and oxygen in beryllium oxide. Overall, there are only small changes in the eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) between discrete and continuous treatments. In the comparison of 64 cases that utilize S({alpha},{beta}) scattering, 62 agreed at the 95% confidence level, and the 2 cases with differences larger than 3 {sigma} agreed within 1 {sigma} when more neutrons were run in the calculations. The results indicate that the changes in eigenvalue between continuous and discrete treatments are random, small, and well within the uncertainty of measured data for reactor criticality experiments. (authors)

  16. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste, Part II: Selected mixed waste treatment project waste streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Chiang, J.M.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayberry, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Frazier, G. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the formulation of surrogate waste packages, representing the major bulk constituent compositions for 12 waste stream classifications selected by the US DOE Mixed Waste Treatment Program. These waste groupings include: neutral aqueous wastes; aqueous halogenated organic liquids; ash; high organic content sludges; adsorbed aqueous and organic liquids; cement sludges, ashes, and solids; chloride; sulfate, and nitrate salts; organic matrix solids; heterogeneous debris; bulk combustibles; lab packs; and lead shapes. Insofar as possible, formulation of surrogate waste packages are referenced to authentic wastes in inventory within the DOE; however, the surrogate waste packages are intended to represent generic treatability group compositions. The intent is to specify a nonradiological synthetic mixture, with a minimal number of readily available components, that can be used to represent the significant challenges anticipated for treatment of the specified waste class. Performance testing and evaluation with use of a consistent series of surrogate wastes will provide a means for the initial assessment (and intercomparability) of candidate treatment technology applicability and performance. Originally the surrogate wastes were intended for use with emerging thermal treatment systems, but use may be extended to select nonthermal systems as well.

  17. Effect of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of bulk heterojunction organic solar cell blended with organic salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabri, Nasehah Syamin; Yap, Chi Chin; Yahaya, Muhammad [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Salleh, Muhamad Mat [Institute of Microengineering and Nanoelectronics (IMEN), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents the influence of simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment on the performance of organic solar cell blended with organic salt. The organic solar cells were composed of indium tin oxide as anode, poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene]: (6,6)-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester: tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate blend as organic active layer and aluminium as cathode. The devices underwent a simultaneous fixed-voltage electrical and thermal treatment at different temperatures of 25, 50 and 75 °C. It was found that photovoltaic performance improved with the thermal treatment temperature. Accumulation of more organic salt ions in the active layer leads to broadening of p-n doped regions and hence higher built-in electric field across thin intrinsic layer. The simultaneous electrical and thermal treatment has been shown to be able to reduce the electrical treatment voltage.

  18. 1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP OXYGEN DEFECT FORMATION AND HYDROGEN EFFUSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was partially supported by a DOE grant through United Solar Ovonics, Inc., under the Solar America Initiative1.Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 3. United Solar Ovonic, LLC Troy, MI, United States BACKGROUND THERMAL ACTIVATION OF DEEP

  19. Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oleszek, Sylwia, E-mail: sylwia_oleszek@yahoo.com [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Grabda, Mariusz, E-mail: mariusz@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences, 34 M. Sklodowska-Curie St., 41-819 Zabrze (Poland); Shibata, Etsuro, E-mail: etsuro@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi, E-mail: ntakashi@tagen.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 1,1 Katahira, 2-Chome, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Copper, silver and gold during thermal treatment with brominated flame retardants. • Distribution of copper, silver and gold during thermal processing. • Thermodynamic considerations of the bromination reactions. - Abstract: The growing consumption of electric and electronic equipment results in creating an increasing amount of electronic waste. The most economically and environmentally advantageous methods for the treatment and recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) are the thermal techniques such as direct combustion, co-combustion with plastic wastes, pyrolysis and gasification. Nowadays, this kind of waste is mainly thermally treated in incinerators (e.g. rotary kilns) to decompose the plastics present, and to concentrate metals in bottom ash. The concentrated metals (e.g. copper, precious metals) can be supplied as a secondary raw material to metal smelters, while the pyrolysis of plastics allows the recovery of fuel gases, volatilising agents and, eventually, energy. Indeed, WEEE, such as a printed circuit boards (PCBs) usually contains brominated flame retardants (BFRs). From these materials, hydrobromic acid (HBr) is formed as a product of their thermal decomposition. In the present work, the bromination was studied of copper, silver and gold by HBr, originating from BFRs, such as Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and Tetrabromobisphenol A-Tetrabromobisophenol A diglycidyl ether (TTDE) polymer; possible volatilization of the bromides formed was monitored using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and a laboratory-scale furnace for treating samples of metals and BFRs under an inert atmosphere and at a wide range of temperatures. The results obtained indicate that up to about 50% of copper and silver can evolve from sample residues in the form of volatile CuBr and AgBr above 600 and 1000 °C, respectively. The reactions occur in the molten resin phase simultaneously with the decomposition of the brominated resin. Gold is resistant to HBr and remains unchanged in the residue.

  20. Method and apparatus for balancing discharge fluid flow in drilling mud treatment units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gay, C.J.

    1983-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of controlling fluid flow in the drilling mud treatment units of an oil/gas well drilling rig such as, for example, the shale shaker, desander, desilter, and mud cleaner portions thereof provides floating the inlet of an intake conduit at the supernatent liquid layer of the drilling rig reserve pit and providing a common distributor head for routing the supernatent liquid to the various solid control units. A pump is connected to the intake conduit and the header at the intake and discharge respectively. The pump transmits the reserve pit supernatent from the reserve pit to the header by pumping. There is provided one or more branch lines affixed to the header each discharging respectively into the drain of a drilling mud treatment unit associated with the drilling rig with the flow of reserve pit supernatent liquid keeping the various drains open. The drains are positioned to discharge back into the reserve pit. The method saves the use of fresh water for the purpose of keeping drains open by the use of the supernatent liquid.

  1. Development and status of the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan or I love that mobile unit of mine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bounini, L. [USDOE Grand Junction Project Office, CO (United States); Williams, M. [USDOE Albuquerque Operations Office, NM (United States); Zygmunt, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nine Department of Energy (DOE) sites reporting to the Albuquerque Office (AL) have mixed waste that is chemically hazardous and radioactive. The hazardous waste regulations require the chemical portion of mixed waste to be to be treated to certain standards. The total volume of low-level mixed waste at the nine sites is equivalent to 7,000 drums, with individual site volumes ranging from 1 gallon of waste at the Pinellas Plant to 4,500 drums at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Nearly all the sites have a diversity of wastes requiring a diversity of treatment processes. Treatment capacity does not exist for much of this waste, and it would be expensive for each site to build the diversity of treatment processes needed to treat its own wastes. DOE-AL assembled a team that developed the AL Mixed Waste Treatment Plan that uses the resources of the nine sites to treat the waste at the sites. Work on the plan started in October 1993, and the plan was finalized in March 1994. The plan uses commercial treatment, treatability studies, and mobile treatment units. The plan specifies treatment technologies that will be built as mobile treatment units to be moved from site to site. Mobile units include bench-top units for very small volumes and treatability studies, drum-size units that treat one drum per day, and skid-size units that handle multiple drum volumes. After the tools needed to treat the wastes were determined, the sites were assigned to provide part of the treatment capacity using their own resources and expertise. The sites are making progress on treatability studies, commercial treatment, and mobile treatment design and fabrication. To date, this is the only plan for treating waste that brings the resources of several DOE sites together to treat mixed waste. It is the only program actively planning to use mobile treatment coordinated between DOE sites.

  2. Thermal treatment effects on charge storage performance of graphene-based materials for supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hongxin [ORNL; Bhat, Vinay V [ORNL; Gallego, Nidia C [ORNL; Contescu, Cristian I [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Graphene materials were synthesized by reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide sheets by hydrazine hydrate and then thermally treated in nitrogen to improve the surface area and their electrochemical performance as electrical double-layer capacitor electrodes. The structural and surface properties of the prepared reduced graphite oxide (RGO) were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction, and nitrogen adsorption / desorption. RGO forms a continuous network of crumpled sheets, which consist of numerous few-layer and single-layer graphenes. Electrochemical studies were conducted by cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements. The modified RGO materials showed enhanced electrochemical performance, with maximum specific capacitance of 96 F/g, energy density of 12.8 Wh/kg, and power density of 160 kW/kg. The results demonstrate that thermal treatment of RGO at selected conditions is a convenient and efficient method for improving specific capacitance, energy, and power density.

  3. Operating cost guidelines for benchmarking DOE thermal treatment systems for low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salmon, R.; Loghry, S.L.; Hermes, W.H.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents guidelines for estimating operating costs for use in benchmarking US Department of Energy (DOE) low-level mixed waste thermal treatment systems. The guidelines are based on operating cost experience at the DOE Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) mixed waste incinerator at the K-25 Site at Oak Ridge. In presenting these guidelines, it should be made clear at the outset that it is not the intention of this report to present operating cost estimates for new technologies, but only guidelines for estimating such costs.

  4. Analysis of the Production Cost for Various Grades of Biomass Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S Cherry; Rick A. Wood; Tyler L Westover

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Process flow sheets were developed for the thermal treatment of southern pine wood chips at four temperatures (150, 180, 230, and 270 degrees C) and two different scales (20 and 100 ton/hour). The larger capacity processes had as their primary heat source hot gas assumed to be available in quantity from an adjacent biorefinery. Mass and energy balances for these flow sheets were developed using Aspen Plus process simulation software. The hot gas demands in the larger processes, up to 1.9 million lb/hour, were of questionable feasibility because of the volume to be moved. This heat was of low utility because the torrefaction process, especially at higher temperatures, is a net heat producer if the organic byproduct gases are burned. A thermal treatment flow sheet using wood chips dried in the biorefinery to 10% moisture content (rather than 30% for green chips) with transfer of high temperature steam from the thermal treatment depot to the biorefinery was also examined. The equipment size information from all of these cases was used in several different equipment cost estimating methods to estimate the major equipment costs for each process. From these, factored estimates of other plant costs were determined, leading to estimates (+ / - 30% accuracy) of total plant capital cost. The 20 ton/hour processes were close to 25 million dollars except for the 230 degrees C case using dried wood chips which was only 15 million dollars because of its small furnace. The larger processes ranged from 64-120 million dollars. From these capital costs and projections of several categories of operating costs, the processing cost of thermally treated pine chips was found to be $28-33 per ton depending on the degree of treatment and without any credits for steam generation. If the excess energy output of the two 20 ton/hr depot cases at 270 degrees C can be sold for $10 per million BTU, the net processing cost dropped to $13/ton product starting with green wood chips or only $3 per ton if using dried chips from the biorefinery. Including a 12% return on invested capital raised all of the operating cost results by about $20/ton.

  5. Tuning of the spin pumping in yttrium iron garnet/Au bilayer system by fast thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Lichuan, E-mail: lichuanj@udel.edu, E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Huaiwu, E-mail: lichuanj@udel.edu, E-mail: hwzhang@uestc.edu.cn; Yang, Qinghui; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhong, Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zhang, Dainan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Xiao, John Q. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we investigated the influence of the fast thermal treatment on the spin pumping in ferromagnetic insulator yttrium iron garnet (YIG)/normal metal Au bilayer system. The YIG/Au bilayer thin films were treated by fast annealing process with different temperatures from 0 to 800?°C. The spin pumping was studied using ferromagnetic resonance. The surface evolution was investigated using a high resolution scanning microscopy and an atomic force microscopy. A strong thermal related spin pumping in YIG/Au bilayer system has been revealed. It was found that the spin pumping process can be enhanced by using fast thermal treatment due to the thermal modifications of the Au surface. The effective spin-mixing conductance of the fast thermal treated YIG/Au bilayer has been obtained.

  6. A method to characterize the influence of air distribution on the composting treatment: monitoring of the thermal fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A method to characterize the influence of air distribution on the composting treatment of air distribution on the composting treatment: monitoring of the thermal fields Hénon Florent a:anne.tremier@cemagref.fr Abstract In a composting process the monitoring of heat flows is a useful tool in terms of phenomenological

  7. Continuous mercury monitor for thermal treatment and waste-to-energy operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.; Anderson, G.L.; Sagan, F.J. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Treating wastes by thermal means offers benefits in terms of reducing waste volumes and in recovering energy values from the wastes. Thermal treatment has been an effective technology for a number of years, and is being used more in the US. Significant sources of waste in the US are municipal solid waste, hospital wastes, hazardous wastes, and wastes generated form the DOE complex. Mercury is found in these wastes and is emitted as a pollutant from sources that treat these materials thermally. Because of mercury`s toxicity, there is a considerable amount of activity aimed at its regulation and control. One of the key elements to effectively control the release of mercury is the ability to continuously monitor its concentration from emitting sources. ADA Technologies is developing a continuous monitoring system for measuring these emissions in real time. A real-time analyzer will assure that compliance limits are met and that emissions are kept as low as possible. Because mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride, provisions have been incorporated in the analyzer that will allow for the measurement of all mercury compounds. The system will provide a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emissions rates; (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency; and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds).

  8. Polymer treatments for D Sand water injection wells: Sooner D Sand Unit Weld County, Colorado. Final report, April 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, T.J.

    1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer-gel treatments in injection wells were evaluated for improving sweep efficiency in the D Sandstone reservoir at the Sooner Unit, Weld County, Colorado. Polymer treatments of injection wells at the Sooner Unit were expected to improve ultimate recovery by 1.0 percent of original-oil-in-place of 70,000 bbl of oil. The Sooner D Sand Unit was a demonstration project under the US Department of Energy Class I Oil Program from which extensive reservoir data and characterization were obtained. Thus, successful application of polymer-gel treatments at the Sooner Unit would be a good case-history example for other operators of waterfloods in Cretaceous sandstone reservoirs in the Denver Basin.

  9. The influence of thermal treatment on the preparation of PMN and PMN-PT thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnol, P.D.; Valadares, L.F.; Varela, J.A.; Bertochi, M.A.Z

    2003-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferroelectric thin films belong to a class of materials with great technological importance in optic fibers, microelectromechanical systems, and microprocessors and computers memories. The (1-x)PbMg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3}O{sub 3}(x)PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) thin films, with x=0, 0.1, 0.35 and 0.5, were prepared by Pechini's process and deposited by spin-coating on Si(100), Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) and quartz substrates. The goal of the present paper is to verify the thermal treatment influence on the perovskite phase formation, which is desirable for these applications. The phase formation was analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The film's surface was characterized by atomic force microscopy to analyze the roughness and the homogeneity. The results of this study indicate that the optimum conditions for obtaining the perovskite phase using a Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si(100) substrate, were drying each deposited layer at 140 deg. C (heating plate), and a final thermal treatment at 600 deg. C for 3 h in a closed system with a lead-rich atmosphere.

  10. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment Task 6 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Deo, M.; Edding, E.G.; Hradisky, M.; Kelly, K.E.; Krumm, R.; Sarofim, Adel; Wang, D.

    2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this task is to develop a transformational energy production technology by in- situ thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas and/or liquid transportation fuels while leaving much of the coal’s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-greenhouse gas (GHG) emitting fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This task focused on three areas: • Experimental. The Underground Coal Thermal Treatment (UCTT) team focused on experiments at two scales, bench-top and slightly larger, to develop data to understand the feasibility of a UCTT process as well as to develop validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ) data for the simulation team. • Simulation. The investigators completed development of High Performance Computing (HPC) simulations of UCTT. This built on our simulation developments over the course of the task and included the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)- based tools to perform HPC simulations of a realistically sized domain representative of an actual coal field located in Utah. • CO2 storage. In order to help determine the amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in a coal formation that has undergone UCTT, adsorption isotherms were performed on coals treated to 325, 450, and 600°C with slow heating rates. Raw material was sourced from the Sufco (Utah), Carlinville (Illinois), and North Antelope (Wyoming) mines. The study indicated that adsorptive capacity for the coals increased with treatment temperature and that coals treated to 325°C showed less or similar capacity to the untreated coals.

  11. Thermal History of the Felsite Unit, Geysers Geothermal Field, From Thermal Modeling of 40Ar/39Ar Incremental Heating Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T. M. Harrison (U of California); G. B. Dalrymple (Oregon State U); J. B. Hulen (U of Utah); M. A. Lanphere; M. Grove; O. M. Lovera

    1999-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An Ar-40/Ar-39 and U-Pb study was performed of the Geysers plutonic complex of the Geysers Geothermal Field in California. Sixty-nine ion microprobe spot analyses of zircons from four granite samples from the plutonic complex that underlies the Geysers geothermal field yielded Pb-207/Pb-206 vs. U-238/Pb-206 concordia ages ranging from 1.13 {+-} 0.04 Ma to 1.25 {+-} 0.04 Ma. The U-Pb ages coincide closely with Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum plateau and ''terminal'' ages from coexisting K-feldspars and with the eruption ages of overlying volcanic rocks. The data indicate that the granite crystallized at 1.18 Ma and had cooled below 350 C by {approximately}0.9-1.0 Ma. Interpretation of the feldspar Ar-40/Ar-39 age data using multi-diffusion domain theory indicates that post-emplacement rapid cooling was succeeded either by slower cooling from 350-300 C between 1.0 and 0.4 Ma or transitory reheating to 300-350 C at about 0.4-0.6 Ma. Heat flow calculations constrained with K-feldspar thermal histories and the pre sent elevated regional heal flow anomaly demonstrate that appreciable heat input from sources external to the known Geysers plutonic complex is required to maintain the geothermal system. This requirement is satisfied by either a large, underlying, convecting magma chamber (now solidified) emplaced at 1.2 Ma or episodic intrusion of smaller bodies from 1.2-0.6 Ma.

  12. Integrated thermal and nonthermal treatment technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvego, L.A.; Schafer, J.J.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) authorized studies on alternative systems for treating contact-handled DOE mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW). The on-going Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems` (ITTS) and the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems` (INTS) studies satisfy this request. EM-50 further authorized supporting studies including this technology and subsystem cost sensitivity analysis. This analysis identifies areas where technology development could have the greatest impact on total life cycle system costs. These areas are determined by evaluating the sensitivity of system life cycle costs relative to changes in life cycle component or phase costs, subsystem costs, contingency allowance, facility capacity, operating life, and disposal costs. For all treatment systems, the most cost sensitive life cycle phase is the operations and maintenance phase and the most cost sensitive subsystem is the receiving and inspection/preparation subsystem. These conclusions were unchanged when the sensitivity analysis was repeated on a present value basis. Opportunity exists for technology development to reduce waste receiving and inspection/preparation costs by effectively minimizing labor costs, the major cost driver, within the maintenance and operations phase of the life cycle.

  13. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  14. Effects of thermal treatment of nanostructured trititanates on their crystallographic and textural properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgado, Edisson [PETROBRAS S.A./CENPES, Research and Development Centre, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil) and Department of Chemistry, University of Rio Grande do Norte, CP 1662, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: emorgado@petrobras.com.br; Abreu, Marco A.S. de [PETROBRAS S.A./CENPES, Research and Development Centre, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Moure, Gustavo T. [PETROBRAS S.A./CENPES, Research and Development Centre, Cidade Universitaria, Quadra 7, 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Marinkovic, Bojan A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pontifical Catholic University, CP 38008, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Jardim, Paula M. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Pontifical Catholic University, CP 38008, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil); Araujo, Antonio S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rio Grande do Norte, CP 1662, 59078-970 Natal-RN (Brazil)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructured titanates (TTNT) with general formula Na {sub x}H{sub 2-x}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}.nH{sub 2}O were synthesized by hydrothermally reacting different TiO{sub 2} anatase (distinct crystal sizes) with NaOH at 120 deg. C followed by washing with water or diluted acid and drying of the precipitate. The resulting powders with different sodium contents were submitted to various calcination temperatures up to 800 deg. C and each calcined product was characterized as for its phase structure, composition, crystallite size and textural properties, namely BET surface area, mesopore volume and pore size distribution. Thermal transformations of TTNT samples were investigated by monitoring the modifications on crystallographic (X-ray diffraction) and textural (N{sub 2} desorption isotherms) properties, revealing the influence of the type of starting anatase and sodium content over the stability of TTNT. Moreover, a detailed study on the reduction of the interlayer distance in TTNT samples upon thermal treatment allowed corroborating the formation of an intermediate nanostructured hexatitanate, just before phase transformation into the corresponding TiO{sub 2} polymorphs and/or titanate crystals, depending on the sodium content and calcination temperature.

  15. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  16. Heavy Metal Immobilization Through Phosphate and Thermal Treatment of Dredged Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ndiba,P.; Axe, L.; Boonfueng, T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of dredged sediments is expensive and poses a major challenge for harbor dredging projects. Therefore beneficial reuse of these sediments as construction material is highly desirable assuming contaminants such as heavy metals are immobilized and organics are mineralized. In this research, the effect of the addition of 2.5% phosphate, followed by thermal treatment at 700 C, was investigated for metal contaminants in dredged sediments. Specifically, Zn speciation was evaluated, using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), by applying principal component analysis (PCA), target transformation (TT), and linear combination fit (LCF) to identify the main phases and their combination from an array of reference compounds. In dredged sediments, Zn was present as smithsonite (67%) and adsorbed to hydrous manganese oxides (18%) and hydrous iron oxides (15%). Phosphate addition resulted in precipitation of hopeite (22%), while calcination induced formation of spinels, gahnite (44%), and franklinite (34%). Although calcination was previously used to agglomerate phosphate phases by sintering, we found that it formed sparingly soluble Zn phases. Results from the U.S. EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) confirmed both phosphate addition and calcination reduced leachability of heavy metals with the combined treatment achieving up to an 89% reduction.

  17. Development of the fluidized bed thermal treatment process for treating mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semones, G.B.; Williams, P.M.; Stiefvater, S.P.; Mitchell, D.L.; Roecker, B.D.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluidized bed system is being developed at Rocky Flats for the treatment of mixed waste (a mixture of radioactive and chemically hazardous waste). The current program builds on experience gained in the 1970`s and 1980`s in tests with bench-scale, pilot-scale, and demonstration-scale fluidized bed systems. The system operates at low temperatures ({approx} 525--600{degree}C) which eliminates many of the disadvantages associated with high temperature thermal treatment processes. The process has shown the ability to destroy polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB`s) with 99.9999% (``six-nines``) destruction efficiency in tests monitored by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The bed makes use of in situ neutralization of acidic off-gases by incorporating sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in the bed media. This eliminates using wet scrubbers to treat the off-gas; these produce a high volume of secondary waste. Once in operation, it is expected that the fluidized bed process will yield up to a 40:1 reduction in the volume of the waste.

  18. Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis of Seed-Blanket Unit Duplex Fuel Assemblies with VIPRE-01

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDermott, Patrick 1987-

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    and blanket unit (SBU) configuration, where the seed region contains standard UO2 fuel, and the blanket region contains an inert matrix (Pu,Np,Am)O2-MgO-ZrO2 fuel. The research efforts of this thesis are first to consider the higher burnup effects on DUPLEX...

  19. EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON MOSSBAUER SPECTRA IN Fe"Ni INVAR ALLOYS T. Takeda and S. Komura

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    EFFECT OF THERMAL TREATMENT ON MOSSBAUER SPECTRA IN Fe"Ni INVAR ALLOYS T. Takeda and S. Komura Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan Many Mossbauer studies was measured in Fej Ni alloys in order to study whether atomic ordering exists or not. The Mossbauer effect

  20. Independent peer review panel report on the integrated nonthermal treatment systems study and the comparison of integrated thermal and integrated nonthermal treatment systems for mixed low level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) has conducted studies of integrated thermal treatment systems and integrated nonthermal treatment systems (INTS) for treating contact handled, alpha and non-alpha mixed low level radioactive waste (MLLW). The MLLW in the DOE complex consists of a wide variety of organic and inorganic solids and liquids contaminated with radioactive substances. Treatment systems are needed to destroy organic material and stabilize residues prior to land disposal. In May 1996 the Deputy Assistant Secretary for OST appointed an Independent Peer Review Panel to: (1) review and comment on the INTS Study; (2) make recommendations on the most promising thermal and nonthermal treatment systems; (3) make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of nonthermal and thermal technologies; and (4) review and comment on the preliminary draft of the ITTS/INTS Comparison Report. This report presents the primary conclusions and recommendations based on the review of the INTS study and the comparison report. System selection, overviews, comparisons, cost estimations and sensitivity analyses, and recommended R and D engineering needs are then described and discussed.

  1. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJthmore »of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.« less

  2. Quantity, quality, and availability of waste heat from United States thermal power generation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJth of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  3. Fouling and thermal-performance characteristics of the Humboldt Bay Unit 2 power-plant condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Elliott, E.S. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (US)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental program was conducted at the Humboldt Bay condenser using eight clusters of four neighboring tubes with different conditions. In each cluster, there were (1) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being distilled water; (2) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being plant circulating water (seawater) and no cleaning; (3) an old tube, plant circulating water with no cleaning; and (4) an old tube, plant circulating water with normal periodic manual cleaning (blowing plugs or sponge balls). These tube clusters were located at four different locations within both the first and second passes of this two-pass condenser. Because of the different conditions, the fouling and cleaning characteristics can be obtained with measurements of the flow rate and inlet, outlet, and saturation temperatures. In addition to the fouling data, the thermal performance can be compared to that obtained with the standard rating method. There was a reduction in the thermal performance of the new, distilled-water tubes for about the first 80 days, and then the performance remained essentially constant. This performance change was most likely the result of the change from dropwise to filmwise condensation on the 7/8-in OD, 18 BWG Admiralty tubes. There was a continued increase of the tubeside fouling resistance with time (no asymptotic behavior) for the tubes that were not cleaned in each cluster using the plant circulating water. The fouling rates were somewhat larger for the first or lower temperature pass initially for the new tubes and after about 100 days for the old tubes. However, the fouling resistance values were substantially larger for the old tubes.

  4. Investigation into the effect of heat treatment on the thermal conductivity of 3-D carbon/carbon fiber composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinwiddie, R.B.; Burchell, T.D. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Baker, C.F. (Fiber Materials, Inc., Biddeford, ME (USA))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The material used in this study was a carbon-carbon fiber composite manufactured from precursor yarn and petroleum based pitch through a process of repetitive densification of a woven preform. The resultant high temperature-high strength material exhibits relatively high thermal conductivity and is thus of interest to the fusion energy, plasma materials interactions (PMI) and plasma facing components (PFC) communities. Carbon-carbon fiber composite manufacture involves two distinct processes, preform weaving and component densification. In this study three samples were subjected to an additional heat treatment of 2550, 2750 or 3000{degree}C at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) subsequent to their fourth graphitization at 2400{degree}C. It should be noted that no effort was made to optimize the composite for thermal conductivity, but rather only to provide a material with which to evaluate the effect of the final heat treatment temperature on the thermal conductivity. The fiber is the primary source of heat conduction in the composite. Consequently, increasing the fiber volume fraction, and/or the fiber thermal conductivity is expected to increase the composite thermal conductivity. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

    1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

  6. Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

  7. The Mobile Test and Demonstration Unit, A Cooperative Project Between EPRI, Utilities and Industry to Demonstrate New Water Treatment Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strasser, J.; Mannapperuma, J.

    THE MOBILE TEST AND DEMONSTRATION UNIT, A COOPERATIVE PROJECT BETWEEN EPRl, UTll.JTIES AND INDUSTRY TO DEMONSTRATE NEW WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES Jurgen Strasser Consultant to the EPRI Food Office Process & Equipment Technology... agencies are encouraging the reduction of the discharge of high BOD and TSS waste water to the local mlUlicipalities and/or waterways. EPRI collaborated with utilities, the US Dept. of Energy, food processor trade groups, and scientists from the Calif...

  8. Solid-state thermal behavior and stability studies of theophylline-citric acid cocrystals prepared by neat cogrinding or thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China); Wang, Shun-Li, E-mail: wangshunli@mail.ncyu.edu.tw [Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chia Yi University, Chia Yi, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shan-Yang, E-mail: sylin@mail.ypu.edu.tw [Department of Biotechnology, Yuanpei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the thermal behavior of cocrystal formed between anhydrous theophylline (TP) and anhydrous citric acid (CA) by neat manual cogrinding or thermal treatment, DSC and FTIR microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis were applied. The physical mixture and 60-min ground mixture were stored at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition to determine their stability behavior. Typical TP-CA cocrystals were prepared by slow solvent evaporation method. Results indicate that the cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. The IR spectral peak shift from 3495 to 3512 cm{sup -1} and the stepwise appearance of several new IR peaks at 1731, 1712, 1676, 1651, 1557 and 1265 cm{sup -1} with cogrinding time suggest that the mechanism of TP-CA cocrystal formation was evidenced by interacting TP with CA through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. The stability of 60-min ground mixture of TP-CA was confirmed at 55{+-}0.5 Degree-Sign C/40{+-}2% RH condition over a storage time of 60 days. - Garphical abstract: Cogrinding, thermal and solvent-evaporation methods might easily induce the theophylline-citric acid cocrystal formation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cogrinding process could gradually induce the cocrystal formation between TP and CA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TP-CA cocrystal was formed through the intermolecular O-H{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}O hydrogen bonding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was similar to the solvent-evaporated cocrystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermal-induced TP-CA cocrystal formation was confirmed by pre-heating the physical mixture to 152 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 60-min TP-CA ground mixture was stable at accelerated condition over a storage time of 60 days.

  9. Proceedings of International Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), San Antonio, TX, October 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy as electricity or steam for district heating. Ferrous or non-ferrous material recovery from built in China. The case study to be examined in this paper is the new 800 ton per day WTE unit, one of four units of total capacity of 2,300 tons per day serving the city of Cixi. The technology used

  10. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT KOP DISPOSITION - THERMAL AND GAS ANALYSIS FOR THE COLD VACUUM DRYING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SWENSON JA; CROWE RD; APTHORPE R; PLYS MG

    2010-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to present conceptual design phase thermal process calculations that support the process design and process safety basis for the cold vacuum drying of K Basin KOP material. This document is intended to demonstrate that the conceptual approach: (1) Represents a workable process design that is suitable for development in preliminary design; and (2) Will support formal safety documentation to be prepared during the definitive design phase to establish an acceptable safety basis. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is responsible for the disposition of Knock Out Pot (KOP) sludge within the 105-K West (KW) Basin. KOP sludge consists of size segregated material (primarily canister particulate) from the fuel and scrap cleaning process used in the Spent Nuclear Fuel process at K Basin. The KOP sludge will be pre-treated to remove fines and some of the constituents containing chemically bound water, after which it is referred to as KOP material. The KOP material will then be loaded into a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), dried at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) and stored in the Canister Storage Building (CSB). This process is patterned after the successful drying of 2100 metric tons of spent fuel, and uses the same facilities and much of the same equipment that was used for drying fuel and scrap. Table ES-l present similarities and differences between KOP material and fuel and between MCOs loaded with these materials. The potential content of bound water bearing constituents limits the mass ofKOP material in an MCO load to a fraction of that in an MCO containing fuel and scrap; however, the small particle size of the KOP material causes the surface area to be significantly higher. This relatively large reactive surface area represents an input to the KOP thermal calculations that is significantly different from the calculations for fuel MCOs. The conceptual design provides for a copper insert block that limits the volume available to receive KOP material, enhances heat conduction, and functions as a heat source and sink during drying operations. This use of the copper insert represents a significant change to the thermal model compared to that used for the fuel calculations. A number of cases were run representing a spectrum of normal and upset conditions for the drying process. Dozens of cases have been run on cold vacuum drying of fuel MCOs. Analysis of these previous calculations identified four cases that provide a solid basis for judgments on the behavior of MCO in drying operations. These four cases are: (1) Normal Process; (2) Degraded vacuum pumping; (3) Open MCO with loss of annulus water; and (4) Cool down after vacuum drying. The four cases were run for two sets of input parameters for KOP MCOs: (1) a set of parameters drawn from safety basis values from the technical data book and (2) a sensitivity set using parameters selected to evaluate the impact of lower void volume and smaller particle size on MCO behavior. Results of the calculations for the drying phase cases are shown in Table ES-2. Cases using data book safety basis values showed dry out in 9.7 hours and heat rejection sufficient to hold temperature rise to less than 25 C. Sensitivity cases which included unrealistically small particle sizes and corresponding high reactive surface area showed higher temperature increases that were limited by water consumption. In this document and in the attachment (Apthorpe, R. and M.G. Plys, 2010) cases using Technical Databook safety basis values are referred to as nominal cases. In future calculations such cases will be called safety basis cases. Also in these documents cases using parameters that are less favorable to acceptable performance than databook safety values are referred to as safety cases. In future calculations such cases will be called sensitivity cases or sensitivity evaluations Calculations to be performed in support of the detailed design and formal safety basis documentation will expand the calculations presented in this document to include: additional features of th

  11. MWIP: Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 4, Wastewater treatment sludges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bostick, W.D.; Hoffmann, D.P.; Stevenson, R.J.; Richmond, A.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bickford, D.F. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The category of sludges, filter cakes, and other waste processing residuals represent the largest volume of low-level mixed (hazardous and radioactive) wastes within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Treatment of these wastes to minimize the mobility of contaminants, and to eliminate the presence of free water, is required under the Federal Facility Compliance Act agreements between DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency. In the text, we summarize the currently available data for several of the high priority mixed-waste sludge inventories within DOE. Los Alamos National Laboratory TA-50 Sludge and Rocky Flats Plant By-Pass Sludge are transuranic (TRU)-contaminated sludges that were isolated with the use of silica-based filter aids. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant West End Treatment Facility Sludge is predominantly calcium carbonate and biomass. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site Pond Waste is a large-volume waste stream, containing clay, silt, and other debris in addition to precipitated metal hydroxides. We formulate ``simulants`` for the waste streams described above, using cerium oxide as a surrogate for the uranium or plutonium present in the authentic material. Use of nonradiological surrogates greatly simplifies material handling requirements for initial treatability studies. The use of synthetic mixtures for initial treatability testing will facilitate compositional variation for use in conjunction with statistical design experiments; this approach may help to identify any ``operating window`` limitations. The initial treatability testing demonstrations utilizing these ``simulants`` will be based upon vitrification, although the materials are also amenable to testing grout-based and other stabilization procedures. After the feasibility of treatment and the initial evaluation of treatment performance has been demonstrated, performance must be verified using authentic samples of the candidate waste stream.

  12. Treatment/Disposal Plan for Drummed Waste from the 300-FF-1Operable Unit, 618-4 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. A. Lerch.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this plan is to support selection of a safe, environmentally responsible, and cost-effective treatment and disposal method for drums containing depleted uranium metal chips submergedin oil that have been and will be excavated from the 618-4 Burial Ground. Remediation of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, 618-4 BurialGround was initiated in fiscal year (FY) 1998 as an excavation andremoval operation. Routine processes were established to excavateand ship contaminated soil and debris to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) for disposal.

  13. LITERATURE SURVEY FOR GROUNDWATER TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR NITRATE IODINE-129 AND URANIUM 200-ZP-1 OPERABLE UNIT HANFORD SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BYRNES ME

    2008-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This literature review presents treatment options for nitrate, iodine-129, and uranium, which are present in groundwater at the 200-ZP-I Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) within the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this review is to determine available methods to treat or sequester these contaminants in place (i.e., in situ) or to pump-and-treat the groundwater aboveground (i.e., ex situ). This review has been conducted with emphasis on commercially available or field-tested technologies, but theoretical studies have, in some cases, been considered when no published field data exist. The initial scope of this literature review included only nitrate and iodine-I 29, but it was later expanded to include uranium. The focus of the literature review was weighted toward researching methods for treatment of nitrate and iodine-129 over uranium because of the relatively greater impact of those compounds identified at the 200-ZP-I OU.

  14. Development of US Navy Shipboard Systems for solid and liquid waste thermal treatment. Report for July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gullet, B.K.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes the U.S. Navy`s shipboard environmental challenges and a few of its research programs for meeting its needs for solid and liquid waste treatment. This objective is particularly important in environmentally sensitive areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, where fleet deployment time is significant. Prohibitions on ocean dumping and anticipated requirements on effluent discharge quality have led the Navy to continue the research, development, and demonstration of shipboard systems to treat their unpreventable wastes. For solid, non-hazardous wastes, post-minimization efforts are geared toward long-term development of systems to thermally pyrolyze and oxidize the wastes into significantly reduced volume and weight.

  15. Thermal treatment for increasing magnetostrictive response of rare earth-iron alloy rods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Verhoeven, J.D.; McMasters, O.D.

    1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetostrictive rods formed from rare earth-iron alloys are subjected to a short time heat treatment to increase their magnetostrictive response under compression. The heat treatment is preferably carried out at a temperature of from 900 to 1,000 C for 20 minutes to six hours.

  16. Domestic olivine vs magnesite as a thermal-energy-storage material: performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 94. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W.R.; Schoenhals, R.J.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically heated thermal-energy-storage (TES) heaters employing high-heat-capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off-peak TES units in the US has occured, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under-utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat-storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two small room-sized commercially available TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons between the two materials are made and conclusions are drawn.

  17. Negative Thermal Expansion in ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}: Mechanisms, Rigid Unit Modes, and Neutron Total Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tucker, Matthew G. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Andrew L.; Dove, Martin T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom); Keen, David A. [Physics Department, Oxford University, Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Wells, Stephen A. [Biological Physics, Bateman Physical Sciences Building, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Evans, John S.O. [Department of Chemistry, University Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The local structure of the low-temperature ordered phase of the negative thermal expansion (NTE) material ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8} has been investigated by reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modeling of neutron total scattering data. We obtain, for the first time, quantitative measurements of the extent to which the WO{sub 4} and ZrO{sub 6} polyhedra move as rigid units, and we show that these values are consistent with the predictions of rigid unit mode theory. We suggest that rigid unit modes are associated with the NTE. Our results do not support a recent interpretation of x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy data in terms of a larger rigid structural component involving the Zr-O-W linkage.

  18. EA-1189: Non-thermal Treatment of Hanford Site Low-level Mixed Waste, Richland, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts for the proposal to demonstrate the feasibility of commercial treatment of contact-handled low-level mixed waste to meet existing Federal and State...

  19. Influence of the degree of metamorphism and reduction of the anthracites of the Donbas on the properties of the products of their thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eremin, I.V.; Ivanov, V.P.; Maloletnev, A.S.; Danilova, R.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the reported experiments, the influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and properties of anthracites of the Donbas of different degrees of metamorphism and reduction has been studied. It has been shown that on thermal treatment up to 1250/degree/C feebly metamorphosed anthracites achieve structural orderedness to a considerable degree and their use in the electrode industry is possible. The predominating influence of the degree of metamorphism of the initial anthracites on the physicochemical properties of the products of their thermal treatment, as compared with that of the degree of reduction, has been established. 5 refs.

  20. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    and discharge to conserve water resources and reduce the negative environmental impact associated with discharging wastewater into the environment. Wastewater treatment enables providing water with specifications suitable for either recycle in the same... process or reuse in other ways within the process or outside the process. Therefore, water treatment and recycle/reuse contribute to addressing both of the aforementioned water problems: fresh water sacristy and environmental impact of wastewater...

  1. Effects of thermal treatment on the co-rolled U-Mo fuel foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Tammy L. Trowbridge; Cynthia R. Breckenridge; Brady L. Mackowiak; Glenn A. Moore; Barry H. Rabin; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithic fuel type is being developed to convert US high performance research and test reactors such as Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory from highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU). The interaction between the cladding and the U-Mo fuel meat during fuel fabrication and irradiation is known to have negative impacts on fuel performance, such as mechanical integrity and dimensional stability. In order to eliminate/minimize the direct interaction between cladding and fuel meat, a thin zirconium diffusion barrier was introduced between the cladding and U-Mo fuel meat through a co-rolling process. A complex interface between the zirconium and U-Mo was developed during the co-rolling process. A predictable interface between zirconium and U-Mo is critical to achieve good fuel performance since the interfaces can be the weakest link in the monolithic fuel system. A post co-rolling annealing treatment is expected to create a well-controlled interface between zirconium and U-Mo. A systematic study utilizing post co-rolling annealing treatment has been carried out. Based on microscopy results, the impacts of the annealing treatment on the interface between zirconium and U-Mo will be presented and an optima annealing treatment schedule will be suggested. The effects of the annealing treatment on the fuel performance will also be discussed.

  2. Adsorption and thermal treatments of 1-dodecene on Si(100) investigated by STM

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, H. W. [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Sadowski, J. T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Fujikawa, Y. [Department of Advanced Physics, Hirosaki University (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Xue, Q. -K. [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan); Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Sakurai, T. [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing; Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University (Japan)

    2015-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the atomic behaviour of long-chain 1-dodecene adsorbed on Si(100) using a scanning tunnelling microscope with an exposure of 30 to 2.4 Langmuirs. Unlike previous reports on short-chain molecules, remarkable self-ordered assembly of molecules is not observed at room temperature, which is possibly attributed to the asymmetric molecular structure with long chains of 1-dodecene. After annealing at 500–580 °C, ordered patterns form with a c(4 × 4) structure, accompanied with thermal decomposition of molecules.

  3. Description of recommended non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains description of the technologies selected for inclusions in the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Study. The purpose of these descriptions is to provide a more complete description of the INTS technologies. It supplements the summary descriptions of candidate nonthermal technologies that were considered for the INTS.

  4. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    an increasing level of interest in the area of high-purity separation especially in water treatment. It is driven primarily by heat which creates a vapor-pressure difference across a porous hydrophobic membrane. Hot produced water and excess low-level heat from...

  5. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE: DATA INTERPRETATION AND APPARATUS DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; de Vinuesa, S.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Description: The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (submitted forCross-sectional view of Envelope Thermal Test Unit blanketmeasurement prototype, the Envelope Thermal Test Unit,12 and

  6. Development of Site-Specific Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, Suzette

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) 5% damped spectra, corresponding time histories, and strain-compatible soil properties were developed for the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU). The IWTU is located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Mean and 84th percentile horizontal DBE spectra derived from site-specific site response analyses were evaluated for the IWTU. The horizontal and vertical PC 3 (2,500 yr) Soil DBE 5% damped spectra at the 84th percentile were selected for Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) analyses at IWTU. The site response analyses were performed consistent with applicable Department of Energy (DOE) Standards, recommended guidance of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standards, and recommendations of the Blue Ribbon Panel (BRP) and Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB).

  7. A NEW MEASUREMENT STRATEGY FOR in situ TESTING OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condon, P.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation, Dynamic thermal envelope thermal performanceTHERHAL TEST UNIT The envelope thermal test unit (ETTU) is athe thermal resistance of building envelope systems through

  8. Thermal Properties of Uranium-Molybdenum Alloys: Phase Decomposition Effects of Heat Treatments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creasy, John Thomas

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    ? phase to room temperature. While under irradiation, the uranium molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy fuels decompose from the solid solution ? phase into the ? -U phase plus the U2Mo intermetallic phase (also known as ?;? however, early literature referred...?C, an equilibrium U-Mo alloy above 6 wt% Mo is composed primarily of the alpha phase and U2Mo (gamma prime) [9]. The unit cell parameters of U2Mo are: a = 2.869 ? , b = 5.709 ? , c = 4.962 ? . 7 2.1.3 The U2Mo Phase (??) The intermetallic...

  9. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of gasification and novel thermal processes for the treatment of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niessen, W.R.; Marks, C.H.; Sommerlad, R.E. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report identifies seven developers whose gasification technologies can be used to treat the organic constituents of municipal solid waste: Energy Products of Idaho; TPS Termiska Processor AB; Proler International Corporation; Thermoselect Inc.; Battelle; Pedco Incorporated; and ThermoChem, Incorporated. Their processes recover heat directly, produce a fuel product, or produce a feedstock for chemical processes. The technologies are on the brink of commercial availability. This report evaluates, for each technology, several kinds of issues. Technical considerations were material balance, energy balance, plant thermal efficiency, and effect of feedstock contaminants. Environmental considerations were the regulatory context, and such things as composition, mass rate, and treatability of pollutants. Business issues were related to likelihood of commercialization. Finally, cost and economic issues such as capital and operating costs, and the refuse-derived fuel preparation and energy conversion costs, were considered. The final section of the report reviews and summarizes the information gathered during the study.

  11. Combined Therapies for the Treatment of Technically Unresectable Liver Malignancies: Bland Embolization and Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation within the Same Session

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonomo, Guido, E-mail: guido.bonomo@ieo.it; Della Vigna, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.dellavigna@ieo.it; Monfardini, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.monfardini@ieo.it; Orgera, Gianluigi, E-mail: gianluigi.orgera@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy); Chiappa, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.chiappa@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Biliopancreatic Surgery (Italy); Bianchi, Paolo Pietro, E-mail: paolo.bianchi@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Minimally-Invasive Surgery (Italy); Zampino, Maria Giulia, E-mail: maria.zampino@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Division of Medical Oncology (Italy); Orsi, Franco, E-mail: franco.orsi@ieo.it [European Institute of Oncology, Unit of Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: This retrospective study evaluated the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of combining transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with radiofrequency thermal ablation (RFA) in a single session for the treatment of technically unresectable liver-only malignancies. Methods: From May 2006 to January 2011, a total of 30 patients affected by liver metastases with single or multiple unresectable liver-only lesions underwent a combined treatment with TAE followed by RFA in the same session, for a total of 36 treated lesions. Patients were extrapolated from a cohort of patients discussed within the weekly institutional tumor board. TAE was performed by using 100 {mu}m microspheres; RFA was performed immediately after TAE by positioning the electrode needle via ultrasound and/or computed tomographic guidance. Local tumor responses and procedure-related complications were evaluated. Results: Completion of both procedures was obtained in all patients for all 36 lesions. Liver lesions had a maximum axial diameter ranging 16-59 mm. Postintervention unenhanced ablated areas ranged 28-104 mm in maximum axial diameter. Safety margins ranged 1-30.5 mm. Complete response, defined as complete devascularization at computed tomography, was obtained in all treated lesions for a maximum period of 12 months. Tumor relapse was observed in one patient at 12 months. Sixteen patients developed new liver lesions or progressive systemic disease during follow-up. Nine patients were still disease-free. Seven patients died as a result of systemic progressive disease. One major treatment-related complication was observed. Conclusions: In patients with technically unresectable liver-only malignancies, single-session combined TAE-RFA is an effective and safe treatment.

  12. Incidence and Treatment Patterns in Hospitalizations for Malignant Spinal Cord Compression in the United States, 1998-2006

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mak, Kimberley S. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, Leslie K. [Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Mak, Raymond H. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, MA (United States); Wang, Shuang [Department of Biostatistics, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Pile-Spellman, John [Division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Abrahm, Janet L. [Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School Center for Palliative Care, Boston, MA (United States); Prigerson, Holly G. [Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School Center for Palliative Care, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Psycho-oncology and Palliative Care Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Balboni, Tracy A., E-mail: tbalboni@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Psychosocial Oncology and Palliative Care, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School Center for Palliative Care, Boston, MA (United States); Center for Psycho-oncology and Palliative Care Research, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To characterize patterns in incidence, management, and costs of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) hospitalizations in the United States, using population-based data. Methods and Materials: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, an all-payer healthcare database representative of all U.S. hospitalizations, MSCC-related hospitalizations were identified for the period 1998-2006. Cases were combined with age-adjusted Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results cancer death data to estimate annual incidence. Linear regression characterized trends in patient, treatment, and hospital characteristics, costs, and outcomes. Logistic regression was used to examine inpatient treatment (radiotherapy [RT], surgery, or neither) by hospital characteristics and year, adjusting for confounding. Results: We identified 15,367 MSCC-related cases, representing 75,876 hospitalizations. Lung cancer (24.9%), prostate cancer (16.2%), and multiple myeloma (11.1%) were the most prevalent underlying cancer diagnoses. The annual incidence of MSCC hospitalization among patients dying of cancer was 3.4%; multiple myeloma (15.0%), Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (13.9%), and prostate cancer (5.5%) exhibited the highest cancer-specific incidence. Over the study period, inpatient RT for MSCC decreased (odds ratio [OR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.81), whereas surgery increased (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.84). Hospitalization costs for MSCC increased (5.3% per year, p < 0.001). Odds of inpatient RT were greater at teaching hospitals (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.19-1.67), whereas odds of surgery were greater at urban institutions (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.29-2.58). Conclusions: In the United States, patients dying of cancer have an estimated 3.4% annual incidence of MSCC requiring hospitalization. Inpatient management of MSCC varied over time and by hospital characteristics, with hospitalization costs increasing. Future studies are required to determine the impact of treatment patterns on MSCC outcomes and strategies for reducing MSCC-related costs.

  13. Feasibility study for thermal treatment of solid tire wastes in Bangladesh by using pyrolysis technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, M.R., E-mail: mrislam1985@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Joardder, M.U.H.; Hasan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering and Technology, Rajshahi 6204 (Bangladesh); Takai, K.; Haniu, H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University Corporation Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami City, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

    2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study on the basis of lab data and available resources in Bangladesh, feasibility study has been carried out for pyrolysis process converting solid tire wastes into pyrolysis oils, solid char and gases. The process considered for detailed analysis was fixed-bed fire-tube heating pyrolysis reactor system. The comparative techno-economic assessment was carried out in US$ for three different sizes plants: medium commercial scale (144 tons/day), small commercial scale (36 tons/day), pilot scale (3.6 tons/day). The assessment showed that medium commercial scale plant was economically feasible, with the lowest unit production cost than small commercial and pilot scale plants for the production of crude pyrolysis oil that could be used as boiler fuel oil and for the production of upgraded liquid-products.

  14. Investigation of thermal treatment on selective separation of post consumer plastics prior to froth flotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guney, Ali; Poyraz, M. Ibrahim; Kangal, Olgac, E-mail: kangal@itu.edu.tr; Burat, Firat

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: • Both PET and PVC have nearly the same densities. • The best pH value will be 4 for optimizing pH values. • Malic acid gave the best results for selective separation of PET and PVC. - Abstract: Plastics have become the widely used materials because of their advantages, such as cheapness, endurance, lightness, and hygiene. However, they cause waste and soil pollution and they do not easily decompose. Many promising technologies are being investigated for separating mixed thermoplastics, but they are still uneconomical and unreliable. Depending on their surface characteristics, these plastics can be separated from each other by flotation method which is useful mineral processing technique with its low cost and simplicity. The main objective of this study is to investigate the flotation characteristics of PET and PVC and determine the effect of plasticizer reagents on efficient plastic separation. For that purpose, various parameters such as pH, plasticizer concentration, plasticizer type, conditioning temperature and thermal conditioning were investigated. As a result, PET particles were floated with 95.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency while PVC particles were obtained with 98.1% purity and 65.3% efficiency.

  15. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belardi, G. [Institute for Environmental Engineering and Geosciences (CNR) Area della Ricerca CNR, via Salaria km 29,300, Monterotondo, 00016 Rome (Italy); Lavecchia, R.; Medici, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy); Piga, L., E-mail: luigi.piga@uniroma1.it [Department of Chemical Engineering, Materials and Environment, Sapienza University of Rome, via Eudossiana 84, 00184 Rome (Italy)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We separated Zn from Mn in zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries after removal of Hg. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost total removal of Hg is achieved at low temperature in air. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen atmosphere is needed to reduce zinc and to permit its volatilization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high grade Zn concentrate was obtained with a high recovery at 1000-1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grade of Mn in the residue was enhanced with complete recovery. - Abstract: The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357 Degree-Sign C and 906 Degree-Sign C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564 Degree-Sign C the melting point of Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400 Degree-Sign C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200 Degree-Sign C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  16. Increase in NOx Emissions from Indian Thermal Power Plants during 1996-2010: Unit-Based Inventories and Multisatellite Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    and Multisatellite Observations Zifeng Lu* and David G. Streets Decision and Information Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Driven by rapid economic development and growing electricity demand, NOx emissions (E) from the power sector in India have

  17. REVIEW REPORT: BUILDING C-400 THERMAL TREATMENT 90 PERCENT REMEDIAL DESIGN REPORT AND SITE INVESTIGATION, PGDP, PADUCAH, KENTUCKY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Looney, B; Jed Costanza, J; Eva Davis, E; Joe Rossabi, J; Lloyd (Bo) Stewart, L; Hans Stroo, H

    2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    On 9 April 2007, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Office of Soil and Groundwater Remediation (EM-22) initiated an Independent Technical Review (ITR) of the 90% Remedial Design Report (RDR) and Site Investigation (RDSI) for thermal treatment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the soil and groundwater in the vicinity of Building C-400 at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The general ITR goals were to assess the technical adequacy of the 90% RDSI and provide recommendations sufficient for DOE to determine if modifications are warranted pertaining to the design, schedule, or cost of implementing the proposed design. The ultimate goal of the effort was to assist the DOE Paducah/Portsmouth Project Office (PPPO) and their contractor team in ''removing'' the TCE source zone located near the C-400 Building. This report provides the ITR findings and recommendations and supporting evaluations as needed to facilitate use of the recommendations. The ITR team supports the remedial action objective (RAO) at C-400 to reduce the TCE source area via subsurface Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH). Further, the ITR team commends PPPO, their contractor team, regulators, and stakeholders for the significant efforts taken in preparing the 90% RDR. To maximize TCE removal at the target source area, several themes emerge from the review which the ITR team believes should be considered and addressed before implementing the thermal treatment. These themes include the need for: (1) Accurate and site-specific models as the basis to verify the ERH design for full-scale implementation for this challenging hydrogeologic setting; (2) Flexible project implementation and operation to allow the project team to respond to observations and data collected during construction and operation; (3) Defensible performance metrics and monitoring, appropriate for ERH, to ensure sufficient and efficient clean-up; and (4) Comprehensive (creative and diverse) contingencies to address the potential for system underperformance, and other unforeseen conditions These themes weave through the ITR report and the various analyses and recommendations. The ITR team recognizes that a number of technologies are available for treatment of TCE sources. Further, the team supports the regulatory process through which the selected remedy is being implemented, and concurs that ERH is a potentially viable remedial technology to meet the RAOs adjacent to C-400. Nonetheless, the ITR team concluded that additional efforts are needed to provide an adequate basis for the planned ERH design, particularly in the highly permeable Regional Gravel Aquifer (RGA), where sustaining target temperatures present a challenge. The ERH design modeling in the 90% RDR does not fully substantiate that heating in the deep RGA, at the interface with the McNairy formation, will meet the design goals; specifically the target temperatures. Full-scale implementation of ERH to meet the RAOs is a challenge in the complex hydrogeologic setting at PGDP. Where possible, risks to the project identified in this ITR report as ''issues'' and ''recommendations'' should be mitigated as part of the final design process to increase the likelihood of remedial success. The ITR efforts were organized into five lines of inquiry (LOIs): (1) Site investigation and target zone delineation; (2) Performance objectives; (3) Project and design topics; (4) Health and safety; and (5) Cross cutting and independent cost evaluation. Within each of these LOIs, the ITR team identified a series of unresolved issues--topics that have remaining uncertainties or potential project risks. These issues were analyzed and one or more recommendations were developed for each. In the end, the ITR team identified 27 issues and provided 50 recommendations. The issues and recommendations are briefly summarized below, developed in Section 5, and consolidated into a single list in Section 6. The ITR team concluded that there are substantive unresolved issues and system design uncertainties, resulting in technical and financial risks to DOE.

  18. Thermal springs list for the United States; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Key to Geophysical Records Documentation No. 12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, G.W.; Grim, P.J.; Ikelman, J.A. (comps.)

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The compilation has 1702 thermal spring locations in 23 of the 50 States, arranged alphabetically by State (Postal Service abbreviation) and degrees of latitude and longitude within the State. It shows spring name, surface temperature in degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius; USGS Professional Paper 492 number, USGS Circular 790 number, NOAA number, north to south on each degree of latitude and longitude of the listed. USGS 1:250,000-scale (AMS) map; and the USGS topographic map coverage, 1:63360- or 1:62500-scale (15-minute) or 1:24000-scale (7.5-minute) quadrangle also included is an alphabetized list showing only the spring name and the State in which it is located. Unnamed springs are omitted. The list includes natural surface hydrothermal features: springs, pools, mud pots, mud volcanoes, geysers, fumaroles, and steam vents at temperature of 20{sup 0}C (68[sup 0}F) or greater. It does not include wells or mines, except at sites where they supplement or replace natural vents presently or recently active, or, in some places, where orifices are not distinguishable as natural or artificial. The listed springs are located on the USGS 1:250,000 (AMS) topographic maps. (MHR)

  19. Non-Thermal Plasmas for NOx Treatment Y.N. Jaffre, T. Aka-Ngnui and A. Beroual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    electric fields in a plasma reactor. NTP alone does not reduce NO generated by a thermal engine to N2 and O to the determination of corona ig- nition threshold for non-thermal plasma generation and to the optimization, for example in Riace, Italy, for ENEL's coal fired electrical generation plant (Civi- tano et al., 1986

  20. Three Mile Island Unit 1 Main Steam Line Break Three-Dimensional Neutronics/Thermal-Hydraulics Analysis: Application of Different Coupled Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Auria, Francesco [Universita di Pisa (Italy); Moreno, Jose Luis Gago [Universidad Politecnica de Barcelona (Spain); Galassi, Giorgio Maria [Universita di Pisa (Italy); Grgic, Davor [University of Zagreb (Croatia); Spadoni, Antonino [Universita di Pisa (Italy)

    2003-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A comprehensive analysis of the double ended main steam line break (MSLB) accident assumed to occur in the Babcock and Wilcox Three Mile Island Unit 1 (TMI-1) has been carried out at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione of the University of Pisa, Italy, in cooperation with the University of Zagreb, Croatia. The overall activity has been completed within the framework of the participation in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development-Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations-Nuclear Science Committee pressurized water reactor MSLB benchmark.Thermal-hydraulic system codes (various versions of Relap5), three-dimensional (3-D) neutronics codes (Parcs, Quabbox, and Nestle), and one subchannel code (Cobra) have been adopted for the analysis. Results from the following codes (or code versions) are assumed as reference:1. Relap5/mod3.2.2, beta version, coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Parcs code parallel virtual machine (PVM) coupling2. Relap5/mod3.2.2, gamma version, coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Quabbox code (direct coupling)3. Relap5/3D code coupled with the 3-D neutron kinetics Nestle code.The influence of PVM and of direct coupling is also discussed.Boundary and initial conditions of the system, including those relevant to the fuel status, have been supplied by Pennsylvania State University in cooperation with GPU Nuclear Corporation (the utility, owner of TMI) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The comparison among the results obtained by adopting the same thermal-hydraulic nodalization and the coupled code version is discussed in this paper.The capability of the control rods to recover the accident has been demonstrated in all the cases as well as the capability of all the codes to predict the time evolution of the assigned transient. However, one stuck control rod caused some 'recriticality' or 'return to power' whose magnitude is largely affected by boundary and initial conditions.

  1. Non-thermal plasma based technologies for the after-treatment of automotive exhaust particulates and marine diesel exhaust NOx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAdams, R; Beech, P; Gillespie, R; Guy, C; Jones,S; Liddell, T; Morgan, R; Shawcross, J; Weeks, D; Hughes, D; Oesterle, J; Eberspdcher,

    2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The trend in environmental legislation is such that primary engine modifications will not be sufficient to meet all future emissions requirements and exhaust aftertreatment technologies will need to be employed. One potential solution that is well placed to meet those requirements is non-thermal plasma technology. This paper will describe our work with some of our partners in the development of a plasma based diesel particulate filter (DPF) and plasma assisted catalytic reduction (PACR) for NOx removal. This paper describes the development of non-thermal plasma technology for the aftertreatment of particulates from a passenger car engine and NOx from a marine diesel exhaust application.

  2. SU-E-J-70: Feasibility Study of Dynamic Arc and IMRT Treatment Plans Utilizing Vero Treatment Unit and IPlan Planning Computer for SRS/FSRT Brain Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huh, S; Lee, S; Dagan, R; Malyapa, R; Mendenhall, N; Mendenhall, W; Ho, M; Hough, D; Yam, M; Li, Z [UFPTI, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of utilizing Dynamic Arc (DA) and IMRT with 5mm MLC leaf of VERO treatment unit for SRS/FSRT brain cancer patients with non-invasive stereotactic treatments. The DA and IMRT plans using the VERO unit (BrainLab Inc, USA) are compared with cone-based planning and proton plans to evaluate their dosimetric advantages. Methods: The Vero treatment has unique features like no rotational or translational movements of the table during treatments, Dynamic Arc/IMRT, tracking of IR markers, limitation of Ring rotation. Accuracies of the image fusions using CBCT, orthogonal x-rays, and CT are evaluated less than ? 0.7mm with a custom-made target phantom with 18 hidden targets. 1mm margin is given to GTV to determine PTV for planning constraints considering all the uncertainties of planning computer and mechanical uncertainties of the treatment unit. Also, double-scattering proton plans with 6F to 9F beams and typical clinical parameters, multiple isocenter plans with 6 to 21 isocenters, and DA/IMRT plans are evaluated to investigate the dosimetric advantages of the DA/IMRT for complex shape of targets. Results: 3 Groups of the patients are divided: (1) Group A (complex target shape), CI's are same for IMRT, and DGI of the proton plan are better by 9.5% than that of the IMRT, (2) Group B, CI of the DA plans (1.91+/?0.4) are better than cone-based plan, while DGI of the DA plan is 4.60+/?1.1 is better than cone-based plan (5.32+/?1.4), (3) Group C (small spherical targets), CI of the DA and cone-based plans are almost the same. Conclusion: For small spherical targets, cone-based plans are superior to other 2 plans: DS proton and DA plans. For complex or irregular plans, dynamic and IMRT plans are comparable to cone-based and proton plans for complex targets.

  3. Significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability of cellular polypropylene films by high pressure fluorination and post-treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An Zhenlian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, Department of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, 28 Xianning West Road, Xi'an 710049 (China); Mao Mingjun; Cang Jun; Zhang Yewen; Zheng Feihu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Advanced Microstructure Materials, Department of Physics, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellular polypropylene (PP) films were fluorinated under a high pressure of 13 bar of the F{sub 2}/N{sub 2} mixture and were post-treated by nitrous oxide and isothermal crystallization. The fluorinated and post-treated PP films after being expanded and corona charged exhibit a significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability. After annealing at 70 deg. C for 151 h or at 90 deg. C for 224 h, the piezoelectric d{sub 33} value of the fluorinated and post-treated piezoelectric sample still retains 58% or 45% of its initial d{sub 33} value, while the corresponding value of the virgin piezoelectric sample has decreased to 29% or 15% of the initial value. Chemical composition analysis of the cross section of the fluorinated and post-treated film by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy indicates that the internal layers have been fluorinated, in spite of a lower degree of fluorination compared with the fluorinated surface layer. Short-circuit and open-circuit TSD current measurements reveal that the fluorinated internal layers, like the fluorinated surface layer, also have very deep charge traps, although there probably is a difference in density of the deep traps between them. The deeply trapped charge on the internal layers of the fluorinated and post-treated piezoelectric sample is responsible for its significantly improved piezoelectric thermal stability.

  4. On the Use of Thermal NF3 as the Fluorination and Oxidation Agent in Treatment of Used Nuclear Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of our investigation on the use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorination or fluorination/oxidation agent for use in a process for separating valuable constituents from used nuclear fuels by employing the volatility of many transition metal and actinide fluorides. Nitrogen trifluoride is less chemically and reactively hazardous than the hazardous and aggressive fluorinating agents used to prepare uranium hexafluoride and considered for fluoride volatility based nuclear fuels reprocessing. In addition, nitrogen trifluoride’s less aggressive character may be used to separate the volatile fluorides from used fuel and from themselves based on the fluorination reaction’s temperature sensitivity (thermal tunability) rather than relying on differences in sublimation/boiling temperature and sorbents. Our thermodynamic calculations found that nitrogen trifluoride has the potential to produce volatile fission product and actinide fluorides from candidate oxides and metals. Our simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses found that the oxides of lanthanum, cerium, rhodium, and plutonium fluorinated but did not form volatile fluorides and that depending on temperature volatile fluorides formed from the oxides of niobium, molybdenum, ruthenium, tellurium, uranium, and neptunium. We also demonstrated near-quantitative removal of uranium from plutonium in a mixed oxide.

  5. Effect of Accelerated Drying on the Reduction of Salmonella on Almonds by Thermal and Electron Beam Irradiation Pasteurization Treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammed, Zahra Hassan

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ) and Canada ( Keady et al. 2004; CDPH 2004). In USA 168 cases were reported and in 2004 47 cases were reported in Canada. In 2006 an outbreak of salmonellosis was reported in Sweden that linked to consumption of whole raw almonds. A number of 15 cases... seed or helva In 2001 an outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in Australia, Sweden, Norway, United Kingdom, and Germany was attributed to contaminated sesame seed or halva. In Australia and Sweden 17 cases were reported, 27 cases were...

  6. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 3: Plasma hearth process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, J.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffman, D.P.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma hearth process (PHP) presented in this report has been tested at a facility at Ukiah, California, in a cooperative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE), Science Applications International Corporation, Inc., and ReTech, Inc. The electrically heated plasma gas is used to destroy organic materials and bind radionuclides and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals in the glassy slag. Proof-of-principle tests were conducted successfully using nonhazardous and non-radioactive materials placed in 30-gal steel drums. On-line analyses of the gaseous effluents indicated complete combustion; emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, and particulates were low. The process also produced highly stable solid waste forms. The experiments for the next phase have been planned employing surrogates for the hazardous and radioactive components of the simulated waste streams. Natural cerium oxide is selected to simulate the behavior of radioactive actinide and transuranium elements, while natural cesium chloride is simulated for the study of relatively volatile radioactive fission products. For RCRA organics, naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are semivolatile compounds selected to represent significant challenges to thermal destruction, whereas chlorobenzene is selected for the study of relatively volatile organics. Salts of chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium are chosen to represent the twelve regulated toxic metals for emission and partitioning studies. The simulated waste packages presented in the text do not necessarily represent an individual waste stream within the DOE complex; rather, they were formulated to represent the most probable components in generic waste stream categories.

  7. Termination unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of the Section 1603 Treasury Grant Program for Renewable Power Projects in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the single new solar thermal electric plant, 5 none of theequipment) Solar Thermal Electric (new plant) Wind (Small)operating solar thermal power tower plant in the United

  9. United States

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - I United States Department of Energy D lSCk Al M E R "This book was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United...

  10. Status of the fluidized bed unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, P.M.; Wade, J.F.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rocky Flats has a serious mixed waste problem. No technology or company has a license and available facilities to remedy this dilemma. One solution under study is to use a catalytic fluidized bed unit to destroy the combustible portion of the mixed waste. The fluidized bed thermal treatment program at Rocky Flats is building on knowledge gained over twenty years of successful development activity. The FBU has numerous technical advantages over other thermal technologies to treat Rocky Flats` mixed waste, the largest being the lower temperature (700{degrees}C versus 1000{degrees}C) which reduces acid corrosion and mechanical failures and obviates the need for ceramic lining. Successful demonstrations have taken place on bench, pilot, and full-scale tests using radioactive mixed wastes. The program is approaching implementation and licensing of a production-scale fluidized bed system for the safe treatment of mixed waste. The measure for success on this project is the ability to work closely with the community to jointly solve problems and respond to concerns of mixed waste treatment at Rocky Flats.

  11. RCRA/UST, superfund, and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Miscellaneous and other units (40 CFR part 264, subpart X and 40 CFR 265, subparts P, Q, and R) updated as of July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module describes the basic requirements and types of units of 40 CFR 264, Subpart X and standards for broadly defined treatment processes - Thermal Treatment (Part 265, Subpart P); Chemical, Physical, and Biological Treatment (Subpart Q); and Underground Injection (Subpart R). It explains when corrective action applies to these subparts and presents the relationship between Part 264, Subpart X, and Part 265, Subparts P, Q, and R.

  12. RCRA, superfund and EPCRA hotline training module. Introduction to: Miscellaneous and other units (40 cfr part 264, subpart x and 40 cfr part 265, subparts p, q, and r) updated July 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The module describes the basic requirements and types of units of 40 CFR Part 264, Subpart X and standards for broadly defined treatment processes - Thermal treatment (Part 265, Subpart P); chemical, physical, and biological treatment (Subpart Q); and underground injection (Subpart R). Explains when corrective action applies to these subparts. It presents the relationship between Part 264, Subpart X, and Part 265, Subparts P, Q, and R.

  13. Name of Lecture Intensive Thermal Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Name of Lecture Intensive Thermal Engineering Term 2nd semester (October) Units 2-0-0 Lecturers' understanding of the essential part of thermal engineering, comprehensively. The classes are given by three in Thermal Engineering field require the students to have fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and heat

  14. UNIT NUMBER:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    193 UNIT NUMBER: 197 UNIT NAME: CONCRETE RUBBLE PILE (30) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside plant security fence, north of the plant on Big Bayou Creek on private property....

  15. Lattice-structures and constructs with designed thermal expansion coefficients

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spadaccini, Christopher; Hopkins, Jonathan

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal expansion-managed lattice structure having a plurality of unit cells each having flexure bearing-mounted tabs supported on a base and actuated by thermal expansion of an actuator having a thermal expansion coefficient greater than the base and arranged so that the tab is inwardly displaced into a base cavity. The flexure bearing-mounted tabs are connected to other flexure-bearing-mounted tabs of adjacent unit cells so that the adjacent unit cells are spaced from each other to accommodate thermal expansion of individual unit cells while maintaining a desired bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the lattice structure as a whole.

  16. STANDARD SYMBOLS FOR UNITS OF MEASURE AIP IEEE CDR APS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemner, Ken

    .wt. ­ at.wt. bar bar bar bar bar British Thermal Unit Btu Btu Btu calorie (cgs) cal cal cal centimeter cm

  17. UNIT NUMBER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4 UNIT NAME C-611 Underaround Diesel Tank REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Immediately southeast of C-611 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 1000 gallon FUNCTION: Diesel storage OPERATIONAL...

  18. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 7th Ocean Energy Conference, Washington,Power Applications, Division of Ocean Energy Systems, UnitedM.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft

  19. Dish/Stirling High-Performance Thermal Storge

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Simulation of Heat Pipe-Assisted Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Unit for Dish-Stirling Systems" to ASME 2013 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition. *...

  20. Thermal cycler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benett, William J.; Andreski, John T.; Dzenitis, John M.; Makarewicz, Anthony J.; Hadley, Dean R.; Pannu, Satinderpall S.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermalcycler includes a first thermalcycler body section having a first face and a second thermalcycler body section having a second face. A cavity is formed by the first face and the second face. A thermalcycling unit is positioned in the cavity. A heater trace unit is connected to a support section, to the first thermalcycler body section, to the second thermalcycler body section, and to the thermalcycling unit. The first thermalcycler body section and the second thermalcycler body section are positioned together against the support section to enclose the thermalcycling unit and the heater trace unit.

  1. UNIT NUMBER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 C-750B Diesel UST UNIT NAME REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Southeast corner of C-750 APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 10,000 gallon FUNCTION: Diesel storage OPERATIONAL STATUS: Removed...

  2. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presented at the 7th Ocean Energy Conference, Washington,Power Applications, Division of Ocean Energy Systems, UnitedSands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

  3. Automated rapid thermal imaging systems technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phan, Long N., 1976-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major source of energy savings occurs on the thermal envelop of buildings, which amounts to approximately 10% of annual energy usage in the United States. To pursue these savings, energy auditors use closed loop energy ...

  4. Comparison of costs for alternative mixed low-level waste treatment systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Harvego, L. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Dept. of Energy (United States); Biagi, C. [Morrison Knudsen (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Total life cycle costs (TLCCs), including disposal costs, of thermal, nonthermal and enhanced nonthermal systems were evaluated to guide future research and development programs for the treatment of mixed low-level waste (MLLW) consisting of RCRA hazardous and low-level radioactive wastes. In these studies, nonthermal systems are defined as those systems that process waste at temperatures less than 350 C. Preconceptual designs and costs were developed for thirty systems with a capacity (2,927 lbs/hr) to treat the DOE MLLW stored inventor y(approximately 236 million pounds) in 20 years in a single, centralized facility. A limited comparison of the studies` results is presented in this paper. Sensitivity of treatment costs with respect to treatment capacity, number of treatment facilities, and system availability were also determined. The major cost element is operations and maintenance (O and M), which is 50 to 60% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. Energy costs constitute a small fraction (< 1%) of the TLCCs. Equipment cost is only 3 to 5% of the treatment cost. Evaluation of subsystem costs demonstrate that receiving and preparation is the highest cost subsystem at about 25 to 30% of the TLCC for both thermal and nonthermal systems. These studies found no cost incentives to use nonthermal or hybrid (combined nonthermal treatment with stabilization by vitrification) systems in place of thermal systems. However, there may be other incentives including fewer air emissions and less local objection to a treatment facility. Building multiple treatment facilities to treat the same total mass of waste as a single facility would increase the total treatment cost significantly, and improved system availability decreases unit treatment costs by 17% to 30%.

  5. Investigations of the small-scale thermal behavior of sol-gel thermites.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warren, Mial E.; Farrow, Matthew; Tappan, Alexander Smith

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sol-gel thermites, formulated from nanoporous oxides and dispersed fuel particles, may provide materials useful for small-scale, intense thermal sources, but understanding the factors affecting performance is critical prior to use. Work was conducted on understanding the synthesis conditions, thermal treatments, and additives that lead to different performance characteristics in iron oxide sol-gel thermites. Additionally, the safety properties of sol-gel thermites were investigated, especially those related to air sensitivity. Sol-gel thermites were synthesized using a variety of different techniques and there appear to be many viable routes to relatively equivalent thermites. These thermites were subjected to several different thermal treatments under argon in a differential scanning calorimeter, and it was shown that a 65 C hold for up to 200 minutes was effective for the removal of residual solvent, thus preventing boiling during the final thermal activation step. Vacuum-drying prior to this heating was shown to be even more effective at removing residual solvent. The addition of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) reduced the total heat release per unit mass upon exposure to air, probably due to a decrease in the amount of reduced iron oxide species in the thermite. For the thermal activation step of heat treatment, three different temperatures were investigated. Thermal activation at 200 C resulted in increased ignition sensitivity over thermal activation at 232 C, and thermal activation at 300 C resulted in non-ignitable material. Non-sol-gel iron oxide did not exhibit any of the air-sensitivity observed in sol-gel iron oxide. In the DSC experiments, no bulk ignition of sol-gel thermites was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in argon; however ignition did occur when the material was heated in air after thermal treatment. In larger-scale experiments, up to a few hundred milligrams, no ignition was observed upon exposure to air after thermal activation in vacuum; however ignition by resistively-heated tungsten wire was possible. Thin films of thermite were fabricated using a dispersed mixture of aluminum and iron oxide particles, but ignition and propagation of these films was difficult. The only ignition and propagation observed was in a preheated sample.

  6. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  7. Thermal Removal Of Tritium From Concrete And Soil To Reduce Groundwater Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Blount, Gerald C.; Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso-Neto, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L.

    2012-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg C (1,500 deg F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg C (212 deg F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management.

  8. Thermal Removal of Tritium from Concrete and Soil to Reduce Groundwater Impacts - 13197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Building 773-42A, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Blount, Gerald C. [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States)] [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (United States); Wells, Leslie H.; Cardoso, Joao E.; Kmetz, Thomas F.; Reed, Misty L. [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)] [U.S Department of Energy-Savannah River Site (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Legacy heavy-water moderator operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) have resulted in the contamination of equipment pads, building slabs, and surrounding soil with tritium. At the time of discovery the tritium had impacted the shallow (< 3-m) groundwater at the facility. While tritium was present in the groundwater, characterization efforts determined that a significant source remained in a concrete slab at the surface and within the associated vadose zone soils. To prevent continued long-term impacts to the shallow groundwater a CERCLA non-time critical removal action for these source materials was conducted to reduce the leaching of tritium from the vadose zone soils and concrete slabs. In order to minimize transportation and disposal costs, an on-site thermal treatment process was designed, tested, and implemented. The on-site treatment consisted of thermal detritiation of the concrete rubble and soil. During this process concrete rubble was heated to a temperature of 815 deg. C (1,500 deg. F) resulting in the dehydration and removal of water bound tritium. During heating, tritium contaminated soil was used to provide thermal insulation during which it's temperature exceeded 100 deg. C (212 deg. F), causing drying and removal of tritium. The thermal treatment process volatiles the water bound tritium and releases it to the atmosphere. The released tritium was considered insignificant based upon Clean Air Act Compliance Package (CAP88) analysis and did not exceed exposure thresholds. A treatability study evaluated the effectiveness of this thermal configuration and viability as a decontamination method for tritium in concrete and soil materials. Post treatment sampling confirmed the effectiveness at reducing tritium to acceptable waste site specific levels. With American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funding three additional treatment cells were assembled utilizing commercial heating equipment and common construction materials. This provided a total of four units to batch treat concrete rubble and soil. Post treatment sampling verified that the activity in the treated soil and concrete met the treatment standards for each medium which allowed the treated concrete rubble and soil to be disposed of on-site as backfill. During testing and operations a total of 1,261-m{sup 3} (1,650-yd{sup 3}) of contaminated concrete and soils were treated with an actual incurred cost of $3,980,000. This represents a unit treatment cost of $3,156/m{sup 3} ($2,412/yd{sup 3}). In 2011 the project was recognized with an e-Star Sustainability Award by DOE's Office of Environmental Management. (authors)

  9. Overview of Integrated Waste Treatment Unit

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - T en Y earEnergy T HK-12OtherOverseasOverview of

  10. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  11. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit (Spanish)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    sea de alta calidad. En el sistema, las aguas negras primero entran al tanque de pretratamiento o a la trampa de basura, que saca los objetos pl?sticos y otros s?lidos que flotan o se asientan. Despu?s, entra a un tanque de aireaci?n donde el ox... Sistemas individuales para el tratamiento de aguas negras Fosa de basura de un compartimiento Cloronizador Unidad de tratamiento aer?bico Rociadores Tanque bomba Unidad de tratamiento aer?bico Bruce Lesikar y Juan Enciso Promotores Especialistas de...

  12. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Aerobic Treatment Unit (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    2000-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    puestas a prueba y tener una certificaci?n de acuerdo con las normas internacionales Standard 40 de la ?National Sanitation Foundation? para los dispositivos de tratamiento de aguas negras. Las unidades de tratamiento aer?bico que pasan las pruebas se...

  13. Conductive Thermal Interaction in Evaporative Cooling Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, B. S.; Degelman, L. O.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from the evaporative cooler would often be more than 6.5'F lower than that of a conventional evaporative cooling system due to thermal conduction between water and entering air. - Figure 1 Pad type evaporative cooler. DIRECT EVAPORATIVE COOLER... There are several types of direct evaporative cooler configurations available. Two popular system types are pad type unit and rotary type unit. A number of window mounted units are pad type evaporative coolers (Figure 1). In a pad type cooler, water...

  14. MPS213 - A Non-Thermal Plasma Application for the Royal Navy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in the combustion chamber Catalytic Subsequent Exhaust gas treatment SCR Non-Thermal Plasma AEA Technology Exhaust gas treatment outside the combustion chamber MEASURES Engine...

  15. Liquid photovoltaic/thermal collectors for residential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrie, S. D.; Raghuraman, P.; Cox, C. H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A second-generation, liquid photovoltaic/thermal collector has been designed and is currently under fabrication. Results of computer simulations indicate that the collector unit, which incorporates novel cell and framing concepts, yields significnatly improved performance results over earlier units tested. Predicted performance values of 55% thermal efficiency and 11% electrical efficiency make the performance and this collector competitive with its single-function solar thermal and photovoltaic counterparts.

  16. Thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions and methods of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koros, William John; Kratochvil, Adam Michal

    2014-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The various embodiments of the present disclosure relate generally to thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions and methods of making thermally crosslinked polymeric compositions. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a composition comprising: a first polymer comprising a first repeat unit, the first repeat unit comprising a carboxyl group, wherein the first polymer crosslinks to a second polymer formed from a second repeat unit, and wherein the first polymer crosslinks to the second polymer without formation of an ester group.

  17. Thermal emission microscopy measures the spa-tial distribution of temperature in a sample. Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    per unit area emitted by an object is proportional to its absolute temperature to the fourth powerThermal emission microscopy measures the spa- tial distribution of temperature in a sample. Thermal- cause the optical power emitted by the sample is a function of its local temperature. The optical power

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  20. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  1. Thermoacoustic refrigerators and engines comprising cascading stirling thermodynamic units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott; Swift, Greg

    2013-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention includes a thermoacoustic assembly and method for improved efficiency. The assembly has a first stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator and at least one additional heat exchanger. The first stage Stirling thermal unit is serially coupled to a first end of a quarter wavelength long coupling tube. A second stage Stirling thermal unit comprising a main ambient heat exchanger, a regenerator, and at least one additional heat exchanger, is serially coupled to a second end of the quarter wavelength long coupling tube.

  2. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  3. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total U.S.1...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Housing Unit Type, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,"Single-Family Units",,"Apartments in Buildings With" ,"Total...

  8. A Tight MIP Formulation of the Unit Commitment Problem with Start ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 8, 2014 ... bInstitute for Research in Technology (IIT) of the School of Engineering (ICAI), Universidad. Pontificia Comillas ... thermal units operation [8, 7].

  9. Study on the thermal resistance in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel by molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China); Department of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, L., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zheng, X. H., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China)

    2014-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the heat transport in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel. The two adjacent particles as the basic heat transport unit were modelled to characterize the heat transfer through the calculation of thermal resistance and vibrational density of states (VDOS). The total thermal resistance of two contact particles was predicted by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD). The defects were formed by deleting atoms in the system randomly first and performing heating and quenching process afterwards to achieve the DLCA (diffusive limited cluster-cluster aggregation) process. This kind of treatment showed a very reasonable prediction of thermal conductivity for the silica aerogels compared with the experimental values. The heat transport was great suppressed as the contact length increased or defect concentration increased. The constrain effect of heat transport was much significant when contact length fraction was in the small range (<0.5) or the defect concentration is in the high range (>0.5). Also, as the contact length increased, the role of joint thermal resistance played in the constraint of heat transport was increasing. However, the defect concentration did not affect the share of joint thermal resistance as the contact length did. VDOS of the system was calculated by numerical method to characterize the heat transport from atomic vibration view. The smaller contact length and greater defect concentration primarily affected the longitudinal acoustic modes, which ultimately influenced the heat transport between the adjacent particles.

  10. Integrated nonthermal treatment system study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biagi, C.; Bahar, D.; Teheranian, B.; Vetromile, J. [Morrison Knudsen Corp. (United States); Quapp, W.J. [Nuclear Metals (United States); Bechtold, T.; Brown, B.; Schwinkendorf, W. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swartz, G. [Swartz and Associates (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a study of nonthermal treatment technologies. The study consisted of a systematic assessment of five nonthermal treatment alternatives. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The alternatives considered were innovative nonthermal treatments for organic liquids and sludges, process residue, soil and debris. Vacuum desorption or various washing approaches are considered for treatment of soil, residue and debris. Organic destruction methods include mediated electrochemical oxidation, catalytic wet oxidation, and acid digestion. Other methods studied included stabilization technologies and mercury separation of treatment residues. This study is a companion to the integrated thermal treatment study which examined 19 alternatives for thermal treatment of MLLW waste. The quantities and physical and chemical compositions of the input waste are based on the inventory database developed by the US Department of Energy. The Integrated Nonthermal Treatment Systems (INTS) systems were evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 pounds per hour) as the Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems (ITTS). 48 refs., 68 figs., 37 tabs.

  11. Optimal Airflow Control for Laboratory Air Handling Unit (LAHU) Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cui, Y.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimal airflow control method and procedure have been developed for laboratory air handing unit (LAHU) systems using linear optimization theories. The optimal airflow control minimizes the thermal energy consumption and the cost, and improves...

  12. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  13. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  14. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Paul John (Indiana, PA); Miller, Bruce G. (State College, PA); Wincek, Ronald T. (State College, PA); Decker, Glenn E. (Bellefonte, PA); Johnson, David K. (Port Matilda, PA)

    2009-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  15. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Székely, V; Kollar, E

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  16. Improvements of the Variable Thermal Resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Szekely; S. Torok; E. Kollar

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A flat mounting unit with electronically variable thermal resistance [1] has been presented in the last year [2]. The design was based on a Peltier cell and the appropriate control electronics and software. The device is devoted especially to the thermal characterization of packages, e.g. in dual cold plate arrangements. Although this design meets the requirements of the static measurement we are intended to improve its parameters as the settling time and dynamic thermal impedance and the range of realized thermal resistance. The new design applies the heat flux sensor developed by our team as well [3], making easier the control of the device. This development allows even the realization of negative thermal resistances.

  17. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  18. Minnesota Power- Solar-Thermal Water Heating Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Minnesota Power offers a 25% rebate for qualifying solar thermal water heating systems. The maximum award for single-family customers is $2,000 per customer; $4,000 for 2-3 family unit buildings;...

  19. Babel of Units. The Evolution of Units Systems in Classical Electromagnetism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carron, Neal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We recount the history of development of units systems in electrodynamics, and fully derive how each system is constructed. Done for Electromagnetic (emu), Electrostatic (esu), Gaussian, a variant-Gaussian, Heaviside-Lorentz, and SI systems. The article fills in large gaps in standard textbook treatments of units.

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Fuels Used and End Uses in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by OwnerRenter Status, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,,,"Housing Unit Type" ,,,,"Single-Family Units",,,,"Apartments in Buildings With"...

  4. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  5. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  6. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  7. POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    POWER SCHEDULING IN A HYDRO-THERMAL SYSTEM UNDER UNCERTAINTY C.C. Car e1, M.P. Nowak2, W. Romisch2 Forschungsgemeinschaft. leads to a tremendous increase in the complex- ity of the traditional power optimization mod- els-burning) thermal units, pumped-storage hydro plants and delivery con- tracts and describe an optimization model

  8. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structure, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and addition additional information. 6 refs.

  9. Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Hanford Site Waste Management Units Report (HSWMUR) was originated to provide information responsive to Section 3004(u) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of the 1984 United States Code (USC). The report provides a comprehensive inventory of all types of waste management units at the Hanford Site and consists of waste disposal units, including (1) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) disposal units, (2) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) disposal units, (3) unplanned releases, (4) inactive contaminated structures, (5) RCRA treatment and storage units, and (6) other storage areas. Because of the comprehensive nature of this report, the listing of sites is more extensive than required by Section 3004(u) of HSWA. In support of the Hanford RCRA permit, a field was added to designate whether the waste management unit is a solid waste management unit (SWMU). As SWMUs are identified, they will added to the Hanford Waste Information Data System (WIDS), which is the database supporting this report, and added to the report at its next annual update. A quality review of the WIDS was conducted this past year. The review included checking all data against their reference and making appropriate changes, updating the data elements using the most recent references, marking duplicate units for deletion, and adding additional information. 6 refs.

  10. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  11. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  12. Heat extraction for the CSPonD thermal storage unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas, Folkers Eduardo

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three coiled tube heat exchanger prototypes were designed to extract heat from containers holding 0.5 kg, 2.3 kg, and 10.5 kg of Sodium Nitrate-Potassium Nitrate salt. All of the prototypes were left with an open surface ...

  13. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    conduction · Heat conduction in Bose condensates ­ electronic superconductors ­ superfluid helium ­ Bose condensate of magnons #12;Outline--toward perfect thermal insulators · Einstein and minimum thermal directions #12;Gas kinetic equation is a good place to start · Anharmonicity (high T limit) · Point defect

  14. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  15. Aquifer thermal energy (heat and chill) storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenne, E.A. (ed.)

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the 1992 Intersociety Conversion Engineering Conference, held in San Diego, California, August 3--7, 1992, the Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program coordinated five sessions dealing specifically with aquifer thermal energy storage technologies (ATES). Researchers from Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Denmark, Canada, and the United States presented papers on a variety of ATES related topics. With special permission from the Society of Automotive Engineers, host society for the 1992 IECEC, these papers are being republished here as a standalone summary of ATES technology status. Individual papers are indexed separately.

  16. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  17. Technical and economic feasibility of a Thermal Gradient Utilization Cycle (TGUC) power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raiji, Ashok

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Conversion unit mass mass flow rate life of system Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power pressure heat flow Rl R4 TGUC TP T2 total primary energy subsidy expressed as BTU input per 1000 BTU output thermal energy subsidy expressed... has grown in energy technologies that use renewable resources such as solar (thermal conversion, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, wind and biomass conversion), geothermal and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) . A new concept that can...

  18. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  19. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  20. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  1. Portable treatment systems study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  2. Contacts @CRCTUCRCTU Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    treatments and biomarkers for cancer. The CRCTU also collaborate with a large number of academic scientificContacts @CRCTUCRCTU Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit School of Cancer Sciences University://www.birmingham.ac.uk/crctu Making a difference... A National Cancer Research Institute Accredited Trials Unit Linked Groups

  3. Contacts @CRCTUCRCTU Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Birmingham, University of

    scientists in the development of new treatments and biomarkers for cancer. The CRCTU also collaborateContacts @CRCTUCRCTU Cancer Research UK Clinical Trials Unit School of Cancer Sciences University... A National Cancer Research Institute Accredited Trials Unit Linked Groups @CRCTUCRCTU Birmingham

  4. Advanced Rooftop Unit Control

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced-Rooftop-Unit-Control Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used and End Uses in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" " ",,,"East North Central Census...

  11. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Space Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  12. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ., Ashland, OR 97520 and Gwyneth Myer, Consultant, 220 W. Rapp Rd. Unit 3, Talent, OR 97540. #12;2 THE FIRE

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Computers and Other Electronics in Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  17. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Northeast Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Northeast Census Region" ,,,"New England Census...

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in West Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"West Census Region" ,,,"Mountain Census Division",,,"Pacific...

  19. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in Midwest Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Midwest Census Region" ,,,"East North Central Census...

  20. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Water Heating in U.S. Homes in South Region, Divisions, and States, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"South Census Region" ,,,"South Atlantic Census Division",,,,,,"East...

  1. Pathways to Parenthood: Regulating Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkpatrick, Kellee Jo

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, approximately 10.8 percent of women and 7.5 percent of men in the United States have sought infertility treatment. With advances in medical technology, treatment options range ...

  2. Case Study Walnut Hill United Methodist Church - Dallas, Texas, Chiller Replacement Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, J.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March of 1992 Walnut Hill United Methodist Church in Dallas, Tx. decided that their existing thermal storage and electric reciprocating chiller system were both in need of replacement. After analyzing several options, they chose to install 150...

  3. Climate change impacts on freshwater recreational fishing in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Russell

    We estimated the biological and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries in the United States (U.S.). Changes in stream temperatures, flows, and the spatial extent of suitable thermal habitats for fish ...

  4. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  5. Application of a non-thermal plasma to combustion enhancement.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosocha, L. A. (Louis A.); Kim, Y. (Yongho); Stange, Sabine

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a primary objective, researchers in Los Alamos National Laboratory's P-24 Plasma Physics group are aiming to minimize U.S. energy dependency on foreign resources through experiments incorporating a plasma assisted combustion unit. Under this broad category, researchers seek to increase efficiency and reduce NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in IC-engines, gas-turbine engines, and burner units. To date, the existing lean burn operations, consisting of higher air to fuel ratio, have successfully operated in a regime where reduced NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} emissions are expected and have also shown increased combustion efficiency (less unburned hydrocarbon) for propane. By incorporating a lean burn operation assisted by a non-thermal plasma (NTP) reactor, the fracturing of hydrocarbons can occur with increased power (combustion, efficiency, and stability). Non-thermal plasma units produce energetic electrons, but avoid the high gas and ion temperatures involved in thermal plasmas. One non-thermal plasma method, known as silent discharge, allows free radicals to act in propagating combustion reactions, as well as intermediaries in hydrocarbon fracturing. Using non-thermal plasma units, researchers have developed a fuel activation/conversion system capable of decreasing pollutants while increasing fuel efficiency, providing a path toward future U.S. energy independence.

  6. Integrated (operational) piping and instrumentation diagrams (RADL item 2-38). 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Included in this drawing set are: composite operational piping and instrumentation diagrams for the overall plant, for the receiver system, for the thermal storage system, and for the electrical power generation system; receiver preheat panel feedwater; receiver boiler panels, main steam manifold, GN/sub 2/ and drain systems; thermal storage system oil, steam and condensate systems and ullage and maintenance unit; steam system; turbine system; feedwater and condensate system; condenser and condensate drains; equipment cooling water system; circulating water system; sumps and drains; turbine control oil and lube oil system; sampling system; condensate polishing system; service water system; water treatment system; fire protection system; instrument air and service air system; and miscellaneous systems. (LEW)

  7. FISHERY STATISTICS UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1972 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 66 Prepared by STATISTICS;ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The data in this edition of "Fishery Statistics of the United States" were collected in co- operation with the various States and tabulated by the staff of the Statistics and Market News Division

  8. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full. Also, an associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and using a tree of prioritized multiplexers descending from the plurality of cell blocks.

  9. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Gregory G.

    Assessment Thomas M. Quigley, Editor U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Pacific Northwest Research, and Andy Wilson. Thomas M. Quigley Editor United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service United Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 120 p. (Quigley, Thomas M., ed.; Interior Columbia Basin

  10. United States Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    Protect Your Family From Lead in Your Home United States Environmental Protection Agency United · What you can do to protect your family · Where to go for more information Before renting or buying Family from Lead Hazards If you think your home has lead-based paint: · Don't try to remove lead

  11. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  12. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  13. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V. King

    2000-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous radiological monitoring of the pool water. The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System, Site-Generated Radiological Waste Handling System, Site Radiological Monitoring System, Waste Handling Building Electrical System, Site Water System, and the Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System.

  14. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  16. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Thermal Control Technologies Advanced Vehicle Systems Technology Transfer Jet Cooling Alternative Coolants TIM Low R Structure Phase Change Spray Cooling Air Cooling...

  17. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  18. Modified Orbital Branching with Applications to Orbitopes and to Unit ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Oct 27, 2012 ... To the best of our knowledge, the only method known to remove all iso- ..... practice. The rank vector is used to determine two things. First, it is needed to ... electricity demands, the UC problem minimizes the total production cost of the ..... [1] Arroyo, J.M., Conejo, A.J.: Optimal response of a thermal unit to an.

  19. Evaluation of biological treatment for the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a wastewater treatment plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Pradipta Ranjan

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Training Field, 2004) 6 Figure 2. Layout of the Fire Training Field (Map of Brayton Fire Training Field and Disaster City, 2004 ) 7 TREATMENT PLANT UNITS The wastewater treatment plant consists of four basic units, namely...-Blaze contains several strains of non-pathogenic, spore forming, facultative bacteria, Bacillus, along with a surfactant and nutrients sufficient for biodegradation. The physical characteristics listed for the product (Micro Blaze Spill Control, 2004...

  20. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  1. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  2. Mobile inspection and repackaging unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, G.A.; Roberts, R.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States). Solid Waste Disposal Div.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Storage of large volumes of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) generated over the past 20 years at the Hanford Site has resulted in various waste management challenges. Presently, disposal capacity for RMW does not exist. Containers holding RMW will be stored until processing facilities can be completed to provide treatment and final disposal. Because of the complexity of these wastes, special projects have been initiated to properly manage them. This paper addresses one such project. The goal of this project is to develop a mobile inspection and repackaging unit (IRU) for solid RMW. The paper describes the structural design, equipment, ventilation system, instruments and electrical systems, video monitors and recorders, materials handling, and waste processing of containers.

  3. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  4. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  5. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  6. Automatically clustering similar units for unit selection in speech synthesis. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Alan W; Taylor, Paul A

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a new method for synthesizing speech by concatenating sub-word units from a database of labelled speech. A large unit inventory is created by automatically clustering units of the same phone class ...

  7. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Appliances in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to 1949","1950...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  11. Stochastic Unit Commitment in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    the amount of installed pumped storage capacity enables the inclusion of pumped storage plants units. Its total capacity is about 13,000 megawatts (MW), including a hydro capacity of 1,700 MW

  12. Associative list processing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An associative list processing unit and method comprising employing a plurality of prioritized cell blocks and permitting inserts to occur in a single clock cycle if all of the cell blocks are not full.

  13. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  14. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Space...

  15. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  16. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Space Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  17. Voltage verification unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, Edward J. (Virginia Beach, VA)

    2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  18. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Televisions in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  19. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a typical wind energy production facility, the results warrant further research on the use of acoustic;1 INTRODUCTION Over the past decade, wind energy production capacity in the United States has increased

  20. " Million Housing Units, Preliminary"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, By Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Preliminary" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)"...

  1. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before...

  2. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South"...

  3. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Computers and Other Electronics in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty...

  4. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Census Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Census Region" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Northeast","Midwest","South","West" "Water...

  5. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Year of Construction, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  6. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Number of Household Members, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Number of Household Members" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,,,,,"5 or More...

  7. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Climate Region, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Climate Region2" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)" ,,"Very Cold","Mixed- Humid","Mixed-Dry"...

  8. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Water Heating in U.S. Homes, by Household Income, 2009" " Million Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than...

  9. " Million Housing Units, Final"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

  10. " Million Housing Units, Final...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Units, Final" ,,"Household Income" ,"Total U.S.1 (millions)",,,"Below Poverty Line2" ,,"Less than 20,000","20,000 to 39,999","40,000 to 59,999","60,000 to...

  11. DNA Twist Elasticity: Mechanics and Thermal Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supurna Sinha; Joseph Samuel

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The elastic properties of semiflexible polymers are of great importance in biology. There are experiments on biopolymers like double stranded DNA, which twist and stretch single molecules to probe their elastic properties. It is known that thermal fluctuations play an important role in determining molecular elastic properties, but a full theoretical treatment of the problem of twist elasticity of fluctuating ribbons using the simplest worm like chain model (WLC) remains elusive. In this paper, we approach this problem by taking first a mechanical approach and then incorporating thermal effects in a quadratic approximation applying the Gelfand-Yaglom (GY) method for computing fluctuation determinants. Our study interpolates between mechanics and statistical mechanics in a controlled way and shows how profoundly thermal fluctuations affect the elasticity of semiflexible polymers. The new results contained here are: 1) a detailed study of the minimum energy configurations with explicit expressions for their energy and writhe and plots of the extension versus Link for these configurations. 2) a study of fluctuations around the local minima of energy and approximate analytical formulae for the free energy of stretched twisted polymers derived by the Gelfand Yaglom method. We use insights derived from our mechanical approach to suggest calculational schemes that lead to an improved treatment of thermal fluctuations. From the derived formulae, predictions of the WLC model for molecular elasticity can be worked out for comparison against numerical simulations and experiments.

  12. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

  13. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  14. Solving the Unit Commitment Problem in Power Generation by Primal and Dual Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    - storage hydro plants a large-scale mixed integer optimization model for unit commitment is developed optimal scheduling of on/o decisions and output levels for generating units in a power system over on the shares of nuclear, conventional thermal, hydro and pumped-storage hydro power in the underlying

  15. Best Buys and Unit Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide explains how to determine a unit price--the cost of an item based on a specific unit such as pound or ounce. Unit pricing can be used to identify foods that are the most economical....

  16. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  17. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  18. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  19. B Plant complex treatment, storage, and disposal units inspection plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beam, T.G.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Owners or operators of facilities that treat, store, and/or dispose of dangerous waste and/or mixed waste as defined by WAC 173-303, {open_quotes}Dangerous Waste Regulations,{close_quotes} must inspect their facilities to prevent malfunctions and deteriorations, operator errors, and discharges that may cause or lead to the release of hazardous waste constituents to the environment and/or cause a threat to human health. The WAC regulations require a written inspection schedule be developed, implemented, and kept at the facility.

  20. USE OF MIXTURES AS WORKING FLUIDS IN OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CYCLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan Zafar Iqbal; Kenneth E. Starling

    Mixtures offer potential advantages over pure compounds as working fluids in ocean thermal energy conversion cycles. Power plant capital costs per unit of energy output can be reduced using mixtures because of increased thermal efficiency and/or decreased heat exchanger size requirements. Mixtures

  1. United States Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contamination in solid and liquid media. The solid media includes soils, sediments, sludge and solid waste for technologies demonstrated to be effective for treatment of radioactively contaminated media. Inclusion for Radioactively Contaminated Media (Guide) is intended to aid in the selection of treatment technologies

  2. High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

  3. Sandia Energy - Phasor Measurement Units

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Phasor Measurement Units Home Stationary Power Grid Modernization Cyber Security for Electric Infrastructure Phasor Measurement Units Phasor Measurement Unitsashoter2015-05-11T21:0...

  4. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was with the General Electric Co. and worked on thermal and nuclear instrumentation from 1951 to 1961. His B.S. degree Station Ogden, UT 84401 General Technical Report INT-122 April 1982 Aids to Determining Fuel Models Forest Service Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station Ogden, UT 84401 General Technical Report

  5. Thermal Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  6. Thermally driven circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelken, Haim

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

  7. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  8. Integrated demonstration of molten salt oxidation with salt recycle for mixed waste treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.C.

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal, nonflame process that has the inherent capability of completely destroying organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has prepared a facility and constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO processor with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. This integrated system was designed and engineered based on laboratory experience with a smaller engineering-scale reactor unit and extensive laboratory development on salt recycle and final forms preparation. In this paper we present design and engineering details of the system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is identification of the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  9. Development of an Approach to Compare the `Value' of Electrical and Thermal Output from a Domestic PV/Thermal System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    "Mandatory Renewable Energy Target" in Australia allows a unit of energy as solar hot water to be counted PV/Thermal System J.S. Coventry and K. Lovegrove Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Canberra 0200 ACT Australia E-mail: joe@faceng.anu.edu.au Abstract When considering

  10. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  11. Development of a Thermal Oxidizer for Distributed Microturbine Based Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project concerns the replacement of the catalytic bed in a microturbine with a thermal oxidizer. The advantage of a thermal oxidizer over a traditional combustion chamber is that the length and temperature of the device allows the volatile species to oxidize relatively slowly and without a flame front. With no flame, the temperature increase throughout the unit is spread over a much larger volume so there is no hot spot for thermal NO{sub x} formation, and the gas Btu level does not have to be above the ignition concentration. Project specific objectives included assessment of the materials and performance requirements of the thermal oxidizer, design the thermal oxidizer system, fabrication of the thermal oxidizer, testing of the oxidizer's performance in concert with the microturbine and comparison of the performance of the oxidizer with catalytic beds and traditional combustion chambers. The thermal oxidizer was designed and fabricated with the assistance of High Country Fabrication of Casper, Wyoming. The design consists of a long set of tubes surrounded by a packed bed of loose ceramic material. The outer vessel containing the tubes and packing is a 3-foot diameter steel shell with multiple layers of thermal insulation. After the metal components were fabricated, the vessel was shipped to Denver where the insulation was poured. The unit was shipped to the cosponsor site for integration with the 100 kW microturbine device. Connection of the thermal oxidizer to the Elliot microturbine turned out to be problematic. The high flow rate of gas tended to push the hot zone out of the oxidizer as assembled. The research team identified several approaches to improve the oxidizer performance including a longer gas path, increased residence time, higher surface area packing material and improved combustion catalysts. The cosponsor is working with an engineering form with oxidizer experience to reconfigure the hardware before moving to a field trial on landfill gas.

  12. Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solving Unit Commitment by a Unit Decommitment Method Chung-Li Tsengy,Chao-an Liz, Shmuel S. Oren x October 14, 1997 Abstract In this paper, we present an e cient and robust method for solving unit commit- ment problem using a unit decommitment method. 1 Introduction A problem that must be frequently solved

  13. Aquifer thermal energy storage: a survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsang, C.F.; Hopkins, D.; Hellstroem, G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disparity between energy production and demand in many power plants has led to increased research on the long-term, large-scale storage of thermal energy in aquifers. Field experiments have been conducted in Switzerland, France, the United States, Japan, and the People's Republic of China to study various technical aspects of aquifer storage of both hot and cold water. Furthermore, feasibility studies now in progress include technical, economic, and environmental analyses, regional exploration to locate favorable storage sites, and evaluation and design of pilot plants. Several theoretical and modeling studies are also under way. Among the topics being studied using numerical models are fluid and heat flow, dispersion, land subsidence or uplift, the efficiency of different injection/withdrawal schemes, buoyancy tilting, numerical dispersion, the use of compensation wells to counter regional flow, steam injection, and storage in narrow glacial deposits of high permeability. Experiments to date illustrate the need for further research and development to ensure successful implementation of an aquifer storage system. Some of the areas identified for further research include shape and location of the hydrodynamic and thermal fronts, choice of appropriate aquifers, thermal dispersion, possibility of land subsidence or uplift, thermal pollution, water chemistry, wellbore plugging and heat exchange efficiency, and control of corrosion.

  14. Thermally matched fluid cooled power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Kannenberg, Daniel G.; Kaishian, Steven C.; Beihoff, Bruce C.

    2005-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. Power electronic circuits are thermally matched, such as between component layers and between the circuits and the support. The support may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  15. Thermal ground state and nonthermal probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grandou, Thierry

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Euclidean formulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics admits periodic, (anti)selfdual solutions to the fundamental, classical equation of motion which possess one unit of topological charge: (anti)calorons. A spatial coarse graining over the central region in a pair of such localised field configurations with trivial holonomy generates an inert adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, effectively describing the pure quantum part of the thermal ground state in the induced quantum field theory. The latter's local vertices are mediated by just-not-resolved (anti)caloron centers of action $\\hbar$. This is the basic reason for a rapid convergence of the loop expansion of thermodynamical quantities, polarization tensors, etc., their effective loop momenta being severely constrained in entirely fixed and physical unitary-Coulomb gauge. Here we show for the limit of zero holonomy how (anti)calorons associate a temperature independent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability to the thermal ground state of SU(2)$_{\\t...

  16. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Type of Housing Unit, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Type of Housing Unit" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Single-Family...

  17. Measuring the Influence of Grain-Boundary Misorientation on Thermal Groove Geometry in Ceramic Polycrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    -boundary energies is to measure the geometry of the thermal grooves that form where the boundaries intersect a free is the excess free energy per unit area of the ith interface; ti the unit vector that lies in the ith interface) reduces to: gb s = 2 cos s 2 (2) In Eq. (2), the ratio of the grain-boundary excess free energy

  18. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-REPOSITORY LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC LAYERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. JONES

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This model report addresses activities described in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport Thermal Properties and Analysis Reports Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171708]). The model develops values for thermal conductivity, and its uncertainty, for the nonrepository layers of Yucca Mountain; in addition, the model provides estimates for matrix porosity and dry bulk density for the nonrepository layers. The studied lithostratigraphic units, as identified in the ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM 2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]), are the Timber Mountain Group, the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Yucca Mountain Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, the Topopah Spring Tuff (excluding the repository layers), the Calico Hills Formation, the Prow Pass Tuff, the Bullfrog Tuff, and the Tram Tuff. The deepest model units of the GFM (Tund and Paleozoic) are excluded from this study because no data suitable for model input are available. The parameter estimates developed in this report are used as input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. Specifically, analysis model reports that use product output from this report are: (1) Drift-scale coupled processes (DST and TH seepage) models; (2) Drift degradation analysis; (3) Multiscale thermohydrologic model; and (4) Ventilation model and analysis report. In keeping with the methodology of the thermal conductivity model for the repository layers in ''Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169854]), the Hsu et al. (1995 [DIRS 158073]) three-dimensional (3-D) cubic model (referred to herein as ''the Hsu model'') was used to represent the matrix thermal conductivity as a function of the four parameters (matrix porosity, thermal conductivity of the saturating fluid, thermal conductivity of the solid, and geometric connectivity of the solid). The Hsu model requires input data from each test specimen to meet three specific conditions: (1) Known value for matrix porosity; (2) Known values for wet and dry thermal conductivity; and (3) The location of the measured specimen in relation to the model stratigraphic unit. The only matrix thermal conductivity values developed are limited to fully saturated and dry conditions. The model does not include the effects of convection and thermal radiation in voids. The model does not include temperature dependence of thermal conductivity, porosity, or bulk density.

  19. United States of Agriculture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    United States Department of Agriculture Forest Service Intermountain Research Station General. in the aircraft nuclear propulsion department at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. In 1961 Rothermel.S. Department of Agriculture, Fire Laboratory at Missoula was conceived in the aftermath of the Mann Gulch fire

  20. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are thought to contribute to carbon sequestration, including current debates on this topic. The science regarding forestry and carbon sequestration is more advanced and less controversial than that for range, land management, carbon sequestration, carbon markets, United States. #12;ii Executive Summary

  1. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Report NRS-112 Modeling the Effects of Emerald Ash Borer on Forest Composition in the Midwest of human population, energy, consumption, land use, and economic models to project the future condition of forests in the Midwest and Northeast United States. Our results suggest that in most cases EAB

  2. United States Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to Alabama, is receiving increasing attention as an economically recoverable natural gas source, and proximity to natural gas markets in the heavily urbanized northeastern United States have prompted increased-10 Reptile, Amphibian, and Small Mammal Species Associated with Natural Gas Development

  3. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  4. Holographic thermalization in noncommutative geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Xian-Ming Liu; Wen-Biao Liu

    2015-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational collapse of a shell of dust in noncommutative geometry is probed by the renormalized geodesic length, which is dual to probe the thermalization by the two-point correlation function in the dual conformal field theory. We find that larger the noncommutative parameter is, longer the thermalization time is, which implies that the large noncommutative parameter delays the thermalization process. We also investigate how the noncommutative parameter affects the thermalization velocity and thermalization acceleration.

  5. Building C-400 Thermal Treatment 90% Remedial Design Report and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Investigation, PGDP, Paducah Kentucky 15 August 2007 Authors: Dr. Brian Looney, Savannah River National Laboratory: Review Technical Lead Dr. Jed Costanza, Georgia Institute of...

  6. Three-Dimensional Thermal Tomography Advances Cancer Treatment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2, 2003 (Next ReleaseThomas JeffersonJefferson

  7. Thermal Storage for Energy Efficient Structures (Poteet High School Case Study)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utesch, A. L.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and cooling valves in sequence for temperature control. Ventilation air dampers and control valves close when units are de-energized. I. DDC CONTROL SYSTEM Controls equipment, provides system operation information, generates historical data files... with air units or fan and coil units with hot and chilled water coils. Whenever occupancy is sensed the lights and HVAC equipment are energized and automatically oontrolled by sequencing coil valves to maintain the temperature setting. The thermal...

  8. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  9. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  10. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  11. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  12. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  13. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  14. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, Hugh R. (Livermore, CA); Meltzer, Michael P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantifies of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surface by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings.

  15. Contamination analysis unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig.

  16. Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds test systems that can provide heat transfer fluids for the evaluation of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage devices. The existing system provides molten salt at temperatures up to 800 C. This unit is charged with nitrate salt rated to 600 C, but is capable of handling other heat transfer fluid compositions. Three additional test bays are available for future deployment of alternative heat transfer fluids such as hot air, carbon dioxide, or steam systems. The Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory performs pilot-scale thermal energy storage system testing through multiple charge and discharge cycles to evaluate heat exchanger performance and storage efficiency. The laboratory equipment can also be utilized to test instrument and sensor compatibility with hot heat transfer fluids. Future applications in the laboratory may include the evaluation of thermal energy storage systems designed to operate with supercritical heat transfer fluids such as steam or carbon dioxide. These tests will require the installation of test systems capable of providing supercritical fluids at temperatures up to 700 C.

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in the United States Conceptual Framework for Developing Resilience Metrics for the Electricity, Oil, and Gas Sectors in the United States Conceptual Framework for Developing...

  18. Process and apparatus for thermal enhancement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrill, Jr., Charles E. (Billerica, MA); Smirlock, Martin E. (Brimfield, MA); Krepchin, Ira P. (Newton Upper Falls, MA)

    1984-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal treatment apparatus for downhole deployment comprising a combustion stage with an elongated hot wall combustion zone for the substantially complete combustion of the fuel-air mixture and an ignition zone immediately upstream from the combustion zone in which a mixture of atomized liquid fuel and air at or below stoichiometric ratio is ignited; together with a water injection stage immediately downstream from the combustion zone through which essentially partuculate free high temperature combustion products flow from the combustion zone and into which water is sprayed. The resulting mixture of steam and combustion products is injected into an oil formation for enhancing the speed and effectiveness of reservoir response due to physical, chemical, and/or thermal stimulation interactions.

  19. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  20. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  1. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  2. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  3. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  4. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  5. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  6. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  7. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal Resistance H Engineering, Newmark Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 4139 Engineering Gateway, University

  8. Mobile water treatment plant special study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterization of the level and extent of groundwater contamination in the vicinity of Title I mill sites began during the surface remedial action stage (Phase 1) of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Some of the contamination in the aquifer(s) at the abandoned sites is attributable to milling activities during the years the mills were in operation. To begin implementation of Phase 11 groundwater remediation, the US Department of Energy (DOE) requested that (1) the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) conduct a study to provide for the design of a mobile water treatment plant to treat groundwater extracted during site characterization studies at completed Phase I UMTRA sites, and (2) the results of the TAC investigations be documented in a special study report. This special study develops the design criteria for a water treatment plant that can be readily transported from one UMTRA site to another and operated as a complete treatment system. The 1991 study provides the basis for selecting a mobile water treatment system to meet the operating requirements recommended in this special study. The scope of work includes the following: Determining contaminants, flows, and loadings. Setting effluent quality criteria. Sizing water treatment unit(s). Evaluating non-monetary aspects of alternate treatment processes. Comparing costs of alternate treatment processes. Recommending the mobile water treatment plant design criteria.

  9. Guide to treatment technology for contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tran, H.; Aylward, R.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a guide for the screening of alternative treatment technologies for contaminated soils. The contents of this guide are organized into: 1. Introduction, II. Utilizing the table, III. Tables: Contamination Versus Technology, TV. Contaminant Waste Groups, and V. References. The four Contaminations Versus Technology tables are designed to identify the effectiveness and/or potential applicability of technologies to some or all compounds within specific waste groups. The tables also present limitations and special use considerations for the particular treatment technology. The phase of development of the technology is also included in the table. The phases are: Available, Innovative, and Emerging technologies. The technologies presented in this guide are organized according to the method of treatment. The four (4) treatment methods are Biological, Solidification/Stabilization, Thermal, and Chemical/Physical Treatment. There are several processing methods; some are well developed and proven, and others are in the development stage.

  10. Energy Management in Olefins Units 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, T. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the point where waste heat from pyrolysis generates more than enough steam to power the olefins unit recovery section. Furthermore, incorporating gas turbine driven electrical generators or process compressors adds to the utility export potential of the unit...

  11. Energy Audits in Process Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corwin, J. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emphasis is placed on practical considerations in the effective organization and execution of a successful in-house energy audit of a process unit, based upon experience gained in several such audits of Gulf Coast petrochemical units. Staffing...

  12. Energy Management in Olefins Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, T. A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the point where waste heat from pyrolysis generates more than enough steam to power the olefins unit recovery section. Furthermore, incorporating gas turbine driven electrical generators or process compressors adds to the utility export potential of the unit...

  13. Solar thermal energy contract list, fiscal year 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The federal government has conducted the national Solar Thermal Technology Program since 1975. Its purpose is to provide focus, direction, and funding for the development of solar thermal technology as an energy option for the United States. This year's document is more concise than the summaries of previous years. The FY 1990 contract overview comprises a list of all subcontracts begun, ongoing, or completed during FY 1990 (October 1, 1989, through September 30, 1990). Under each managing laboratory projects are listed alphabetically by project area and then by subcontractor name. Amount of funding milestones are listed.

  14. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang Li, Lingling Jin, Wei Wu, Sheldon X.-D. Tan, Jun Yang Department of Electrical Engineering temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach

  15. Smoldering combustion hazards of thermal insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlemiller, T.J.; Rogers, F.E.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on the smolder ignitability in cellulosic insulation and on thermal analytical characterization of the oxidation of this material is presented. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) shows that both retarded and unretarded cellulosic insulation oxidizes in two overall stages, both of which are exothermic. The second stage (oxidation of the char left as a residue of the first stage) is much more energetic on a unit mass basis than the first. However, kinetics and a sufficient exothermicity make the first stage responsible for ignition in most realistic circumstances. Existing smolder retardants such as boric acid have their major effect on the kinetics of the second oxidation stage and thus produce only a rather small (20/sup 0/C) increase in smolder ignition temperature. Several simplified analogs of attic insulations have been tested to determine the variability of minimum smolder ignition temperature. These employed planar or tubular constant temperature heat sources in a thermal environment quite similar to a realistic attic application. Go/no-go tests provided the borderline (minimum) ignition temperature for each configuration. The wide range (150/sup 0/C) of minimum ignition temperatures confirmed the predominant dependence of smolder ignition on heat flow geometry. Other factors (bulk density, retardants) produced much less effect on ignitability.

  16. Mechanical Properties, Thermal Stability and Radiation Damage of Ferritic Steels Processed by Thermal Mechanical Treatments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Miao

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Loss Spectroscopy FIM Field Ion Microscopy fcc or FCC Face Centered Cubic viii FFTF Fast Flux Test Facility FIB Focused Ion Beam F/M Ferritic/Martensitic GB Grain Boundary GFR Gas Fast Reactors GNB Geometry Necessary...

  17. Mechanical Properties, Thermal Stability and Radiation Damage of Ferritic Steels Processed by Thermal Mechanical Treatments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Miao

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    friendly choice by the reactors operating today for half century. Lessons have been learned during the operation of generation I-III reactors. To avoid an unanticipated failure, high performance structural materials still represent a crucial component...

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  19. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridge

  20. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  1. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftin Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology haveThe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 2rogrammatic

  2. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withAnnual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors' InformationLarge-Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and

  3. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  4. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  5. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Lei L [ORNL; Pan, Yun-Long [Smart Papers, Hamilton, OH 45013; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Peterson, Robert C. [Miami University, Oxford, OH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  6. Jet Quenching and Holographic Thermalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Caceres; Arnab Kundu; Berndt Müller; Diana Vaman; Di-Lun Yang

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate the thermalization of the strongly-coupled plasma and the jet quenching of a hard probe traversing such a thermalizing medium.

  7. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.

    2002-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for decommissioning at other facilities with similar equipment and labor costs. It also provides techniques for extracting information from limited data using extrapolation and interpolation techniques.

  8. FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SH 11 .A443X FISH FISHERY STATISTICS E UNITED STATES ^ 1951 &ch 3. \\§^ ^/'· m:^ STATISTICAL DIGEST. Farley, Director Statistical Digest 30 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1951 BY A. W. ANDERSON;Fishery Statistics of the United States and Alaska are compiled and published annually to make available

  9. Entanglement Storage Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Caneva; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

    2012-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a protocol based on optimal control to drive many body quantum systems into long-lived entangled states, protected from decoherence by big energy gaps, without requiring any apriori knowledge of the system. With this approach it is possible to implement scalable entanglement-storage units. We test the protocol in the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model, a prototype many-body quantum system that describes different experimental setups, and in the ordered Ising chain, a model representing a possible implementation of a quantum bus.

  10. l UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradleyTableSelling7 AugustAFRICAN3uj:'I,\ W CTheuse of_-_ ._UNITED

  11. Rooftop Unit Campaign

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundA l i c eRooftop Unit Campaign

  12. Rooftop Unit Network Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofittingFundA l i c eRooftop Unit

  13. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for its improvement. This in~estigation was supported in part by the Convsir Division of General Dynamics Corporation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter III INTRODUCTION EXPERINENTAL NETHODS AND PROCEDUPJIS Thermal Diffusion Column Viscosity Measurements.... The main interest of 6 tais work was the molecular weight dependence of the thermal diffusion coefficient and the suitability of thermal diffusion as a method of frac- tionation of polymers. Since the work of Debye and Bueche, applications of thermal...

  14. AUSTRALIA BELGIUM CHINA FRANCE GERMANY HONG KONG SAR INDONESIA (ASSOCIATED OFFICE) ITALY JAPAN PAPUA NEW GUINEA SINGAPORE SPAIN SWEDEN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Applebaum, David

    PAPUA NEW GUINEA SINGAPORE SPAIN SWEDEN UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

  15. Review of the Sodium Bearing Waste Treatment Project - Integrated Waste Treatment Unit Federal Operational Readiness Review

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy SmallImplementing the NationalReverseNational LaboratorySavannah

  16. Paul Workman Cancer Research UK Cancer Therapeutics Unit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Workman Cancer Research UK Cancer Therapeutics Unit Institute of Cancer Research/Royal Marsden Hospital Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG UK ian.collins@icr.ac.uk Drugging the cancer genome: The challenges therapeutic agents Personalised diagnosis and treatment Exploiting cancer biology and the cancer genome

  17. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  18. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  19. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  20. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  1. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  2. Manipulation of Thermal Phonons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Chung-Hao

    2013-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    FIGURE Page 1 Schematic thermoelectrics: (a) Seebeck effect. (b) Peltier effect .............. 6 2 Heat transfer through... ................................................................... 37 8 The block diagram of FDTD method calculation ...................................... 38 9 A unit cell with the periodic boundary ....................................................... 49 10 Lattice positions and primitive lattice...

  3. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  4. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  5. Nanofluids for vehicle thermal management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, S. U.-S.; Yu, W.; Hull, J. R.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lockwood, F. E.; Energy Technology; The Valvoline Co.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.

  6. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  7. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  8. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof thermal loads resulting from the building envelope areThermal Test Facility, LhL-9653, prepared for the ASHRAE/DOE Conference-on"t:heThermal Performance the Exterior Envelope

  9. 2013 Reporting Unit Codes | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2013 Reporting Unit Codes 2013 Reporting Unit Codes CFC Reporting Unit Codes 2013.pdf More Documents & Publications EA-0372: Final Environmental Assessment Alignment: Achieving...

  10. Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association (USEA), August 2011 Accelerating CHP Deployment, United States Energy Association (USEA), August 2011 The United...

  11. Thermal management systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  12. Thermal and non-thermal energies in solar flares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pascal Saint-Hilaire; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy of the thermal flare plasma and the kinetic energy of the non-thermal electrons in 14 hard X-ray peaks from 9 medium-sized solar flares have been determined from RHESSI observations. The emissions have been carefully separated in the spectrum. The turnover or cutoff in the low-energy distribution of electrons has been studied by simulation and fitting, yielding a reliable lower limit to the non-thermal energy. It remains the largest contribution to the error budget. Other effects, such as albedo, non-uniform target ionization, hot target, and cross-sections on the spectrum have been studied. The errors of the thermal energy are about equally as large. They are due to the estimate of the flare volume, the assumption of the filling factor, and energy losses. Within a flare, the non-thermal/thermal ratio increases with accumulation time, as expected from loss of thermal energy due to radiative cooling or heat conduction. Our analysis suggests that the thermal and non-thermal energies are of the same magnitude. This surprising result may be interpreted by an efficient conversion of non-thermal energy to hot flare plasma.

  13. UNIT NUMBER SWMU 175 UNIT NAME: Concrete Rubble Pile (28...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    75 UNIT NAME: Concrete Rubble Pile (28) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside Security Fence, East of C-360 Building in KPDES Outfall Ditch 002. APPROXIMATE DIMENSIONS: 400 ft...

  14. Idaho Site Launches Corrective Actions Before Restarting Waste Treatment Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    IDAHO FALLS, Idaho – The Idaho site and its cleanup contractor have launched a series of corrective actions they will complete before safely resuming startup operations at the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) following an incident in June that caused the new waste treatment facility to shut down.

  15. Characterization of a new acne vulgaris treatment device combining light and thermal treatment methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Zhongping

    on the tip and 39.7 1C in the porcine skin samples. The peak intensity of the light-emitting diode (LED

  16. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  17. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  18. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments or the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  19. Thermally cleavable surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McElhanon, James R. (Manteca, CA); Simmons, Blake A. (San Francisco, CA); Zifer, Thomas (Manteca, CA); Jamison, Gregory M. (Albuquerque, NM); Loy, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM); Rahimian, Kamyar (Albuquerque, NM); Long, Timothy M. (Urbana, IL); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Staiger, Chad L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Two new surfactant molecules are reported which contain thermally labile Diels-Alder adducts connecting the polar and non-polar sections of each molecule. The two surfactants possess identical non-polar dodecyl tail segments but exhibit different polar headgroups. The surfactants become soluble in water when anionic salts are formed through the deprotonation of the surfactant headgroups by the addition of potassium hydroxide. When either surfactant is exposed to temperature above about 60.degree. C., the retro Diels-Alder reaction occurs, yielding hydrophilic and hydrophobic fragments and the aqueous solutions of the surfactants subsequently exhibit loss of all surface-active behavior.

  20. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  1. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  2. Thermal network reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is presented for reducing the number of elements required in a thermal network representation of a building. The method is based on matching the actual building response at two frequencies, the diurnal response and 3-day response. The procedure provides a straightforward methodology for combining all the various materials inside a discrete building zone into a few nodes while retaining a high degree of accuracy in the dynamic response. An example is given showing a comparison between a large network and the reduced network.

  3. Electric Vehicle Battery Thermal Issues and Thermal Management Techniques (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J. P.; Pesaran, A.; Smith, K.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation examines the issues concerning thermal management in electric drive vehicles and management techniques for improving the life of a Li-ion battery in an EDV.

  4. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation.

  5. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  6. Solar thermal power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  7. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY80 analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include both estimates of the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, promising thermal storage concepts are being identified. A preliminary screening was completed in FY80 and a more in-depth study was initiated. Value studies are being conducted to establish cost goals. A ranking of storage concepts based on value in solar thermal electric plants was conducted for both diurnal and long duration applications. Ground mounted thermal storage concepts for a parabolic dish/Stirling systtem are also being evaluated.

  8. Waste Treatment Plant Overview

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    contracted Bechtel National, Inc., to design and build the world's largest radioactive waste treatment plant. The Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), also known as the...

  9. Enhanced Thermal Conductivity Oxide Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvin Solomon; Shripad Revankar; J. Kevin McCoy

    2006-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    the purpose of this project was to investigate the feasibility of increasing the thermal conductivity of oxide fuels by adding small fractions of a high conductivity solid phase.

  10. Actively driven thermal radiation shield

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Madden, Norman W. (Livermore, CA); Cork, Christopher P. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Becker, John A. (Alameda, CA); Knapp, David A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal radiation shield for cooled portable gamma-ray spectrometers. The thermal radiation shield is located intermediate the vacuum enclosure and detector enclosure, is actively driven, and is useful in reducing the heat load to mechanical cooler and additionally extends the lifetime of the mechanical cooler. The thermal shield is electrically-powered and is particularly useful for portable solid-state gamma-ray detectors or spectrometers that dramatically reduces the cooling power requirements. For example, the operating shield at 260K (40K below room temperature) will decrease the thermal radiation load to the detector by 50%, which makes possible portable battery operation for a mechanically cooled Ge spectrometer.

  11. Treatment Options for Liquid Radioactive Waste. Factors Important for Selecting of Treatment Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dziewinski, J.J.

    1998-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The cleanup of liquid streams contaminated with radionuclides is obtained by the selection or a combination of a number of physical and chemical separations, processes or unit operations. Among those are: Chemical treatment; Evaporation; Ion exchange and sorption; Physical separation; Electrodialysis; Osmosis; Electrocoagulation/electroflotation; Biotechnological processes; and Solvent extraction.

  12. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHASE CHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLARChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in ConcentratedChange Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated

  13. Guide to Setting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use in Delivering Thermal Comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regnier, Cindy

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including cost, energy and thermal comfort analysis, whichfor greatest energy benefits, prioritize thermal comfortSetting Thermal Comfort Criteria and Minimizing Energy Use

  14. Dynamic modelling for thermal micro-actuators using thermal networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    electrical anal- ogy. However, current equivalent electrical models (thermal networks) are generally obtained - Universidad Aut´onoma de Nuevo Le´on, PIIT Monterrey, C.P. 66600, Nuevo Le´on, Mexico. Preprint submitted.2010.06.012 #12;are then proposed in this paper. The validities of both types of thermal net- works

  15. Measuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Chen California Institute of Technology Jackie Li University of Michigan supported by CarnegieMeasuring Thermal Transport in Extreme Environments: Thermal Conductivity of Water Ice VII to 20 GPa David G. Cahill, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Dallas Trinkle, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Bin

  16. Thermal ground state and nonthermal probes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thierry Grandou; Ralf Hofmann

    2015-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Euclidean formulation of SU(2) Yang-Mills thermodynamics admits periodic, (anti)selfdual solutions to the fundamental, classical equation of motion which possess one unit of topological charge: (anti)calorons. A spatial coarse graining over the central region in a pair of such localised field configurations with trivial holonomy generates an inert adjoint scalar field $\\phi$, effectively describing the pure quantum part of the thermal ground state in the induced quantum field theory. The latter's local vertices are mediated by just-not-resolved (anti)caloron centers of action $\\hbar$. This is the basic reason for a rapid convergence of the loop expansion of thermodynamical quantities, polarization tensors, etc., their effective loop momenta being severely constrained in entirely fixed and physical unitary-Coulomb gauge. Here we show for the limit of zero holonomy how (anti)calorons associate a temperature independent electric permittivity and magnetic permeability to the thermal ground state of SU(2)$_{\\tiny\\mbox{CMB}}$, the Yang-Mills theory conjectured to underlie photon propagation.

  17. THERMAL ANALYSIS OF 3013/9975 CONFIGURATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3013 containers are designed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3013-2004 and are qualified to store plutonium (Pu) bearing materials for 50 years. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) certified Model 9975 shipping package is used to transport the 3013 containers to the K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and to store the containers until the plutonium can be properly dispositioned. Detailed thermal analyses to support the storage in the KAMS facility are given in References 2, 3, and 4. The analyses in this paper serve to provide non-accident condition, non-bounding, specific 3013 container temperatures for use in the surveillance activities. This paper presents a methodology where critical component temperatures are estimated using numerical methods over a range of package and storage parameters. The analyses include factors such as ambient storage temperature and the content weight, density, heat generation rate, and fill height, that may impact the thermal response of the packages. Statistical methods are used to develop algebraic equations for ease of computations to cover the factor space. All computations were performed in BTU-FT-Hr-{sup o}F units.

  18. Multi-unit operations considerations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilmore, Walter E. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM); Bennett, Thomas C. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM); Brannon, Nathan Gregory

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several nuclear weapons programs have or are pursuing the implementation of multi-unit operations for tasks such as disassembly and inspection, and rebuild. A multi-unit operation is interpreted to mean the execution of nuclear explosive operating procedures in a single facility by two separate teams of technicians. The institution of a multi-unit operations program requires careful consideration of the tools, resources, and environment provided to the technicians carrying out the work. Therefore, a systematic approach is necessary to produce safe, secure, and reliable processes. In order to facilitate development of a more comprehensive multi-unit operations program, the current work details categorized issues that should be addressed prior to the implementation of multi-unit operations in a given weapons program. The issues have been organized into the following categories: local organizational conditions, work process flow/material handling/workplace configuration, ambient environmental conditions, documented safety analysis, and training.

  19. Survey reveals nature of corrosion in HF alky units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobis, J.D. (BP Oil Co., Marcus Hook, PA (United States)); Clarida, D.R. (Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)); Richert, J.P. (Saudi Aramco/Mobil, Yanbu (Saudi Arabia))

    1995-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a National Association of Corrosion Engineers survey of 62 HF alkylation units reveal relatively low incidence of service-related cracking of carbon steel. Hydrogen blistering, however, is prevalent, especially in the main acid circuit and overhead condensers. Based on these and other survey results, several recommendations are made to enable refiners to monitor and reduce corrosion in these special units. The paper discusses the survey results, construction materials, post-weld heat treatments, small-diameter piping, construction inspection, bolting, gaskets, block valves, maintenance practices, cracking, blistering, areas of vulnerability, and recommendations.

  20. On the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal expansion and thermal conductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevostianov, Igor

    expansion and thermal conductivity Igor Sevostianov Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, NewOn the thermal expansion of composite materials and cross-property connection between thermal: Composite material Thermal expansion Cross-property Microstructure Thermal conductivity a b s t r a c

  1. Implementing the Corrective Action Management Unit at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MOORE,DARLENE R.; SCHRADER,SCOTT A.; KING,GABRIEL G.; CORMIER,JOHN

    2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In September 1997, following significant public and regulator interaction, Sandia Corporation (Sandia) was granted a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Hazardous Solid Waste Amendment (HSWA) permit modification allowing construction and operation of a Correction Action Management Unit (CAMU). The CAMU follows recent regulatory guidance that allows for cost-effective, expedient cleanup of contaminated sites and management of hazardous remediation wastes. The CAMU was designed to store, treat, and provide long-term management for Environmental Restoration (ER) derived wastes. The 154 square meter CAMU site at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM), includes facilities for storing bulk soils and containerized wastes, for treatment of bulk soils, and has a containment cell for long-term disposition of waste. Proposed treatment operations include soil washing and low temperature thermal desorption. The first waste was accepted into the CAMU for temporary storage in January 1999. Construction at the CAMU was completed in March 1999, and baseline monitoring of the containment cell has commenced. At completion of operations the facility will be closed, the waste containment cell will be covered, and long-term post-closure monitoring will begin. Sandia's CAMU is the only such facility within the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Implementing this innovative approach to ER waste management has required successful coordination with community representatives, state and federal regulators, the DOE, Sandia corporate management, and contractors. It is expected that cost savings to taxpayers will be significant. The life-cycle CAMU project cost is currently projected to be approximately $12 million.

  2. Thermally stabilized heliostat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Alfred J. (Littleton, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improvement in a heliostat having a main support structure and pivoting and tilting motors and gears and a mirror module for reflecting solar energy onto a collector, the improvement being characterized by an internal support structure within each mirror module and front and back sheets attached to the internal support structure, the front and back sheets having the same coefficient of thermal expansion such that no curvature is induced by temperature change, and a layer of adhesive adhering the mirror to the front sheet. The adhesive is water repellent and has adequate set strength to support the mirror but has sufficient shear tolerance to permit the differential expansion of the mirror and the front sheet without inducing stresses or currature effect. The adhesive also serves to dampen fluttering of the mirror and to protect the mirror backside against the adverse effects of weather. Also disclosed are specific details of the preferred embodiment.

  3. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  4. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Moore, Troy K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermally protecting heat sensitive components of tools. The apparatus comprises a Dewar for holding the heat sensitive components. The Dewar has spaced-apart inside and outside walls, an open top end and a bottom end. An insulating plug is located in the top end. The inside wall has portions defining an inside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar and the outside wall has portions defining an outside wall aperture located at the bottom of the Dewar. A bottom connector has inside and outside components. The inside component sealably engages the inside wall aperture and the outside component sealably engages the outside wall aperture. The inside component is operatively connected to the heat sensitive components and to the outside component. The connections can be made with optical fibers or with electrically conducting wires.

  5. A 3kW PV-thermal system for home use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, M.J.; Sato, Mikihiko; Tsuzuki, Kouye; Amono, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi [Toyota Technical Inst., Tempaku, Nagoya (Japan); Izumi, Hisao [IDEX, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Takamoto, Tatsuya [Japan Energy Corp., Saitama (Japan); Matsunaga, Shigenobu

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined 3kW PV-thermal system has been proposed for home use. Combining PV and thermal conversion makes this system economically efficient and competitive with traditional power supplies. GaAs and Si concentrator solar cells have been measured under concentration as candidate for use in this system. InGaP/GaAs tandem solar cells designed for 1-sun operation have been examined under concentration. The potential use of GaInP/GaAs tandem solar cells has been analyzed for this application. The properties of the thermal transfer unit of this system has been evaluated including the cooling of the solar cell holder.

  6. Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon Model Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ramsey

    2002-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity in the host horizon for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. More specifically, the lithostratigraphic units studied are located within the Topopah Spring Tuff (Tpt) and consist of the upper lithophysal zone (Tptpul), the middle nonlithophysal zone (Tptpmn), the lower lithophysal zone (Tptpll), and the lower nonlithophysal zone (Tptpln). The Tptpul is the layer directly above the repository host layers, which consist of the Tptpmn, Tptpll, and the Tptpln. Current design plans indicate that the largest portion of the repository will be excavated in the Tptpll (Board et al. 2002 [157756]). The main distinguishing characteristic among the lithophysal and nonlithophysal units is the percentage of large scale (cm-m) voids within the rock. The Tptpul and Tptpll, as their names suggest, have a higher percentage of lithophysae than the Tptpmn and the Tptpln. Understanding the influence of the lithophysae is of great importance to understanding bulk thermal conductivity and perhaps repository system performance as well. To assess the spatial variability and uncertainty of thermal conductivity, a model is proposed that is functionally dependent on the volume fraction of lithophysae and the thermal conductivity of the matrix portion of the rock. In this model, void space characterized as lithophysae is assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions, while void space characterized as matrix may be either water- or air-saturated. Lithophysae are assumed to be air-saturated under all conditions since the units being studied are all located above the water table in the region of interest, and the relatively strong capillary forces of the matrix will, under most conditions, preferentially retain any moisture present in the rock.

  7. Window Spacers and Edge Seals in Insulating Glass Units: A State-of-the-Art

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in buildings is by increasing the thermal performance of their envelopes. Gustavsen Norwegian University of Science and Technology Windows and Envelope Materials Group Building), Windows & Envelope Materials Group, Berkeley, CA 94720- 8134, USA Abstract Insulating glass (IG) units

  8. Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;Printed in the United States of America. Available from National Technical Information Service) of powders with high thermal resistance (R) showed that heat losses from the ends of the cylindrical specimen to reduce uncertainties introduced by end losses. Numerically derived factors were pre- pared for use

  9. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, Jeffert J. (Orchard Park, NY); Owens, William J. (Kenmore, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprising high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure.

  10. Peg supported thermal insulation panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowobilski, J.J.; Owens, W.J.

    1985-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal insulation panel which is lightweight, load bearing, accommodates thermal stress, and has excellent high temperature insulation capability comprises high performance insulation between thin metal walls supported by high density, high strength glass pegs made in compliance with specified conditions of time, temperature and pressure. 2 figs.

  11. Thermal Evolution of Strange Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou Xia; Wang Lingzhi; Zhou Aizhi

    2007-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the thermal evolution of rotating strange stars with the deconfinement heating due to magnetic braking. We consider the stars consisting of either normal quark matter or color-flavor-locked phase. Combining deconfinement heating with magnetic field decay, we find that the thermal evolution curves are identical to pulsar data.

  12. Lattice thermal conductivity of nanograined half-Heusler solid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, Huiyuan, E-mail: genghuiyuan@hit.edu.cn; Meng, Xianfu; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We report a phenomenological model of atomic weight, lattice constant, temperature, and grain size to calculate the high-temperature lattice thermal conductivity of nanograined solid solutions. The theoretical treatment developed here is reasonably consistent with the experimental results of n-type MNiSn and p-type MCoSb alloys, where M is the combination of Hf, Zr, and Ti. For disordered half-Heusler alloys with moderated grain sizes, we predict that the reduction in lattice thermal conductivity due to grain boundary scattering is independent of the scattering parameter, which characterizes the phonon scattering cross section of point defects. In addition, the lattice thermal conductivity falls off with temperature as T{sup –1?2} around the Debye temperature.

  13. 303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    303:20130618.1036 Thermal Engineering Group LASP's Thermal Engineering Group is involved in all of the component, as well as on-orbit trending and operations planning. Design Experience The Thermal Engineering Systems Engineering The group has formulated general thermal design and thermal interface requirements

  14. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2?, and areas with temperature equal to 1? to 2?, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  15. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  16. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  17. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  18. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  19. Advanced thermal imaging of composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials were studied by Scanning Thermal Conductivity Microscope (STCM) and high speed thermography. The STCM is a qualitative technique which is used to study thermal conductivity variations on a sub-micrometer scale. High speed thermography is a quantitative technique for measuring thermal diffusivity with a variable spatial resolution from centimeters down to less than 25 gm. A relative thermal conductivity contrast map was obtained from a SiC/Si3N4 continuous fiber ceramic composite using the STCM. Temperature changes of a carbon/carbon composite after a heat pulse were captured by an IR camera to generate a thermal diffusivity map of the specimen. Line profiles of the temperature distribution showed significant variations as a result of fiber orientation.

  20. Thermal to electricity conversion using thermal magnetic properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B [Idaho Falls, ID; Svoboda, John [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for the generation of Electricity from Thermal Energy using the thermal magnetic properties of a Ferromagnetic, Electrically Conductive Material (FECM) in one or more Magnetic Fields. A FECM is exposed to one or more Magnetic Fields. Thermal Energy is applied to a portion of the FECM heating the FECM above its Curie Point. The FECM, now partially paramagnetic, moves under the force of the one or more Magnetic Fields. The movement of the FECM induces an electrical current through the FECM, generating Electricity.

  1. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy, geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wastedenergy, geothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heatthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  2. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat source can be solar thermal energy, biological thermaland concentrated solar thermal energy farms. They demandsources include solar thermal energy, geo-thermal energy,

  3. Thermoelectrics Combined with Solar Concentration for Electrical and Thermal Cogeneration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Philip Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    significant challenge for solar thermal energy generation issolar thermal, cogeneration of electrical and thermal energy,for efficient energy production. Solar thermal plants, such

  4. Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Hyuck

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geo-thermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat ingeothermal energy, ocean thermal energy, wasted heat inthermal energy, geo/ocean-thermal energy, wasted heat in

  5. Resonant-cavity enhanced thermal emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Celanovic, Ivan

    In this paper we present a vertical-cavity enhanced resonant thermal emitter—a highly directional, narrow-band, tunable, partially coherent thermal source. This device enhances thermal emittance of a metallic or any other ...

  6. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak RidgeAquifers for Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage: An Overview of

  7. CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA SOLAR INITIATIVE-THERMAL PROGRAMHANDBOOK CALIFORNIA PUBLIC UTILITIES California Solar Initiative Thermal Program Handbook i 1. Introduction to CSI-Thermal Program....................................................................................3 2.1.1 Host Customer

  8. The Human leading the Thermal Comfort Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Van Houten, R.; Vissers, D.; Maaijen, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2007 Zhang H., 2003, Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and Non Uniform Thermal Environments; Phd Thesis Zhang H., Arens E., Huizinga C., Han T., 2010, Thermal sensations and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments...

  9. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~June 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  10. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftr:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  11. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. Schwarz, Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in AquifersB. Quale. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in water in theSecond Annual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors'

  12. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)r:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

  13. Second United Nations International Conference

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Second United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy ON THE ANALYSIS O F BUBBLE CHAMBER TRACKS Q Hugh Bradner and F r a n k Solmitz INTRODUCTION A j...

  14. Reduction in Unit Steam Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gombos, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2001 the company's Arch-Brandenburg facility faced increased steam costs due to high natural gas prices and decreased production due to shutdown of a process. The facility was challenged to reduce unit steam consumption to minimize the effects...

  15. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ?ť system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  16. Ongoing Space Nuclear Systems Development in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Werner; S. Johnson; Michael G. Houts; Donald T. Palac; Lee S. Mason; David I. Poston; A. Lou Qualls

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable, long-life power systems are required for ambitious space exploration missions. Nuclear power and propulsion options can enable a bold, new set of missions and introduce propulsion capabilities to achieve access to science destinations that are not possible with more conventional systems. Space nuclear power options can be divided into three main categories: radioisotope power for heating or low power applications; fission power systems for non-terrestrial surface application or for spacecraft power; and fission power systems for electric propulsion or direct thermal propulsion. Each of these areas has been investigated in the United States since the 1950s, achieving various stages of development. While some nuclear systems have achieved flight deployment, others continue to be researched today. This paper will provide a brief overview of historical space nuclear programs in the U.S. and will provide a summary of the ongoing space nuclear systems research, development, and deployment in the United States.

  17. Thermal performance of the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaffari, H.T.; Jones, R.F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house, an energy-efficient envelope, passive solar collectors, and a variety of energy conservation methods are incorporated. The thermal characteristics of the house during the tested heating season are evaluated. Temperature distributions at different zones are displayed, and the effects of extending heating supply ducts only to the main floor and heating return ducts only from the second floor are discussed. The thermal retrievals from the structure and the passive collectors are assessed, and the total conservation and passive solar contributions are outlined. Several correlation factors relating these thermal behaviors are introduced, and their diurnal variations are displayed. Finally, the annual energy requirements, and the average load factors are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  19. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW

    2008-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  20. Croatian refiner meets waste water treatment standards, reduces fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, A.L. [Krofta Engineering Corp., Lenox, MA (United States); Nikolic, O. [INA Oil Refinery, Rijeka (Croatia)

    1995-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A new approach to waste water treatment at a refinery in Croatia produces effluent that not only meets the region`s regulations for disposal into the Adriatic Sea, but also surpasses the refinery`s specifications for recycling process water. Key to the dramatic reduction in pollutants was the installation of a Sandfloat unit developed by Krofta Engineering Corp. The Sandfloat unit is a dissolved air flotation clarifier that combines flocculation, flotation, and multilayer filtration to produce high-quality effluent. In fact, the effluent from the unit has a lower hydrocarbon concentration than water from the underground wells that supply process water to the refinery. While similar systems have been used for decades in industrial applications, this is the first time a Sandfloat unit has been installed in an oil refinery. The article describes the problem, refinery operations, treatment costs, and effluent recycling.

  1. Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief Materials Selection Considerations for Thermal Process Equipment:...

  2. Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse Develop & evaluate materials & additives that enhance thermal & overcharge abuse 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program...

  3. Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse Develop & Evaluate Materials & Additives that Enhance Thermal & Overcharge Abuse 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  4. PEEM Thermal Stress and Reliability (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Keefe, M. P.

    2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Advancing power electronics thermal stress and reliability is a critical factor in power electronics equipment. NREL aims to improve thermal stress and reliability of power electronics technologies.

  5. Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles Integrated External Aerodynamic and Underhood Thermal Analysis for Heavy Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  6. Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2010 -- Washington D.C. ape016bennion2010o.pdf More Documents & Publications Motor Thermal Control Thermal Stress and Reliability for Advanced Power Electronics and Electric...

  7. Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A. Atchley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Thermal Performance of Vegetative Roofing Systems Andre O. Desjarlais, Abdi Zaltash, and Jerald A purposes. #12;ABSTRACT Vegetative roofing, otherwise known as green or garden roofing, has seen tremendous growth in the last decade in the United States. The numerous benefits that green roofs provide have

  8. Effects of Matrix Cracks on the Thermal Diffusivity of a Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    Effects of Matrix Cracks on the Thermal Diffusivity of a Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Composite of Engineering Science, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9, Canada Effects of matrix cracks conductances coupled with a unit cell model for a fiber composite containing a periodic array of matrix cracks

  9. The 1D Iterative Model for Predicting Thermal Radiation from a Jet Fire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    manuscript, published in "6. International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards (FEH), Leeds : UnitedThe 1D Iterative Model for Predicting Thermal Radiation from a Jet Fire Leroy, G.* and Duplantier of the current jet fire models used in the accidental fire risks department are semi- empirical. They depend

  10. Thermalization in External Magnetic Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali-Akbari, Mohammad

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the AdS/CFT framework meson thermalization in the presence of a constant external magnetic field in a strongly coupled gauge theory has been studied. In the gravitational description the thermalization of mesons corresponds to the horizon formation on the flavour D7-brane which is embedded in the AdS_5 x S^5 background in the probe limit. The apparent horizon forms due to the time-dependent change in the baryon number chemical potential, the injection of baryons in the gauge theory. We will numerically show that the thermalization happens even faster in the presence of the magnetic field on the probe brane. We observe that this reduction in the thermalization time sustains up to a specific value of the magnetic field.

  11. Thermal analysis of vascular reactivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Chinmay Vishwas

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    dysfunction. Given the promising nature of thermal monitoring to study VR, this thesis focuses on the analysis of the underlying physics affecting fingertip temperature during vascular occlusion and subsequent hyperemia. I will quantify the contribution...

  12. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  13. -UNIT NAME C-728 Motor Cleaning Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    UNIT NUMBER 33 -UNIT NAME C-728 Motor Cleaning Facility -REGULATORY STATUS--3:.:::.0:..04(--u) -LOCATION North of C-720 (Map...

  14. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Number of Household Members, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Number of Households With --" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"1 Member","2...

  15. " Million U.S. Housing Units"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5 Space Heating Usage Indicators by Year of Construction, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,,"Year of Construction" ,"Housing Units (millions)" ,,"Before 1940","1940 to...

  16. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    proportions until Clusiui and Dickel introduced a type of therrail diffusion column 4 which caused a thermal circul~tion in addition to thermal diffusion. With tni' equipment they were able to separate chlorine isotopes. Applying this same method..., it was decided to . onstruct equipment which could measure the viscosity and concentration of 0. 1 ml. samples. It was desired to have the reproduceability of the viscosimeter better than I'X since the dilute solutions to be studied had maximum viscosities...

  17. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  18. Thermal desorption for passive dosimeter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Wen-Chen

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    instrument in the field, such as portable gas chromatography or photoionization. However, these instruments usually are expensive and inap- (2) propriate for a personal monitoring program. Indirect methods involve collecting the toxicants in certain media..., the thermal desorber contained four ma)or parts: a purging gas purifi- cation chamber, a desorption oven, a syringe type collection chamber and a gas chromatographic sample infection loop. A diagram of sample flow from purge gas source through the thermal...

  19. Lih thermal energy storage device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olszewski, Mitchell (Knoxville, TN); Morris, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage device for use in a pulsed power supply to store waste heat produced in a high-power burst operation utilizes lithium hydride as the phase change thermal energy storage material. The device includes an outer container encapsulating the lithium hydride and an inner container supporting a hydrogen sorbing sponge material such as activated carbon. The inner container is in communication with the interior of the outer container to receive hydrogen dissociated from the lithium hydride at elevated temperatures.

  20. Analytical thermal model validation for Cassini radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, E.I. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft is designed to rely, without precedent, on the waste heat from its three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to warm the propulsion module subsystem, and the RTG end dome temperature is a key determining factor of the amount of waste heat delivered. A previously validated SINDA thermal model of the RTG was the sole guide to understanding its complex thermal behavior, but displayed large discrepancies against some initial thermal development test data. A careful revalidation effort led to significant modifications and adjustments of the model, which result in a doubling of the radiative heat transfer from the heat source support assemblies to the end domes and bring up the end dome and flange temperature predictions to within 2 C of the pertinent test data. The increased inboard end dome temperature has a considerable impact on thermal control of the spacecraft central body. The validation process offers an example of physically-driven analytical model calibration with test data from not only an electrical simulator but also a nuclear-fueled flight unit, and has established the end dome temperatures of a flight RTG where no in-flight or ground-test data existed before.

  1. Thermal testing of packages for transport of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be shown capable of surviving tests specified by regulations such as Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (called 10CFR71 in this paper) within the United States. Equivalent regulations hold for other countries such as Safety Series 6 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The containers must be shown to be capable of surviving, in order, drop tests, puncture tests, and thermal tests. Immersion testing in water is also required, but must be demonstrated for undamaged packages. The thermal test is intended to simulate a 30 minute exposure to a fully engulfing pool fire that could occur if a transport accident involved the spill of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels. Various qualification methods ranging from pure analysis to actual pool fire tests have been used to prove regulatory compliance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the alternatives for thermal testing, point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and to provide the designer with the information necessary to make informed decisions on the proper test program for the particular shipping container under consideration. While thermal analysis is an alternative to physical testing, actual testing is often emphasized by regulators, and this report concentrates on these testing alternatives.

  2. Thermal Batteries for Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: UT Austin will demonstrate a high-energy density and low-cost thermal storage system that will provide efficient cabin heating and cooling for EVs. Compared to existing HVAC systems powered by electric batteries in EVs, the innovative hot-and-cold thermal batteries-based technology is expected to decrease the manufacturing cost and increase the driving range of next-generation EVs. These thermal batteries can be charged with off-peak electric power together with the electric batteries. Based on innovations in composite materials offering twice the energy density of ice and 10 times the thermal conductivity of water, these thermal batteries are expected to achieve a comparable energy density at 25% of the cost of electric batteries. Moreover, because UT Austin’s thermal energy storage systems are modular, they may be incorporated into the heating and cooling systems in buildings, providing further energy efficiencies and positively impacting the emissions of current building heating/cooling systems.

  3. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  4. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  5. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the ability of existing treatment technologies at Plant 1 toof existing treatment technologies at both OCSD plantsof existing treatment technologies at both OCSD plants

  6. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  7. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, Robert J. (Lakewood, CO)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer therebetween. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  8. Method and apparatus for operating an improved thermocline storage unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Copeland, R.J.

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for operating a thermocline storage unit in which an insulated barrier member is provided substantially at the interface region between the hot and cold liquids in the storage tank. The barrier member physically and thermally separates the hot and cold liquids substantially preventing any diffusing or mixing between them and substantially preventing any heat transfer there between. The barrier member follows the rise and fall of the interface region between the liquids as the tank is charged and discharged. Two methods of maintaining it in the interface region are disclosed. With the structure and operation of the present invention and in particular the significant reduction in diffusing or mixing between the hot and cold liquids as well as the significant reduction in the thermal heat transfer between them, the performance of the storage tank is improved. More specifically, the stability of the interface region or thermocline is enhanced and the thickness of the thermocline is reduced producing a corresponding increase in the steepness of the temperature gradient across the thermocline and a more efficiently operating thermocline storage unit.

  9. High Reliability R-10 Windows Using Vacuum Insulating Glass Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, David

    2012-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this effort was for EverSealed Windows (“EverSealed” or “ESW”) to design, assemble, thermally and environmentally test and demonstrate a Vacuum Insulating Glass Unit (“VIGU” or “VIG”) that would enable a whole window to meet or exceed the an R-10 insulating value (U-factor ? 0.1). To produce a VIGU that could withstand any North American environment, ESW believed it needed to design, produce and use a flexible edge seal system. This is because a rigid edge seal, used by all other know VIG producers and developers, limits the size and/or thermal environment of the VIG to where the unit is not practical for typical IG sizes and cannot withstand severe outdoor environments. The rigid-sealed VIG’s use would be limited to mild climates where it would not have a reasonable economic payback when compared to traditional double-pane or triple-pane IGs. ESW’s goals, in addition to achieving a sufficiently high R-value to enable a whole window to achieve R-10, included creating a VIG design that could be produced for a cost equal to or lower than a traditional triple-pane IG (low-e, argon filled). ESW achieved these goals. EverSealed produced, tested and demonstrated a flexible edge-seal VIG that had an R-13 insulating value and the edge-seal system durability to operate reliably for at least 40 years in the harshest climates of North America.

  10. Thermal storage module for solar dynamic receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beatty, Ronald L. (Farragut, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage system comprising a germanium phase change material and a graphite container.

  11. United Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global Energy LLC Place:Unalakleet Jump to:0165°,UnionmetUnitedUnited

  12. Situ treatment of contaminated groundwater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McNab, Jr., Walt W. (Concord, CA); Ruiz, Roberto (Tracy, CA); Pico, Tristan M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for treating dissolved halogenated organic compounds in groundwater that relies upon electrolytically-generated hydrogen to chemically reduce the halogenated compounds in the presence of a suitable catalyst. A direct current is placed across at least a pair, or an array, of electrodes which are housed within groundwater wells so that hydrogen is generated at the cathode and oxygen at the anode. A pump is located within the well housing in which the cathode(s) is(are) located and draws in groundwater where it is hydrogenated via electrolysis, passes through a well-bore treatment unit, and then transported to the anode well(s) for reinjection into the ground. The well-bore treatment involves a permeable cylinder located in the well bore and containing a packed bed of catalyst material that facilitates the reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated organic compounds by hydrogen into environmentally benign species such as ethane and methane. Also, electro-osmatic transport of contaminants toward the cathode also contributes to contaminant mass removal. The only above ground equipment required are the transfer pipes and a direct circuit power supply for the electrodes. The electrode wells in an array may be used in pairs or one anode well may be used with a plurality of cathode wells. The DC current flow between electrode wells may be periodically reversed which controls the formation of mineral deposits in the alkaline cathode well-bore water, as well as to help rejuvenate the catalysis.

  13. United States Solid Waste and EPA 542-N-97-001 Environmental Protection Emergency Response March 1997

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    United States Solid Waste and EPA 542-N-97-001 Environmental Protection Emergency Response March 1997 Agency (5102G) Issue No. 25 United States Solid Waste and EPA 542-N-97-001 Environmental, less costly site characterization and treatment technologies. Remediation Technologies Development

  14. Device for thermal transfer and power generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, Stanton Earl (Northville, NY); Arik, Mehmet (Niskayuna, NY)

    2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is provided. The system includes a device that includes top and bottom thermally conductive substrates positioned opposite to one another, wherein a top surface of the bottom thermally conductive substrate is substantially atomically flat and a thermal blocking layer disposed between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates. The device also includes top and bottom electrodes separated from one another between the top and bottom thermally conductive substrates to define a tunneling path, wherein the top electrode is disposed on the thermal blocking layer and the bottom electrode is disposed on the bottom thermally conductive substrate.

  15. Organization of ISI by Divisions and Constituent Units Information Sciences Division

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    Biological Sciences Division Agricultural and Ecological Research Unit Human Genetics Unit Biological Unit Canteen Security Unit Medical Welfare Unit Telephone Unit Transport Unit Guest House Audio Visual

  16. A transient thermal cloak made of engineered thermal materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yungui; Jiang, Wei; Sun, Fei; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformation optics originating from the invariance of Maxwell's equations under the coordinate mapping has enabled the design and demonstration of many fascinating electromagnetic devices that were unconceivable or deemed impossible before [1-11], and has greatly contributed to the advancement of modern electromagnetism and related researches assisted with the development of metamaterials [12-15]. This technique has been extended to apply to other partial differential equations governing different waves [16-23] or flux [24-28], and has produced various novel functional devices such as acoustic cloaks [20-23] and Schrodinger's 'hat' [19]. In the present work we applied the coordinate transformation to the time-dependent heat diffusion equation [24-28] and achieved the manipulation of the heat flux by predefined diffusion paths. In the experiment we demonstrated a transient thermal cloaking device engineered with thermal metamaterials and successfully hid a centimeter sized strong 'scatter' (thermal disturbe...

  17. Active Thermal Extraction of Near-field Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiative heat transport between materials supporting surface-phonon polaritons is greatly enhanced when the materials are placed at sub-wavelength separation as a result of the contribution of near-field surface modes. However, the enhancement is limited to small separations due to the evanescent decay of the surface waves. In this work, we propose and numerically demonstrate an active scheme to extract these modes to the far-field. Our approach exploits the monochromatic nature of near-field thermal radiation to drive a transition in a laser gain medium, which, when coupled with external optical pumping, allows the resonant surface mode to be emitted into the far-field. Our study demonstrates a new approach to manipulate thermal radiation that could find applications in thermal management.

  18. FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Div,, . FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1961 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO. 54 UNITED STATES, Donald L. MeKernan, Director STATISTICAL DIGEST 54 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1961 BY E. A, Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price $2 (paper cover) #12;Fishery statistics of the United States are compiled

  19. FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1945 STATISTICAL DIGEST NO, 18 United States Dejtartment. Krug, Secretary FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE Albert M. Day, Director Statistical Digest 18 FISHERY STATISTICS OF THE UNITED STATES 1945 BY A. W. ANDERSON and E. A. POWER UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING

  20. ABPDU - Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab opened its Advanced Biofuels Process Demonstration Unit on Aug. 18, 2011.

  1. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  2. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  3. Composable Thermal Modeling and Simulation for Architecture-Level Thermal Designs of Multi-core Microprocessors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    1 Composable Thermal Modeling and Simulation for Architecture-Level Thermal Designs of Multi and Technology of China Efficient temperature estimation is vital for designing thermally efficient, lower power and robust integrated circuits in nanometer regime. Thermal simulation based on the detailed thermal

  4. Thermal axion constraints in non-standard thermal histories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grin, Daniel; Smith, Tristan; Kamionkowski, Marc [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 130-33, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2010-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There is no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis, and so it is useful to consider how constraints to thermally-produced axions change in non-standard thermal histories. In the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins as late as {approx}1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Axion abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are significantly loosened. In a kination scenario, a more modest change to axion constraints occurs. Future possible constraints to axions and low-temperature reheating are discussed.

  5. Thermal axion constraints in non-standard thermal histories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Grin; Tristan Smith; Marc Kamionkowski

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    There is no direct evidence for radiation domination prior to big-bang nucleosynthesis, and so it is useful to consider how constraints to thermally-produced axions change in non-standard thermal histories. In the low-temperature-reheating scenario, radiation domination begins at temperatures as low as 1 MeV, and is preceded by significant entropy generation. Axion abundances are then suppressed, and cosmological limits to axions are significantly loosened. In a kination scenario, a more modest change to axion constraints occurs. Future possible constraints to axions and low-temperature reheating are discussed.

  6. Second thermal storage applications workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyman, C.E.; Larson, R.W.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On February 7 and 8, 1980, approximately 20 persons representing the management of both the Solar Thermal Power Systems Program (TPS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Division of Central Solar Technology (CST) and the Thermal Energy Storage Program (TES) of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems (STOR) met in San Antonio, Texas, for the Second Thermal Storage Applications Workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to review the joint Thermal Energy Storage for Solar Thermal Applications (TESSTA) Program between CST and STOR and to discuss important issues in implementing it. The meeting began with summaries of the seven major elements of the joint program (six receiver-related, storage development elements, and one advanced technology element). Then, a brief description along with supporting data was given of several issues related to the recent joint multiyear program plan (MYPP). Following this session, the participants were divided into three smaller groups representing the program elements that mainly supported large power, small power, and advanced technology activities. During the afternoon of the first day, each group prioritized the program elements through program budgets and discussed the issues defined as well as others of concern. On the morning of the second day, representatives of each group presented the group's results to the other participants. Major conclusions arising from the workshop are presented regarding program and budget. (LEW)

  7. University Assessment Contacts Academic Units

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    .j.arp@oregonstate.edu 541-737-2331 Notes: Agricultural and Resource Economics Assessment Rep: Email: Phone: Penelope DiebelUniversity Assessment Contacts Academic Units COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES Assessment Rep.Capalbo@oregonstate.edu 541-737-5639 Notes: Agricultural Education and Agricultural Sciences Assessment Rep: Email: Phone

  8. UNITED NATIONS BEST PRACTICES IN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    UNITED NATIONS BEST PRACTICES IN INVESTMENT FOR DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDIES IN FDI How to Utilize FDI Practices in Investment for Development is a programme of case studies in making foreign direct investment and development. UNCTAD's approach is to undertake case studies of a pair of developed and developing

  9. SUNY Programs: The United Kingdom

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    SUNY Programs: The United Kingdom & Ireland Semester, Academic Year and Short Term #12;1 Table of Contents How to Use This Booklet 1 Choosing a Program in the UK and Ireland 2 Exchange versus Study Abroad 3 Semester & Academic Year Programs 4 Programs in London 4 Programs outside of London 7 Programs

  10. PLANNING UNIT March 18, 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prasad, Sanjiva

    PLANNING UNIT March 18, 2009 Advertisement for IREDA Renewable Energy Chair in the Institute acclaimed credentials to its Chair positions. IREDA Renewable Energy Chair was established in the year 1997. The objectives of IREDA Renewable Energy Chair include Research and Development, upgradation of technology

  11. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Atlantic Ocean. The data represents a 24-hour-long evolution of a tsunami with 1-minute time resolution Evolution of coarsely quantized wave as it propagates toward the shore 8 #12;#12;Compression of MOST in a modeled tsunami caused by each of 804 unit earthquakes (tsunami sources) in the Pacific and 194

  12. RELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    experience little change while those using the electronic cutoff would drift due to ageing components and changing parameters. The first few shots using the electronic cutoff were less reliable than subsequentRELIABILITY OF CAPACITOR CHARGING UNITS Clint Sprott July 30, 1965 University of Wisconsin

  13. UNITED STATES NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UNITED STATES NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION OFFICE OF NUCLEAR MATERIAL SAFETY AND SAFEGUARDS ON RADIATION THERAPY OVEREXPOSURES IN PANAMA Addressees All medical licensees. Purpose The U.S. Nuclear persons in your institution who are involved with radiation therapy should review this notice

  14. Evolution of cool-roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Inclusion of solar reflectance and thermal emittanceuse photovoltaic, solar- thermal, or roof-garden systems2006. Inclusion of solar reflectance and thermal emittance

  15. Status of cool roof standards in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2006. Inclusion of solar reflectance and thermal emittance2006. Inclusion of solar reflectance and thermal emittanceproposed values of solar absorptance and thermal emittance (

  16. Measurement and Treatment of Nuisance Odors at Wastewater Treatment Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abraham, Samantha Margaret

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    oil refineries, and waste treatment operations such as composting, sludgeoil refineries, and waste treatment operations such as composting, sludge

  17. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  18. Side-by-Side Thermal Tests of Modular Offices: A Validation Study of the STEM Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Balcomb, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Barker, G.; Subbarao, K.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Two modular office units were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to establish each unit's thermal performance. The two units were nearly identical in appearance, but one was built with structural insulating panels (SIP), and the other was built using standard frame construction. The primary objective of these tests was to compare the thermal performance of buildings using SIP and standard frame construction. Both units were tested under carefully controlled steady-state conditions in the NREL large-scale environmental enclosure. They were then moved outdoors where Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) tests were performed, and long-term heating and cooling energy use was measured. A secondary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of the NREL STEM method by comparing the results of outdoor STEM tests to steady-state indoor test results. STEM is a method developed by NREL to determine key thermal parameters of a building in-situ, based on a 3-day test sequence. The indoor test facility also provided the opportunity to investigate the phenomenon of infiltration heat recovery in a real building, under carefully controlled conditions, to evaluate the stability of the concentration decay method of tracer gas-based infiltration monitoring, and to compare the blower-door method with the tracer-gas technique in determining infiltration.This project was a cooperative effort with the Structural Insulated Panel Association, the Modular Building Institute, All-American Modular (AAM, the manufacturer of the units), and GE Capitol (the owner of the units). Richard Harmon, the president of AAM, requested NREL's assistance in exploring the feasibility of converting his manufacturing process to SIP construction. His engineering staff needed to assess which comfort and energy benefits might be associated with this new technology. AAM manufactured the two units, and NREL tested the modules for 8 months.

  19. Process modeling for the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, B.W.

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process modeling done in support of the Integrated Nonthermal Treatment System (INTS) study. This study was performed to supplement the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) study and comprises five conceptual treatment systems that treat DOE contract-handled mixed low-level wastes (MLLW) at temperatures of less than 350{degrees}F. ASPEN PLUS, a chemical process simulator, was used to model the systems. Nonthermal treatment systems were developed as part of the INTS study and include sufficient processing steps to treat the entire inventory of MLLW. The final result of the modeling is a process flowsheet with a detailed mass and energy balance. In contrast to the ITTS study, which modeled only the main treatment system, the INTS study modeled each of the various processing steps with ASPEN PLUS, release 9.1-1. Trace constituents, such as radionuclides and minor pollutant species, were not included in the calculations.

  20. An Analytic Model Of Thermal Drift In Piezoresistive Microcantilever Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loui, A; Elhadj, S; Sirbuly, D J; McCall, S K; Hart, B R; Ratto, T V

    2009-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A closed form semi-empirical model has been developed to understand the physical origins of thermal drift in piezoresistive microcantilever sensors. The two-component model describes both the effects of temperature-related bending and heat dissipation on the piezoresistance. The temperature-related bending component is based on the Euler-Bernoulli theory of elastic deformation applied to a multilayer cantilever. The heat dissipation component is based on energy conservation per unit time for a piezoresistive cantilever in a Wheatstone bridge circuit, representing a balance between electrical power input and heat dissipation into the environment. Conduction and convection are found to be the primary mechanisms of heat transfer, and the dependence of these effects on the thermal conductivity, temperature, and flow rate of the gaseous environment is described. The thermal boundary layer value which defines the length scale of the heat dissipation phenomenon is treated as an empirical fitting parameter. Using the model, it is found that the cantilever heat dissipation is unaffected by the presence of a thin polymer coating, therefore the residual thermal drift in the differential response of a coated and uncoated cantilever is the result of non-identical temperature-related bending. Differential response data shows that residual drift is eliminated under isothermal laboratory conditions but not the unregulated and variable conditions that exist in the outdoor environment (i.e., the field). The two-component model is then validated by simulating the thermal drifts of an uncoated and a coated piezoresistive cantilever under field conditions over a 24 hour period using only meteorological data as input.