Sample records for thermal test specimen

  1. Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared Thermography Measurements of Window Thermal Test Specimen Surface Temperatures Brent T Temperatures of Window Specimens: Infrared Thermography Laboratory Measurements Brent T. Griffith1 , Howdy and cold sides, respectively. Surface temperature maps were compiled using an infrared thermographic system

  2. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, S.J.; Stulen, R.H.; Toly, N.F.

    1983-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  3. Manipulator having thermally conductive rotary joint for transferring heat from a test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haney, Steven J. (Tracy, CA); Stulen, Richard H. (Livermore, CA); Toly, Norman F. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A manipulator for rotatably moving a test specimen in an ultra-high vacuum chamber includes a translational unit movable in three mutually perpendicular directions. A manipulator frame is rigidly secured to the translational unit for rotatably supporting a rotary shaft. A first copper disc is rigidly secured to an end of the rotary shaft for rotary movement within the vacuum chamber. A second copper disc is supported upon the first disc. The second disc receives a cryogenic cold head and does not rotate with the first disc. A sapphire plate is interposed between the first and second discs to prevent galling of the copper material while maintaining high thermal conductivity between the first and second discs. A spring is disposed on the shaft to urge the second disc toward the first disc and compressingly engage the interposed sapphire plate. A specimen mount is secured to the first disc for rotation within the vacuum chamber. The specimen maintains high thermal conductivity with the second disc receiving the cryogenic transfer line.

  4. Small Specimen Mechanical Property Testing at PNNL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    Small Specimen Mechanical Property Testing at PNNL Mychailo Toloczko, Dave Senor Pacific Northwest National Laboratory December, 2013 1 #12;Overview of PNNL Capabilities for Small Specimen Testing Long

  5. Apparatus for automated testing of biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Layne, Scott P. (Los Angeles, CA); Beugelsdijk, Tony J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for performing automated testing of infections biological specimens is disclosed. The apparatus comprise a process controller for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands, and a test instrument suite comprising a means to treat the specimen to manifest an observable result, and a detector for measuring the observable result to generate specimen test results.

  6. Infrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rabin, Yoed

    , not the instantaneous effect of heating within a single loading cycle. KEY WORDS--Infrared, temperature measurement, meInfrared Temperature Sensing of Mechanically Loaded Specimens: Thermal Analysis by Y. Rabin and D. Rittel ABSTRACT--Infrared temperature-sensing techniques have the major advantages of virtually

  7. Miniature Specimen Testing The Small Punch Test (SPT) has successfully been used in the US and in Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    and in Japan to assess the material behavior of steels in nuclear reactor and pressure vessels as well1 Miniature Specimen Testing The Small Punch Test (SPT) has successfully been used in the US joints used therein Conventional tensile tests, shear tests as well as thermal cycle tests are used

  8. Apparatus for tensile testing plate-type ceramic specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, K.C.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is described for gripping a plate-type tensile specimen having generally T-shaped end regions in a dynamic tension fatigue testing apparatus comprising an annular housing having an open-ended elongated cavity therein, a plurality of hydraulic piston means supported by the housing in a spaced array about the cavity, and a specimen-supporting plate means overlying the piston means at one end of the elongated cavity and displaceable by said piston means in a longitudinal direction with respect to the longitudinal axis of the cavity, said apparatus for gripping a flat plate-type tensile specimen comprising: a pair of elongated pull rods each having oppositely disposed first and second end regions; a pair of mounting means carried by said plate means with each mounting means for pivotally attaching the first end region of each of said pull rods in a central region of said plate means for supporting said pair of elongated pull rods in a side-by-side relationship along a common longitudinal centerline within said cavity; recess means in the second end region of each of said pull rods in adjacently disposed surface regions thereof with said recess means facing one another and each adapted to receive one side of one of the generally T-shaped end regions of the plate-type tensile specimen; and load-bearing means positionable in each of said recess means and adapted to bear against a shoulder on each side of the generally T-shaped end region of the plate-type tensile specimen when a tensile loading is applied thereon.

  9. IEA W-GIFT-6 SMALL SPECIMEN TEST TECHNIQUE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    IEA W-GIFT-6 SMALL SPECIMEN TEST TECHNIQUE UNDER IFMIF/EVEDA PROJECT OF BA FOR FATIGUE AND FRACTURE,t[%] Number of cycles to failure, Nf F82H-IEA HG-1.25 HG-1.25 (Hirose, Kim) RB-1 RB-7 RB-4, -7 RB-7, -10 of cycles to failure, Nf JLF-1 HG-1.25 HG-1.25 HG-6 (Hirose) RB-1 RB-8 (Nishimura&Li) F82H-IEA (Grain size

  10. Thermal test options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods.

  11. THERMAL PREDICTIONS OF NEW COMPOSITE MATERIAL DURING INPILE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna Post Guillen; W. David Swank; Heng Ban; Kurt Harris; Adam Zabriskie

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inpile experiment is currently underway wherein specimens comprised of a newly developed material are being irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in conjunction with Utah State University under the auspices of the ATR National Scientific User Facility. This paper provides the thermophysical properties of this new material measured prior to irradiation. After the irradiation campaign is complete, the thermophysical properties of the specimens will be measured and compared to the preirradiation values. A finite-element model was constructed to predict bounding specimen temperatures during irradiation. Results from the thermal hydraulic modeling, including the steady-state temperatures of the specimens within sealed capsules, are presented. After the irradiation campaign is completed, best-estimate thermal predictions will be performed for the individual specimens using the actual as-run irradiation power levels.

  12. The significance of specimen end restraint in high pressure triaxial testing of cohesive soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casey, Brendan (Brendan Anthony)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis investigates the mechanical behaviour of cohesive soil at relatively high stresses with a particular emphasis on the significance of specimen end restraint on the interpretation of triaxial test results. Undrained ...

  13. Advanced Thermal Simulator Testing: Thermal Analysis and Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Dixon, David; Reid, Robert; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 35812 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity, electrically heated thermal simulators that represent fuel elements in a nuclear reactor design to support non-nuclear testing applicable to the potential development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being tested correspond to a liquid metal cooled reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power. These simulators are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. This paper reports the results of thermal simulator analysis and testing in a bare element configuration, which does not incorporate active heat removal, and testing in a water-cooled calorimeter designed to mimic the heat removal that would be experienced in a reactor core.

  14. Improved flywheel materials : characterization of nanofiber modified flywheel test specimen.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Bell, Nelson Simmons; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Anderson, Benjamin John; Miller, William Kenneth

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As alternative energy generating devices (i.e., solar, wind, etc) are added onto the electrical energy grid (AC grid), irregularities in the available electricity due to natural occurrences (i.e., clouds reducing solar input or wind burst increasing wind powered turbines) will be dramatically increased. Due to their almost instantaneous response, modern flywheel-based energy storage devices can act a mechanical mechanism to regulate the AC grid; however, improved spin speeds will be required to meet the necessary energy levels to balance thesegreen' energy variances. Focusing on composite flywheels, we have investigated methods for improving the spin speeds based on materials needs. The so-called composite flywheels are composed of carbon fiber (C-fiber), glass fiber, and aglue' (resin) to hold them together. For this effort, we have focused on the addition of fillers to the resin in order to improve its properties. Based on the high loads required for standard meso-sized fillers, this project investigated the utility of ceramic nanofillers since they can be added at very low load levels due to their high surface area. The impact that TiO2 nanowires had on the final strength of the flywheel material was determined by athree-point-bend' test. The results of the introduction of nanomaterials demonstrated an increase instrength' of the flywheel's C-fiber-resin moiety, with an upper limit of a 30% increase being reported. An analysis of the economic impact concerning the utilization of the nanowires was undertaken and after accounting for new-technology and additional production costs, return on improved-nanocomposite investment was approximated at 4-6% per year over the 20-year expected service life. Further, it was determined based on the 30% improvement in strength, this change may enable a 20-30% reduction in flywheel energy storage cost (%24/kW-h).

  15. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  16. Fracture toughness test results of thermal aged reactor vessel materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVan, M.J.; Lowe, A.L. Jr. [B and W Nuclear Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.; Hall, J.B. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-aged surveillance materials consisting of Sa-533, Grade B, Class 1 plate material; SA-508, Class 2 forging material; and 2 Mn-Mo-Ni/Linde 80 weld metals were removed from two commercial reactor pressure vessels. The material from the first reactor vessel received a thermal exposure of approximately 103,000 hours at 282 C, while the material from the second reactor vessel received a thermal exposure of approximately 93,000 hours at 282 C. Tensile and 1/2 T compact fracture toughness specimens were fabricated from these materials and tested. In addition, to examine the effects of annealing, selected thermal-aged and unaged specimens were annealed at 454 C (850 F) and tested. Varying responses in the fracture toughness properties were observed for all materials after exposure to the thermal-aging temperature. The base metal plate had an observed decrease in J-values after its respective aging exposure, while no significant difference in the J-values were observed for the Linde 80 weld metals. No significant difference was seen in the J-data for the aged/annealed materials, but because of the small number of test specimens available, no conclusion could be determined for the response to annealing.

  17. COMPARISON OF SHEAR STRENGTH OF CERAMIC JOINTS DETERMINED BY VARIOUS TEST METHODS WITH SMALL SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chunghao Phillip [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Kiggans Jr, James O [ORNL; Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Khalifa, Hesham [General Atomics, San Diego; Back, Christina A. [General Atomics, San Diego; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto University, Japan; Ferraris, Monica [Politecnico di Torino

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four different shear test methods i.e. doubled notched shear test, asymmetrical four point bend test, Iosipescu test, and torsion test, were investigated for their ability to evaluate one standard SiC to SiC ceramic brittle joint while using small size specimens. Double notched shear test showed higher stress concentration at the notch base and a lower nominal shear strength. Both asymmetrical four point bend test and Iosipescu test utilized epoxy jointed metal extensors, which failed during test and caused misalignment and tensile type of failure. Torsion test can deliver true shear loading. However, base material failure was observed for the torsion joint samples in this study. None of the tests can successfully induce true shear failure of the joint because the joint is stronger and tougher than the SiC substrate. Torsion test appears to be promising because of the pure shear loading, less stress concentration, and easy alignment.

  18. Recent Accomplishments in the Irradiation Testing of Engineering-Scale Monolithic Fuel Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; D.M. Wachs; M.K. Meyer; H.W. Glunz; R.B. Nielson

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US fuel development team is focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum monolithic fuel including irradiation testing of engineering-scale specimens. The team has recently accomplished the successful irradiation of the first monolithic multi-plate fuel element assembly within the AFIP-7 campaign. The AFIP-6 MKII campaign, while somewhat truncated by hardware challenges, exhibited successful irradiation of a large-scale monolithic specimen under extreme irradiation conditions. The channel gap and ultrasonic data are presented for AFIP-7 and AFIP-6 MKII, respectively. Finally, design concepts are summarized for future irradiations such as the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiment campaigns.

  19. Material Open Test Assembly Specimen Retrieval from Hanford's Shielded Material Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valdez, Patrick LJ; Rinker, Michael W.

    2009-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Hanford’s 324 Building, the Shielded Material Facility (SMF), was developed to provide containment for research and fabrication development studies on highly radioactive metallic and ceramic nuclear reactor fuels and structural materials. Between 1983 and 1992, the SMF was used in support of the Department of Energy (DOE)-funded Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Materials Open Test Assembly (MOTA) program. In this program, metallurgical specimens were irradiated in FFTF and then sent to SMF for processing and storage in two cabinets. This effort was abruptly ended in early 1990s due to programmatic shifts within the DOE, leaving many specimens unexamined. In recent years, these specimens have become of high value to new DOE programs. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with retrieving specimens from one of the cabinets in support of fuel clad and duct development for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. Cesium contamination of the cell and failure of the overhead crane system utilized for opening the cabinets prevented PNNL from using the built-in hot cell equipment to gain access to the cabinets. PNNL designed and tested a lifting device to fit through a standard 10 inch diameter mechanical manipulator port in the SMF South Cell wall. The tool was successfully deployed in June 2008 with the support of Washington Closure Hanford.

  20. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  1. High heat flux testing of a two-tube copper panel specimen for LLNL at ASURF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Easoz, J.R.; Sink, D.A.

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This letter documents the results of the test program conducted for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) by Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems Division (AESD) in fulfillment of the Third Amendment to Subcontract 9125401. The original test matrix of 20,000 heating cycles on two test articles called for in the contract was not technically feasible due to the inability of the test articles supplied by LLNL to perform successfully at the required test conditions. Burnout occurred in one of the tubes of a two-tube target during the first series of tests. As a result, the work scope was changed by LLNL such that the tests on the milled copper plate panel specimen were replaced by a second set of heating tests on the second tube of the two-tube copper panel specimen to confirm the conditions for burnout failure. The testing requirements were completed following failure of the second tube at nominally identical conditions under which the first tube failed, and verification of these conditions. This letter completes all contractual obligations by serving as the final report on the test program.

  2. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation summarizes NREL battery thermal modeling and testing work for the DOE Annual Merit Review, May 9, 2011.

  3. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  4. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, Jr., Brent J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID); Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen.

  5. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-An; Feng, Zhili; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap of a vessel and a piston that is moveable within the vessel. Pressurized fluid is provided to compression and tension chambers defined between the piston and the vessel. When the pressure in the compression chamber is greater than the pressure in the tension chamber, the specimen is subjected to a compression force. When the pressure in the tension chamber is greater than the pressure in the compression chamber, the specimen is subjected to a tension force. While the specimen is subjected to either force, it is also surrounded by the pressurized fluid in the tension chamber. In some examples, the specimen is surrounded by hydrogen.

  6. Small-scale Specimen Testing of Monolithic U-Mo Fuel Foils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramprashad Prabhakaran; Douglas E. Burkes; James I. Cole; Indrajit Charit; Daniel M. Wachs

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation is to develop a shear punch testing (SPT) procedure and standardize it to evaluate the mechanical properties of irradiated fuels in a hot-cell so that the tensile behavior can be predicted using small volumes of material and at greatly reduced irradiation costs. This is highly important in the development of low-enriched uranium fuels for nuclear research and test reactors. The load-displacement data obtained using SPT can be interpreted in terms of and correlated with uniaxial mechanical properties. In order to establish a correlation between SPT and tensile data, sub-size tensile and microhardness testing were performed on U-Mo alloys. In addition, efforts are ongoing to understand the effect of test parameters (such as specimen thickness, surface finish, punch-die clearance, crosshead velocity and carbon content) on the measured mechanical properties, in order to rationalize the technique, prior to employing it on a material of unknown strength.

  7. Fracture assessment of HSST Plate 14 shallow-flaw cruciform bend specimens tested under biaxial loading conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states.

  8. Thermal Tests of Undulator Quad

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Andrew; /SLAC; ,

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Running at the nominal temperature, the undulator quadrupole has a several degree temperature increase. This note describes the test used to determine the effect on the undulator integrals from the temperature gradient caused by the heat from the quadrupole conducting down the beam pipe. The undulator quadrupoles running at their nominal current of 4 amps heat up approximately 4 degrees Celsius; this magnet in turn heats up the beampipe which goes into the undulator. The heating ends up introducing a thermal gradient across the undulator which causes small changes in the magnetic field of the heated poles. By measuring the temperature change in the poles we can model the effects on the field and determine what the magnetic errors will be.

  9. Joint Industry/Government Research Project: Comparison of thermal aging for roof exposures and thin-specimens of experimental polyisocyanurate insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, R.S.; Christian, J.E.; McElroy, D.L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field exposures and laboratory aging of a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternative to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C using techniques that meet ASTM C 1114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). The increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA) was confirmed by independent laboratory tests. The observed laboratory increase in k was about the same, between 17 and 22%, for all three blowing agent foams for a 450 day field exposure in the RTRA. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C for up to 460 days. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited long-term k-values 7 to 15% above those for CFC foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 680 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain k as a function of mean insulation temperature on a week-by-week basis. The k-values derived from the field data provided effective diffusion coefficients for air in the foam, which were within 7% of those obtained from the thin-specimen aging procedure at 24%C except for one sample. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-141b under a black and under a white membrane is reported, and data suggest that differences are relatively small. 26 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Apparatus for pre-stress-straining rod-type specimens in tension for in-situ passive fracture testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, John Jy-an (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Ken C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, Zhili (Knoxville, TN)

    2013-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A stress-strain testing apparatus imposes a stress-strain on a specimen while disposed in a controlled environment. Each end of the specimen is fastened to an end cap and a strain gage is attached to the specimen. An adjusting mechanism and a compression element are disposed between the end caps forming a frame for applying forces to the end caps and thereby stress-straining the specimen. The adjusting mechanism may be extended or retracted to increase or decrease the imposed stress-strain on the specimen, and the stress-strain is measured by the strain gage on the specimen while the apparatus is exposed to an environment such as high pressure hydrogen. Strain gages may be placed on the frame to measure stress-strains in the frame that may be caused by the environment.

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Test Facility Pratt Whitney Rocketdyne Testing On December 19, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, EC, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News,...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Thermal Test Facility NASA's Solar Tower Test of the 1-Meter Aeroshell On August 23, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test...

  13. Capillary test specimen, system, and methods for in-situ visualization of capillary flow and fillet formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Aaron C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hosking, F. Michael (Albuquerque, NM),; Reece, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A capillary test specimen, method, and system for visualizing and quantifying capillary flow of liquids under realistic conditions, including polymer underfilling, injection molding, soldering, brazing, and casting. The capillary test specimen simulates complex joint geometries and has an open cross-section to permit easy visual access from the side. A high-speed, high-magnification camera system records the location and shape of the moving liquid front in real-time, in-situ as it flows out of a source cavity, through an open capillary channel between two surfaces having a controlled capillary gap, and into an open fillet cavity, where it subsequently forms a fillet on free surfaces that have been configured to simulate realistic joint geometries. Electric resistance heating rapidly heats the test specimen, without using a furnace. Image-processing software analyzes the recorded images and calculates the velocity of the moving liquid front, fillet contact angles, and shape of the fillet's meniscus, among other parameters.

  14. Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen...

  15. In-Situ Test Thermal Response Tests Interpretations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In-Situ Test Thermal Response Tests Interpretations OG&E Ground Source Heat Exchange Study Richard are connected to ground source heat pumps to cool and heat homes. The TRT study is the first part of a larger exchanges heat with the surrounding soil or rock. The double U-tube layout (Figure 2) is connected so

  16. NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keyser, M.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes NREL's Battery Thermal Test Facility and identifies test requirements and equipment and planned upgrades to the facility.

  17. THERMAL TESTING OF PROTOTYPE GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGES USING A FURNACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A; Lawrence Gelder, L; Paul Blanton, P

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP) was designed by SRNL to replace the DOT 6M Specification Package and ship Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. Urethane foam was used for the overpack to ensure the package would withstand the 10CFR71.73(c)(2) crush test, which is a severe test for drum-type packages. In addition, it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam configuration provided adequate thermal protection for the containment vessel during the subsequent 10CFR71.73(c)(4) thermal test. Development tests were performed on early prototype test specimens of different diameter overpacks and a range of urethane foam densities. The thermal test was performed using an industrial furnace. Test results were used to optimize the selection of package diameter and foam density, and provided the basis for design enhancements incorporated into the final package design.

  18. Methods for identifying cancellous bone specimen location and size for the Reduced Platen Compression Test 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cowen, Kyle Ray

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    , and stimuli on the skeleton and its ability to perform these everyday functions. The current state of bone testing is focused on understanding the mechanical properties of bone through use of traditional mechanical testing procedures such as three point...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, Materials Science, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter, Systems...

  20. A NEW MEASUREMENT STRATEGY FOR in situ TESTING OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Condon, P.E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conservation, Dynamic thermal envelope thermal performanceTHERHAL TEST UNIT The envelope thermal test unit (ETTU) is athe thermal resistance of building envelope systems through

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Solar Thermal Test Facility SolarReserve Is Testing Prototype Heliostats at NSTTF On March 3, 2015, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar...

  2. Flexible thermal cycle test equipment for concentrator solar cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hebert, Peter H. (Glendale, CA); Brandt, Randolph J. (Palmdale, CA)

    2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for performing thermal stress testing of photovoltaic solar cells is presented. The system and method allows rapid testing of photovoltaic solar cells under controllable thermal conditions. The system and method presents a means of rapidly applying thermal stresses to one or more photovoltaic solar cells in a consistent and repeatable manner.

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter A team from Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL) National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF) recently won a first place Excellence Award in the...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Renewable Energy, Solar Recently, personnel from the Air...

  5. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Wins Funding for High-Temperature Falling-Particle Solar-Energy Receiver On August 8, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test...

  6. Fracture toughness testing of Linde 1092 reactor vessel welds in the transition range using Charpy-sized specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavinich, W.A. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Yoon, K.K. [Framatome Technologies Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Hour, K.Y. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Lynchburg, VA (United States). Research and Development Div.; Hoffman, C.L. [ABB-CE, Windsor, CT (United States)

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present reference toughness method for predicting the change in fracture toughness can provide over estimates of these values because of uncertainties in initial RT{sub NDT} and shift correlations. It would be preferable to directly measure fracture toughness. However, until recently, no standard method was available to characterize fracture toughness in the transition range. ASTM E08 has developed a draft standard that shows promise for providing lower bound transition range fracture toughness using the master curve approach. This method has been successfully implemented using 1T compact fracture specimens. Combustion Engineering reactor vessel surveillance programs do not have compact fracture specimens. Therefore, the CE Owners Group developed a program to validate the master curve method for Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens for future application on irradiated specimens. This method was validated for Linde 1092 welds using unirradiated Charpy-sized and reconstituted Charpy-sized specimens by comparison of results with those from compact fracture specimens.

  7. LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundstrom, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    No.2 LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THEMINE AND, THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST Lars Lundstrom and HakanSUMMARY REPORT Background TEST SITE Layout of test places

  8. Test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beck, D.F.; Allen, G.C.; Shipers, L.R.; Dobranich, D.; Ottinger, C.A.; Harmon, C.D.; Fan, W.C. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Todosow, M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

    1992-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and baseline performance of some of the major subsystems designed to support a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion fuel elements and engines being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. Some preliminary results of evaluating this facility for use in testing other NTP concepts are also summarized.

  9. Utility of transient testing to characterize thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Smith; T. Brunschwiler; B. Michel

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper analyzes a transient method for the characterization of low-resistance thermal interfaces of microelectronic packages. The transient method can yield additional information about the package not available with traditional static methods at the cost of greater numerical complexity, hardware requirements, and sensitivity to noise. While the method is established for package-level thermal analysis of mounted and assembled parts, its ability to measure the relatively minor thermal impedance of thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers has not yet been fully studied. We combine the transient thermal test with displacement measurements of the bond line thickness to fully characterize the interface.

  10. Thermal testing of packages for transport of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, J.A.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be shown capable of surviving tests specified by regulations such as Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (called 10CFR71 in this paper) within the United States. Equivalent regulations hold for other countries such as Safety Series 6 issued by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The containers must be shown to be capable of surviving, in order, drop tests, puncture tests, and thermal tests. Immersion testing in water is also required, but must be demonstrated for undamaged packages. The thermal test is intended to simulate a 30 minute exposure to a fully engulfing pool fire that could occur if a transport accident involved the spill of large quantities of hydrocarbon fuels. Various qualification methods ranging from pure analysis to actual pool fire tests have been used to prove regulatory compliance. The purpose of this paper is to consider the alternatives for thermal testing, point out the strengths and weaknesses of each approach, and to provide the designer with the information necessary to make informed decisions on the proper test program for the particular shipping container under consideration. While thermal analysis is an alternative to physical testing, actual testing is often emphasized by regulators, and this report concentrates on these testing alternatives.

  11. Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

  12. Thermal measurements in the nuclear winter fire test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, M.E.; Keltner, N.R.; Kent, L.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In March, 1987, a large open pool fire test was performed to provide test measurements to help define the thermal characteristics of large open pool fires and estimates of the smoke source term for the nuclear winter (global effects) scenario. This report will present the results of the thermal measurements as well as comparisons with previous test results. These measurements included flame temperatures, heat fluxes to a variety of calorimeters, and gas velocities in the lower flame regions. 13 refs., 76 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  14. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R.C.; Sherman, M.H.; Adams, J.W.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  15. The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (ETTU): Full Measurement of Wall Perform ance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adams, J.W.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    March 30-April THE ENVELOPE THERMAL TEST UNIT (ETTU): FIELDFigure 1. Schematic of Envelope Thermal Test Unit (cross-the dvnami c thermal propert i es of envelope c~ponents. The

  16. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  17. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

  18. aero thermal test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    aero thermal test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Titanium in Aero Engines CiteSeer...

  19. Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W.E. Lowry

    2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

  20. Biaxial Creep Specimen Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JL Bump; RF Luther

    2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the weld development and abbreviated weld qualification efforts performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for refractory metal and superalloy biaxial creep specimens. Biaxial creep specimens were to be assembled, electron beam welded, laser-seal welded, and pressurized at PNNL for both in-pile (JOYO reactor, O-arai, Japan) and out-of-pile creep testing. The objective of this test campaign was to evaluate the creep behavior of primary cladding and structural alloys under consideration for the Prometheus space reactor. PNNL successfully developed electron beam weld parameters for six of these materials prior to the termination of the Naval Reactors program effort to deliver a space reactor for Project Prometheus. These materials were FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, Alloy 617, Haynes 230, and Nirnonic PE16. Early termination of the NR space program precluded the development of laser welding parameters for post-pressurization seal weldments.

  1. Fabrication Control Plan for ORNL RH-LOCA ATF Test Specimens to be Irradiated in the ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin G. Field; Richard Howard; Michael Teague

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this fabrication plan is (1) to summarize the design of a set of rodlets that will be fabricated and then irradiated in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and (2) provide requirements for fabrication and acceptance criteria for inspections of the Light Water Reactor (LWR) – Accident Tolerant Fuels (ATF) rodlet components. The functional and operational (F&OR) requirements for the ATF program are identified in the ATF Test Plan. The scope of this document only covers fabrication and inspections of rodlet components detailed in drawings 604496 and 604497. It does not cover the assembly of these items to form a completed test irradiation assembly or the inspection of the final assembly, which will be included in a separate INL final test assembly specification/inspection document. The controls support the requirements that the test irradiations must be performed safely and that subsequent examinations must provide valid results.

  2. Determination of Interfacial Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Composites by the Compression of Micro-pillar Test Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chunghao [ORNL; Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Bei, Hongbin [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method to determine the fiber-matrix interfacial properties of ceramic matrix composites is proposed and evaluated; where micro- pillar samples containing inclined fiber/matrix interfaces were prepared from a SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites then compression-tested using the nano-indentation technique. This new test method employs a simple geometry and mitigates the uncertainties associated with complex stress state in the conventional single filament push-out method for the determination of interfacial properties. Based on the test results using samples with different interface orientations , the interfacial debond shear strength and the internal friction coefficient are explicitly determined and compared with values obtained by other test methods.

  3. ASME PTC 47 - IGCC performance testing: Gasification island thermal performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirolli, M.D.; Doering, E.L.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past several years, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have been introduced in a number of competitive markets. Most of the demonstration projects have been subsidized. However, as the technology is further developed, its versatility will lead to its application in a variety of market segments. This leads to the need of the user to evaluate the performance of the gasification process within the IGCC power plant through field testing. This paper deals with an approach to measuring the gasification island thermal performance. A thermal efficiency term based upon an input/output test approach is introduced. Measured parameters and pre-test planning are discussed. Computational procedures for determining the thermal efficiency of the gasification island are described including an uncertainty analysis for the performance test.

  4. Apparatuses for prestressing rod-type specimens in torsion for in-situ passive fracture toughness testing in an extremely high-pressure environment of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jy-an (Oak Ridge, TN); Liu, Ken C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Feng, Zhili (Knoxville, TN)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-situ specimen fixture particularly adapted for prestressing rod-type SNTT-type specimens comprising a tube and end cap wherein the specimen is secured at one end to the tube, and at the opposite end to the end cap. The end cap is rotatable relative to the tube, and may be fixedly secured for creating a torsional force prestressing the specimen enclosed within the tube.

  5. Parametric Thermal Models of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley K. Heath

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work supports the restart of transient testing in the United States using the Department of Energy’s Transient Reactor Test Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory. It also supports the Global Threat Reduction Initiative by reducing proliferation risk of high enriched uranium fuel. The work involves the creation of a nuclear fuel assembly model using the fuel performance code known as BISON. The model simulates the thermal behavior of a nuclear fuel assembly during steady state and transient operational modes. Additional models of the same geometry but differing material properties are created to perform parametric studies. The results show that fuel and cladding thermal conductivity have the greatest effect on fuel temperature under the steady state operational mode. Fuel density and fuel specific heat have the greatest effect for transient operational model. When considering a new fuel type it is recommended to use materials that decrease the specific heat of the fuel and the thermal conductivity of the fuel’s cladding in order to deal with higher density fuels that accompany the LEU conversion process. Data on the latest operating conditions of TREAT need to be attained in order to validate BISON’s results. BISON’s models for TREAT (material models, boundary convection models) are modest and need additional work to ensure accuracy and confidence in results.

  6. Analysis, testing, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi, Sonny; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Kasper, Brian P. [The Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA 90245 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Aerospace Corporation has completed the development of the Mineral and Gas Identifier (MAGI) sensor - an airborne multi-spectral infrared instrument that is designed to discriminate surface composition and to detect gas emissions from the environment. Sensor performance was demonstrated in a series of flights aboard a Twin Otter aircraft in December 2011 as a stepping stone to a future satellite sensor design. To meet sensor performance requirements the thermal control system was designed to operate the HgCdTe focal plane array (FPA) at 50 K with a 1.79 W heat rejection load to a 44.7 K sink and the optical assembly at 100 K with a 7.5 W heat load to a 82.3 K sink. Two commercial off-theshelf (COTS) Sunpower Stirling cryocoolers were used to meet the instrument’s cooling requirements. A thermal model constructed in Thermal Desktop was used to run parametric studies that guided the mechanical design and sized the two cryocoolers. This paper discusses the development, validation, and operation of the MAGI thermal control system. Detailed energy balances and temperature predictions are presented for various test cases to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the thermal model. Model inputs included measured values of heat lift as a function of input power and cold tip temperature for the two cryocoolers. These measurements were also used to make predictions of the cool-down behavior from ambient conditions. Advanced heater software was developed to meet unique requirements for both sensor cool-down rate and stability at the set point temperatures.

  7. Ground test facilities for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, G.C.; Beck, D.F.; Harmon, C.D.; Shipers, L.R.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interagency panels evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion development options have consistently recognized the need for constructing a major new ground test facility to support fuel element and engine testing. This paper summarizes the requirements, configuration, and design issues of a proposed ground test complex for evaluating nuclear thermal propulsion engines and fuel elements being developed for the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. 2 refs.

  8. Test program element II blanket and shield thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing, experimental facility survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ware, A.G.; Longhurst, G.R.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents results of a survey conducted by EG and G Idaho to determine facilities available to conduct thermal-hydraulic and thermomechanical testing for the Department of Energy Office of Fusion Energy First Wall/Blanket/Shield Engineering Test Program. In response to EG and G queries, twelve organizations (in addition to EG and G and General Atomic) expressed interest in providing experimental facilities. A variety of methods of supplying heat is available.

  9. Adaptive thermal compensation of test masses in advanced LIGO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan Lawrence; Michael Zucker; Peter Fritschel; Phil Marfuta; David Shoemaker

    2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the first generation of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors near operation, research and development has begun on increasing the instrument's sensitivity while utilizing the existing infrastructure. In the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), significant improvements are being planned for installation in ~2007, increasing strain sensitivity through improved suspensions and test mass substrates, active seismic isolation, and higher input laser power. Even with the highest quality optics available today, however, finite absorption of laser power within transmissive optics, coupled with the tremendous amount of optical power circulating in various parts of the interferometer, result in critical wavefront deformations which would cripple the performance of the instrument. Discussed is a method of active wavefront correction via direct thermal actuation on optical elements of the interferometer. A simple nichrome heating element suspended off the face of an affected optic will, through radiative heating, remove the gross axisymmetric part of the original thermal distortion. A scanning heating laser will then be used to remove any remaining non-axisymmetric wavefront distortion, generated by inhomogeneities in the substrate's absorption, thermal conductivity, etc. A proof-of-principle experiment has been constructed at MIT, selected data of which are presented.

  10. Mechanical Testing of TR-55 Rubber Thermally Aged Under Tensile Strain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Alviso, C T; Wilson, T S; Chinn, S C; Maxwell, R S

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    TR-55 rubber specimens were previously subjected to an aging process consisting of the application of a tensile strain of approximately 67%, 100%, 133%, or 167% elongation for 4, 8, 12, or 16 h at either 250 C or room temperature. Control specimens at the same temperatures/durations were not subjected to tensile strain. The specimens were allowed to recover at room temperature without external stimuli for over 100 days before tensile testing. A single dog bone was cut from each specimen and a stress-strain curve was obtained. The elastic modulus of each specimen was calculated. Specimens aged under tensile strain exhibited rubber-like behavior dependent on the aging elongation and duration. This behavior was not evident in the unstrained controls. For the unstrained controls, exposure to 250 C resulted in an increase in modulus relative to the unheated material independent of the heating duration. The tensile strain applied during the aging process caused a reduction in modulus relative to the controls; lower moduli were observed for the shorter aging durations. Slippage of the specimens in the grips prevented determination of ultimate strength, as all specimens either slipped completely out of the grip before failure or failed at the original grip edge after slipping.

  11. Multiple Irradiation Capsule Experiment (MICE)-3B Irradiation Test of Space Fuel Specimens in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) - Close Out Documentation for Naval Reactors (NR) Information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Chen; CM Regan; D. Noe

    2006-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Few data exist for UO{sub 2} or UN within the notional design space for the Prometheus-1 reactor (low fission rate, high temperature, long duration). As such, basic testing is required to validate predictions (and in some cases determine) performance aspects of these fuels. Therefore, the MICE-3B test of UO{sub 2} pellets was designed to provide data on gas release, unrestrained swelling, and restrained swelling at the upper range of fission rates expected for a space reactor. These data would be compared with model predictions and used to determine adequacy of a space reactor design basis relative to fission gas release and swelling of UO{sub 2} fuel and to assess potential pellet-clad interactions. A primary goal of an irradiation test for UN fuel was to assess performance issues currently associated with this fuel type such as gas release, swelling and transient performance. Information learned from this effort may have enabled use of UN fuel for future applications.

  12. Laboratory test results on the thermal resistance of polyisocyanurate foamboard insulation blown with CFC-11 substitutes: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbon gases (CFC-11 and CFC-12) are used as blowing agents for foam insulations for building and appliance applications. The thermal resistance per unit thickness of these insulations is greater than that of other commercially available insulations. Mandated reductions in the production of these chemicals may lead to less efficient substitutes and increase US energy consumption by one quad or more. This report describes laboratory thermal and aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminate boardstock to evaluate the viability of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFSs) as alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorcarbon-11 (CFC-11). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC- 123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b. These HCFC gases have a lower ozone depletion potential than CFC-11 or CFC-12. Apparent thermal conductivity (k) was determined from 0 to 50{degrees}C. Results on the laminate boards provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The measured laboratory increase in k was between 8 and 11% after a 240-d field exposure in the RTRA. Results are reported on a thin-specimen, aging procedure to establish the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. These thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 75 and 150{degrees}F for up to 300 d. The resulting k-values were correlated with an exponential dependency on (diffusion coefficient {times} time){sup {1/2}}/thickness and provided diffusion coefficients for air components into, and blowing agent out of, the foam. This aging procedure was used to predict the five-year thermal resistivity of the foams. The thin-specimen aging procedure is supported with calculations by a computer model for aging of foams. 43 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs.

  13. Development of Reconstitution Technology for Surveillance Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yasushi Atago; Shunichi Hatano; Eiichiro Otsuka [Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation, KDX Shibadaimon Bldg. 3FL., 10-12, 2-chome Shiba-daimon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-0012 (Japan)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC) has been carrying out the project titled 'Nuclear Power Plant Integrated Management Technology (PLIM)' consigned by Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) since 1996FY as a 10-years project. As one of the project themes, development of reconstitution technology for reactor pressure vessel (RPV/RV) surveillance specimens, which are installed in RPVs to monitor the neutron irradiation embrittlement on RPV/RV materials, is now on being carried out to deal with the long-term operation of nuclear power plants. The target of this theme is to establish the technical standard for applicability of reconstituted surveillance specimens including the reconstitution of the Charpy specimens and Compact Tension (CT) specimens. With the Charpy specimen reconstitution, application of 10 mm length inserts is used, which enables the conversion of tests from the LT-direction to the TL-direction. This paper presents the basic data from Charpy and CT specimens of RPV materials using the surveillance specimens obtained for un-irradiated materials including the following. 1) Reconstitution Technology of Charpy Specimens. a) The interaction between plastic zone and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). b) The effects of the possible deviations from the standard specimens for the reconstituted specimens. 2) Reconstitution Technology of CT specimens. a) The correlation between fracture toughness and plastic zone width. Because the project is now in progress, this paper describes the outline of the results obtained as of the end of 2000 FY. (authors)

  14. Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation (Two-Year Gradient Stress Relaxation Testing Update)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King, James [ORNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Min-K 1400TE insulation material was characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions. A previous report (ORNL/TM-2008/089) discusses the testing and results from the original three year duration of the project. This testing included compression testing to determine the effect of sample size and test specimen geometry on the compressive strength of Min-K, subsequent compression testing on cylindrical specimens to determine loading rates for stress relaxation testing, isothermal stress relaxation testing, and gradient stress relaxation testing. This report presents the results from the continuation of the gradient temperature stress relaxation testing and the resulting updated modeling.

  15. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J. G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    2000-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared thermal imaging has become a common technique for nondestructive evaluation and measurement of thermal properties in ceramic specimens. Flash thermal imaging can be used to determine two-dimensional through-thickness thermal diffusivity in a planar specimen. In this study, the authors extended the method to determine lateral, or transverse, thermal diffusivity in the specimen. During the flash thermal imaging test, pulsed heat energy is applied to a specimen's back surface, which is partially shielded, and the change of temperature distribution on the front surface is monitored by an infrared thermal imaging system. The temperature distribution represents the effect of both the normal heat transfer through the specimen's thickness and the lateral heat transfer through the interface between the shielded and unshielded back-surface regions. Those temperature distributions are then fitted with a theoretical solution of the heat transfer process to determine the lateral thermal diffusivity at the interface. This technique has been applied to measure lateral thermal diffusivity in a steel plate and a continuous fiber ceramic composite specimen.

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Parabolic Dishes On April 7, 2011, in The Distributed Receiver Test Facility (DRTF) has two 11-m-diameter parabolic dishes, known as Test Bed Concentrators (TBCs), which provide 75...

  17. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dish Test Facility On September 26, 2012, in This area of the site allows industry partners to install full-scale solar dishes for long-term reliability testing and evaluation....

  18. Design of thermal control systems for testing of electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetland, Matthew, 1970-

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the electronic component manufacturing industry, most components are subjected to a full functional test before they are sold. Depending on the type of components, these functional tests may be performed at room ...

  19. Temperature dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iverson, Brian DeVon; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts.

  20. Mechanical and Thermal Tests of the Containers of Liquid Mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. F. Borra; R. Content; G. Tremblay; A. Daigle; Y. Huot

    2004-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a generic description of a liquid mirror system and summarize some practical information useful to making them. We compare laboratory measurements of deformations, due to the weight of mercury on the container of a 3.7-m mirror and to temperature changes on a 1-m container, to finite element computer simulations. We find that the measurements agree reasonably well with the numerical simulations. The measurements on the 1-m container show no evidence of fatigue after a few thermal cycles. These results validate the computer models of containers described in a companion article.

  1. Battery Thermal Modeling and Testing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromofBatteries from Brine Batteries fromThermal Modeling and

  2. Sandia Energy - Thermal Pulses for Boeing Test Article

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution GridDocumentsInstitute ofSitingStaffSunshineMoltenTheThermal

  3. A full-scale thermal test and analytical evaluation of the beneficial uses shipping system cask

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moya, J.L.; Akau, R.L.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal test of the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask containing irradiation source capsules was conducted to verify a two-dimensional axisymmetric thermal model developed for the Safety Analysis Report. The BUSS cask is a Type B package developed to transport irradiation source capsules of cesium chloride or strontium fluoride to commercially licensed food and pharmaceutical irradiating facilities. The uniqueness of this test is that it was performed on an internally instrumented, full-scale cask with actual radioactive capsules. This resulted in more realistic system temperatures than those obtained if heaters were used to simulate the large gamma source. In addition, the thermal test provides benchmark data for other thermal codes. 12 refs.; 24 figs.; 2 tabs.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    storage system. This will be the first CSP integration with Sandia Labs' Molten-Salt Test Loop System ... Dr. David Danielson Visit to NSTTF On September 10, 2012, in...

  5. Fabrication of specimens with controlled flaws

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.; Gruber, G.J.; Watson, P.D. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Most nondestructive evaluation (NDE) codes and standards require that the NDE equipment be calibrated using a calibration block. Ultrasonic testing (UT) historically has required the use of side-drilled or flat-bottom holes or notches. Recent technology has recognized that the acoustic response of real flaws is not directly comparable to artificial reflectors. The need arose to manufacture UT test specimens that contained real flaws of known size, shape, position, and orientation. The 1989 Section XI ASME Code, Appendix VIII (ASME Code, 1989), requires NDE qualification of equipment, procedures, and personnel utilizing full-scale test specimens with actual (real) flaws. The same technology could prove of great benefit to industries other than nuclear, particularly for the fracture mechanics approach to fitness-for-purpose or lifetime-extension programs. This paper describes an approach to the design and fabrication of NDE test specimens with controlled flaws.

  6. Development of High Fidelity, Fuel-Like Thermal Simulators for Non-Nuclear Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Dickens, Ricky; Adams, Mike; Davis, Joe [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Branch/ER24, MSFC, AL 25812 (United States); Dixon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Decision Applications Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Kapernick, Richard [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Decision Applications Division, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in the development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center seeks to develop high fidelity thermal simulators that not only match the static power profile that would be observed in an operating, fueled nuclear reactor, but also match the dynamic fuel pin performance during feasible transients. Comparison between the fuel pins and thermal simulators is made at the outer fuel clad surface, which corresponds to the outer sheath surface in the thermal simulator. The thermal simulators that are currently being developed are designed to meet the geometric and power requirements of a proposed surface power reactor design, accommodate testing of various axial power profiles, and incorporate imbedded instrumentation. Static and dynamic fuel pin performances for a proposed reactor design have been determined using SINDA/FLUINT thermal analysis software, and initial comparison has been made between the expected nuclear performance and the performance of conceptual thermal simulator designs. Through a series of iterative analysis, a conceptual high fidelity design will be developed, followed by engineering design, fabrication, and testing to validate the overall design process. Although the resulting thermal simulator will be designed for a specific reactor concept, establishing this rigorous design process will assist in streamlining the thermal simulator development for other reactor concepts. This paper presents the current status of high fidelity thermal simulator design relative to a SNAP derivative reactor design that could be applied for Lunar surface power.

  7. Method for thinning specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Follstaedt, David M.; Moran, Michael P.

    2005-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for thinning (such as in grinding and polishing) a material surface using an instrument means for moving an article with a discontinuous surface with an abrasive material dispersed between the material surface and the discontinuous surface where the discontinuous surface of the moving article provides an efficient means for maintaining contact of the abrasive with the material surface. When used to dimple specimens for microscopy analysis, a wheel with a surface that has been modified to produce a uniform or random discontinuous surface significantly improves the speed of the dimpling process without loss of quality of finish.

  8. LARGE SCALE PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY TEST

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lundstrom, L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE' IN THE STRIPA MINE AND,PERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE ANDPERMEABILITY TEST OF THE GRANITE IN THE STRIPA MINE AND

  9. ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

  10. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  11. Field test of a new method for determining soil formation thermal conductivity and borehole resistance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.; Beck, J.V.

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of determining soil thermal properties from in-situ tests has been developed. Based on a one-dimensional numerical heat transfer model, the method uses parameter estimation techniques to determine soil thermal conductivity and borehole resistance from field-collected data. This paper presents the results of analysis of data from three tests performed in Lincoln, Nebraska, in order to validate the method. The one-dimensional method was found to agree well with line source and cylindrical source thermal conductivity estimates derived from the same data sets. The method was also able to measure the resistance of the three borehole heat exchangers. The measured resistances lie within the expected range of resistances for the given grouting materials. A further benefit of the method is its relative insensitivity to changes in power input caused by short-term voltage fluctuations.

  12. HiRadMat Beryllium ThermalShock Test Kavin Ammigan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kirk

    HiRadMat Beryllium ThermalShock Test Kavin Ammigan PASI 2nd Annual Meeting RAL, UK April 5, 2013 Collaboration with RAL HPTG Fracture Beryllium with one or multiple beam pulses Experimentally deduce measurements fairly comparable with numerical simulations Goal: make similar comparisons for Beryllium

  13. Empirical Validation of the Thermal Model of a Passive Solar Cell test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Empirical Validation of the Thermal Model of a Passive Solar Cell test Thierry Alex MARA, two samples of experimental data are required. The first one is used to calibrate our model the second; Calibration; Sensitivity analysis; Spectral analysis; Time- frequency analysis. 1.Introduction

  14. THERMAL TESTING OF 9977 GENERAL PURPOSE FISSILE PACKAGE USING A POOL FIRE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A; Cecil May, C; Lawrence Gelder, L; Glenn Abramczyk, G

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 9977/9978 General Purpose Fissile Package (GPFP), has been designed as a cost-effective, user-friendly replacement for the DOT 6M Specification Package for transporting Plutonium and Uranium metals and oxides. To ensure the capability of the 9977 GPFP to withstand the regulatory crush test, urethane foam was chosen for the impact absorbing overpack. As part of the package development it was necessary to confirm that the urethane foam overpack would provide the required protection for the containment vessel during the thermal test portion of the Hypothetical Accident Conditions Sequential Tests. Development tests of early prototypes were performed, using a furnace. Based on the results of the development tests, detailed design enhancements were incorporated into the final design. Examples of the definitive 9977 design configuration were subjected to an all-engulfing pool fire test, as part of the HAC Sequential Tests, to support the application for certification. Testing has confirmed the package's ability to withstand the HAC thermal tests.

  15. Testing the scaling of thermal transport models: predicted and measured temperatures in the Tokamak Fusion Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor dimensionless scaling experiments D. R. Mikkelsen, S. D. Scott Princeton the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)] nondimensional to International Tokamak Experimental Reactor [2] (ITER) class tokamaks. This paper compares the predictions

  16. Side-by-Side Thermal Tests of Modular Offices: A Validation Study of the STEM Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Balcomb, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Barker, G.; Subbarao, K.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Two modular office units were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to establish each unit's thermal performance. The two units were nearly identical in appearance, but one was built with structural insulating panels (SIP), and the other was built using standard frame construction. The primary objective of these tests was to compare the thermal performance of buildings using SIP and standard frame construction. Both units were tested under carefully controlled steady-state conditions in the NREL large-scale environmental enclosure. They were then moved outdoors where Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM) tests were performed, and long-term heating and cooling energy use was measured. A secondary objective was to evaluate the accuracy of the NREL STEM method by comparing the results of outdoor STEM tests to steady-state indoor test results. STEM is a method developed by NREL to determine key thermal parameters of a building in-situ, based on a 3-day test sequence. The indoor test facility also provided the opportunity to investigate the phenomenon of infiltration heat recovery in a real building, under carefully controlled conditions, to evaluate the stability of the concentration decay method of tracer gas-based infiltration monitoring, and to compare the blower-door method with the tracer-gas technique in determining infiltration.This project was a cooperative effort with the Structural Insulated Panel Association, the Modular Building Institute, All-American Modular (AAM, the manufacturer of the units), and GE Capitol (the owner of the units). Richard Harmon, the president of AAM, requested NREL's assistance in exploring the feasibility of converting his manufacturing process to SIP construction. His engineering staff needed to assess which comfort and energy benefits might be associated with this new technology. AAM manufactured the two units, and NREL tested the modules for 8 months.

  17. Compendium of information on identification and testing of materials for plastic solar thermal collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGinniss, V.D.; Sliemers, F.A.; Landstrom, D.K.; Talbert, S.G.

    1980-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is intended to organize and summarize prior and current literature concerning the weathering, aging, durability, degradation, and testing methodologies as applied to materials for plastic solar thermal collectors. Topics covered include (1) rate of aging of polymeric materials; (2) environmental factors affecting performance; (3) evaluation and prediction of service life; (4) measurement of physical and chemical properties; (5) discussion of evaluation techniques and specific instrumentation; (6) degradation reactions and mechanisms; (7) weathering of specific polymeric materials; and (8) exposure testing methodology. Major emphasis has been placed on defining the current state of the art in plastics degradation and on identifying information that can be utilized in applying appropriate and effective aging tests for use in projecting service life of plastic solar thermal collectors. This information will also be of value where polymeric components are utilized in the construction of conventional solar collectors or any application where plastic degradation and weathering are prime factors in material selection.

  18. Fabrication of specimens with controlled flaws for procedure development and personnel training and qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.; Watson, P.D.; Gruber, G.J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years, instances of service-induced flaws in vessel and piping components have prompted many utilities to acquire full-scale mockups to demonstrate the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) procedures. Also, the newly invoked Appendix 8 requirement to the 1989 Section 11 ASME Code requires qualification of equipment, procedures, and personnel utilizing full-scale test specimens with actual flaws. This has increased the need for flaws that can be produced and accurately controlled in various test specimens. The typical service-induced flaws may consist of one of the following, depending on the material type and service conditions: mechanical fatigue; thermal fatigue; intergranular stress-corrosion (IGSC) cracking; and weld-induced flaws (during manufacture) such as slag, porosity, or incomplete fusion.

  19. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Performance of Tracking Concentrating Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of thermal performance of tracking concentrating solar collectors that heat fluids for use in thermal systems. 1.2 This test method applies to one- or two-axis tracking reflecting concentrating collectors in which the fluid enters the collector through a single inlet and leaves the collector through a single outlet, and to those collectors where a single inlet and outlet can be effectively provided, such as into parallel inlets and outlets of multiple collector modules. 1.3 This test method is intended for those collectors whose design is such that the effects of diffuse irradiance on performance is negligible and whose performance can be characterized in terms of direct irradiance. Note 1—For purposes of clarification, this method shall apply to collectors with a geometric concentration ratio of seven or greater. 1.4 The collector may be tested either as a thermal collection subsystem where the effects of tracking errors have been essentially removed from t...

  20. Temperature-dependent mechanical property testing of nitrate thermal storage salts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Randy L.; Iverson, Brian D.; Broome, Scott Thomas; Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Bronowski, David R.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three salt compositions for potential use in trough-based solar collectors were tested to determine their mechanical properties as a function of temperature. The mechanical properties determined were unconfined compressive strength, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and indirect tensile strength. Seventeen uniaxial compression and indirect tension tests were completed. It was found that as test temperature increases, unconfined compressive strength and Young's modulus decreased for all salt types. Empirical relationships were developed quantifying the aforementioned behaviors. Poisson's ratio tends to increase with increasing temperature except for one salt type where there is no obvious trend. The variability in measured indirect tensile strength is large, but not atypical for this index test. The average tensile strength for all salt types tested is substantially higher than the upper range of tensile strengths for naturally occurring rock salts. Interest in raising the operating temperature of concentrating solar technologies and the incorporation of thermal storage has motivated studies on the implementation of molten salt as the system working fluid. Recently, salt has been considered for use in trough-based solar collectors and has been shown to offer a reduction in levelized cost of energy as well as increasing availability (Kearney et al., 2003). Concerns regarding the use of molten salt are often related to issues with salt solidification and recovery from freeze events. Differences among salts used for convective heat transfer and storage are typically designated by a comparison of thermal properties. However, the potential for a freeze event necessitates an understanding of salt mechanical properties in order to characterize and mitigate possible detrimental effects. This includes stress imparted by the expanding salt. Samples of solar salt, HITEC salt (Coastal Chemical Co.), and a low melting point quaternary salt were cast for characterization tests to determine unconfined compressive strength, indirect tensile strength, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio. Experiments were conducted at multiple temperatures below the melting point to determine temperature dependence.

  1. Lead Coolant Test Facility Systems Design, Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Cost Estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soli Khericha; Edwin Harvego; John Svoboda; Ryan Dalling

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimate. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

  2. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Neymark, J.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  3. Outdoor testing of advanced optical materials for solar thermal electric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendelin, T.J.; Jorgensen, G.; Goggin, R.M.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of low-cost, durable advanced optical materials is an important element in making solar energy viable for electricity production. It is important to determine the expected lifetime of candidate reflector materials in real-world service conditions. The demonstration of the optical durability of such materials in outdoor environments is critical to the successful commercialization of solar thermal electric technologies. For many years optical performance data have been collected and analyzed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for candidate reflector materials subjected to simulated outdoor exposure conditions. Much of this testing is accelerated in order to predict service durability. Some outdoor testing has occurred but not in a systematic manner. To date, simulated/accelerated testing has been limited correlation with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering methods. To obtain outdoor exposure data for realistic environments and to establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data, the development of an expanded outdoor testing program has recently been initiated by NREL. Several outdoor test sites will be selected based on the solar climate, potential for solar energy utilization by industry, and cost of installation. Test results are site dependent because exposure conditions vary with geographical location. The importance of this program to optical materials development is outlined, and the process used to determine and establish the outdoor test sites is described. Candidate material identification and selection is also discussed. 10 refs.

  4. An outdoor exposure testing program for optical materials used in solar thermal electric technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendelin, T.; Jorgensen, G.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developing low-cost, durable advanced optical materials is important for making solar thermal energy. technologies viable for electricity production. The objectives of a new outdoor testing program recently initiated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are to determine the expected lifetimes of candidate reflector materials and demonstrate their optical durability in real-world service conditions. NREL is working with both utilities and industry in a collaborative effort to achieve these objectives. To date, simulated/accelerated exposure testing of these materials has not been correlated with actual outdoor exposure testing. Such a correlation is desirable to provide confidence in lifetime predictions based upon accelerated weathering results. This outdoor testing program will allow outdoor exposure data to be obtained for realistic environments and will establish a data base for correlating simulated/accelerated outdoor exposure data with actual outdoor exposure data. In this program, candidate reflector materials are subjected to various outdoor exposure conditions in a network of sites across the southwestern United States. Important meteorological data are continuously recorded at these sites; these data will be analyzed for possible correlations with material optical performance. Weathered samples are characterized on a regular basis using a series of optical tests. These tests provide the basis for tracking material performance and durability with exposure time in the various outdoor environments. This paper describes the outdoor testing program in more detail including meteorological monitoring capabilities and the optical tests that are performed on these materials.

  5. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Toltec two-axis tracking solar collector with 3M acrylic polyester film reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  6. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Polisolar Model POL solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  7. Testing and evaluation of large-area heliostats for solar thermal applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strachan, J.W.; Houser, R.M.

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two heliostats representing the state-of-the-art in glass-metal designs for central receiver (and photovoltaic tracking) applications were tested and evaluated at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico from 1986 to 1992. These heliostats have collection areas of 148 and 200 m{sup 2} and represent low-cost designs for heliostats that employ glass-metal mirrors. The evaluation encompassed the performance and operational characteristics of the heliostats, and examined heliostat beam quality, the effect of elevated winds on beam quality, heliostat drives and controls, mirror module reflectance and durability, and the overall operational and maintenance characteristics of the two heliostats. A comprehensive presentation of the results of these and other tests is presented. The results are prefaced by a review of the development (in the United States) of heliostat technology.

  8. Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

  9. Manufacturing of Plutonium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, Cameron M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Details workflow conducted to manufacture high density alpha Plutonium tensile specimens to support Los Alamos National Laboratory's science campaigns. Introduces topics including the metallurgical challenge of Plutonium and the use of high performance super-computing to drive design. Addresses the utilization of Abaqus finite element analysis, programmable computer numerical controlled (CNC) machining, as well as glove box ergonomics and safety in order to design a process that will yield high quality Plutonium tensile specimens.

  10. Hydraulic characterization of aquifers by thermal response testing: Validation by large-scale tank and field experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cirpka, Olaf Arie

    et al., 1992]. Thermal monitoring downgradient or in the vicinity of an artificial heat source has (TRTs) are a common field method in shallow geothermics to estimate thermal properties of the ground. During the test, a constantly heated fluid is circulated in closed tubes within a vertical borehole heat

  11. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  12. Standard test method for uranium and plutonium concentrations and isotopic abundances by thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the concentration and isotopic composition of uranium and plutonium in solutions. The purified uranium or plutonium from samples ranging from nuclear materials to environmental or bioassay matrices is loaded onto a mass spectrometric filament. The isotopic ratio is determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry, the concentration is determined by isotope dilution. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  13. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Custom Engineering trough with glass reflector surface and Sandia-designed receivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Custom Engineering trough and Sandia-designed receivers, with glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States. Two experimental receivers were tested, one with an antireflective coating on the glass envelope around the receiver tube and one without the antireflective coating.

  14. FY 1993 progress report on the ANS thermal-hydraulic test loop operation and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siman-Tov, M.; Felde, D.K.; Farquharson, G. [and others

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Thermal-Hydraulic Test Loop (THTL) is an experimental facility constructed to support the development of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Highly subcooled heavy-water coolant flows vertically upward at a very high mass flux of almost 27 MG/m{sup 2}-s. In a parallel fuel plate configuration as in the ANSR, the flow is subject to a potential excursive static-flow instability that can very rapidly lead to flow starvation and departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) in the ``hot channel``. The current correlations and experimental data bases for flow excursion (FE) and critical heat flux (CHF) seldom evaluate the specific combination of ANSR operating parameters. The THTL facility was designed and built to provide known thermal-hydraulic (T/H) conditions for a simulated full-length coolant subchannel of the ANS reactor core, thus facilitating experimental determination of FE and CHF thermal limits under expected ANSR T/H conditions. A series of FE tests with water flowing vertically upward was completed over a nominal heat flux range of 6 to 17 MW/m{sup 2}, a mass flux range of 8 to 28 Mg/m{sup 2}-s, an exit pressure range of 1.4 to 2.1 MPa, and an inlet temperature range of 40 to 50 C. FE experiments were also conducted using as ``soft`` a system as possible to secure a true FE phenomena (actual secondary burnout). True DNB experiments under similar conditions were also conducted. To the author`s knowledge, no other FE data have been reported in the literature to date that dover such a combination of conditions of high mass flux, high heat flux, and moderately high pressure.

  15. The reconstitution of Charpy-size tensile specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ransbeeck, T. van; Walle, E. van; Fabry, A.; Puzzolante, J.L.; Velde, J. van de [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Charpy-size tensile specimens have been reconstituted starting from broken Charpy specimens. Precautions have been taken to prevent fracture in the weld regions of the reconstituted specimens. Careful qualification of the tensile properties of the reconstituted tensile bars has been established and is in agreement with test results on ASTM/E8-size tensile specimens. The tensile properties of the unirradiated weld material of the Belgian PWR Doel 2 and of the unirradiated base metal of the German BWR Philippsburg 1 have been determined using this methodology. Both the resulting yield and maximum loads are in agreement with the actual expectations. Qualification to apply the technique on irradiated specimens is in preparation.

  16. Battery Usage and Thermal Performance of the Toyota Prius and Honda Insight for Various Chassis Dynamometer Test Procedures: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, K. J.; Mihalic, M.; Zolot, M.

    2001-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes the results from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) chassis dynamometer testing of a 2000 model year Honda Insight and 2001 model year Toyota Prius. The tests were conducted for the purpose of evaluating the battery thermal performance, assessing the impact of air conditioning on fuel economy and emissions, and providing information for NREL's Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR).

  17. Combustion Control and Diagnostics Sensor Testing in a Thermal Barrier Coated Combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chorpening, B.T.; Dukes, M.G.; Robey, E.H.; Thornton, J.D.

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion control and diagnostics sensor (CCADS) continues to be developed as an in-situ combustion sensor, with immediate application to natural gas fired turbines. In-situ combustion monitoring is also expected to benefit advanced power plants of the future, fueled by coal-derived syngas, liquified natural gas (LNG), hydrogen, or hydrogen blend fuels. The in-situ monitoring that CCADS provides can enable the optimal operation of advanced, fuel-flexible turbines for minimal pollutant emissions and maximum efficiency over the full operating range of an advanced turbine. Previous work has demonstrated CCADS as a useful sensor for in-situ monitoring of natural gas combustion, including detection of important combustion events such as flashback and lean blowoff, in experimental combustors without thermal barrier coatings (TBC). Since typical TBC materials are electrical insulators at room temperature, and CCADS operation requires conduction of electrical current to the walls of the combustor, a TBC on the combustion liner was identified as a potential barrier to CCADS operation in commercial application. This paper reports on CCADS experiments in a turbulent lean premixed combustor with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating on the combustor wall. The tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa (1 atm), with a 15V excitation voltage on the CCADS electrodes. The results confirm that for a typical thermal barrier coating, CCADS operates properly, and the total measured average resistance is close to that of an uncoated combustor. This result is consistent with previous materials studies that found the electrical resistance of typical TBC materials considerably decreases at combustor operating temperatures.

  18. A test on analytic continuation of thermal imaginary-time data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Burnier; M. Laine; L. Mether

    2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Some time ago, Cuniberti et al have proposed a novel method for analytically continuing thermal imaginary-time correlators to real time, which requires no model input and should be applicable with finite-precision data as well. Given that these assertions go against common wisdom, we report on a naive test of the method with an idealized example. We do encounter two problems, which we spell out in detail; this implies that systematic errors are difficult to quantify. On a more positive note, the method is simple to implement and allows for an empirical recipe by which a reasonable qualitative estimate for some transport coefficient may be obtained, if statistical errors of an ultraviolet-subtracted imaginary-time measurement can be reduced to roughly below the per mille level.

  19. In-situ and thin-specimen aging of experimental polyisocyanurate roof insulation foamed with alternative blowing agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports apparent thermal conductivity (k) values from field and laboratory aging tests on a set of industry-produced, experimental polyisocyanurate (PIR) laminated boardstock foamed with hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as alternatives to chlorofluorocarbon (CFC). The PIR boards were blown with five gases: CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-14lb. The k-values were determined from 0 to 50{degree}C (30 to 120{degree}F) using techniques that meet ASTM C 114 (Thin Heater Apparatus) and ASTM C 518 (Heat Flow Meter Apparatus). Results on laminate boards with facers provide an independent laboratory check on the increase in k observed for field exposure in the ORNL Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (RTRA). The observed laboratory increase in k was between 8% and 11% for a 240 day field exposure in the RTRA. A thin-specimen aging procedure established the long-term thermal resistance of gas-filled foams. Thin specimens were planed from the industry-produced boardstock foams and aged at 24 and 65{degree}C (75{degree}F and 150{degree}F) for up to 300 days. An exponential dependency of k with the quantity (diffusion coefficient X time){sup {1/2}}/ thickness, provide effective diffusion coefficients for air components into the foams and blowing agent out of the foams. The foams blown with alternative blowing agents exhibited k-values 3 to 16% (average 9.4%) above CFC-11 foams under similar conditions. Field exposures were conducted on specimens under single ply EPDM membranes in the RTRA for over 400 days. Hourly averages of panel temperature and heat flux were analyzed to obtain K as a function of mean temperature on a week by week basis. The relative performance of test specimens of HCFC-14B under a black and under a white membrane is reported. 29 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. A New Method to Determine the Thermal Properties of Soil Formations from In Situ Field Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shonder, J.A.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The geothermal or ground-source heat pump (GHP) has been shown to be a very efficient method of providing heating and cooling for buildings. GHPs exchange (reject or extract) heat with the earth by way of circulating water, rather than by use of circulating outdoor air, as with an air-source heat pump. The temperature of water entering a GHP is generally cooler than that of outdoor air when space cooling is required, and warmer than that of outdoor air when space heating is required. Consequently, the temperature lift across a GHP is less than the lift across an air-source heat pump. The lower temperature lift leads to greater efficiency, higher capacity at extreme outdoor air temperatures, and better indoor humidity control. These benefits are achieved, however, at the cost of installing a ground heat exchanger. In general, this cost is proportional to length of the heat exchanger, and for this reason there is an incentive to install the minimum possible length such that design criteria are met. The design of a ground heat exchanger for a GHP system requires, at a minimum, the operating characteristics of the heat pumps, estimates of annual and peak block loads for the building, and information about the properties of the heat exchanger: the size of the U-tubes, the grouting material, etc. The design also requires some knowledge of the thermal properties of the soil, namely thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and undisturbed soil temperature. In the case of a vertical borehole heat exchanger (BHEx) these properties generally vary with depth; therefore, in the design, effective or average thermal properties over the length of the borehole are usually sought. When the cost of doing so can be justified, these properties are measured in an in situ experiment: a test well is drilled to a depth on the same order as the expected depth of the heat pump heat exchangers; a U-tube heat exchanger is inserted and the borehole is grouted according to applicable state and local regulations; water is heated and pumped through the U-tube (using a field generator to power the equipment, or line voltage where available); and the inlet and outlet water temperatures are measured as a function of time. Data on inlet and outlet temperature, power input to the heater and pump, and water flow rate are collected at regular intervals--typically 1 to 15 min--for the duration of the experiment, which may be as long as 60 h. Two common methods for determining soil thermal properties from such measurements are the line source method and the cylinder source method. Both are based on long-term approximate solutions to the classical heat conduction problem of an infinitely long heat source in an infinite homogeneous medium. Although there are some differences in the way the two methods are implemented, the only difference between the two models is whether the heat source is considered to be a line or a cylinder. In both methods, power input to the water loop is assumed to be constant. The simplicity of these methods makes them attractive, but they also have some disadvantages. First of all, because the line source and cylinder source approximations are inaccurate for early time behavior, some of the initial data from the field test must be discarded. The amount of data discarded can affect the property measurement. Also, both methods assume that the heat transfer to the ground loop is constant. In practice, heat input to the loop may vary significantly over the course of a field test due to rough operation of the generator or short-term sags and swells in power line voltage. Presumably, this variation affects the accuracy of the thermal property measurement, but error analysis is rarely performed. This report presents a new method for determining thermal properties from short-term in situ tests using a parameter estimation technique. Because it is based on numerical solutions to the heat conduction equation, the new method is not affected by short-term variations in heat input. Also, since the model is accurate even for short times, there is no n

  1. Thermal Analysis and Test Program to Evaluate Passenger Compartment Thermal Load Reduction and Improve: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA number CRD-07-00231

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rugh, J.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This activity supported a GM and NREL collaborative exploration of strategies to minimize and alleviate the temperature rise in the passenger compartment of an automobile during prolonged exposure to solar radiation in hot climates. It developed and exercised math-based models to simulate the air flow and thermal environment in the passenger compartment in order to compare the effectiveness of the strategies. This activity also assessed the strategies using vehicle tests.

  2. Thermal Property Evaluation of Cerium Dioxide and Cerium Dioxide Magnesium Oxide Powders for Testing Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOYT, R C

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) and mixtures of CeO{sub 2} -magnesium oxide (MgO) have been utilized at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) as surrogate materials to represent plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and impure PuO{sub 2} containing impurities such as MgO during verification tests on PFP's stabilization furnaces. Magnesium oxide was selected during furnace testing as the impurity of interest since much of the impure PuO{sub 2} to be stabilized and packaged at the PFP contains significant amounts of MgO from solution stabilization work. The issue being addressed in this study is whether or not heating the surrogate materials to 950 C adequately simulates heating PuO{sub 2} powders to 950 C. This paper evaluates some of the thermal properties of these oxides, as related to the heating of powders of these materials where heat transfer within the powders is governed primarily by conduction. Detailed heat transfer modeling was outside the scope of this paper.

  3. Thermal hydraulic performance testing of printed circuit heat exchangers in a high-temperature helium test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai K. Mylavarapu; Xiaodong Sun; Richard E. Glosup; Richard N. Christensen; Michael W. Patterson

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, such as a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is required to efficiently transfer the core thermal output to a secondary fluid for electricity generation with an indirect power cycle and/or process heat applications. Currently, there is no proven high-temperature (750–800 °C or higher) compact heat exchanger technology for high-temperature reactor design concepts. In this study, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE), a potential IHX concept for high-temperature applications, has been investigated for their heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics under high operating temperatures and pressures. Two PCHEs, each having 10 hot and 10 cold plates with 12 channels (semicircular cross-section) in each plate are fabricated using Alloy 617 plates and tested for their performance in a high-temperature helium test facility (HTHF). The PCHE inlet temperature and pressure were varied from 85 to 390 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the cold side and 208–790 °C/1.0–2.7 MPa for the hot side, respectively, while the mass flow rate of helium was varied from 15 to 49 kg/h. This range of mass flow rates corresponds to PCHE channel Reynolds numbers of 950 to 4100 for the cold side and 900 to 3900 for the hot side (corresponding to the laminar and laminar-to-turbulent transition flow regimes). The obtained experimental data have been analyzed for the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of the heat transfer surface of the PCHEs and compared with the available models and correlations in the literature. In addition, a numerical treatment of hydrodynamically developing and hydrodynamically fully-developed laminar flow through a semicircular duct is presented. Relations developed for determining the hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct and the friction factor (or pressure drop) in the hydrodynamic entry length region for laminar flow through a semicircular duct are given. Various hydrodynamic entrance region parameters, such as incremental pressure drop number, apparent Fanning friction factor, and hydrodynamic entrance length in a semicircular duct have been numerically estimated.

  4. An evaporation test based on Thermal Infra Red Remote-Sensing to select appropriate soil hydraulic properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    An evaporation test based on Thermal Infra Red Remote- Sensing to select appropriate soil hydraulic to estimate common soil hydraulic properties at regional scale. Since they rely on an empirical link between at large scales. Here we propose a method for selecting appropriate soil hydraulic properties based

  5. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 6. Thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 3. 05. 5B - double-ended cold-leg break simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1982-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.05.5B was conducted by members of the ORNL PWR Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program on July 3, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.05.5B was designed to provide transient thermal-hydraulics data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. Reduced instrument responses are presented. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  6. Contact fatigue behavior and gas cell thermal wave NDE of sintered reaction bonded silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barla, J.R.; Edler, J.P.; Lin, H. [Eaton Corp. R & D, Southfield, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon nitride is being evaluated for potential applications as structural components subjected to contact fatigue loading. A new testing and evaluation methodology for evaluation of Hertzian contact fatigue damage in ceramic materials has been developed and is described. Contact fatigue damage is induced in three test specimens simultaneously. The material investigated is Eaton Corporation`s low cost E - Process Silicon Nitride. Tests were conducted at several Hertzian stress levels to evaluate contact fatigue damage behavior. Gas cell thermal wave NDE was employed to study the induced subsurface damage. Damage behavior was also investigated using optical microscopy. Two specimens were evaluated in detail; one that was tested for 17,400 cycles, P{sub max} = 2700 N and one that was tested for 1 x 10{sup 6} cycles, P{sub max} = 1800 N. The 2700 N specimen has a partial cone crack and contains a small concentration of vertical and shallow horizontal cracks. No evidence of a cone crack was detected on the 1800 N specimen. However, a larger concentration of horizontal microcracks at and just below the surface is present in this specimen, with particle debris in and around the surface contact area. Correlation of the optical microscopy observations with gas cell thermal wave NDE of the subsurface damage in these two specimens is discussed.

  7. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Sun-Heet nontracking solar collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Sun-Heet nontracking, line-focusing parabolic trough collector at five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  8. Geosynthetics International, 2004, 11, No. 6 Low-temperature air channel testing of thermally

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assurance, Quality control, Thermal welding, Peel strength, Burst pressure, Low temperature REFERENCE: Stark that fully automated thermal welding systems can weld PVC geomembranes as thin as 0.5 mm at temperatures temperature. Depending upon the manufacturer of the welder, PVC welding temperatures vary from 315 to 4808C

  9. Construction of the thermal/structural interactions in situ tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, D.E.; Matalucci, R.V. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoag, D.L.; Blankenship D.A. [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others] [RE/SPEC Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy has constructed the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to develop the technology for the disposal of radioactive waste from defense programs. Sandia National Laboratories has the responsibility for experimental activities at the WIPP and has emplaced several large-scale Thermal/Structural Interactions (TSI) in situ tests to validate techniques used to predict repository performance. The construction of the tests relied heavily on earlier excavations at the WIPP site to provide a basis for selecting excavation, surveying, and instrumentation methods, and achievable construction tolerances. The tests were constructed within close tolerances to provide consistent room dimensions and accurate placement of gages. This accuracy has contributed to the high quality of data generated which in turn has facilitated the comparison of test results to numerical predictions. The purpose of this report is to detail the construction activities of the TSI tests.

  10. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy tasked NREL to develop a process for testing the reliability of models that predict retrofit energy savings, including their associated calibration methods. DOE asked NREL to conduct the work in phases so that a test procedure would be ready should DOE need it to meet legislative requirements related to residential retrofits in FY 2010. This report documents the initial 'Phase 1' test procedure.

  11. Thermal-based probe for testing endothelial dysfunction and possible implications for diagnosing atherosclerosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lediju, Muyinatu A. (Muyinatu Adebisi)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Endothelial dysfunction is a precursor to atherosclerosis. Thus, the vascular health of an individual can be assessed if endothelial dysfunction can be readily and unambiguously quantified. A thermal-based approach using ...

  12. Testing the ae \\Lambda scaling of thermal transport models: predicted and measured temperatures in the Tokamak Fusion Test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor dimensionless scaling experiments D. R. Mikkelsen, S. D. Scott Princeton the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)] nondimensional to extrapo­ late [1] from current experiments to International Tokamak Experimental Reactor [2] (ITER) class

  13. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance assessment of a geological repository for radioactive waste requires quantifying the geochemical evolution of the bentonite engineered barrier. This barrier will be exposed to coupled thermal (T), hydrodynamic (H), mechanical (M) and chemical (C) processes. This paper presents a coupled THC model of the FEBEX (Full-scale Engineered Barrier EXperiment) in situ test which accounts for bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis. Model results attest the relevance of thermal osmosis and bentonite swelling for the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier while chemical osmosis is found to be almost irrelevant. The model has been tested with data collected after the dismantling of heater 1 of the in situ test. The model reproduces reasonably well the measured temperature, relative humidity, water content and inferred geochemical data. However, it fails to mimic the solute concentrations at the heater-bentonite and bentonite-granite interfaces because the model does not account for the volume change of bentonite, the CO{sub 2}(g) degassing and the transport of vapor from the bentonite into the granite. The inferred HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and pH data cannot be explained solely by solute transport, calcite dissolution and protonation/deprotonation by surface complexation, suggesting that such data may be affected also by other reactions.

  14. The Thermal Expansion, Elastic and Fracture Properties of Porous Cordierite at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shyam, Amit [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Pandey, Amit [ORNL; Watkins, Thomas R [ORNL; More, Karren [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties that determine the thermal shock resistance in materials are reported for porous cordierite, a leading candidate material for the fabrication of diesel particulate filters. Fracture toughness and slow crack growth tests were performed on test specimens obtained from the walls of diesel particulate filter monolithic substrates using the double-torsion test method at temperatures between 20 C and 900 C. The thermal expansion and elastic properties were characterized between 20 C and 1000 C. The role of the microstructure of porous cordierite in determining its unusual thermal expansion and elevated temperature Young's modulus and fracture toughness are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the upper shelf energy for ferritic steels from miniaturized Charpy specimen data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurishita, Hiroaki; Narui, Minoru; Kayano, Hideo [Tohoku Univ., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research; Shibahara, Itaru; Mizuta, Syunji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The small specimen technology is required in mechanical testing of irradiated materials because of very limited irradiation volume in currently available high flux reactors and future accelerator-based high energy neutron sources. In order to develop the methodology to evaluate the upper shelf energy (USE) for full size Charpy specimens of ferritic steels from miniaturized specimen data, the effects of specimen size and notch dimensions (notch root radius and notch depth) on the USE were studied for high strength ferritic steels with relatively low USE values of 135 and 107 J. The USE for miniaturized specimens, normalized by Bb{sup 2} or (Bb){sup 3/2} (B is the specimen thickness, b is the ligament size), was essentially independent of specimen size and tended to decrease with increasing the elastic stress concentration factor, K{sub t}, but the K{sub t} dependence was not significant. The normalized USE for full size specimens was considerably lower than that for miniaturized specimens. A general relationship was found that allows to determine the USE of full size specimens of ferritic steels directly from miniaturized specimen data.

  16. Thermally Simulated 32kW Direct-Drive Gas-Cooled Reactor: Design, Assembly, and Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfroy, Thomas J.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, TD40, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); University of Michgan, Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, Ann Arbor MI 48109 (United States); Kapernick, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2004-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the power systems under consideration for nuclear electric propulsion is a direct-drive gas-cooled reactor coupled to a Brayton cycle. In this system, power is transferred from the reactor to the Brayton system via a circulated closed loop gas. To allow early utilization, system designs must be relatively simple, easy to fabricate, and easy to test using non-nuclear heaters to closely mimic heat from fission. This combination of attributes will allow pre-prototypic systems to be designed, fabricated, and tested quickly and affordably. The ability to build and test units is key to the success of a nuclear program, especially if an early flight is desired. The ability to perform very realistic non-nuclear testing increases the success probability of the system. In addition, the technologies required by a concept will substantially impact the cost, time, and resources required to develop a successful space reactor power system. This paper describes design features, assembly, and test matrix for the testing of a thermally simulated 32kW direct-drive gas-cooled reactor in the Early Flight Fission - Test Facility (EFF-TF) at Marshall Space Flight Center. The reactor design and test matrix are provided by Los Alamos National Laboratories.

  17. MULTIPLE WELL VARIABLE RATE WELL TEST ANALYSIS OF DATA FROM THE AUBURN UNIVERSITY THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doughty, Christine

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    experimental Thermal energy storage in confined aquifers. ©lAUBURN UNIVERSITY THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE PROGRM1 Christineseries of aquifer thermal energy storage field experiments.

  18. OECD MMCI Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-2 test data report : thermal hydraulic results, Rev. 0 September 20, 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the second water ingression test, designated SSWICS-2. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

  19. OECD MCCI project Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength Tests (SSWICS) SSWICS-1 test data report : thermal hydraulic results. Rev. 0 September 20, 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lomperski, S.; Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Aeschlimann, R. W.; Basu, S. (Nuclear Engineering Division); (NRC)

    2011-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Melt Attack and Coolability Experiments (MACE) program at Argonne National Laboratory addressed the issue of the ability of water to cool and thermally stabilize a molten core/concrete interaction (MCCI) when the reactants are flooded from above. These tests provided data regarding the nature of corium interactions with concrete, the heat transfer rates from the melt to the overlying water pool, and the role of noncondensable gases in the mixing processes that contribute to melt quenching. However, due to the integral nature of these tests, several questions regarding the crust freezing behavior could not be adequately resolved. These questions include: (1) To what extent does water ingression into the crust increase the melt quench rate above the conduction-limited rate and how is this affected by melt composition and system pressure and (2) What is the fracture strength of the corium crust when subjected to a thermal-mechanical load and how does it depend upon the melt composition? A series of separate-effects experiments are being conducted to address these issues. The first employs an apparatus designed to measure the quench rate of a pool of corium ({approx}{phi}30 cm; up to 20 cm deep). The main parameter to be varied in these quench tests is the melt composition since it is thought to have a critical influence on the crust cracking behavior which, in turn, alters quench rate. The issue of crust strength will be addressed with a second apparatus designed to mechanically load the crust produced by the quench tests. This apparatus will measure the fracture strength of the crust while under a thermal load created by a heating element beneath the crust. The two apparatuses used to measure the melt quench rate and crust strength are jointly referred to as SSWICS (Small-Scale Water Ingression and Crust Strength). This report describes results of the first water ingression test, designated SSWICS-1. The report includes a description of the test apparatus, the instrumentation used, plots of the recorded data, and some rudimentary data reduction to obtain an estimate of the heat flux from the corium to the overlying water pool.

  20. LSPE Qualification and Flight Acceptance T /V Test Su.m..mary and Thermal Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    5. 2 5. 3 5.4 5.5 5. 6 5.7 Nodal Description Thermal Resistances Solar Heating Lunar Surface ------------ 8. 3 Lunar Surface Simulator 8. 4 Solar Simulation 8. 4. I 8. 3. 2 High Explosive Package Solar Simulation Geophone Infrared Heaters 8. 5 Experiment Location -------------- 8. 5. I 8. 5. 2 High Explosive

  1. Influence of specimen design on the ductility of zircaloy cladding: Experiment and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, D. W.; Majumdar, S.; Koss, D. A.; Motta, A. T.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA), a control rod ejection or drop causes a sudden increase in reactor power, which in turn deposits a large amount of energy into the fuel. The resulting thermal expansion and fission gas release loads the cladding into the plastic regime and may cause it to fail. In order to predict cladding survivability, there has been considerable interest and effort in supplementing integral WA tests with separate-effects ring tests of cladding tubes. Such tests can give one insight into failure mechanisms and measure relevant mechanical properties (such as yield strength, uniform elongation, uniaxial stress-strain curve, etc.), for use in computer codes that attempt to predict cladding response during an RIA. The accuracy of such model predictions obviously depends on appropriate and accurate failure data. This study concerns itself with the proper development of ring tensile tests that (i) are similar to the loading conditions present in an RIA, (ii) measure the relevant mechanical properties and (iii) provide insight regarding the influence of the strain paths on the failure mechanisms present if Zircaloy cladding. Based on both experiments and computational modeling, the authors investigate the failure of Zircaloy tubing as a function of specimen geometry, and discuss the limitations of certain ring-test geometries in yielding failure ductility data that are applicable to RIA situations.

  2. Thermal performance testing of two Thales 9310 pulse-tube cryocoolers for PHyTIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paine, Christopher G. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    PHyTIR is a NASA-funded technology demonstration for a near-term earth-observing instrument in the thermal infrared spectrum, intended for use in the HyspIRI mission. PHyTIR will use two Thales 9310 single-stage pulse tube cryocoolers, one to directly cool the FPA, the other to simulate a passive radiator. We report performance measurements for the two Thales 9310 cryocoolers intended for inclusion in the PHyTIR demonstrator.

  3. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  4. Recent VOC Control Test Data for a Reactive VOC Converter- Scrubber System for Non-Thermal Control of VOCs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinness, M.

    by their very nature represent a reduced fire hazard compared to dry filter booth systems. NFPA (National Fire Protection Agency) fire safety codes require the use of fire suppression automatic sprinklers on dry filter booths but not on water wash booths...Recent VOC Control Test Data for a Reactive VOC Converter Scrubber System for Non-Thermal Control of VOCs Mike McGinness VP-R&D EcoShield Environmental Systems, Inc. Houston, Texas ABSTRACT HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant) and VOC (Volatile...

  5. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data. Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector with 0. 125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Alpha Solarco Model 104 solar collector, with 0.125-inch Schott low-iron glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  6. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  7. Geosynthetics International, 2003, 10, No. 2 Air channel testing of thermally bonded PVC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    peel strength for a given sheet temperature. To develop this relationship, test welds were created thicknesses, three welding speeds, and three welding temperatures. The 72 seams created were evaluated the importance of welding temperature and speed. The test results are also used to develop a relationship between

  8. CST Melter Feed Characterization in Support of the 1999 and 2000 Thermal Fluids Lab Hydragard Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Immobilization Technology Section measured properties of the melter feed simulants used in the 1999 and 2000 Hydragard sample loop tests. These tests used simulated Sludge Batch 1B (Macrobatch 2) melter feeds. The melter feeds were characterized for wt. percent total and insoluble solids, pH, composition, particle size distribution, and rheology.

  9. Microscopic thermal diffusivity mapping using an infrared camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Standard flash thermal diffusivity measurements utilize a single-point infrared detector to measure the average temperature rise of the sample surface after a heat pulse. The averaging of infrared radiation over the sample surface could smear out the microscopic thermal diffusivity variations in some specimens, especially in fiber-reinforced composite materials. A high-speed, high-sensitivity infrared camera was employed in this study of composite materials. With a special microscope attachment, the spatial resolution of the camera can reach 5.4 {micro}m. The images can then be processed to generate microscopic thermal diffusivity maps of the material. SRM 1462 stainless steel was tested to evaluate the accuracy of the system. Thermal diffusivity micrographs of carbon-carbon composites and SCS-6/borosilicate glass were generated. Thermal diffusivity values of the carbon fiber bundles parallel to the heat flow were found to be higher than the matrix material. A thermal coupling effect between SCS-6 fiber and matrix was observed. The thermal coupling and measured thermal diffusivity value of the fiber were also dependent upon the thickness of the specimen.

  10. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 3. Thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 3. 06. 6B - transient film boiling in upflow. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reduced instrument responses are presented for Thermal-Hyraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.06.6B. This test was conducted by members of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Pressurized-Water-Reactor (PWR) Blowdown Heat Transfer (BDHT) Separate-Effects Program on August 29, 1980. The objective of the program was to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWR's during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.06.6B was conducted to obtain transient film boiling data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. The primary purpose of this report is to make the reduced instrument responses for THTF Test 3.06.6B available. Included in the report are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  11. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  12. A Testing Platform for Validation of Overhead Conductor Aging Models and Understanding Thermal Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irminger, Philip [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Stovall, John P [ORNL; Overholt, Philip N [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power system equipment manufacturers and researchers continue to experiment with novel overhead electric conductor designs that support better conductor performance and address congestion issues. To address the technology gap in testing these novel designs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory constructed the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) facility to evaluate the performance of novel overhead conductors in an accelerated fashion in a field environment. Additionally, PCAT has the capability to test advanced sensors and measurement methods for accessing overhead conductor performance and condition. Equipped with extensive measurement and monitoring devices, PCAT provides a platform to improve/validate conductor computer models and assess the performance of novel conductors. The PCAT facility and its testing capabilities are described in this paper.

  13. Results of scoping tests in corium-water thermal interactions in ex-vessel geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Sehgal, B.R.; Sienicki, J.J.; Squarer, D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of scoping tests are reported which were performed in the ANL/EPRI Corium Ex-vessel interactions (COREXIT) Facility located at ANL. These tests are examining issues related to containment loading (i.e., steam generation, H/sub 2/ production, and debris dispersal) for hypothetical LWR accidents that are postulated to progress to the point of molten corium breaching the vessel bottom head and entering the reactor cavity. The geometry selected for these tests is a 1 : 30 linear scale of the Zion PWR containment design in which the cavity is connected to the containment volume by an open tunnel through which pass the in-core detector guide tubes. The effects of the corium-water mixing modes were investigated in the first two tests in the series. In test CWTI-1 the molten corium was ejected into water which filled the cavity mockup volume to one-half the passageway height. In CWTI-2, the molten corium was dropped atop the refractory base in the cavity mockup without the presence of water, and water was injected atop the corium melt immediately afterward as per accumulator discharge. These tests have shown significant differences in fuel fragmentation, steam generation rate, hydrogen production, and fuel dispersal. Particularly noteworthy was the significant amount of dispersal of both water and corium debris from the cavity mockup due to the initially rapid steam generation rate in CWTI-1.

  14. Empirical validation of the thermal model of a passive solar cell test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mara, T A; Boyer, H; Mamode, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper deals with an empirical validation of a building thermal model. We put the emphasis on sensitivity analysis and on research of inputs/residual correlation to improve our model. In this article, we apply a sensitivity analysis technique in the frequency domain to point out the more important parameters of the model. Then, we compare measured and predicted data of indoor dry-air temperature. When the model is not accurate enough, recourse to time-frequency analysis is of great help to identify the inputs responsible for the major part of error. In our approach, two samples of experimental data are required. The first one is used to calibrate our model the second one to really validate the optimized model

  15. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  16. Integral and Separate Effects Tests for Thermal Hydraulics Code Validation for Liquid-Salt Cooled Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Per

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the 3-year project was to collect integral effects test (IET) data to validate the RELAP5-3D code and other thermal hydraulics codes for use in predicting the transient thermal hydraulics response of liquid salt cooled reactor systems, including integral transient response for forced and natural circulation operation. The reference system for the project is a modular, 900-MWth Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), a specific type of Fluoride salt-cooled High temperature Reactor (FHR). Two experimental facilities were developed for thermal-hydraulic integral effects tests (IETs) and separate effects tests (SETs). The facilities use simulant fluids for the liquid fluoride salts, with very little distortion to the heat transfer and fluid dynamics behavior. The CIET Test Bay facility was designed, built, and operated. IET data for steady state and transient natural circulation was collected. SET data for convective heat transfer in pebble beds and straight channel geometries was collected. The facility continues to be operational and will be used for future experiments, and for component development. The CIET 2 facility is larger in scope, and its construction and operation has a longer timeline than the duration of this grant. The design for the CIET 2 facility has drawn heavily on the experience and data collected on the CIET Test Bay, and it was completed in parallel with operation of the CIET Test Bay. CIET 2 will demonstrate start-up and shut-down transients and control logic, in addition to LOFC and LOHS transients, and buoyant shut down rod operation during transients. Design of the CIET 2 Facility is complete, and engineering drawings have been submitted to an external vendor for outsourced quality controlled construction. CIET 2 construction and operation continue under another NEUP grant. IET data from both CIET facilities is to be used for validation of system codes used for FHR modeling, such as RELAP5-3D. A set of numerical models were developed in parallel to the experimental work. RELAP5-3D models were developed for the salt-cooled PB-AHTR, and for the simulat fluid CIET natural circulation experimental loop. These models are to be validated by the data collected from CIET. COMSOL finite element models were used to predict the temperature and fluid flow distribution in the annular pebble bed core; they were instrumental for design of SETs, and they can be used for code-to-code comparisons with RELAP5-3D. A number of other small SETs, and numerical models were constructed, as needed, in support of this work. The experiments were designed, constructed and performed to meet CAES quality assurance requirements for test planning, implementation, and documentation; equipment calibration and documentation, procurement document control; training and personnel qualification; analysis/modeling software verification and validation; data acquisition/collection and analysis; and peer review.

  17. Thermal single-well injection-withdrawal tracer tests for determining fracture-matrix heat transfer area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pruess, K.; Doughty, C.

    2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests involve injection of traced fluid and subsequent tracer recovery from the same well, usually with some quiescent time between the injection and withdrawal periods. SWIW are insensitive to variations in advective processes that arise from formation heterogeneities, because upon withdrawal, fluid parcels tend to retrace the paths taken during injection. However, SWIW are sensitive to diffusive processes, such as diffusive exchange of conservative or reactive solutes between fractures and rock matrix. This paper focuses on SWIW tests in which temperature itself is used as a tracer. Numerical simulations demonstrate the sensitivity of temperature returns to fracture-matrix interaction. We consider thermal SWIW response to the two primary reservoir improvements targeted with stimulation, (1) making additional fractures accessible to injected fluids, and (2) increasing the aperture and permeability of pre-existing fractures. It is found that temperature returns in SWIW tests are insensitive to (2), while providing a strong signal of more rapid temperature recovery during the withdrawal phase for (1).

  18. X-ray holography of biological specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solem, J.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author reviews the reasons for x-ray imaging of biological specimens and the techniques presently being used for x-ray microscopy. The author points out the advantages of x-ray holography and the difficulties of obtaining the requisite coherence with conventional sources. The author discusses the problems of radiation damage and the remarkable fact that short pulse x-ray sources circumvent these problems and obtain high-resolution images of specimens in the living state. Finally, the author reviews some of the efforts underway to develop high-intensity coherent x-ray sources for the laboratory. 14 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

  20. : runout specimen max : maximum fatigue stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) layer to concrete bridge deck slab was conceived was drawn without runout specimens .) Figure 6 Fatigue fracture surface of (a) UHPFRC, (b) steel rebar (a influenced by fibre distribution and orientation. Fatigue fracture surface of UHPFRC is similar

  1. Surrogate formulations for thermal treatment of low-level mixed waste. Part 3: Plasma hearth process testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, J.M.; Bostick, W.D.; Hoffman, D.P.; Hermes, W.H.; Gibson, L.V. Jr.; Richmond, A.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The plasma hearth process (PHP) presented in this report has been tested at a facility at Ukiah, California, in a cooperative effort between the Department of Energy (DOE), Science Applications International Corporation, Inc., and ReTech, Inc. The electrically heated plasma gas is used to destroy organic materials and bind radionuclides and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals in the glassy slag. Proof-of-principle tests were conducted successfully using nonhazardous and non-radioactive materials placed in 30-gal steel drums. On-line analyses of the gaseous effluents indicated complete combustion; emissions of CO, NO{sub x}, and particulates were low. The process also produced highly stable solid waste forms. The experiments for the next phase have been planned employing surrogates for the hazardous and radioactive components of the simulated waste streams. Natural cerium oxide is selected to simulate the behavior of radioactive actinide and transuranium elements, while natural cesium chloride is simulated for the study of relatively volatile radioactive fission products. For RCRA organics, naphthalene and 1,2-dichlorobenzene are semivolatile compounds selected to represent significant challenges to thermal destruction, whereas chlorobenzene is selected for the study of relatively volatile organics. Salts of chromium, nickel, lead, and cadmium are chosen to represent the twelve regulated toxic metals for emission and partitioning studies. The simulated waste packages presented in the text do not necessarily represent an individual waste stream within the DOE complex; rather, they were formulated to represent the most probable components in generic waste stream categories.

  2. Apparatus for thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy conducted thermal performance measurements on low-slope roofs with a recently developed field test apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The apparatus accommodates four 4 ft x 8 ft test specimens and includes the measurement capabilities for specimen temperatures, temperature gradients, heat flows and moisture content. A weather station characterizes outdoor weather conditions. Tests underway include (1) validation of a roof surface temperature model developed to study the effects of wet insulation; (2) measurement of temperature distributions and heat transfer in high R-value roofs; and (3) validation of an analysis of the effectiveness of high reflectance surfaces. Preliminary experimental results are presented and correlations between experiment and modeling are discussed.

  3. Thick Thermal Barrier Coatings (TTBCs) for Low Emission, High Efficiency Diesel Engine Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Brad Beardsley, Caterpillar Inc.; Dr. Darrell Socie, University of Illinois; Dr. Ed Redja, University of Illinois; Dr. Christopher Berndt, State University of New York at Stony Brook

    2006-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program was to advance the fundamental understanding of thick thermal barrier coating (TTBC) systems for application to low heat rejection diesel engine combustion chambers. Previous reviews of thermal barrier coating technology concluded that the current level of understanding of coating system behavior is inadequate and the lack of fundamental understanding may impede the application of thermal barrier coating to diesel engines.(1) Areas of TTBC technology examined in this program include powder characteristics and chemistry; bond coating composition, coating design, microstructure and thickness as they affect properties, durability, and reliability; and TTBC "aging" effects (microstructural and property changes) under diesel engine operating conditions. Fifteen TTBC ceramic powders were evaluated. These powders were selected to investigate the effects of different chemistries, different manufacturing methods, lot-to-lot variations, different suppliers and varying impurity levels. Each of the fifteen materials has been sprayed using 36 parameters selected by a design of experiments (DOE) to determine the effects of primary gas (Ar and N2), primary gas flow rate, voltage, arc current, powder feed rate, carrier gas flow rate, and spraying distance. The deposition efficiency, density, and thermal conductivity of the resulting coatings were measured. A coating with a high deposition efficiency and low thermal conductivity is desired from an economic standpoint. An optimum combination of thermal conductivity and disposition efficiency was found for each lot of powder in follow-on experiments and disposition parameters were chosen for full characterization.(2) Strengths of the optimized coatings were determined using 4-point bending specimens. The tensile strength was determined using free-standing coatings made by spraying onto mild steel substrates which were subsequently removed by chemical etching. The compressive strengths of the coatings were determined using composite specimens of ceramic coated onto stainless steel substrates, tested with the coating in compression and the steel in tension. The strength of the coating was determined from an elastic bi-material analysis of the resulting failure of the coating in compression.(3) Altough initial comparisons of the materials would appear to be straight forward from these results, the results of the aging tests of the materials are necessary to insure that trends in properties remain after long term exposure to a diesel environment. Some comparisons can be made, such as the comparison between for lot-to-lot variation. An axial fatigue test to determine the high cycle fatigue behavior of TTBCs was developed at the University of Illinois under funding from this program.(4) A fatigue test apparatus has been designed and initial work performed which demonstrates the ability to provide a routine method of axial testing of coating. The test fixture replaces the normal load frame and fixtures used to transmit the hydraulic oil loading to the sample with the TTBC specimen itself. The TTBC specimen is a composite metal/coating with stainless steel ends. The coating is sprayed onto a mild steel center tube section onto which the stainless steel ends are press fit. The specimen is then machined. After machining, the specimen is placed in an acid bath which etches the mild steel away leaving the TTBC attached to the the stainless steel ends. Plugs are then installed in the ends and the composite specimen loaded in the test fixture where the hydraulic oil pressurizes each end to apply the load. Since oil transmits the load, bending loads are minimized. This test fixture has been modified to allow piston ends to be attached to the specimen which allows tensile loading as well as compressive loading of the specimen. In addition to the room temperature data, specimens have been tested at 800 Degrees C with the surprising result that at high temperature, the TTBC exhibits much higher fatigue strength. Testing of the TTBC using tension/compression cycling has been con

  4. NGNP Graphite Testing and Qualification Specimen Selection Strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Bratton

    2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The available grades of graphite for the NGNP are reviewed. A selection matrix is presented outlining the available grades for the NGNP graphite irradiation program based upon input from potential NGNP vendors, graphite manufactures, and graphite experts.

  5. A Search for Channel Deformation in Irradiated Vanadium Tensile Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, David S.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2010-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature tensile specimen of V-4Cr-4Ti which had be irradiated in the 17J test at 425°C to 3.7 dpa was mechanically polished, deformed to 3.9% strain at room temperature, and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy in order to look for evidence of channel deformation. It was found that uniform deformation can occur without channel deformation, but evidence for channeling was found with channels appearing most prominently after the onset of necking. The channeling occurs on wavy planes with large variations in localized deformation from channel to channel.

  6. Thermal resistance of prototypical cellular plastic roof insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McElroy, D.L.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cooperative industry/government project was initiated in 1989 to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents in polyisocyanurate (PIR) boardstock for roofing applications. Five sets of PIR boardstock were produced to industry specifications for current roof insulation technology. The boardstock allowed the performance of four alternative blowing agents (HCFC-123, HCFC-14lb, and two blends of HCFC-123 and HCFC-14lb) to compared to CFC-11. Laboratory and field tests show the relative thermal performance of the individual PIR boards. One set of laboratory tests show the thermal conductivity (k) from 0 to 50{degree}C (30 to 120{degree}F) of boards prior to installation and as a function of time after exposure to field conditions in the Roof Thermal Research Apparatus (0, 9, and 15 months). Another set of laboratory tests show k as a function of aging time 24{degree}C (75{degree}F) and 65{degree}C (150{degree}F) for full-thickness, half-thickness, and quarter-thickness specimens. These test results and modeling calculations show the value of thin specimen testing as an accelerated aging procedure. 24 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas Karl (Berkeley, CA); Andresen, Nord (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a motorized manipulator for positioning a TEM specimen holder with sub-micron resolution parallel to a y-z plane and rotating the specimen holder in the y-z plane, the manipulator comprising a base (2), and attachment means (30) for attaching the specimen holder to the manipulator, characterized in that the manipulator further comprises at least three nano-actuators (3.sup.a, 3.sup.b, 3.sup.c) mounted on the base, each nano-actuator showing a tip (4.sup.a, 4.sup.b, 4.sup.c), the at least three tips defining the y-z plane, each tip capable of moving with respect to the base in the y-z plane; a platform (5) in contact with the tips of the nano-actuators; and clamping means (6) for pressing the platform against the tips of the nano-actuators; as a result of which the nano-actuators can rotate the platform with respect to the base in the y-z plane and translate the platform parallel to the y-z plane.

  8. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance of the Acurex solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Acurex solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  9. Influence of specimen design on the deformation and failure of zircaloy cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bates, D. W.; Koss, D. A.; Motta, A. T.; Majumdar S.

    2000-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental as well as computational analyses have been used to examine the deformation and failure behavior of ring-stretch specimens of Zircaloy-4 cladding tubes. The results show that, at least for plastically anisotropic unirradiated cladding, specimens with a small gauge length l to width w ratio (l/w {approx} 1) exhibit pronounced non-uniform deformation along their length. As a result, specimen necking occurs upon yielding when the specimen is fully plastic. Finite element analysis indicates a minimum l/w of 4 before a significant fraction of the gauge length deforms homogeneously. A brief examination of the contrasting deformation and failure behavior between uniaxial and plane-strain ring tension tests further supports the use of the latter geometry for determining cladding failure ductility data that are relevant to certain reactivity-initiated accident conditions.

  10. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  11. Results of molten salt panel and component experiments for solar central receivers: Cold fill, freeze/thaw, thermal cycling and shock, and instrumentation tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pacheco, J.E.; Ralph, M.E.; Chavez, J.M.; Dunkin, S.R.; Rush, E.E.; Ghanbari, C.M.; Matthews, M.W.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments have been conducted with a molten salt loop at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, NM to resolve issues associated with the operation of the 10MW{sub e} Solar Two Central Receiver Power Plant located near Barstow, CA. The salt loop contained two receiver panels, components such as flanges and a check valve, vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters, and an impedance pressure transducer. Tests were conducted on procedures for filling and thawing a panel, and assessing components and instrumentation in a molten salt environment. Four categories of experiments were conducted: (1) cold filling procedures, (2) freeze/thaw procedures, (3) component tests, and (4) instrumentation tests. Cold-panel and -piping fill experiments are described, in which the panels and piping were preheated to temperatures below the salt freezing point prior to initiating flow, to determine the feasibility of cold filling the receiver and piping. The transient thermal response was measured, and heat transfer coefficients and transient stresses were calculated from the data. Freeze/thaw experiments were conducted with the panels, in which the salt was intentionally allowed to freeze in the receiver tubes, then thawed with heliostat beams. Slow thermal cycling tests were conducted to measure both how well various designs of flanges (e.g., tapered flanges or clamp type flanges) hold a seal under thermal conditions typical of nightly shut down, and the practicality of using these flanges on high maintenance components. In addition, the flanges were thermally shocked to simulate cold starting the system. Instrumentation such as vortex shedding and ultrasonic flow meters were tested alongside each other, and compared with flow measurements from calibration tanks in the flow loop.

  12. Specimen illumination apparatus with optical cavity for dark field illumination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel (Walnut Creek, CA); Sudar, Damir (Walnut Creek, CA); Albertson, Donna (Lafayette, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An illumination apparatus with a specimen slide holder, an illumination source, an optical cavity producing multiple reflection of illumination light to a specimen comprising a first and a second reflective surface arranged to achieve multiple reflections of light to a specimen is provided. The apparatus can further include additional reflective surfaces to achieve the optical cavity, a slide for mounting the specimen, a coverslip which is a reflective component of the optical cavity, one or more prisms for directing light within the optical cavity, antifading solutions for improving the viewing properties of the specimen, an array of materials for analysis, fluorescent components, curved reflective surfaces as components of the optical cavity, specimen detection apparatus, optical detection equipment, computers for analysis of optical images, a plane polarizer, fiberoptics, light transmission apertures, microscopic components, lenses for viewing the specimen, and upper and lower mirrors above and below the specimen slide as components of the optical cavity. Methods of using the apparatus are also provided.

  13. Recent VOC Control Test Data for a Reactive VOC Converter- Scrubber System for Non-Thermal Control of VOCs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinness, M.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of real estate. Non-thermal VOHAP (Volatile Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant) emission control devices require additional maintenance. They also require the replacement of costly consumables such as activated carbon or they use large amounts of energy...

  14. Testing and Development Progress for the Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) Testing Series in the High Power Propulsion Thermal Simulator (HPPTS) at Marshall Space Flight Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dyke, Melissa; Houts, Mike; Godfroy, Tom; Dickens, Ricky [Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Poston, David; Kapernick, Rick; Reid, Bob [Los Alamos National Laboratory, University of California, US Department of Energy, PO Box 1663, MS J576, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Salvail, Pat [ITT Research Institute, Marshall Space Flight Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, Alabama, 35812 (United States); Ring, Peter [Advanced Methods and Materials, 510 Lawrence Expressway, Suite 203, Sunnyvale, California, 94086 (United States)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Successful development of space fission systems will require an extensive program of affordable and realistic testing. In addition to tests related to design/development of the fission system, realistic testing of the actual flight unit must also be performed. Testing can be divided into two categories, non-nuclear tests and nuclear tests. Full power nuclear tests of space fission systems are expensive, time consuming, and of limited use, even in the best of programmatic environments. If the system is designed to operate within established radiation damage and fuel burn up limits while simultaneously being designed to allow close simulation of heat from fission using resistance heaters, high confidence in fission system performance and lifetime can be attained through a series of non-nuclear tests. Non-nuclear tests are affordable and timely, and the cause of component and system failures can be quickly and accurately identified. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) test series, whose ultimate goal is the demonstration of a 400 kW flight configuration system, has demonstrated that realistic testing can be performed using non-nuclear methods. This test series, carried out in collaboration with other NASA centers, other government agencies, industry, and universities, successfully completed a testing program with a 30 kWt core, Stirling engine, and ion engine configuration. Additionally, a 100 kWt core is in fabrication and appropriate test facilities are being reconfigured. This paper describes the current SAFE non-nuclear tests, which includes test article descriptions, test results and conclusions, and future test plans. (authors)

  15. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition from normal high-flow operation to natural circulation. Low-flow coolant events are the most difficult to design for because they involve the most complex thermal-hydraulic behavior induced by the dominance of thermal-buoyancy forces acting on the coolants. Such behavior can cause multiple-component flow interaction phenomena, which are not adequately understood or appreciated by reactor designers as to their impact on reactor performance and safety. Since the early 1990s, when DOE canceled the U.S. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program, little has been done experimentally to further understand the importance of the complex thermal-buoyancy phenomena and their impact on reactor design or to improve the ability of three-dimensional (3-D) transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and structures codes to model the phenomena. An improved experimental data base and the associated improved validated codes would provide needed design tools to the reactor community. The improved codes would also facilitate scale-up from small-scale testing to prototype size and would facilitate comparing performance of one reactor/component design with another. The codes would also have relevance to the design and safety of water-cooled reactors. To accomplish the preceding, it is proposed to establish a national GNEP-LMR research and development center at Argonne having as its foundation state-of-art science-based infrastructure consisting of: (a) thermal-hydraulic experimental capabilities for conducting both water and sodium testing of individual reactor components and complete reactor in-vessel models and (b) a computational modeling development and validation capability that is strongly interfaced with the experimental facilities. The proposed center would greatly advance capabilities for reactor development by establishing the validity of high-fidelity (i.e., close to first principles) models and tools. Such tools could be used directly for reactor design or for qualifying/tuning of lower-fidelity models, which now require costly experimental qualification for each different type of design

  16. Midtemperature solar systems test faclity predictions for thermal performance based on test data: Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhanced oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the Solar Kinetics solar line-focusing parabolic trough collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  17. Midtemperature solar systems test facility predictions for thermal performance based on test data: AAI solar collector with pressure-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is currently conducting a program to predict the performance and measure the characteristics of commercially available solar collectors that have the potential for use in industrial process heat and enhance oil recovery applications. The thermal performance predictions for the AAI solar line-focusing slat-type collector for five cities in the US are presented. (WHK)

  18. Apparatus and method for magnetically processing a specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gerard M; Ludtka, Gail M; Wilgen, John B; Kisner, Roger A; Jaramillo, Roger A

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for magnetically processing a specimen that couples high field strength magnetic fields with the magnetocaloric effect includes a high field strength magnet capable of generating a magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla and a magnetocaloric insert disposed within a bore of the high field strength magnet. A method for magnetically processing a specimen includes positioning a specimen adjacent to a magnetocaloric insert within a bore of a magnet and applying a high field strength magnetic field of at least 1 Tesla to the specimen and to the magnetocaloric insert. The temperature of the specimen changes during the application of the high field strength magnetic field due to the magnetocaloric effect.

  19. Sensitivity Evaluation of the Daily Thermal Predictions of the AGR-1 Experiment in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant Hawkes; James Sterbentz; John Maki

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A temperature sensitivity evaluation has been performed for the AGR-1 fuel experiment on an individual capsule. A series of cases were compared to a base case by varying different input parameters into the ABAQUS finite element thermal model. These input parameters were varied by ±10% to show the temperature sensitivity to each parameter. The most sensitive parameters are the outer control gap distance, heat rate in the fuel compacts, and neon gas fraction. Thermal conductivity of the compacts and graphite holder were in the middle of the list for sensitivity. The smallest effects were for the emissivities of the stainless steel, graphite, and thru tubes. Sensitivity calculations were also performed varying with fluence. These calculations showed a general temperature rise with an increase in fluence. This is a result of the thermal conductivity of the fuel compacts and graphite holder decreasing with fluence.

  20. Interlaboratory comparison of the horizontal pipe insulation test apparatus up to 350{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, T.E. [Pabco, Fruita, CO (United States); Graves, R.S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McElroy, D.L. [McElroy (David L.), Knoxville, TN (United States); Smith, D.R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this interlaboratory comparison was to provide information for the precision and bias section in the ASTM Standard Test Method C 335, {open_quotes}Steady-State Heat Transfer Properties of Horizontal Pipe Insulation.{close_quotes} (The text describes the ASTM C 335 test method, the specimens tested and the test protocol). The apparent thermal conductivity of two rigid calcium silicate pipe insulation specimens was measured by eight laboratories. Each laboratory measured both specimens at four different temperatures. The test mean temperatures ranged from 35 to 390{degrees}C. The two standard deviation value for the data ranged from 4.5 to 7.7% and the average value was 6.3%. The statement recommended for the precision and bias statement for Section 13.1.4 of ASTM C 335 is: {open_quotes}Tests performed at seven different laboratories using guarded-end horizontal pipe test apparatus and at one laboratory using an unguarded cylindrical screen test apparatus on two specimens of calcium silicate insulation in the range of mean temperatures from 35 to 390{degree}C did not vary by more than 6.3% (two standard deviations) of the average.{close_quotes}

  1. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation Tests on Material from Tanks 241-U-103, 241-AW-101, 241-S-106, and 241-S-102: Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, C.M.; Bryan, S.A.

    1999-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress in evaluating thermal and radiolytic flammable gas generation in actual Hanford single-shell tank wastes. The work described was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, whose purpose is to develop information to support DE&S Hanford (DESH) and Project Management Hanford Contract (PHMC) subcontractors in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. This work is related to gas generation studies performed by Numatec Hanford Corporation (formerly Westinghouse Hanford Company). This report describes the results of laboratory tests of gas generation from actual convective layer wastes from Tank 241-U-103 under thermal and radiolytic conditions. Accurate measurements of gas generation rates from highly radioactive tank wastes are needed to assess the potential for producing and storing flammable gases within the tanks. The gas generation capacity of the waste in Tank 241-U-103 is a high priority for the Flammable Gas Safety Program due to its potential for accumulating gases above the flammability limit (Johnson et al, 1997). The objective of this work was to establish the composition of gaseous degradation products formed in actual tank wastes by thermal and radiolytic processes as a function of temperature. The gas generation tests on Tank 241-U-103 samples focused first on the effect of temperature on the composition and rate of gas generation Generation rates of nitrogen, nitrous oxide, methane, and hydrogen increased with temperature, and the composition of the product gas mixture varied with temperature.

  2. Thermal conductivity of thermal-battery insulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, R.A.; Moss, M.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivities of a variety of insulating materials used in thermal batteries were measured in atmospheres of argon and helium using several techniques. (Helium was used to simulate the hydrogen atmosphere that results when a Li(Si)/FeS{sub 2} thermal battery ages.) The guarded-hot-plate method was used with the Min-K insulation because of its extremely low thermal conductivity. For comparison purposes, the thermal conductivity of the Min-K insulating board was also measured using the hot-probe method. The thermal-comparator method was used for the rigid Fiberfrax board and Fiberfrax paper. The thermal conductivity of the paper was measured under several levels of compression to simulate the conditions of the insulating wrap used on the stack in a thermal battery. The results of preliminary thermal-characterization tests with several silica aerogel materials are also presented.

  3. Spatially resolved thermal desorption/ionization coupled with mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jesse, Stephen; Van Berkel, Gary J; Ovchinnikova, Olga S

    2013-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for sub-micron analysis of a chemical composition of a specimen are described. The method includes providing a specimen for evaluation and a thermal desorption probe, thermally desorbing an analyte from a target site of said specimen using the thermally active tip to form a gaseous analyte, ionizing the gaseous analyte to form an ionized analyte, and analyzing a chemical composition of the ionized analyte. The thermally desorbing step can include heating said thermally active tip to above 200.degree. C., and positioning the target site and the thermally active tip such that the heating step forms the gaseous analyte. The thermal desorption probe can include a thermally active tip extending from a cantilever body and an apex of the thermally active tip can have a radius of 250 nm or less.

  4. Monte Carlo testing of new cross section data sets for thermal and intermediate highly enriched uranium critical assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinman, J.P. [Lockheed Martin Corp., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the eigenvalue sensitivity to new {sup 235}U, hydrogen, and oxygen cross section data sets by comparing RACER Monte Carlo calculations for several thermal and intermediate spectrum critical experiments. The new {sup 235}U library (Version 107) was derived by L. Leal and H. Derrien by fitting differential experimental data for {sup 235}U while constraining the fit to match experimental capture and fission resonance integrals and Maxwellian averaged thermal K1 (v fission minus absorption). The new hydrogen library (Version 45) consists of the ENDF/B-VI release 3 data with a 332.0 mb 2,200 m/s cross section which replaces the value of 332.6 mb in the current library. The new oxygen library (Version 39) is based on a recent evaluation of {sup 16}O by E. Caro. Nineteen Oak Ridge and Rocky Flats thermal solution benchmark critical assemblies that span a range of hydrogen-to-{sup 235}U (H/U) concentrations (2,052 to 27.1) and above-thermal neutron leakage fractions (0.555 to 0.011) were analyzed. In addition, three intermediate spectrum critical assemblies (UH3-UR, UH3-NI, and HISS-HUG) were studied.

  5. The design, construction, and testing of a nuclear fuel rod thermal simulation system to study gallium/Zircaloy interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allison, Christopher Curtis

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of gallium in weapons grade plutonium has raised many questions concerning its use in light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods. The biggest concern is that the gallium will migrate down the thermal gradient in the fuel rod and deposit...

  6. IN-SITU MEASUREMENT OF WALL THERMAL PERFORMANCE: DATA INTERPRETATION AND APPARATUS DESIGN RECOMMENDATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modera, M.P.; Sherman, M.H.; de Vinuesa, S.G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Description: The Envelope Thermal Test Unit (submitted forCross-sectional view of Envelope Thermal Test Unit blanketmeasurement prototype, the Envelope Thermal Test Unit,12 and

  7. A coupled THC model of the FEBEX in situ test with bentonite swelling and chemical and thermal osmosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, L.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in situ test, however, block joints were not pre-sealed.swelling and seal the joints between bentonite blocks. In

  8. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S. E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes ofof thermal loads resulting from the building envelope areThermal Test Facility, LhL-9653, prepared for the ASHRAE/DOE Conference-on"t:heThermal Performance the Exterior Envelope

  9. A comparison of the values of thermal conductivity of a dry porous material determined by various laboratory methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fluker, Billie J

    1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Accepted Standazd Values of Rhombic Sulphur Therxml Conductivity with Temperature . ~ ~. . . . . . . . . 40 Introduction There are three possibilities of obtaining numerical data for thermal conductivity of porous materials One is by the use.... It uas also necessary that tbe material selected be such that the preparation of teat specimens could be completed in the laboratory uithout specialiaed technique. Hhambic sulphur uas selected for test since it embodied each of these features...

  10. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility Program for predicting thermal performance of line-focusing, concentrating solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The program at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, for predicting the performance of line-focusing solar collectors in industrial process heat applications is described. The qualifications of the laboratories selected to do the testing and the procedure for selecting commercial collectors for testing are given. The testing program is outlined. The computer program for performance predictions is described. An error estimate for the predictions and a sample of outputs from the program are included.

  11. Effects of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senor, D.J.; Youngblood, G.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Moore, C.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Trimble, D.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Woods, J.J. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics were characterized by measuring their thermal diffusivity in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions over the temperature range 400 to 1,000 C. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to doses of 33 and 43 dpa-SiC (185 EFPD) at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. Thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method, and was converted to thermal conductivity using density data and calculated specific heat values. Exposure to the 165 day anneal did not appreciably degrade the conductivity of the monolithic or particulate-reinforced composites, but the conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composites was slightly degraded. The crystalline SiC-based materials tested in this study exhibited thermal conductivity degradation of irradiation, presumably caused by the presence of irradiation-induced defects. Irradiation-induced conductivity degradation was greater at lower temperatures, and was typically more pronounced for materials with higher unirradiated conductivity. Annealing the irradiated specimens for one hour at 150 C above the irradiation temperature produced an increase in thermal conductivity, which is likely the result of interstitial-vacancy pair recombination. Multiple post-irradiation anneals on CVD {beta}-SiC indicated that a portion of the irradiation-induced damage was permanent. A possible explanation for this phenomenon was the formation of stable dislocation loops at the high irradiation temperature and/or high dose that prevented subsequent interstitial/vacancy recombination.

  12. Effects of neutron irradiation on thermal conductivity of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senor, D.J.; Youngblood, G.E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Moore, C.E. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Trimble, D.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Woods, J.J. [Lockheed Martin, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A variety of SiC-based composites and monolithic ceramics were characterized by measuring their thermal diffusivity in the unirradiated, thermal annealed, and irradiated conditions over the temperature range 400 to 1,000 C. The irradiation was conducted in the EBR-II to doses of 33 and 43 dpa-SiC (185 EFPD) at a nominal temperature of 1,000 C. The annealed specimens were held at 1,010 C for 165 days to approximately duplicate the thermal exposure of the irradiated specimens. Thermal diffusivity was measured using the laser flash method, and was converted to thermal conductivity using density data and calculated specific heat values. Exposure to the 165 day anneal did not appreciably degrade the conductivity of the monolithic or particulate-reinforced composites, but the conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composites was slightly degraded. The crystalline SiC-based materials tested in this study exhibited thermal conductivity degradation after irradiation, presumably caused by the presence of irradiation-induced defects. Irradiation-induced conductivity degradation was greater at lower temperatures, and was typically more pronounced for materials with higher unirradiated conductivity. Annealing the irradiated specimens for one hour at 150 C above the irradiation temperature produced an increase in thermal conductivity, which is likely the result of interstitial-vacancy pair recombination. Multiple post-irradiation anneals on CVD {beta}-SiC indicated that a portion of the irradiation-induced damage was permanent. A possible explanation for this phenomenon was the formation of stable dislocation loops at the high irradiation temperature and/or high dose that prevented subsequent interstitial/vacancy recombination.

  13. Design and experimental testing of the performance of an outdoor LiBr/H{sub 2}O solar thermal absorption cooling system with a cold store

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agyenim, Francis; Knight, Ian; Rhodes, Michael [The Welsh School of Architecture, Bute Building, King Edward VII Avenue, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF10 3NB Wales (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A domestic-scale prototype experimental solar cooling system has been developed based on a LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption system and tested during the 2007 summer and autumn months in Cardiff University, UK. The system consisted of a 12 m{sup 2} vacuum tube solar collector, a 4.5 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption chiller, a 1000 l cold storage tank and a 6 kW fan coil. The system performance, as well as the performances of the individual components in the system, were evaluated based on the physical measurements of the daily solar radiation, ambient temperature, inlet and outlet fluid temperatures, mass flow rates and electrical consumption by component. The average coefficient of thermal performance (COP) of the system was 0.58, based on the thermal cooling power output per unit of available thermal solar energy from the 12 m{sup 2} Thermomax DF100 vacuum tube collector on a hot sunny day with average peak insolation of 800 W/m{sup 2} (between 11 and 13.30 h) and ambient temperature of 24 C. The system produced an electrical COP of 3.6. Experimental results prove the feasibility of the new concept of cold store at this scale, with chilled water temperatures as low as 7.4 C, demonstrating its potential use in cooling domestic scale buildings. (author)

  14. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF NON-REPOSITORY LITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC LAYERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. JONES

    2004-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This model report addresses activities described in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport Thermal Properties and Analysis Reports Integration'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171708]). The model develops values for thermal conductivity, and its uncertainty, for the nonrepository layers of Yucca Mountain; in addition, the model provides estimates for matrix porosity and dry bulk density for the nonrepository layers. The studied lithostratigraphic units, as identified in the ''Geologic Framework Model'' (GFM 2000) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170029]), are the Timber Mountain Group, the Tiva Canyon Tuff, the Yucca Mountain Tuff, the Pah Canyon Tuff, the Topopah Spring Tuff (excluding the repository layers), the Calico Hills Formation, the Prow Pass Tuff, the Bullfrog Tuff, and the Tram Tuff. The deepest model units of the GFM (Tund and Paleozoic) are excluded from this study because no data suitable for model input are available. The parameter estimates developed in this report are used as input to various models and calculations that simulate heat transport through the rock mass. Specifically, analysis model reports that use product output from this report are: (1) Drift-scale coupled processes (DST and TH seepage) models; (2) Drift degradation analysis; (3) Multiscale thermohydrologic model; and (4) Ventilation model and analysis report. In keeping with the methodology of the thermal conductivity model for the repository layers in ''Thermal Conductivity of the Potential Repository Horizon'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169854]), the Hsu et al. (1995 [DIRS 158073]) three-dimensional (3-D) cubic model (referred to herein as ''the Hsu model'') was used to represent the matrix thermal conductivity as a function of the four parameters (matrix porosity, thermal conductivity of the saturating fluid, thermal conductivity of the solid, and geometric connectivity of the solid). The Hsu model requires input data from each test specimen to meet three specific conditions: (1) Known value for matrix porosity; (2) Known values for wet and dry thermal conductivity; and (3) The location of the measured specimen in relation to the model stratigraphic unit. The only matrix thermal conductivity values developed are limited to fully saturated and dry conditions. The model does not include the effects of convection and thermal radiation in voids. The model does not include temperature dependence of thermal conductivity, porosity, or bulk density.

  15. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  16. Resonance test system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Musial, Walter (Boulder, CO); White, Darris (Superior, CO)

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus (10) for applying at least one load to a specimen (12) according to one embodiment of the invention may comprise a mass (18). An actuator (20) mounted to the specimen (12) and operatively associated with the mass (18) moves the mass (18) along a linear displacement path (22) that is perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the specimen (12). A control system (26) operatively associated with the actuator (20) operates the actuator (20) to reciprocate the mass (18) along the linear displacement path (22) at a reciprocating frequency, the reciprocating frequency being about equal to a resonance frequency of the specimen (12) in a test configuration.

  17. Failure analysis of pinch-torsion tests as a thermal runaway risk evaluation method of Li-Ion Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Yuzhi [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Li, Dr. Tianlei [Florida State University, Tallahassee; Ren, Prof. Fei [Temple University; Gao, Yanfei [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently a pinch-torsion test is developed for safety testing of Li-ion batteries (Ren et al., J. Power Source, 2013). It has been demonstrated that this test can generate small internal short-circuit spots in the separator in a controllable and repeatable manner. In the current research, the failure mechanism is examined by numerical simulations and comparisons to experimental observations. Finite element models are developed to evaluate the deformation of the separators under both pure pinch and pinch-torsion loading conditions. It is discovered that the addition of the torsion component significantly increased the maximum principal strain, which is believed to induce the internal short circuit. In addition, the applied load in the pinch-torsion test is significantly less than in the pure pinch test, thus dramatically improving the applicability of this method to ultra-thick batteries which otherwise require heavy load in excess of machine capability. It is further found that the separator failure is achieved in the early stage of torsion (within a few degree of rotation). Effect of coefficient of friction on the maximum principal strain is also examined.

  18. Comparison of electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical calculations with rf test results in rf-dipole deflecting/crabbing cavities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, HyeKyoung [JLAB, ODU; De Silva, Subashini U. [ODU; Delayen, Jean R. [ODU, JLAB

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current requirements of higher gradients and strict dimensional constraints in the emerging applications have required the designing of compact deflecting and crabbing rf structures. The superconducting rf-dipole cavity is one of the first novel compact designs with attractive properties such as higher gradients, higher shunt impedance and widely separated higher order modes. The recent tests performed on proof-of-principle designs of the rf-dipole geometry at 4.2 K and 2.0 K in the vertical test area at Jefferson Lab have proven the designs to achieve higher gradients with higher intrinsic quality factors and easily processed multipacting conditions. The cavity characteristics, such as pressure sensitivity and Lorentz force detuning, were studied using ANSYS before the fabrication. These characteristics were measured during the cavity test. The comparison between the simulation and the measurement provides insight how the simulation can be used for design and fabrication of future cavities.

  19. Review of the Development and Testing of a New Family of Boron and Gadolinium-Bearing Dual Thermal Neutron Absorbing Alloys - 13026

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, M.L.; Del Corso, G.J.; Klankowski, K.A. [Carpenter Tech., Corp., P.O. Box 14662, Reading PA 19612-4662 (United States)] [Carpenter Tech., Corp., P.O. Box 14662, Reading PA 19612-4662 (United States); Lherbier, L.W.; Novotnak, D.J. [Carpenter Powder Products, 600 Mayer St., Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)] [Carpenter Powder Products, 600 Mayer St., Bridgeville, PA 15017 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a new class of Fe-based thermal neutron absorbing alloys (patent pending) containing both natural boron (B) and gadolinium (Gd) is reviewed. Testing has shown that Ar and N inert gas atomized powder metallurgy (PM) variants offer superior processability coupled with improved mechanical properties that exhibit reduced anisotropy and reduced corrosion rates compared to conventional cast/wrought processed material. PM processing results in a microstructure containing a uniform distribution of second phase borides and gadolinides, and the morphology of the gadolinides prevents the formation low melting point Gd-bearing phases at solidifying austenite boundaries. The new T316-based materials containing both B and Gd exhibit superior corrosion resistance compared to straight B-bearing T304 materials. By keeping the B content < 1 weight percent (%) and using Gd to attain an equivalent B (B{sub Eq}) content higher than that achievable through the use of B only, the new materials exhibit superior ductility, toughness and bendability as a result of significantly reduced area fraction of Cr-rich M{sub 2}B borides. Limiting the total area fraction of second phase particles to < 22% insures a product with superior bendability. By restricting B to < 1% and using Gd up to 2.5%, B{sub Eq} levels approaching 12% can be attained that provide a cost effective improvement in thermal neutron absorption capability compared to using B-10 enriched boron. The new materials can be easily bent during fabrication compared to existing metal matrix composite materials while offering similar thermal neutron absorption capability. Production lots containing B{sub Eq} levels of 4.0 and 7.5% (Micro-Melt{sup R} DuoSorb{sup TM} 316NU-40 and 75, respectively) are in the process of being fabricated for customer trial material. (authors)

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  1. Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2009-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Dynamic frequency/temperature sweep tests were conducted over the ranges 0.1-100 rad/s and 30-100 C using a parallel plate test geometry. A strain of 0.2% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on initial dynamic strain sweep tests. Master curves of G{prime} and G{double_prime} as a function of frequency were generated using time-temperature superposition (horizontal shift with initial vertical correction). The activation energy calculated from an Arrhenius fit to the horizontal shift factors was 178-355 kJ/mol. The calculated percent load retention at {approx}50 years was 61-68%.

  2. University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log Specimen Refrigerator Log

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log ­ Specimen Refrigerator Log Month / Year Clinical ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: 31 ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: If the refrigerator temperature falls out refrigerator. This record must be kept for one year and then destroyed per State requirement

  3. Ultra high vacuum heating and rotating specimen stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coombs, A.W. III

    1995-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating and rotating specimen stage provides for simultaneous specimen heating and rotating. The stage is ideally suited for operation in ultrahigh vacuum (1{times}10{sup {minus}9} torr or less), but is useful at atmosphere and in pressurized systems as well. A specimen is placed on a specimen holder that is attached to a heater that, in turn, is attached to a top housing. The top housing is rotated relative to a bottom housing and electrically connected thereto by electrically conductive brushes. This stage is made of materials that are compatible with UHV, able to withstand high temperatures, possess low outgassing rates, are gall and seize resistant, and are able to carry substantial electrical loading without overheating. 5 figs.

  4. Ultra high vacuum heating and rotating specimen stage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coombs, III, Arthur W. (Patterson, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating and rotating specimen stage provides for simultaneous specimen heating and rotating. The stage is ideally suited for operation in ultrahigh vacuum (1.times.10.sup.-9 torr or less), but is useful at atmosphere and in pressurized systems as well. A specimen is placed on a specimen holder that is attached to a heater that, in turn, is attached to a top housing. The top housing is rotated relative to a bottom housing and electrically connected thereto by electrically conductive brushes. This stage is made of materials that are compatible with UHV, able to withstand high temperatures, possess low outgassing rates, are gall and seize resistant, and are able to carry substantial electrical loading without overheating.

  5. Coupled optical/thermal/fluid analysis and design requirements for operation and testing of a supercritical CO2 solar receiver.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khivsara, Sagar [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalor (India)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have evaluated closed-loop supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton cycles to be a higher energy-density system in comparison to conventional superheated steam Rankine systems. At turbine inlet conditions of 923K and 25 MPa, high thermal efficiency (~50%) can be achieved. Achieving these high efficiencies will make concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies a competitive alternative to current power generation methods. To incorporate a s-CO2 Brayton power cycle in a solar power tower system, the development of a solar receiver capable of providing an outlet temperature of 923 K (at 25 MPa) is necessary. To satisfy the temperature requirements of a s-CO2 Brayton cycle with recuperation and recompression, it is required to heat s-CO2 by a temperature of ~200 K as it passes through the solar receiver. Our objective was to develop an optical-thermal-fluid model to design and evaluate a tubular receiver that will receive a heat input ~1 MWth from a heliostat field. We also undertook the documentation of design requirements for the development, testing and safe operation of a direct s-CO2 solar receiver. The main purpose of this document is to serve as a reference and guideline for design and testing requirements, as well as to address the technical challenges and provide initial parameters for the computational models that will be employed for the development of s-CO2 receivers.

  6. Experimental deformation of multilithologic specimens simulating sedimentary facies changes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyke, Lawrence Dana

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL DEFORMATION OF MULTILITHOLOGIC SPECIMENS SIMULATING SEDIMENTARY FACIES CHANGES A Thesis by LAWRENCE DANA DYKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Geology EXPERIMENTAL DEFORMATION OF MULTILITHOLOGIC SPECIMENS SIMULATING SEDIMENTARY FACIES CHANGES A Thesis by LAWRENCE DANA DYKE Approved as to style and content by: (Chai n Committee) (Head...

  7. Experimental deformation of multilithologic specimens simulating sedimentary facies changes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyke, Lawrence Dana

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTAL DEFORMATION OF MULTILITHOLOGIC SPECIMENS SIMULATING SEDIMENTARY FACIES CHANGES A Thesis by LAWRENCE DANA DYKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subject: Geology EXPERIMENTAL DEFORMATION OF MULTILITHOLOGIC SPECIMENS SIMULATING SEDIMENTARY FACIES CHANGES A Thesis by LAWRENCE DANA DYKE Approved as to style and content by: (Chai n Committee) (Head...

  8. Notch reorientation of Charpy-V specimens of the BWR Philippsburg 1 through reconstitution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walle, E. van; Fabry, A.; Ransbeeck, T. van; Puzzolante, J.L.; Velde, J. van de [SCK-CEN, Mol (Belgium); Tulke, K. [Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg Gmbh (Germany). Div. Nuclear Technology; Backfisch, W. [TUV Suedwest e.V., Mannheim (Germany). Div. Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    10 x 10 x 10 mm cubes, made from broken halves of un-irradiated and irradiated L-T oriented Charpy-V surveillance specimens of the Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Philippsburg 1, were reconstituted to L-T and T-L oriented Charpy-V bars using the stud-gun welding technique of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN. Instrumented Charpy-V (C{sub V}) impact testing, according to the European Standard EN10045, was performed in order to determine the T-L transition curves of the reconstituted surveillance material. Losses of fracture energy and lateral expansion, mainly as a consequence of constraint of plastic flow due to the reconstitution welds, were detected. No change in shear fracture appearance was observed. The transition curves of the tested T-L reconstituted specimens represent conservative lower bounds that fulfill the C{sub V} upper shelf energy requirements of the Regulator. A correction curve allows estimation of the T-L transition curves of non-reconstituted T-L specimens.

  9. Investigation of temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high-dose HT9 steel using small-specimen reuse technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk [KAERI] [KAERI; Byun, Thak Sang [ORNL] [ORNL; Maloy, S [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Toloczko, M [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)] [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to 3 145 dpa at 380 503 C was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. A miniature-specimen reuse technique has been established: the tested halves of subsize Charpy impact specimens with dimensions of 27 mm 3mm 4 mm were reused for this fracture test campaign by cutting a notch with a diamond-saw in the middle of each half, and by fatigue-precracking to generate a sharp crack tip. It was confirmed that the fracture toughness of HT9 steel in the dose range depends more strongly on the irradiation temperature than the irradiation dose. At an irradiation temperature <430 C, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with the test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180 200 MPa ffiffiffiffiffi m p at 350 450 C, and then decreased with the test temperature. At an irradiation temperatureP430 C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged up to about 450 C and decreased slowly with test temperatures in a higher temperature range. Such a rather monotonic test temperature dependence after high-temperature irradiation is similar to that observed for an archive material generally showing a higher degree of toughness. A brittle fracture without stable crack growth occurred in only a few specimens with relatively lower irradiation and test temperatures. In this discussion, these TPB fracture toughness data are compared with previously published data from 12.7 mm diameter disc compact tension (DCT) specimens.

  10. Investigation of temperature dependence of fracture toughness in high-dose HT9 steel using small-specimen reuse technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek, Jong-Hyuk; Byun, Thak Sang; Maloy, Stuart A.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The temperature dependence of fracture toughness in HT9 steel irradiated to 3–145 dpa at 380–503 degrees*C was investigated using miniature three-point bend (TPB) fracture specimens. A miniature-specimen reuse technique has been established: the tested halves of subsize Charpy impact specimens with dimensions of 27 mm *3mm* 4 mm were reused for this fracture test campaign by cutting a notch with a diamond-saw in the middle of each half, and by fatigue-precracking to generate a sharp crack tip. It was confirmed that the fracture toughness of HT9 steel in the dose range depends more strongly on the irradiation temperature than the irradiation dose. At an irradiation temperature <430 *degreesC, the fracture toughness of irradiated HT9 increased with the test temperature, reached an upper shelf of 180—200 MPa*m^.5 at 350–450 degrees*C, and then decreased with the test temperature. At an irradiation temperature >430 degrees*C, the fracture toughness was nearly unchanged up to about 450 *degreesC and decreased slowly with test temperatures in a higher temperature range. Such a rather monotonic test temperature dependence after high-temperature irradiation is similar to that observed for an archive material generally showing a higher degree of toughness. A brittle fracture without stable crack growth occurred in only a few specimens with relatively lower irradiation and test temperatures. In this discussion, these TPB fracture toughness data are compared with previously published data from 12.7 mm diameter disc compact tension (DCT) specimens.

  11. Advanced thermal imaging of composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite materials were studied by Scanning Thermal Conductivity Microscope (STCM) and high speed thermography. The STCM is a qualitative technique which is used to study thermal conductivity variations on a sub-micrometer scale. High speed thermography is a quantitative technique for measuring thermal diffusivity with a variable spatial resolution from centimeters down to less than 25 gm. A relative thermal conductivity contrast map was obtained from a SiC/Si3N4 continuous fiber ceramic composite using the STCM. Temperature changes of a carbon/carbon composite after a heat pulse were captured by an IR camera to generate a thermal diffusivity map of the specimen. Line profiles of the temperature distribution showed significant variations as a result of fiber orientation.

  12. Fractographic examination of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel charpy specimens irradiated to 30 dpa at 370{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schubert, L.E. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fractographic examinations are reported for a series of reduced activation ferritic/Martensitic steel Charpy impact specimens tested following irradiation to 30 dpa at 370{degrees}C in FFTF. One-third size specimens of six low activation steels developed for potential application as structural materials in fusion reactors were examined. A shift in brittle fracture appearance from cleavage to grain boundary failure was noted with increasing manganese content. The results are interpreted in light of transmutation induced composition changes in a fusion environment.

  13. Use of laser extensometer for mechanical test on irradiated materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brillaud, C.; Meylogan, T.; Salathe, P. [Electricite de France, Avoine (France)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques have been developed by EDF`s hot laboratory in Chinon for performing mechanical tests on irradiated materials. Some of these techniques aim to facilitate strain measurements, which are particularly difficult to perform on irradiated specimens at high temperatures or on subsize specimens. Recent progress has been driven by laser technology combined with software development. The use of this technique, which allows strain measurements without contact on the specimen, is described for tensile (especially on subsize specimens), fatigue and creep tests.

  14. Computer Science Specimen Curriculum City University Hong Kong, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    Computer Science Specimen Curriculum City University Hong Kong, China Spring Semester Junior Year Communications 3 CS 3103 (CS 281) Operating Systems Principles 3 CS 250 Algorithms 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 6 CS 270 Programming Languages 3 LAC Liberal Arts Core 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 3 15 LAC

  15. Computer Science Specimen Curriculum City University Hong Kong, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    Computer Science Specimen Curriculum City University Hong Kong, China Fall Semester Junior Year) Algorithms 3 CS 281 Operating System Principles 3 OPEN ELEC Open Elective 3 CS PROJ Computer Science Project 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 3 LAC Liberal Arts Core 3 LAC

  16. Computer Science Specimen Curriculum National University of Singapore

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simaan, Nabil

    Computer Science Specimen Curriculum National University of Singapore Fall Semester Junior Year Science Project 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 3 LAC Liberal Arts MATH ELEC Math Elective 3 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 6 CS DEPTH Computer Science Depth 6 OPEN ELEC

  17. Detection of Macrosegregation in a Large Metallic Specimen Using XRF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    Detection of Macrosegregation in a Large Metallic Specimen Using XRF E.J. Pickeringa , M. Hollandb the removal of significant quantitites of material. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, on the other hand being enclosed in a vacuum or destroyed beyond basic surface preparation. XRF spectroscopy has its

  18. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Suntec solar collector with heat-formed glass reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Suntec solar collector, with heat-formed glass reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  19. Dish Stirling High Performance Thermal Storage

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Laboratories Amir Faghri, University of Connecticut Judith Gomez, NREL National Solar Thermal Test Facility: World Class Capabilities at Your Service Testing 5MW...

  20. Thermal diffusivity imaging of continuous fiber ceramic composite materials and components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Steckenrider, J.S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); King, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for various high-temperature applications, including use in advanced turbine engines. In such composites, the condition of the interfaces between the fibers and matrix or between laminae in a two-dimensional weave lay-up are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. A nondestructive evaluation method that could be used to assess the interface condition and/or detect other `defects` has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and uses infrared thermal imaging to provide `single-shot` full- field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. By applying digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques for noise reduction, shorter acquisition and analysis times have been achieved with submillimeter spatial resolution for materials with a wide range of `thermal thicknesses`. The system at ANL has been used to examine the effects of thermal shock, oxidation treatment, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens. In addition, actual subscale CFCC components of nonplanar geometries have been inspected for manufacturing-induced variations in thermal properties.

  1. Apparatus for testing for infection by a retrovirus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Layne, Scott P. (Los Angeles, CA); Beugelsdijk, Tony J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for testing specimens for infection by a retrovirus is described. The apparatus comprises a process controller including a communications module for translating user commands into test instrument suite commands and a means for communicating specimen test results to a user. The apparatus further comprises a test instrument suite including a means for treating the specimen to manifest an observable result and a detector for measuring the observable result.

  2. ?A cylindrical specimen holder for electron cryo-tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palmer, Colin Michael

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 3.6 Characterisation of carbon nanopipettes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 3.7 Discussion of the manufacturing process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4 Cryo-tomography 67 4.1 Specimen preparation I... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3.7 Elemental maps and longitudinal EDX linescan of a carbon nanopipette 61 3.8 Transverse EDX linescan of a carbon nanopipette . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.1 Transmission electron micrograph of a blocked carbon nanopipette tip 68 4.2 A carbon...

  3. Critical heat flux test apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welsh, Robert E. (West Mifflin, PA); Doman, Marvin J. (McKeesport, PA); Wilson, Edward C. (West Mifflin, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for testing, in situ, highly irradiated specimens at high temperature transients is provided. A specimen, which has a thermocouple device attached thereto, is manipulated into test position in a sealed quartz heating tube by a robot. An induction coil around a heating portion of the tube is powered by a radio frequency generator to heat the specimen. Sensors are connected to monitor the temperatures of the specimen and the induction coil. A quench chamber is located below the heating portion to permit rapid cooling of the specimen which is moved into this quench chamber once it is heated to a critical temperature. A vacuum pump is connected to the apparatus to collect any released fission gases which are analyzed at a remote location.

  4. Advanced Vehicle Testing - Beginning-of-Test Battery Testing...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2.5 V Thermal Mgmt.: Passive, Vacuum-Sealed Unit Pack Weight: 294 kg BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 6,696 mi Date of...

  5. Midtemperature Solar Systems Test Facility predictions for thermal performance of the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector with FEK 244 reflector surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, T.D.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal performance predictions are presented for the Solar Kinetics T-700 solar collector, with FEK 244 reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.

  6. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carroll, William L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    dynamic test methods for envelope thermal performance whichtransieu~ thermal behavior of building envelopes, and theof dynamic thermal performance, of layered envelope construe

  7. Full-field characterization of thermal diffusivity in continuous- fiber ceramic composite materials and components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steckenrider, J.S.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rothermel, S.A. [South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for various high-temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. Among the material classes of interest for such applications are silicon carbide (SiC)-fiber-reinforced SiC (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), SiC-fiber-reinforced silicon nitride (SiC {sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})-fiber-reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sub (f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and others. In such composites, the condition of the interfaces (between the fibers and matrix) are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component (as are conventional mechanical defects such as cracks, porosity, etc.). For example, oxidation of this interface (especially on carbon coated fibers) can seriously degrade both mechanical and thermal properties. Furthermore, thermal shock damage can degrade the matrix through extensive crack generation. A nondestructive evaluation method that could be used to assess interface condition, thermal shock damage, and to detect other ``defects`` would thus be very beneficial, especially if applicable to full-scale components. One method under development uses infrared thermal imaging to provide ``single-shot`` full-field assessment of the distribution of thermal properties in large components by measuring thermal diffusivity. By applying digital image filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques for noise reduction, we can achieve acquisition and analysis times of minutes or less with submillimeter spatial resolution. The system developed at Argonne has been used to examine the effects of thermal shock, oxidation treatment, density variations, and variations in oxidation resistant coatings in a full array of test specimens. Subscale CFCC components with nonplanar geometries have also been studied for manufacturing-induced variations in thermal properties.

  8. Characterization of thermal aging of duplex stainless steel by SQUID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isobe, Y.; Kamimura, A.; Aoki, K.; Nakayasu, F. [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal aging is a growing concern for long-term-aged duplex stainless steel piping in nuclear power plants. Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) was used for the detection of thermal aging of SUS329 rolled duplex stainless steel and SCS16 cast duplex stainless steel. It was found that the SQUID output signal pattern in the presence of AC magnetic field applied to the specimen was sensitive to the changes in electromagnetic properties due to thermal aging.

  9. ADVANCED COATINGS LAB EQUIPMENT & TESTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ Exposure Testing, Filiform Corrosion · Ovens · Low Temperature Freezer · Thermal Cyclic Chamber · Solar and conical · Adhesion Test Kits · Water Immersion Bath · Dry Film Thickness ­ Magnetic Induction, Eddy

  10. Flexibility in Testing Configurations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technologies Laboratory and the National Solar Thermal Test Facility to advance the reliability, interconnectivity, and availability of solar technologies in the nation's...

  11. New specimens of Propotamochoerus (Suidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of the Balkans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    New specimens of Propotamochoerus (Suidae, Mammalia) from the late Miocene of the Balkans Denis. hysudricus or P. hyotherioides. It is likely that these Balkan specimens belong to a species of their own

  12. Ultrasonic thickness testing of aging offshore structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellison, Brian Kirk

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . 14 2. 15 2. 16 2. 17 2. 18 New Anode. Spent Anode 1989 JIP Specimens. Dual Transducer Sound Paths. Specimens for Feasibility Studies (View I). Specimens for Feasibility Studies (View 2) . General Nomenclature. Transducer / Surface... study in an attempt to improve the effectiveness of ultrasonic thickness testing. Motivation for research stems from a joint industry project (JIP) that took place at Texas AIkM University (TAMU) from 1989 to 1990 (Moehlman 1990). In 1989, several...

  13. In-situ Creep Testing Capability Development for Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creep is the slow, time-dependent strain that occurs in a material under a constant strees (or load) at high temperature. High temperature is a relative term, dependent on the materials being evaluated. A typical creep curve is shown in Figure 1-1. In a creep test, a constant load is applied to a tensile specimen maintained at a constant temperature. Strain is then measured over a period of time. The slope of the curve, identified in the figure below, is the strain rate of the test during Stage II or the creep rate of the material. Primary creep, Stage I, is a period of decreasing creep rate due to work hardening of the material. Primary creep is a period of primarily transient creep. During this period, deformation takes place and the resistance to creep increases until Stage II, Secondary creep. Stage II creep is a period with a roughly constant creep rate. Stage II is referred to as steady-state creep because a balance is achieved between the work hardening and annealing (thermal softening) processes. Tertiary creep, Stage III, occurs when there is a reduction in cross sectional area due to necking or effective reduction in area due to internal void formation; that is, the creep rate increases due to necking of the specimen and the associated increase in local stress.

  14. AN UPDATE ON BIAXIAL THERMAL CREEP OF VANADIUM ALLOYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, Richard J.; Ermi, August M.

    2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the thermal creep properties of two vanadium alloys was performed using pressurized tube specimens. Creep tubes nominally 4.57 mm OD by 0.25 mm wall thickness were pressurized with high-purity helium gas to mid-wall effective stresses below the effective (Von Mises) yield strength. Specimens were fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat No. 832665) and a V-3Fe-4Ti alloy. The samples were heated to 650, 700, 725, and 800 degrees C in an ultra-high vacuum furnace and periodically removed to measure the change in tube outer diameter with a high-precision laser profilometer. The normalized minimum creep rate was found to be power-law dependent on the modulus compensated applied stress. The value of the stress exponent varied with the applied stress. At normalized stresses ranging from 0.002 to 0.008 the stress exponent was about 4 and the activation energy was about 300 kJ/mole, which is quite close to the activation energy for self-diffusion in pure vanadium. These results suggest that the predominant mechanism of creep in this regime is climb-assisted dislocation motion. At lower stresses the value of the stress exponent is near unity suggesting that viscous creep mechanisms such as Coble creep or grain boundary sliding may be operative, but the data are too sparse to be conclusive. The reported creep rates from uniaxial tests [1] in vacuum are several times higher than the creep rates measured here. This is probably due to the larger interstitial oxygen concentration of the creep tubing (699 wppm) compared to the sheet stock (310 wppm) used for tensile specimen fabrication. Finally, the creep strength of V-4Cr-4Ti at 700 and 800 degrees C was superior to the V-3Fe-4Ti alloy.

  15. Sensitivity analysis for joint inversion of ground-penetrating radar and thermal-hydrological data from a large-scale underground heater test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalsky, M.B.; Birkholzer, J.; Peterson, J.; Finsterle, S.; Mukhopadhya y, S.; Tsang, Y.T.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    first step toward comprehensive inversion of the heater testfirst step toward a full inversion of the heater test data,

  16. Development of a nanostructure thermal property measurement platform compatible with a transmission electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, C. Thomas (Charles Thomas)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomicscale structure ...

  17. Automation for Cryo-TEM: From Specimen Grid to 3D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Automation for Cryo-TEM: From Specimen Grid to 3D Map B. Carragher, D. Fellmann, N. Kisseberth, R://www.itg.uiuc.edu #12;AUTOMATION FOR CRYO-TEM: FROM SPECIMEN GRID TO 3D MAP B. Carragher, D. Fellmann, N. Kisseberth, R map of a macromolecular structure automatically and within hours of inserting a specimen

  18. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  19. Specimen coordinate automated measuring machine/fiducial automated measuring machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hedglen, Robert E. (Bethel Park, PA); Jacket, Howard S. (Pittsburgh, PA); Schwartz, Allan I. (Turtle Creek, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Specimen coordinate Automated Measuring Machine (SCAMM) and the Fiducial Automated Measuring Machine (FAMM) is a computer controlled metrology system capable of measuring length, width, and thickness, and of locating fiducial marks. SCAMM and FAMM have many similarities in their designs, and they can be converted from one to the other without taking them out of the hot cell. Both have means for: supporting a plurality of samples and a standard; controlling the movement of the samples in the +/- X and Y directions; determining the coordinates of the sample; compensating for temperature effects; and verifying the accuracy of the measurements and repeating as necessary. SCAMM and FAMM are designed to be used in hot cells.

  20. Flow localization in sheet specimens with pairs of holes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geltmacher, A.B. [FM Technologies, Fairfax, VA (United States); Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Metals Science and Engineering; Stout, M.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Matic, P. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Mechanics of Materials Dept.

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deformation localization behavior of sheet specimens containing geometric perturbations in the form of pairs of through-thickness holes is examined. Both experiments and computational modeling are performed in either uniaxial or equal-biaxial tension in order to examine the effect of applied loading path on the far-field strain needed to initiate localized necking in the ligament between the hole pairs. The models also examine the influence of hole spacing and matrix strain hardening on ligament localization. The far-field strain needed to cause the localization of the ligament is shown to increase as the biaxiality of the loading path increases, the hole spacing increases, and the strain-hardening exponent increases. The present study also indicates that the onset of localized necking can be predicted by employing the Hill criterion, if the local strain states within the ligament are taken into account.

  1. A laboratory investigation of thermally induced pore pressures in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohajerani, Mehrdokht; Sulem, Jean; Monfared, Mohammad; Tang, Anh-Minh; Gatmiri, Behrouz

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate the thermally induce pore pressure occurring in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. Thermal pore pressures appear in low permeability soils and rocks because the thermal expansion coefficient of water is significantly higher than that of the solid grains (Campanella and Mitchell; 1968 [1], Ghabezloo and Sulem; 2009 [2]). This phenomenon has clearly been observed in various in-situ heating tests conducted in Opalinus claystone in the Mont-Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland (HE-D test) and in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone in the Bure URL in France (TER test, Wileveau and Su; 2007 [3]) The processes of coring, transportation, storage and specimen trimming induce some desaturation in the sample. Due to the very low permeability (10-20 m2) of the COx claystone, a long period of time is necessa...

  2. Report on thermal aging effects on tensile properties of ferritic-martensitic steels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, M.; Soppet, W.K.; Rink, D.L.; Listwan, J.T.; Natesan, K. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an update on the evaluation of thermal-aging induced degradation of tensile properties of advanced ferritic-martensitic steels. The report is the first deliverable (level 3) in FY11 (M3A11AN04030103), under the Work Package A-11AN040301, 'Advanced Alloy Testing' performed by Argonne National Laboratory, as part of Advanced Structural Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Concepts. This work package supports the advanced structural materials development by providing tensile data on aged alloys and a mechanistic model, validated by experiments, with a predictive capability on long-term performance. The scope of work is to evaluate the effect of thermal aging on the tensile properties of advanced alloys such as ferritic-martensitic steels, mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616, and advanced austenitic stainless steel, HT-UPS. The aging experiments have been conducted over a temperature of 550-750 C for various time periods to simulate the microstructural changes in the alloys as a function of time at temperature. In addition, a mechanistic model based on thermodynamics and kinetics has been used to address the changes in microstructure of the alloys as a function of time and temperature, which is developed in the companion work package at ANL. The focus of this project is advanced alloy testing and understanding the effects of long-term thermal aging on the tensile properties. Advanced materials examined in this project include ferritic-martensitic steels mod.9Cr-1Mo and NF616, and austenitic steel, HT-UPS. The report summarizes the tensile testing results of thermally-aged mod.9Cr-1Mo, NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 ferritic-martensitic steels. NF616 H1 and NF616 H2 experienced different thermal-mechanical treatments before thermal aging experiments. NF616 H1 was normalized and tempered, and NF616 H2 was normalized and tempered and cold-rolled. By examining these two heats, we evaluated the effects of thermal-mechanical treatments on material microstructures and associated mechanical properties during long-term aging at elevated temperatures. Thermal aging experiments at different temperatures and periods of time have been completed: 550 C for up to 5000 h, 600 C for up to 7500 h, and 650 C for more than 10,000 h. Tensile properties were measured on thermally aged specimens and aging effect on tensile behavior was assessed. Effects of thermal aging on deformation and failure mechanisms were investigated by using in-situ straining technique with simultaneous synchrotron XRD measurements.

  3. NESC-VII: Fracture Mechanics Analyses of WPS Experiments on Large-scale Cruciform Specimen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Williams, Paul T [ORNL; Bass, Bennett Richard [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes numerical analyses performed to simulate warm pre-stress (WPS) experiments conducted with large-scale cruciform specimens within the Network for Evaluation of Structural Components (NESC-VII) project. NESC-VII is a European cooperative action in support of WPS application in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity assessment. The project aims in evaluation of the influence of WPS when assessing the structural integrity of RPVs. Advanced fracture mechanics models will be developed and performed to validate experiments concerning the effect of different WPS scenarios on RPV components. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), USA contributes to the Work Package-2 (Analyses of WPS experiments) within the NESCVII network. A series of WPS type experiments on large-scale cruciform specimens have been conducted at CEA Saclay, France, within the framework of NESC VII project. This paper first describes NESC-VII feasibility test analyses conducted at ORNL. Very good agreement was achieved between AREVA NP SAS and ORNL. Further analyses were conducted to evaluate the NESC-VII WPS tests conducted under Load-Cool-Transient- Fracture (LCTF) and Load-Cool-Fracture (LCF) conditions. This objective of this work is to provide a definitive quantification of WPS effects when assessing the structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels. This information will be utilized to further validate, refine, and improve the WPS models that are being used in probabilistic fracture mechanics computer codes now in use by the NRC staff in their effort to develop risk-informed updates to Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G.

  4. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M. R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C. -C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T. O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; et al

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done bymore »computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.« less

  5. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Beetz, T.; Howells, M.R.; Jacobsen, C.; Kao, C.-C.; Kirz, J.; Lima, E.; Mentes, T.O.; Miao, H.; Sanchez-Hanke, C.; Sayre, D.; Shapiro, D.

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of +/- 80 degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  6. Apparatus for X-ray diffraction microscopy and tomography of cryo specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, T. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Howells, M. R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Center for Functional Nanomaterials; Jacobsen, C. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Kao, C. -C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Kirz, J. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source; Lima, E. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Mentes, T. O. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); TASC-INFM National Lab, Trieste (Italy); Miao, H. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Sanchez-Hanke, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source; Sayre, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Shapiro, D. [Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for diffraction microscopy of biological and materials science specimens is described. In this system, a coherent soft X-ray beam is selected with a pinhole, and the illuminated specimen is followed by an adjustable beamstop and CCD camera to record diffraction data from non-crystalline specimens. In addition, a Fresnel zone plate can be inserted to allow for direct imaging. The system makes use of a cryogenic specimen holder with cryotransfer capabilities to allow frozen hydrated specimens to be loaded. The specimen can be tilted over a range of ± 80 ° degrees for three-dimensional imaging; this is done by computer-controlled motors, enabling automated alignment of the specimen through a tilt series. The system is now in use for experiments in soft X-ray diffraction microscopy.

  7. Modeling of thermomechanical conditions in Sigmajig weldability test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Z.; Zacharia, T.; David, S.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A finite element model has been developed to evaluate quantitatively the thermomechanical conditions for weld metal solidification cracking of a nickel based superalloy single-crystal in a laboratory weldability test, namely, the Sigmajig test. The effects of weld pool solidification on the thermal and mechanical behaviors of the specimen were considered. Stress-temperature-location diagrams were constructed to reveal the complex local stress development at the trailing edge of the weld pool. The calculated local stress in the solidification temperature range is used to explain the experimentally observed initiation of solidification cracking of the single-crystal under different welding and loading conditions, based on the material resistance versus the mechanical driving force.

  8. A comparison of the toughness of ductile iron to cast steel using modified charpy test specimens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, Keith Elison

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transition temperature exhibited by cast steel was surprising since these materials had 48 CA + I th + 0 s V) Cg Z CA I I Ci 0 ID ID z I CL o o C 0 lA I Ql P 0 a E EU pQ 0 I- IA (U I ID IA I I CD ( UIIU/P) NAOU3 'UIJON 49 V...) ( + V) V) Z I CI CQ Vl ( ICI CD CD El O CI Cl CD ! + + 8 CD O LA IJ III ( CL PJ m CD IA ( I((i((yP) At(Je((3 . u(JON 50 Ch X I VJ I Z V ) + L In 8 I LIJ In + r L 0 CU 0 ~O N In I o In It WIIIyf'j /5aaug 'm&ON Z...

  9. CHARPY IMPACT TEST RESULTS ON FIVE MAERIALS AND NIST VERIFICATION SPECIMENS USING INSTRUMENTED

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r k C o'IUHopper3 Environmental8,4,

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Received Entrepreneurial Spirit Awards On April 3, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Renewable...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal electric technologies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar thermal electric technologies Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) On April 13, 2011, in CSP R&D at Sandia Testing Facilities Software & Tools Resources Contacts News...

  12. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of Actively Brazed Alumina Specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosking, F.M.; Cadden, C.H.; Stephens, J.J.; Glass, S.J.; Yang, N.Y.C.; Vianco, P.V.; Walker, C.A.

    1999-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Alumina (94 and 99.8% grade compositions) was brazed directly to itself with gold-based active brazing alloys (ABA's) containing vanadium additions of 1,2 and 3 weight percent. The effects of brazing conditions on the joint properties were investigated. Wetting behavior, interfacial reactions, microstructure, hermeticity and tensile strength were determined. Wetting was fair to good for the ABA and base material combinations. Microanalysis identified a discontinuous Al-V-O spinel reaction product at the alumina-braze interface. Tensile strength results for 94% alumina were uniformly good and generally not sensitive to the vanadium concentration, with tensile values of 85-105 MPa. There was more variability in the 99.8% alumina strength results, with values ranging from 25-95 MPa. The highest vanadium concentration (3 wt. %) yielded the highest joint strength for the brazed 99.8% alumina. Failures in the 99.8% alumina samples occurred at the braze-alumina interface, while the 94% alumina specimens exhibited fracture of the ceramic substrate.

  13. Infrared-based NDE methods for determining thermal properties and defects in ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Steckenrider, J.S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Koch, S. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous-fiber ceramic matrix composites are currently being developed for various high temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. In the material classes of interest for such applications, i.e., silicon carbide (SiC)-fiber-reinforced SiC (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), SiC-fiber-reinforced silicon nitride (SiC{sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3 (f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc., the condition of the interface between the fibers and matrix is critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of each component. A nondestructive evaluation method developed at Argonne National Laboratory uses infrared thermal imaging to provide ``single-shot`` full-field measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. By applying digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques for noise reduction, the authors have achieved acquisition and analysis times of minutes or less with submillimeter spatial resolution. The system has been used to examine the effects of thermal shock, oxidation treatment, density, and variations in fiber coatings in a full array of test specimens.

  14. Standard test method for creep-fatigue testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of mechanical properties pertaining to creep-fatigue deformation or crack formation in nominally homogeneous materials, or both by the use of test specimens subjected to uniaxial forces under isothermal conditions. It concerns fatigue testing at strain rates or with cycles involving sufficiently long hold times to be responsible for the cyclic deformation response and cycles to crack formation to be affected by creep (and oxidation). It is intended as a test method for fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and cracking vary with material and with temperature for a given material. 1.2 The use of this test method is limited to specimens and does not cover testing of full-scale components, structures, or consumer products. 1.3 This test method is primarily ...

  15. Fatigue Crack Propagation from Notched Specimens of 304 SS in elevated Temperature Aqueous Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wire, G. L.; Mills, W. J.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fatigue crack propagation (FCP) rates for 304 stainless steel (304SS) were determined in 24 degree C and 288 degree C air and 288 degree C water using double-edged notch (DEN) specimens of 304 stainless steel (304 SS). Test performed at matched loading conditions in air and water at 288 degree C with 20-6- cc h[sub]2/kg h[sub]2O provided a direct comparison of the relative crack growth rates in air and water over a wide range of crack growth rates. The DEN crack extension ranged from short cracks (0.03-0.25 mm) to long cracks up to 4.06 mm, which are consistent with conventional deep crack tests. Crack growth rates of 304 SS in water were about 12 times the air rate. This 12X environmental enhancement persisted to crack extensions up to 4.06 mm, far outside the range associated with short crack effects. The large environmental degradation for 304 SS crack growth is consistent with the strong reduction of fatigue life in high hydrogen water. Further, very similar environmental effects w ere reported in fatigue crack growth tests in hydrogen water chemistry (HWC). Most literature data in high hydrogen water show only a mild environmental effect for 304 SS, of order 2.5 times air or less, but the tests were predominantly performed at high cyclic stress intensity or equivalently, high air rates. The environmental effect in low oxygen environments at low stress intensity depends strongly on both the stress ratio, R, and the load rise time, T[sub]r, as recently reported for austenitic stainless steel in BWR water. Fractography was performed for both tests in air and water. At 288 degree C in water, the fracture surfaces were crisply faceted with a crystallographic appearance, and showed striations under high magnification. The cleavage-like facets on the fracture surfaces suggest that hydrogen embrittlement is the primary cause of accelerated cracking.

  16. Measuring the Impact of Experimental Parameters upon the Estimated Thermal Conductivity of Closed-Cell Foam Insulation Subjected to an Accelerated Aging Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL] [ORNL; Bogdan, mary [Honeywell, Inc.] [Honeywell, Inc.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity of many closed-cell foam insulation products changes over time as production gases diffuse out of the cell matrix and atmospheric gases diffuse into the cells. Thin slicing has been shown to be an effective means of accelerating this process in such a way as to produce meaningful results. Recent efforts to produce a more prescriptive version of the ASTM standard test method have led to the initiation of a broad ruggedness test. This test includes the aging of full size insulation specimens for time periods up to five years for later comparison to the predicted results. Experimental parameters under investigation include: slice thickness, slice origin (at the surface or from the core of the slab), thin slice stack composition, product facings, original product thickness, product density, and product type. This paper will cover the structure of the ruggedness test and provide a glimpse of some early trends

  17. Effect of conductivity between fasteners and aluminum skin on eddy current specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, D.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hutchinson, M.C. [Boeing Co., Seattle, WA (United States). Commercial Airplane Group

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance Nondestructive Inspection Validation Center (FAA-AANC) and Boeing Commercial Airplane Group are currently developing a study pertaining to the detection of cracks in multi-layered aluminum sheets. The specimen panels model pertinent aspects of the lap splice joints for Boeing 737 aircraft, Line Numbers 292 - 2565. Upon initial characterization of the specimen panels, it became clear that signals produced from a sliding probe at fastener sites were not representative of an in-service lap splice, and therefore, could not be used in a probability of detection experiment. This paper discusses specimen characterization and steps taken to make the specimens useful for nondestructive technology assessment.

  18. Thermal Processes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some thermal processes use the energy in various resources, such as natural gas, coal, or biomass, to release hydrogen, which is part of their molecular structure. In other processes, heat, in...

  19. Standard test method for determination of uranium or plutonium isotopic composition or concentration by the total evaporation method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This method describes the determination of the isotopic composition and/or the concentration of uranium and plutonium as nitrate solutions by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) total evaporation method. Purified uranium or plutonium nitrate solutions are loaded onto a degassed metal filament and placed in the mass spectrometer. Under computer control, ion currents are generated by heating of the filament(s). The ion beams are continually measured until the sample is exhausted. The measured ion currents are integrated over the course of the run, and normalized to a reference isotope ion current to yield isotopic ratios. 1.2 In principle, the total evaporation method should yield isotopic ratios that do not require mass bias correction. In practice, some samples may require this bias correction. When compared to the conventional TIMS method, the total evaporation method is approximately two times faster, improves precision from two to four fold, and utilizes smaller sample sizes. 1.3 The tot...

  20. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on HTGR Reactor Physics, Thermal-hydraulics and Depletion Uncertainty Analysis: Description of the Benchmark Test Cases and Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frederik Reitsma; Gerhard Strydom; Bismark Tyobeka; Kostadin Ivanov

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The continued development of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) requires verification of design and safety features with reliable high fidelity physics models and robust, efficient, and accurate codes. The uncertainties in the HTR analysis tools are today typically assessed with sensitivity analysis and then a few important input uncertainties (typically based on a PIRT process) are varied in the analysis to find a spread in the parameter of importance. However, one wish to apply a more fundamental approach to determine the predictive capability and accuracies of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics and depletion simulations used for reactor design and safety assessment. Today there is a broader acceptance of the use of uncertainty analysis even in safety studies and it has been accepted by regulators in some cases to replace the traditional conservative analysis. Finally, there is also a renewed focus in supplying reliable covariance data (nuclear data uncertainties) that can then be used in uncertainty methods. Uncertainty and sensitivity studies are therefore becoming an essential component of any significant effort in data and simulation improvement. In order to address uncertainty in analysis and methods in the HTGR community the IAEA launched a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the HTGR Uncertainty Analysis in Modelling early in 2012. The project is built on the experience of the OECD/NEA Light Water Reactor (LWR) Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) benchmark activity, but focuses specifically on the peculiarities of HTGR designs and its simulation requirements. Two benchmark problems were defined with the prismatic type design represented by the MHTGR-350 design from General Atomics (GA) while a 250 MW modular pebble bed design, similar to the INET (China) and indirect-cycle PBMR (South Africa) designs are also included. In the paper more detail on the benchmark cases, the different specific phases and tasks and the latest status and plans are presented.

  1. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2011-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  2. Test Automation Test Automation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mohammad

    Test Automation Test Automation Mohammad Mousavi Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Software Testing 2013 Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Outline Test Automation Mousavi: Test Automation #12;Test Automation Why? Challenges of Manual Testing Test-case design: Choosing inputs

  3. An investigation of the elimination of detector perturbations in pure thermal neutron fluxes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feltz, Donald Everett

    1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . INTRODUCTION II. THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION Elimination of Flux Perturbation Theoretically Predicted Flux Perturbations III. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION Introduction Test Section Positioning in Graphite Thermal Column Final Test Section Design... Thermal Column 3. Final Graphite Loading and Test Section Position 4, Test Section Assembly Thermal Neutron Flux Distribution m 4" x 4" x 4" Water Test Section Photograph of Thermal Column Shield Door, Test Section Assembly Positioned in Loading...

  4. LUNAR SEISMIC PROFILING EXPERIMENT DESIGN VERIFICATION THERMAL PAGI OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    and Purpose Description of Test Conditions and Test Installation 4. 1 Thermal Test Conditions 4. 2 1/8th High Simulator Environment 1/Sth High Explosive Baseplate Temperatures Thermal Battery Temperature H. E. Baseplate Temperature Subsequent to Battery Firing Central Electronics Temperatures 5. 3 Test Data

  5. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  6. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  7. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    using aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"Proceed- ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop,

  8. Thermal Evaluation of the Honda Insight Battery Pack: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolot, M.D.; Kelly, K.; Keyser, M.; Mihalic, M.; Pesaran, A.; Hieronymus, A.

    2001-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The hybrid vehicle test efforts at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with a focus on the Honda Insight's battery thermal management system, are presented. The performance of the Insight's high voltage NiMH battery pack was characterized by conducting in-vehicle dynamometer testing at Environmental Testing Corporation's high altitude dynamometer test facility, on-road testing in the Denver area, and out-of-car testing in NREL's Battery Thermal Management Laboratory. It is concluded that performance does vary considerably due to thermal conditions the pack encounters. The performance variations are due to both inherent NiMH characteristics, and the Insight's thermal management system.

  9. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: thermal hydraulics,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    -fluid modeling of nuclear reactor systems. Thermal-hydraulic analysis codes such as RELAP5-3D ~Ref. 1! and FLICA regions of the system. In fact, the CFD code FLUENT has previously been coupled to RELAP5-3D ~Refs. 3

  10. Testing of a Transport Cask for Research Reactor Spent Fuel - 13003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Leite da Silva, Luiz [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)] [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Novara, Oscar E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries that operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the TRIGA and MTR reactors operated in the region. A main drive in this initiative, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the fact that no definite solution regarding the back end of the research reactor fuel cycle has been taken by any of the participating country. However, any long-term solution - either disposition in a repository or storage away from reactor - will involve at some stage the transportation of the spent fuel through public roads. Therefore, a licensed cask that provides adequate shielding, assurance of subcriticality, and conformance to internationally accepted safety, security and safeguards regimes is considered a strategic part of any future solution to be adopted at a regional level. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel for MTR and TRIGA research reactors was designed by the tri-national team and a half-scale model equipped with the MTR version of the internal basket was constructed in Argentina and Brazil and tested in Brazil. Three test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. After failing the tests in the first two test series, the specimen successfully underwent the last test sequence. A second specimen, incorporating the structural improvements in view of the previous tests results, will be tested in the near future. Numerical simulations of the free drop and thermal tests are being carried out in parallel, in order to validate the computational modeling that is going to be used as a support for the package certification. (authors)

  11. RIS-M-2586 ELASTIC-PLASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSIS OF A CT-SPECIMEN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISØ-M-2586 ELASTIC-PLASTIC FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSIS OF A CT-SPECIMEN - A TWO-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH Gunner C. Larsen Abstract. This report documents the results obtained from an elastic-plastic

  12. Test Series 2. 3 detailed test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test Series 2.3 is chronologically the second of the five sub-series of tests which comprise Test Series 2, the second major Test Series as part of the combustion research phase to be carried out at the Grimethorpe Experimental Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion Facility. Test Series 2.3 will consist of 700 data gathering hours which is expected to require some 1035 coal burning hours. The tests will be performed using US supplied coal and dolomite. This will be the first major series of tests on the Facility with other than the UK datum coal and dolomite. The document summarises the background to the facility and the experimental program. Described are modifications which have been made to the facility following Test Series 2.1 and a series of Screening Tests. Detailed test objectives are specified as are the test conditions for the experiments which comprise the test series. The test results will provide information on the effects of the bed temperature, excess air level, Ca/S ratio, number of coal feed lines, and combustion efficiency and sulphur retention. A significant aspect of the test series will be part load tests which will investigate the performance of the facility under conditions of turn down which simulate load following concepts specified for two combined cycle concepts, i.e., their CFCC combined cycle and a turbo charged combined cycle. The material test plan is also presented. The principal feature of the materials programme is the planned exposure of a set of static turbine blade specimens in a cascade test loop to the high temperature, high pressure flue gas. A schedule for the programme is presented as are contingency plans.

  13. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has · STOP (Structural, Thermal, and Optical Performance) analyses of optical systems Thermal engineers lead evolved with the complexity of instrument design demands, LASP mechanical engineers develop advanced

  14. Modeling the thermal deformation of TATB-based explosives. Part 1: Thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We detail a modeling approach to simulate the anisotropic thermal expansion of polycrystalline (1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) TATB-based explosives that utilizes microstructural information including porosity, crystal aspect ratio, and processing-induced texture. This report, the first in a series, focuses on nonlinear thermal expansion of “neat-pressed” polycrystalline TATB specimens which do not contain any binder; additional complexities related to polymeric binder and irreversible ratcheting behavior are briefly discussed, however detailed investigation of these aspects are deferred to subsequent reports. In this work we have, for the first time, developed a mesoscale continuum model relating the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB specimens to their microstructural characteristics. A self-consistent homogenization procedure is used to relate macroscopic thermoelastic response to the constitutive behavior of single-crystal TATB. The model includes a representation of grain aspect ratio, porosity, and crystallographic texture attributed to the consolidation process. A quantitative model is proposed to describe the evolution of preferred orientation of graphitic planes in TATB during consolidation and an algorithm constructed to develop a discrete representation of the associated orientation distribution function. Analytical and numerical solutions using this model are shown to produce textures consistent with previous measurements and characterization for isostatic and uniaxial “die-pressed” specimens. Predicted thermal strain versus temperature for textured specimens are shown to be in agreement with corresponding experimental measurements. Using the developed modeling approach, several simulations have been run to investigate the influence of microstructure on macroscopic thermal expansion behavior. Results from these simulations are used to identify qualitative trends. Implications of the identified trends are discussed in the context of thermal deformation of engineered components whose consolidation process is generally more complex than isostatic or die-pressed specimens. Finally, an envisioned application of the modeling approach to simulating thermal expansion of weapon systems and components is outlined along with necessary future work to introduce the effects of binder and ratcheting behavior. Key conclusions from this work include the following. Both porosity and grain aspect ratio have an influence on the thermal expansion of polycrystal TATB considering realistic material variability. Thepreferred orientation of the single crystal TATB [001] poles within a polycrystal gives rise to pronounced anisotropy of the macroscopic thermal expansion. The extent of this preferred orientation depends on the magnitude of deformation, and consequently, is expected to vary spatially throughout manufactured components much like porosity. The modeling approach presented here has utility toward bringing spatially variable microstructural features into macroscale system engineering modelsAbstract Not Provided

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Mi; X. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with different surface preparation conditions before applying the coating, e.g., grit-blasted surface, wire-brush cleaned surface, and a dirty surface. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that the three surface preparation conditions can be successfully differentiated by looking into the impedance difference observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. More specimens are also prepared with variations of process parameters, such as spray angle, stand-off distance, and application of corrosion protective sealant, etc. They are blindly tested to evaluate the reliability of the eddy current system. Quantitative relations between the coating bond strength and the eddy current response are also established with the support of destructive testing. This non-contact, non-destructive, easy to use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  16. Crack-arrest behavior in SEN wide plates of low-upper-shelf base metal tested under nonisothermal conditions: WP-2 series

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naus, D.J.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Bass, B.R.; Robinson, G.C. Jr.; Iskander, S.K.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Fields, R.J.; deWit, R.; Low, S.R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Schwartz, C.W. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Johansson, I.B. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting analytical and experimental studies aimed at understanding the circumstances that would initiate the growth of an existing crack in a reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and the conditions leading to arrest of a propagating crack. Objectives of these studies are to determine (1) if the material will exhibit crack-arrest behavior when the driving force on a crack exceeds the ASME limit, (2) the relationship between K{sub Ia} and temperature, and (3) the interaction of fracture modes (arrest, stable crack growth, unstable crack growth, and tensile instability) when arrest occurs at high temperatures. In meeting these objectives, crack-arrest data are being developed over an expanded temperature range through tests involving large thermally shocked cylinders, pressurized thermally shocked vessels, and wide-plate specimens. The wide-plate specimens provide the opportunity for a significant number of data points to be obtained at relatively affordable costs. These tests are designed to provide fracture-toughness measurements approaching or above the onset of the Charpy upper-shelf regime in a rising toughness region and with an increasing driving force. This document discusses test methodology and results. 23 refs., 92 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Controlling Thermal Properties of Asphalt Concrete and its Multifunctional Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Xijun

    2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    ) by controlling thermal properties of the construction materials. To change thermal properties of asphalt concrete, expanded polypropylene (EPP) pellet and graphite were selected as the additives and mixed into asphalt concrete. Experimental tests are classified...

  18. Thermal performance of the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghaffari, H.T.; Jones, R.F.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Brookhaven natural thermal storage house, an energy-efficient envelope, passive solar collectors, and a variety of energy conservation methods are incorporated. The thermal characteristics of the house during the tested heating season are evaluated. Temperature distributions at different zones are displayed, and the effects of extending heating supply ducts only to the main floor and heating return ducts only from the second floor are discussed. The thermal retrievals from the structure and the passive collectors are assessed, and the total conservation and passive solar contributions are outlined. Several correlation factors relating these thermal behaviors are introduced, and their diurnal variations are displayed. Finally, the annual energy requirements, and the average load factors are analyzed and discussed.

  19. Long-Term Materials Test Program: materials exposure test plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Long Term Materials Test Program is designed to identify promising corrosion resistant materials for coal-fired gas turbine applications. Resistance of materials to long term accelerated corrosion will be determined through realistic PFB environmental exposure of candidate turbine materials for up to 14,000 hours. Selected materials also will be evaluated for their ability to withstand the combined erosive and corrosive aspects of the PFB effluent. A pressurized fluidized bed combustor facility has been constructed at the General Electric Coal Utilization Research Laboratory at Malta, New York. The 12-inch diameter combustor will burn high sulfur coal with moderate-to-high chlorine and alkali levels and utilize dolomite as the sulfur sorbent. Hot gas cleanup is achieved using three stages of cyclone separators. Downstream of the cylone separators, a low velocity test section (approx. 30 ft/s) capable of housing 180 pin specimens 1/4'' diameter has been installed to assess the corrosion resistance of the various materials at three different temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1600/sup 0/F. Following the low velocity test section is a high velocity test section consisting of four cascades of airfoil shaped specimens, six specimens per cascade. This high velocity test section is being used to evaluate the combined effects of erosion and corrosion on the degradation of gas turbine materials at gas velocities of 800 to 1400 ft/s. This report summarizes the materials selection and materials exposure test plan for the Long Term Materials Test.

  20. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping for Rapid Manufacturing of Dies with Protective Coatings and Improved Thermal Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brevick, Jerald R. [Ohio State University

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In the high pressure die casting process, molten metal is introduced into a die cavity at high pressure and velocity, enabling castings of thin wall section and complex geometry to be obtained. Traditional die materials have been hot work die steels, commonly H13. Manufacture of the dies involves machining the desired geometry from monolithic blocks of annealed tool steel, heat treating to desired hardness and toughness, and final machining, grinding and polishing. The die is fabricated with internal water cooling passages created by drilling. These materials and fabrication methods have been used for many years, however, there are limitations. Tool steels have relatively low thermal conductivity, and as a result, it takes time to remove the heat from the tool steel via the drilled internal water cooling passages. Furthermore, the low thermal conductivity generates large thermal gradients at the die cavity surfaces, which ultimately leads to thermal fatigue cracking on the surfaces of the die steel. The high die surface temperatures also promote the metallurgical bonding of the aluminum casting alloy to the surface of the die steel (soldering). In terms of process efficiency, these tooling limitations reduce the number of die castings that can be made per unit time by increasing cycle time required for cooling, and increasing downtime and cost to replace tooling which has failed either by soldering or by thermal fatigue cracking (heat checking). The objective of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of designing, fabricating, and testing high pressure die casting tooling having properties equivalent to H13 on the surface in contact with molten casting alloy - for high temperature and high velocity molten metal erosion resistance – but with the ability to conduct heat rapidly to interior water cooling passages. A layered bimetallic tool design was selected, and the design evaluated for thermal and mechanical performance via finite element analysis. H13 was retained as the exterior layer of the tooling, while commercially pure copper was chosen for the interior structure of the tooling. The tooling was fabricated by traditional machining of the copper substrate, and H13 powder was deposited on the copper via the Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENSTM) process. The H13 deposition layer was then final machined by traditional methods. Two tooling components were designed and fabricated; a thermal fatigue test specimen, and a core for a commercial aluminum high pressure die casting tool. The bimetallic thermal fatigue specimen demonstrated promising performance during testing, and the test results were used to improve the design and LENS TM deposition methods for subsequent manufacture of the commercial core. Results of the thermal finite element analysis for the thermal fatigue test specimen indicate that it has the ability to lose heat to the internal water cooling passages, and to external spray cooling, significantly faster than a monolithic H13 thermal fatigue sample. The commercial core is currently in the final stages of fabrication, and will be evaluated in an actual production environment at Shiloh Die casting. In this research, the feasibility of designing and fabricating copper/H13 bimetallic die casting tooling via LENS TM processing, for the purpose of improving die casting process efficiency, is demonstrated.

  1. Thermal imaging measurement and correlation of thermal diffusivity in continuous fiber ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, J.G.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Energy Technology Div.; Easler, T.E.; Szweda, A. [Dow Corning Corp., Midland, MI (United States); Craig, P.A. [DuPont Lanxide Composites Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites (CFCCs) are currently being developed for a variety of high-temperature applications, including use in advanced heat engines. For such composites, knowledge of porosity distribution and presence of defects is important for optimizing mechanical and thermal behavior of the components. The assessment of porosity and its distribution is also necessary during composite processing to ensure component uniformity. To determine the thermal properties of CFCC materials, and particularly for detecting defects and nonuniformities, the authors have developed an infrared thermal imaging method to provide a single-shot full-field measurement of thermal diffusivity distributions in large components. This method requires that the back surface of a specimen receives a thermal pulse of short duration and that the temperature of the front surface is monitored as a function of time. The system has been used to measure thermal diffusivities of several CFCC materials with known porosity or density values, including SYLRAMIC{trademark} SiC/SiNC composite samples from Dow Corning and SiC/SiC and enhanced SiC/SiC samples from DuPont Lanxide Composites, to determine the relationship of thermal diffusivity to component porosity or density.

  2. Crystallization Behavior of Virgin TR-55 Silicone Rubber Measured Using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis with Liquid Nitrogen Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small IV, W; Wilson, T S

    2010-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) of virgin TR-55 silicone rubber specimens was conducted. Two dynamic temperature sweep tests, 25 to -100 C and 25 to -70 to 0 C (ramp rate = 1 C/min), were conducted at a frequency of 6.28 rad/s (1 Hz) using a torsion rectangular test geometry. A strain of 0.1% was used, which was near the upper limit of the linear viscoelastic region of the material based on an initial dynamic strain sweep test. Storage (G{prime}) and loss (G{double_prime}) moduli, the ratio G{double_prime}/G{prime} (tan {delta}), and the coefficient of linear thermal expansion ({alpha}) were determined as a function of temperature. Crystallization occurred between -40 and -60 C, with G{prime} increasing from {approx}6 x 10{sup 6} to {approx}4 x 10{sup 8} Pa. The value of {alpha} was fairly constant before ({approx}4 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) and after ({approx}3 x 10{sup -4} mm/mm- C) the transition, and peaked during the transition ({approx}3 x 10{sup -3} mm/mm- C). Melting occurred around -30 C upon heating.

  3. Test fire environmental testing operations at Mound Applied Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes Mound Laboratory`s environmental testing operations. The function of environmental testing is to perform quality environmental (thermal, mechanical, spin, resistance, visual) testing/conditioning of inert/explosive products to assure their compliance with specified customer acceptance criteria. Capabilities, organization, equipment specifications, and test facilities are summarized.

  4. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear PressLaboratory Fellows Jerry SimmonsModels &

  5. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol Home Distribution Grid Integration Permalink GalleryNational SCADA Testbed

  6. Thermal Regenerator Testing | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic|Industrial Sector,Department of Energy (DOE) noticeofRegenerator

  7. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757Kelley Ruehl HomeCommissioning HomeMore EnergyEarth

  8. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757Kelley Ruehl HomeCommissioning HomeMore EnergyEarthDr.

  9. In-Situ Creep Testing Capability for the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. G. Kim; J. L. Rempe; D. L. Knudson; K. G. Condie; B. H. Sencer

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant conditions at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The test rig has been developed such that samples will be subjected to stresses ranging from 92 to 350 MPa at temperatures between 290 and 370 °C up to at least 2 dpa (displacement per atom). The status of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) efforts to develop the test rig in-situ creep testing capability for the ATR is described. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper reports efforts by INL to evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL). Initial data from autoclave tests with 304 stainless steel (304 SS) specimens are reported.

  10. Drop-in capsule testing of plutonium-based fuels in the Advanced Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, G.S.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Terry, W.K.; Ambrosek, R.G.; Palmer, A.J.; Roesener, R.A.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The most attractive way to dispose of weapons-grade plutonium (WGPu) is to use it as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PuO[sub 2]) mixed with urania (UO[sub 2]). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. The proposed weapons-grade MOX fuel is unusual, even relative to ongoing foreign experience with reactor-grade MOX power reactor fuel. Some demonstration of the in- reactor thermal, mechanical, and fission gas release behavior of the prototype fuel will most likely be required in a limited number of test reactor irradiations. The application to license operation with MOX fuel must be amply supported by experimental data. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is capable of playing a key role in the irradiation, development, and licensing of these new fuel types. The ATR is a 250- MW (thermal) LWR designed to study the effects of intense radiation on reactor fuels and materials. For 25 years, the primary role of the ATR has been to serve in experimental investigations for the development of advanced nuclear fuels. Both large- and small-volume test positions in the ATR could be used for MOX fuel irradiation. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. Furthermore, these data can be obtained more quickly by using ATR instead of testing in a commercial LWR. Our previous work in this area has demonstrated that it is technically feasible to perform MOX fuel testing in the ATR. This report documents our analyses of sealed drop-in capsules containing plutonium-based test specimens placed in various ATR positions.

  11. A proposed benchmark for simulation in radiographic testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaenisch, G.-R.; Deresch, A.; Bellon, C. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany); Schumm, A.; Guerin, P. [EDF R and D, 1 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this benchmark study is to compare simulation results predicted by various models of radiographic testing, in particular those that are capable of separately predicting primary and scatter radiation for specimens of arbitrary geometry.

  12. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  13. Determining thermal diffusivity and defect attributes in ceramic matrix composites by infrared imaging.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahuja, S.; Ellingson, W. A.; Koehl, E. R.; Stuckey, J.

    1997-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Ceramic matrix composites are being developed for numerous high temperature applications, including rotors and combustors for advanced turbine engines, heat exchanger and hot-gas filters for coal gasification plants. Among the materials of interest are silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-carbide (SiC{sub (f)}/SiC), silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced-silicon-nitride (SiC{sub (f)}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), aluminum-oxide-reinforced-alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3(f)}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), etc. In the manufacturing of these ceramic composites, the conditions of the fiber/matrix interface are critical to the mechanical and thermal behavior of the component. Defects such as delaminations and non-uniform porosity can directly effect the performance. A nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method, developed at Argonne National Laboratory has proved beneficial in analyzing as-processed conditions and defect detection created during manufacturing. This NDE method uses infrared thermal imaging for fill-field quantitative measurement of the distribution of thermal diffusivity in large components. Intensity transform algorithms have been used for contrast enhancement of the output image. Nonuniformity correction and automatic gain control are used to dynamically optimize video contrast and brightness, providing additional resolution in the acquired images. Digital filtering, interpolation, and least-squares-estimation techniques have been incorporated for noise reduction and data acquisition. The Argonne NDE system has been utilized to determine thermal shock damage, density variations, and variations in fiber coating in a full array of test specimens.

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: solar thermal power plant components

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Competition On May 16, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Partnership,...

  15. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, David P. (Orland Park, IL); Huff, Edmund A. (Lemont, IL); Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  16. Process for measuring low cadmium levels in blood and other biological specimens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, David P.; Huff, Edmund A.; Bhattacharyya, Maryka H.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for measuring low levels of cadmium in blood and other biological specimens is provided without interference from high levels of alkali metal contaminants by forming an aqueous solution and without contamination by environmental cadmium absent the proteins from the specimen, selectively removing cadmium from the aqueous solution on an anion exchange resin, thereby removing the alkali metal contaminants, resolubilizing cadmium from the resin to form a second solution and analyzing the second solution for cadmium, the process being carried out in a cadmium-free environment.

  17. Thermal performance measurements of insulated roof systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Courville, G.E.; Childs, K.W.; Walukas, D.J.; Childs, P.W.; Griggs, E.I.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory has established a Roof Thermal Researcch Apparatus for carrying out thermal and hygric experiments on sections of low-sloped roofs. Test panels are exposed to a controlled temperature interior space and to the prevailing East Tennessee exterior environment. They are well instrumented and all data are stored and aided in the analysis by computer systems. Current experiments include studies of the effect of wet insulation on membrane temperature, thermal storage phenomena in built-up roof insulation, and the effects of varying surface reflectance on roof thermal performance.

  18. Effect of metallic coatings on the thermal contact conductance of turned surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Tik Kwie

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    transfer mechanism in joints and verify the existing analyses. In this study four different types of metals of different surface finish including 6061 T6 aluminum were tested in a vacuum. The load (0 to 7800 tips) was varied in ascending and descending... fabricated in the same manner. After exposure to the atmosphere for several days, all specimens were kept in vacuum to prevent continued oxidation. The temperatures along the test specimen:; were measured using Chromel- Alumel AWG-30 thermocouples which...

  19. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  20. Design of a non-contact vibration measurement and analysis system for electronic board testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arn, Krissa Elizabeth, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Traditional vibration measurement methods involve placing accelerometers at discrete locations on a test object. In cases where the test specimen is small in mass, the addition of these measurement transducers can alter ...

  1. Laser induced fluorescence imaging of thermal damage in polymer matrix composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, W.G.; Meyer, K.E.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Perl, D.R. [N.A.S. North Island, San Diego, CA (United States). Naval Aviation Depot; Kulowitch, P.J. [Naval Air Warfare Center, Patuxent River, MD (United States). Aircraft Div.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple, fluorescence based imaging system has been developed that is capable of identifying regions of thermal damage in polymer matrix composites (PMCs). These materials are playing an increasingly important role in the production of high performance vehicles and aircraft, where their low weight and high mechanical strength, combined with advancements in manufacturing technology, ensure increased use for a variety of applications. Of particular concern in the aerospace industry is the tendency of some PMC materials to become irreversibly damaged when exposed to elevated temperatures. Traditional nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques are capable of detecting physical anomalies such as cracks and delaminations but cannot detect initial heat damage, which occurs on a molecular scale. Spectroscopic techniques such as laser induced fluorescence provide an attractive means for detecting this type of damage and are amenable to imaging large, irregularly shaped surfaces. In this report the authors describe instrumentation capable of rapidly detecting thermal damage in graphite epoxy components and suggest improvements which will enable this technology to make quantitative judgments concerning the mechanical strength properties of heat damaged specimens.

  2. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  4. Propagation of guided Lamb waves in bonded specimens using piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    Propagation of guided Lamb waves in bonded specimens using piezoelectric wafer active sensors and principles used for generation and propagation of ultrasonic guided waves (Lamb waves) using piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS). Keywords: Ultrasonic, Lamb waves, Damage detection, NDE, Wave propagation

  5. An investigation of microstructures and yield strengths in irradiated austenitic stainless steels using small specimen techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toloczko, M.B.; Lucas, G.E.; Odette, G.R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Stoller, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) specimens of a first core heat of 316 stainless steel, in both the solution annealed and 20% cold worked condition, were irradiated to 46 dpa at 420 C, to 49 dpa at 520 C, and to 34 dpa at 600 C in FFTF/MOTA. Prior to irradiation, some of the specimens were pre-implanted with approximately 100 appm of helium over one-third of the specimen thickness. Microstructures and mechanical properties of these specimens were examined. Microstructural data was taken from unimplanted zones and were consistent with data in the literature for unimplanted 316 SS. Where possible, irradiation hardening of the alloys was experimentally evaluated by microhardness and shear punch. For comparison, irradiation hardening was also calculated using a barrier hardening model and the microstructural data. Experimentally measured values of yield stress were in agreement with the range of values reported in the literature regardless of helium pre-implantation and were similar to the calculated values.

  6. Focused ion beam specimen preparation for electron holography of electrically biased thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    solar cells M. Duchamp1 , M. den Hertog2 , R. Imlau1 , C. B. Boothroyd1 , A. Kovács1 , A. H. Tavabi1, biased TEM specimen, thin film solar cell, FIB Thin films of hydrogenated Si (Si:H) can be used as active absorber layers in solar cells deposited on low cost substrates using plasma-enhanced chemical vapour

  7. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: molten salt test loop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    molten salt test loop Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: test prototype heliostats

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 3, 2015, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News & Events, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Solar, Solar Newsletter...

  10. Sandia Energy - Central Receiver Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power generation. As the nation's prime test resource for the DOE program to develop solar thermal electric power, the CRTF also serves other researchers, including government...

  11. A study of the variation of the stress concentration due to an inclusion in a tensile specimen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppinger, John Timothy

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A S'1'UDY OF TH1. , VARIATION OF THE STRFSS CONCE1&lTRATION DUF. TO AN INCLUSION IN A TENSILE SPECIMEN A Thesis by JOHN TIiviOTIIY COPPINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ALM University ir oartial fulfillment... in the Specimen Containing the 5/32 Diameter Inclusion 13 Calculation of the Maximum Principal Stress in th Specimen Containing the 5/1 6 Diamet, er Inclusion 1 4 Calculation of the Maximum Principal Stress in the Specimen Containing the 13/16 Die...

  12. A study of the variation of the stress concentration due to an inclusion in a tensile specimen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppinger, John Timothy

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A S'1'UDY OF TH1. , VARIATION OF THE STRFSS CONCE1&lTRATION DUF. TO AN INCLUSION IN A TENSILE SPECIMEN A Thesis by JOHN TIiviOTIIY COPPINGER Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ALM University ir oartial fulfillment... in the Specimen Containing the 5/32 Diameter Inclusion 13 Calculation of the Maximum Principal Stress in th Specimen Containing the 5/1 6 Diamet, er Inclusion 1 4 Calculation of the Maximum Principal Stress in the Specimen Containing the 13/16 Die...

  13. The thermal expansion coefficient as a key design parameter for thermoelectric materials and its relationship to processing-dependent bloating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ni, Jennifer E. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Schmidt, Robert [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wu, Chun-I [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Hogan, Timothy [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Trejo, Rosa M [ORNL; Kirkham, Melanie J [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G. [Northwestern University, Evanston

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is a key design parameter for thermoelectric (TE) materials, especially in energy harvesting applications since stresses generated by CTE mismatch, thermal gradients, and thermal transients scale with the CTE of the TE material. For the PbTe PbS-based TE material (Pb 0.95 Sn 0.05 Te) 0.92(PbS) 0.08 0.055 % PbI 2 over the temperature ranges of 293 543 and 293 773 K, a CTE, alpha avg , of 21.4 0.3 x 10-6 K-1 was measured using (1) dilatometry and (2) high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) for powder and bulk specimens. The CTE values measured via dilatometry and HT-XRD are similar to the literature values for other Pb-based chalcogenides. However, the processing technique was found to impact the thermal expansion such that bloating (which leads to a hysteresis in thermal expansion) occurred for hot pressed billets heated to temperatures [603 K while specimens fabricated by pulsed electric current sintering and as-cast specimens did not show a bloating-modified thermal expansion even for temperatures up to 663 K. The relationship of bloating to the processing techniques is discussed, along with a pos- sible mechanism for inhibiting bloating in powder processed specimens.

  14. Thermal treatment of dyes from military munitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed thermal treatment equipment to treat Navy smoke and dye compounds. Navy smokes were burned in the Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) in the early 1980s. These test results were used in the development of a portable system consisting of a Thermal Treatment Unit (TTU), feed preparation and pumping skid, utility skid, and control trailer. This equipment was started up at Navy facilities at China Lake, CA where several destruction removal efficiency tests were completed in 1993 burning smoke compositions. The equipment was set up at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in 1996 where tests were completed burning green Navy spotting dyes. Operating and test results from the NTS efforts resulted in clearer understanding of equipment deficiencies, dye characteristics and composition, and secondary wastes generated. Future tests, scheduled for July, 1996 will demonstrate higher bum rates, better pH measurement and control, and stack emission test results for other colored dyes.

  15. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Disk-shaped Compact Tension Test for Asphalt Concrete Fracture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Disk-shaped Compact Tension Test for Asphalt Concrete Fracture by M.P.Wagoner, W.G. Buttlar and G geometry is the ability to test cylindrical cores obtained from in-place asphalt concrete pavements finalizing the specimen geometry, a typical asphalt concrete surface mixture was tested at various

  17. Report Number 1: Metallurgical characterization of the HAZ in A516-70 and evaluation of fracture toughness specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lundin, C.D.; Zhou, G.; Khan, K.K.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive study has been conducted on A516 grade 70 steel to investigate the effect of shallow cracks in weldment HAZs. Charpy V-notch (CVN) and crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) tests were utilized to characterize the fracture toughness behavior of the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of A516-70 SMAW weldments. The test results are explained on the basis of microstructural features in the HAZ and fractographic examination. Optical light microscopy (OLM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for these evaluations. A computer-assisted imaging system was also utilized and it proved to be a powerful tool for fracture surface analysis. It was evident from the testing of thermally simulated HAZs of A516-70, that the CGHAZ has the lowest toughness. The need for welding techniques to create actual weld HAZs without an influence from secondary weld passes was addressed during the course of this investigation. A welding procedure was developed which is capable of producing ``singular`` HAZs in actual welds. The ``singular`` HAZ technique produced a non-overlapped continuous HAZ through the full plate thickness. A good correlation was found between thermally simulated HAZ behavior and ``singular`` HAZ behavior in terms of fracture toughness, hardness and microstructure.

  18. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion History Mostly about USA 1980's to 1990's and bias towards Vega Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC) #12;#12;Claude's Off Rio de Janeiro (1933) · Floating Ice Plant: 2.2 MW OC- OTEC to produce 2000

  19. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion History Mostly about USA 1980's to 1990's and bias towards Vega · Floating Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC: Georges Claude (Open Cycle OTEC) · 1928 Ougree Experiment, France: Factory Water Outflow (33 °C) & Meuse

  20. Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

  1. Trial Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D.; Deibert, S.; Wohlgemuth, J.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction-box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires), caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat', 'thermal-cycle', or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine 4 moisture-cured silicones, 4 foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 deg C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden, Miami, and Phoenix for 1 year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  2. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  3. Examination of a Size-Change Test for Photovoltaic Encapsulation Materials: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Gu, X.; Ji, L.; Kelly, G.; Gu, X.; Nickel, N.; Norum, P.; Shioda, T.; Tamizhmani, G.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine a proposed test standard that can be used to evaluate the maximum representative change in linear dimensions of sheet encapsulation products for photovoltaic modules (resulting from their thermal processing). The proposed protocol is part of a series of material-level tests being developed within Working Group 2 of the Technical Committee 82 of the International Electrotechnical Commission. The characterization tests are being developed to aid module design (by identifying the essential characteristics that should be communicated on a datasheet), quality control (via internal material acceptance and process control), and failure analysis. Discovery and interlaboratory experiments were used to select particular parameters for the size-change test. The choice of a sand substrate and aluminum carrier is explored relative to other options. The temperature uniformity of +/- 5C for the substrate was confirmed using thermography. Considerations related to the heating device (hot-plate or oven) are explored. The time duration of 5 minutes was identified from the time-series photographic characterization of material specimens (EVA, ionomer, PVB, TPO, and TPU). The test procedure was revised to account for observed effects of size and edges. The interlaboratory study identified typical size-change characteristics, and also verified the absolute reproducibility of +/- 5% between laboratories.

  4. FRACTURE MECHANICS APPROACH TO ESTIMATE FATIGUE LIVES OF WELDED LAP-SHEAR SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P.; Michigan, J.

    2014-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A full range of stress intensity factor solutions for a kinked crack is developed as a function of weld width and the sheet thickness. When used with the associated main crack solutions (global stress intensity factors) in terms of the applied load and specimen geometry, the fatigue lives can be estimated for the laser-welded lap-shear specimens. The estimations are in good agreement with the experimental data. A classical solution for an infinitesimal kink is also employed in the approach. However, the life predictions tend to overestimate the actual fatigue lives. The traditional life estimations with the structural stress along with the experimental stress-fatigue life data (S-N curve) are also provided. In this case, the estimations only agree with the experimental data under higher load conditions.

  5. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85{degree}C and 25{degree}C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs.

  6. Nano-Continuum Modeling of a Nuclear Glass Specimen Altered for 25 Years

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steefel, Carl

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this contribution is to report on preliminary nano-continuum scale modeling of nuclear waste glass corrosion. The focus of the modeling is an experiment involving a French glass SON68 specimen leached for 25 years in a granitic environment. In this report, we focus on capturing the nano-scale concentration profiles. We use a high resolution continuum model with a constant grid spacing of 1 nanometer to investigate the glass corrosion mechanisms.

  7. Development of Mechanical Systems for Automated Medical Slide Specimen Storage and Retrieval

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtz, Joshua James

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    different types of fields. It is only natural that automation and robotics would have endless possibilities for application in the medical field [1]. Human tellers were replaced by automated machines at banks and automated switch boards replaced human... ON EXISTING APPLICATIONS OF RELATED MEDICAL AUTOMATION Automation in clinical laboratories got its start in the early 1980’s when robotic technology had advanced enough to be viable for specimen handling [2,4]. Since then many different versions...

  8. Experimental results obtained during fatigue testing of a spot-welded lap-shear structural-joint specimen are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    in a number of industries. Spot welding is the traditional method of assembly for steel-based automotive and construction of vehicular structures indicate a strong diversification of material usage, with aluminum and polymeric composites projected to play a major role. While aluminum is amenable to both spot welding

  9. BBR Asphalt mixture creep test BBR Asphalt mixture creep size effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    #12;Outline ØBBR Asphalt mixture creep test ØBBR Asphalt mixture creep size effect ØBBR Asphalt Point Bending Test Low temperature 3-point bending creep tests on specimens with three different sizes mixture strength test ØBBR Asphalt binder strength test #12;Asphalt Pavements ØRecent efforts under NCHRP

  10. Millimeter-Wave Thermal Analysis Development and Application to GEN IV Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wosko, Paul; Sundram, S. K.

    2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    New millimeter-wave thermal analysis instrumentation has been developed and studied for characterization of materials required for diverse fuel and structural needs in high temperature reactor environments such as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A two-receiver 137 GHz system with orthogonal polarizations for anisotropic resolution of material properties has been implemented at MIT. The system was tested with graphite and silicon carbide specimens at temperatures up to 1300 ºC inside an electric furnace. The analytic and hardware basis for active millimeter-wave radiometry of reactor materials at high temperature has been established. Real-time, non contact measurement sensitivity to anisotropic surface emissivity and submillimeter surface displacement was demonstrated. The 137 GHz emissivity of reactor grade graphite (NBG17) from SGL Group was found to be low, ~ 5 %, in the 500 – 1200 °C range and increases by a factor of 2 to 4 with small linear grooves simulating fracturing. The low graphite emissivity would make millimeter-wave active radiometry a sensitive diagnostic of graphite changes due to environmentally induced stress fracturing, swelling, or corrosion. The silicon carbide tested from Ortek, Inc. was found to have a much higher emissivity at 137 GHz of ~90% Thin coatings of silicon carbide on reactor grade graphite supplied by SGL Group were found to be mostly transparent to millimeter-waves, increasing the 137 GHz emissivity of the coated reactor grade graphite to about ~14% at 1250 ºC.

  11. The Application and Verification of ASHRAE 152-2004 (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) to DOE-2-1e Simulation Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

    insulation level. Agreement for return duct leakage test could not be obtained. 5 Kim, S., and Haberl, J, 2007. Comparative Testing of the Combined Radiant Barrier Calculation and Duct Model in the ESL...

  12. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  13. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  14. Thermal Acousto-Photonics for the generation and detection of ultrasonic waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, James Arthur

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , moderately low-loss, multimode optical fiber (9. 67 dB/km) to transmit the laser pulses, the setup of Figure 6 was modified for coupling into an optical fiber with an overall diameter, including cladding, of . 5 mm and a single 200 ym core (see Figure 8... and the recording of ultrasound. A high power laser pulse is delivered by liber optics to a, test specimen and the "impact" of the laser pulse on the specimen creates an ultrasonic wave in the specimen. The ingenious use of fiber optics and optical electronics...

  15. Futurestock'2003 9 International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, Warsaw, POLAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    381 Futurestock'2003 9 th International Conference on Thermal Energy Storage, Warsaw, POLAND is also needed when designing a BTES (Borehole Thermal Energy Storage) system. The ground thermal Thermal Response Test for BTES Applications - State of the Art 2001 Signhild GEHLIN1 and Jeff D. SPITLER2

  16. Thermal unobtainiums? The perfect thermal conductor and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    conduction · Heat conduction in Bose condensates ­ electronic superconductors ­ superfluid helium ­ Bose condensate of magnons #12;Outline--toward perfect thermal insulators · Einstein and minimum thermal directions #12;Gas kinetic equation is a good place to start · Anharmonicity (high T limit) · Point defect

  17. Thermal alteration of collagenous tissue subjected to biaxial isometric constraints 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Paul B.

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    vii ix x CHAPTER I II III IV INTRODUCTION????????????????....... METHODS????????????????????... Specimen Preparation????????????... Description of Device?????????????. Mechanical Testing?????????????? Fluid Exchange Procedures??????????.. Histological..., under the instruction of Dr. Jay Humphrey. A concise overview of the device is given here, and explicit details can be found in Chapter II in Harris (2003). The device is capable of performing a wide array of load- or stretch-controlled mechanical tests...

  18. Non-thermal Plasma Chemistry Non-thermal Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greifswald, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität

    -thermal Plasma Chemical Flow Reactor #12;Werner von Siemens ,, ... construction of an apparatus generation (1857) pollution control volatile organic components, NOx reforming, ... radiation sources excimer;Leuchtstoffröhre Plasma-Bildschirm Energiesparlampe #12;electrical engineering light sources textile industry

  19. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  20. Magnetic Thermal Ablation Using Ferrofluids: Influence of Administration Mode on Biological Effect in Different Porcine Tissues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruners, Philipp, E-mail: bruners@hia.rwth-aachen.de; Hodenius, Michael, E-mail: hodenius@hia.rwth-aachen.de; Baumann, Martin, E-mail: baumann@hia.rwth-aachen.de; Oversohl, Jessica, E-mail: jessy@oversohl.d [Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering (Germany); Guenther, Rolf W., E-mail: guenther@rad.rwth-aachen.d [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Germany); Schmitz-Rode, Thomas, E-mail: smiro@hia.rwth-aachen.de; Mahnken, Andreas H., E-mail: mahnken@rad.rwth-aachen.d [Helmholtz-Institute for Biomedical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Applied Medical Engineering (Germany)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of magnetic thermal ablation in different porcine tissues using either a singular injection or a continuous infusion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. In the first setting samples of three ferrofluids containing different amounts of iron (1:171, 2:192, and 3:214 mg/ml) were singularly interstitially injected into specimens of porcine liver, kidney, and muscle (n = 5). Then the specimens were exposed to an alternating magnetic field (2.86 kA/m, 190 kHz) generated by a circular coil for 5 min. In the second experimental setup ferrofluid samples were continuously interstitially infused into the tissue specimens during the exposure to the magnetic field. To measure the temperature increase two fiber-optic temperature probes with a fixed distance of 0.5 cm were inserted into the specimens along the puncture tract of the injection needle and the temperature was measured every 15 s. Finally, the specimens were dissected, the diameters of the created thermal lesions were measured, and the volumes were calculated and compared. Compared to continuous infusion, a single injection of ferrofluids resulted in smaller coagulation volumes in all tissues. Significant differences regarding coagulation volume were found in kidney and muscle specimens. The continuous infusion technique led to more elliptically shaped coagulation volumes due to larger diameters along the puncture tract. Our data show the feasibility of magnetic thermal ablation using either a single interstitial injection or continuous infusion for therapy of lesions in muscle, kidney, and liver. Continuous infusion of ferrofluids results in larger zones of necrosis compared to a single injection technique.

  1. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  2. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  3. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  4. An investigation into the mechanical response of Berea sandstone to the uniaxial-biaxial test

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denton, Meredith Yrette

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    during the loading cycle of the test, and under biaxial strain during unloading. Tests were performed without pore fluid, with unpressured pore fluid, and with drained and undrained pressured pore fluid. The stress-strain relationships... from a suite of laboratory tests. Typical testing programs include triaxial compression tests, hydrostatic compression tests, or extension tests; in all of these tests, the specimens are forced to follow a particular stress path. Less common...

  5. The Advanced Test Reactor Irradiation Capabilities Available as a National Scientific User Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Blaine Grover

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is one of the world’s premiere test reactors for performing long term, high flux, and/or large volume irradiation test programs. The ATR is a very versatile facility with a wide variety of experimental test capabilities for providing the environment needed in an irradiation experiment. These capabilities include simple capsule experiments, instrumented and/or temperature-controlled experiments, and pressurized water loop experiment facilities. Monitoring systems have also been utilized to monitor different parameters such as fission gases for fuel experiments, to measure specimen performance during irradiation. ATR’s control system provides a stable axial flux profile throughout each reactor operating cycle, and allows the thermal and fast neutron fluxes to be controlled separately in different sections of the core. The ATR irradiation positions vary in diameter from 16 mm to 127 mm over an active core height of 1.2 m. This paper discusses the different irradiation capabilities with examples of different experiments and the cost/benefit issues related to each capability. The recent designation of ATR as a national scientific user facility will make the ATR much more accessible at very low to no cost for research by universities and possibly commercial entities.

  6. Effect of coating time on corrosion behavior of electroless nickel-phosphorus coated powder metallurgy iron specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, D.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Dube, R.K. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kanpur (India). Dept. of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Powder metallurgy iron specimens with porosities in the range 0% to 2% were electroless coated with nickel-phosphorus alloy from baths containing sodium hypophosphite (NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O). The effect of coating time on thickness and phosphorus content of the deposit was analyzed. The free corrosion potentials and corrosion rates of the coated specimens were obtained by the Tafel extrapolation method in 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution. Corrosion rates of the coated specimens after heat treatment also were studied. The observed corrosion characteristics were explained by the mixed-potential theory.

  7. Field Notebook and Specimen Catalog, Numbers 1101-1707 [2468] (1935-1936)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, William B.

    2012-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Field Uotes of W. B. Davis 1935 California-Idaho pp. 313-454. F 455-509 Field Nos. 110l-i58l j 1582-1707 All specimens from Idaho in M.V.Z. _________ 5S9I - ? . . ' - ' . ? . - - . . ? , i o e ldU ::,'oce II/. W.B. Davis l935 1101....) Feb. 9, 1935. 1105? Peromyscus c. parasiticus (2 ^*^b x 33) 274-140-27-24 1106? Peromyscus t . gilberti (pregnant but embs. too small to measure) 195-92-25-21 Grizzly Peak, l-? mi. EKE Berkeley, Alameda Co., Calif. Feb. 16, 1107

  8. Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds test systems that can provide heat transfer fluids for the evaluation of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage devices. The existing system provides molten salt at temperatures up to 800 C. This unit is charged with nitrate salt rated to 600 C, but is capable of handling other heat transfer fluid compositions. Three additional test bays are available for future deployment of alternative heat transfer fluids such as hot air, carbon dioxide, or steam systems. The Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory performs pilot-scale thermal energy storage system testing through multiple charge and discharge cycles to evaluate heat exchanger performance and storage efficiency. The laboratory equipment can also be utilized to test instrument and sensor compatibility with hot heat transfer fluids. Future applications in the laboratory may include the evaluation of thermal energy storage systems designed to operate with supercritical heat transfer fluids such as steam or carbon dioxide. These tests will require the installation of test systems capable of providing supercritical fluids at temperatures up to 700 C.

  9. Ice-condenser aerosol tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ligotke, M.W.; Eschbach, E.J.; Winegardner, W.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an experimental investigation of aerosol particle transport and capture using a full-scale height and reduced-scale cross section test facility based on the design of the ice compartment of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) ice-condenser containment system. Results of 38 tests included thermal-hydraulic as well as aerosol particle data. Particle retention in the test section was greatly influenced by thermal-hydraulic and aerosol test parameters. Test-average decontamination factor (DF) ranged between 1.0 and 36 (retentions between {approximately}0 and 97.2%). The measured test-average particle retentions for tests without and with ice and steam ranged between DF = 1.0 and 2.2 and DF = 2.4 and 36, respectively. In order to apparent importance, parameters that caused particle retention in the test section in the presence of ice were steam mole fraction (SMF), noncondensible gas flow rate (residence time), particle solubility, and inlet particle size. Ice-basket section noncondensible flows greater than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in stable thermal stratification whereas flows less than 0.1 m{sup 3}/s resulted in thermal behavior termed meandering with frequent temperature crossovers between flow channels. 10 refs., 66 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Material test machine for tension-compression tests at high temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cioletti, Olisse C. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus providing a device for testing the properties of material specimens at high temperatures and pressures in controlled water chemistries includes, inter alia, an autoclave housing the specimen which is being tested. The specimen is connected to a pull rod which couples out of the autoclave to an external assembly which includes one or more transducers, a force balance chamber and a piston type actuator. The pull rod feeds through the force balance chamber and is compensated thereby for the pressure conditions existing within the autoclave and tending to eject the pull rod therefrom. The upper end of the push rod is connected to the actuator through elements containing a transducer comprising a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The housing and coil assembly of the LVDT is coupled to a tube which runs through a central bore of the pull rod into the autoclave where it is connected to one side of the specimen. The movable core of the LVDT is coupled to a stem which runs through the tube where it is then connected to the other side of the specimen through a coupling member. A transducer in the form of a load cell including one or more strain gages is located on a necked-down portion of the upper part of the pull rod intermediate the LVDT and force balance chamber.

  11. cDNA Microarray Analysis of Serially Sampled Cervical Cancer Specimens From Patients Treated With Thermochemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borkamo, Erling Dahl, E-mail: borkamo@gmail.co [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Schem, Baard-Christian [Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Fluge, Oystein; Bruland, Ove [Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Dahl, Olav; Mella, Olav [Section of Oncology, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology and Medical Physics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To elucidate changes in gene expression after treatment with regional thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced squamous cell cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Tru-Cut biopsy specimens were serially collected from 16 patients. Microarray gene expression levels before and 24 h after the first and second trimodality treatment sessions were compared. Pathway and network analyses were conducted by use of Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA; Ingenuity Systems, Redwood City, CA). Single gene expressions were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results: We detected 53 annotated genes that were differentially expressed after trimodality treatment. Central in the three top networks detected by IPA were interferon alfa, interferon beta, and interferon gamma receptor; nuclear factor kappaB; and tumor necrosis factor, respectively. These genes encode proteins that are important in regulation cell signaling, proliferation, gene expression, and immune stimulation. Biological processes over-represented among the 53 genes were fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. Conclusions: Microarrays showed minor changes in gene expression after thermochemoradiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer. We detected 53 differentially expressed genes, mainly involved in fibrosis, tumorigenesis, and immune response. A limitation with the use of serial biopsy specimens was low quality of ribonucleic acid from tumors that respond to highly effective therapy. Another 'key limitation' is timing of the post-treatment biopsy, because 24 h may be too late to adequately assess the impact of hyperthermia on gene expression.

  12. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied not just to the hardware, but also to the teamwork and cooperation between multiple organizations performing their part in the test.

  13. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  14. Trial-Run of a Junction-Box Attachment Test for Use in Photovoltaic Module Qualification: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, D. C.; Deibert, S. L.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Engineering robust adhesion of the junction box (j-box) is a hurdle typically encountered by photovoltaic module manufacturers during product development and manufacturing process control. There are historical incidences of adverse effects (e.g., fires) caused when the j-box/adhesive/module system has failed in the field. The addition of a weight to the j-box during the 'damp-heat,' 'thermal-cycle,' or 'creep' tests within the IEC qualification protocol is proposed to verify the basic robustness of the adhesion system. The details of the proposed test are described, in addition to a trial-run of the test procedure. The described experiments examine four moisture-cured silicones, four foam tapes, and a hot-melt adhesive used in conjunction with glass, KPE, THV, and TPE substrates. For the purpose of validating the experiment, j-boxes were adhered to a substrate, loaded with a prescribed weight, and then subjected to aging. The replicate mock-modules were aged in an environmental chamber (at 85 degrees C/85% relative humidity for 1000 hours; then 100 degrees C/<10% relative humidity for 200 hours) or fielded in Golden (CO), Miami (FL), and Phoenix (AZ) for one year. Attachment strength tests, including pluck and shear test geometries, were also performed on smaller component specimens.

  15. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  16. Micromechanics analysis of thermal expansion and thermal pressurization of a hardened cement paste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghabezloo, Siavash

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a macro-scale experimental study of the effect of heating on a fluid-saturated hardened cement paste are analysed using a multi-scale homogenization model. The analysis of the experimental results revealed that the thermal expansion coefficient of the cement paste pore fluid is anomalously higher than the one of pure bulk water. The micromechanics model is calibrated using the results of drained and undrained heating tests and permits the extrapolation of the experimentally evaluated thermal expansion and thermal pressurization parameters to cement pastes with different water-to-cement ratios. It permits also to calculate the pore volume thermal expansion coefficient f a which is difficult to evaluate experimentally. The anomalous pore fluid thermal expansion is also analysed using the micromechanics model.

  17. Standard test method for creep-fatigue crack growth testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of creep-fatigue crack growth properties of nominally homogeneous materials by use of pre-cracked compact type, C(T), test specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic forces. It concerns fatigue cycling with sufficiently long loading/unloading rates or hold-times, or both, to cause creep deformation at the crack tip and the creep deformation be responsible for enhanced crack growth per loading cycle. It is intended as a guide for creep-fatigue testing performed in support of such activities as materials research and development, mechanical design, process and quality control, product performance, and failure analysis. Therefore, this method requires testing of at least two specimens that yield overlapping crack growth rate data. The cyclic conditions responsible for creep-fatigue deformation and enhanced crack growth vary with material and with temperature for a given material. The effects of environment such as time-dependent oxidation in enhancing the crack growth ra...

  18. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  19. Liquid photovoltaic/thermal collectors for residential applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrie, S. D.; Raghuraman, P.; Cox, C. H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A second-generation, liquid photovoltaic/thermal collector has been designed and is currently under fabrication. Results of computer simulations indicate that the collector unit, which incorporates novel cell and framing concepts, yields significnatly improved performance results over earlier units tested. Predicted performance values of 55% thermal efficiency and 11% electrical efficiency make the performance and this collector competitive with its single-function solar thermal and photovoltaic counterparts.

  20. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  1. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing #12;0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4 and x-ray Ultraviolet Infrared Microwave and radio waves Wavelength in meters (m) Electromagnetic.77 700 red limit 30k0.041 2.48 green500 near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrare refers

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  3. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  4. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Thermal Control Technologies Advanced Vehicle Systems Technology Transfer Jet Cooling Alternative Coolants TIM Low R Structure Phase Change Spray Cooling Air Cooling...

  5. Variable pressure thermal insulating jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Chilenskas, A.A.

    1994-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for controlled insulation of a thermal device is disclosed. The device includes a thermal jacket with a closed volume able to be evacuated to form an insulating jacket around the thermal source. A getter material is in communication with the closed volume of the thermal jacket. The getter material can absorb and desorb a control gas to control gas pressure in the volume of the thermal jacket to control thermal conductivity in the thermal jacket. 10 figs.

  6. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  7. Maximizing Thermal Efficiency and Optimizing Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the Thermal Test Facility (TTF) on the campus of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, are addressing maximizing thermal efficiency and optimizing energy management through analysis of efficient heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) strategies, automated home energy management (AHEM), and energy storage systems.

  8. Effect of numerical parameters on characterizing the hardening behavior of ductile uniaxial tension specimens.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cordova, Theresa Elena; Dion, Kristin; Laing, John Robert; Corona, Edmundo; Breivik, Nicole L.; Wellman, Gerald William; Shelton, Timothy R.

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many problems of practical importance involve ductile materials that undergo very large strains, in many cases to the point of failure. Examples include structures subjected to impact or blast loads, energy absorbing devices subjected to significant crushing, cold-forming manufacturing processes and others. One of the most fundamental pieces of data that is required in the analysis of this kind of problems is the fit of the uniaxial stress-strain curve of the material. A series of experiments where mild steel plates were punctured with a conical indenter provided a motivation to characterize the true stress-strain curve until the point of failure of this material, which displayed significant ductility. The hardening curve was obtained using a finite element model of the tensile specimens that included a geometric imperfection in the form of a small reduction in the specimen width to initiate necking. An automated procedure iteratively adjusted the true stress-strain curve fit used as input until the predicted engineering stress-strain curve matched experimental measurements. Whereas the fitting is relatively trivial prior to reaching the ultimate engineering stress, the fit of the softening part of the engineering stress-stain curve is highly dependent on the finite element parameters such as element formulation and initial geometry. Results by two hexahedral elements are compared. The first is a standard, under-integrated, uniform-strain element with hourglass control. The second is a modified selectively-reduced-integration element. In addition, the effects of element size, aspect ratio and hourglass control characteristics are investigated. The effect of adaptively refining the mesh based on the aspect ratio of the deformed elements is also considered. The results of the study indicate that for the plate puncture problem, characterizing the material with the same element formulation and size as used in the plate models is beneficial. On the other hand, using different element formulations, sizes or initial aspect ratios can lead to unreliable results.

  9. The Influence of Specimen Thickness on the High Temperature Corrosion Behavior of CMSX-4 during

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    -cycling conditions. These conditions lead to an increase in the susceptibility to oxide-scale failure on CMSX- 4 oxide scale has to be considered as a composite suffering high stresses. Factors like different coefficients of thermal expansion between oxide and substrate during temperature changes or growing stresses

  10. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SECTION A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUTATION OF BOTHStandards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal StorageSelective Coating Applied to Collector Design, Proceedings

  11. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Standards for Testing Solar Collectors and Thermal Storagethe Performance of Flat-Rate Solar Collectors" University ofstandards for testing solar collectors. l Collectors are

  12. An investigation of cement mortar thermal storage characteristics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Glenn Baker

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change in the storage material. Telkes and Raymond [1] investigated storing thermal energy in a sodium sulfate solution contained in sealed drums. Other salt solutions were tested [2], providing further evidence that phase-change materials are capable...

  13. An investigation of cement mortar thermal storage characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Glenn Baker

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    change in the storage material. Telkes and Raymond [1] investigated storing thermal energy in a sodium sulfate solution contained in sealed drums. Other salt solutions were tested [2], providing further evidence that phase-change materials are capable...

  14. Making Steel Framing as Thermally Efficient as Wood 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosny, J.; Childs, P.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the steel web with a less conductive material, and 4) placing foam insulation in locations where the thermal shorts are most critical. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have utilized both hot box testing and computer simulations in aim...

  15. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  16. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  17. Statement of work for solar thermal power systems and photovoltaic solar-energy systems technical support services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work is broken down in the following areas: solar thermal central receiver systems analysis; advanced solar thermal systems analysis and engineering; thermal power systems support; total energy systems mission analysis; irrigation and small community mission analysis; photovoltaics mission analysis; Solar Thermal Test Facility and Central Receiver Pilot Plant systems engineering. (LEW)

  18. Microsecond switchable thermal antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr; Benisty, Henri; Besbes, Mondher [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a thermal antenna that can be actively switched on and off at the microsecond scale by means of a phase transition of a metal-insulator material, the vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}). This thermal source is made of a periodically patterned tunable VO{sub 2} nanolayer, which support a surface phonon-polariton in the infrared range in their crystalline phase. Using electrodes properly registered with respect to the pattern, the VO{sub 2} phase transition can be locally triggered by ohmic heating so that the surface phonon-polariton can be diffracted by the induced grating, producing a highly directional thermal emission. Conversely, when heating less, the VO{sub 2} layers cool down below the transition temperature, the surface phonon-polariton cannot be diffracted anymore so that thermal emission is inhibited. This switchable antenna could find broad applications in the domain of active thermal coatings or in those of infrared spectroscopy and sensing.

  19. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  20. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  1. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  2. Creep-rupture and fractographic analysis of candidate Stirling engine superalloys tested in air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattachryya, S.

    1984-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The creep-rupture behavior of six candidate Stirling engine iron-base superalloys was determined in air. The alloys tested included four wrought alloys (A-286, INCOLOY Alloy 800H, N-155, and 19-9DL) and two cast alloys (CRM-6D and XF-818). The wrought alloys were evaluated in the form of sheet; the cast alloy specimens were investment cast to shape. The creep-rupture specimens were tested in air for up to 3000 hours over the temperature range 650/sup 0/ to 925/sup 0/C. Microstructural and fractographic aspects of the ruptured specimens are discussed with a few correlational graphical analyses included for XF-818 and 19-9DL. Tests are continuing in 15 MPa hydrogen, and later these data will be correlated with air data and microstructural analysis of the specimens conducted.

  3. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  4. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production Award Number: DE-EE00025828 Report Date: March 15, 2013 PI: Stephen Obrey * Technical approach is focused on...

  5. Long term materials test program. Preliminary operations plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Long Term Materials Testing (LTMT) PFB facility has been designed to duplicate the design point condition of the Coal-Fired Combined Cycle (CFCC) reference commercial plant design developed by GE under contract to DOE, including bed temperature (1750/sup 0/F), pressure (10 atm), excess air (20%), and gas residence time (1.8 sec). The test rig has a one foot diameter bed and consumes about 1.6 tons/day of coal and 0.5 tons/day of dolomite sulphur sorbent. Material specimens are contained in two test sections. The low velocity test section houses 132 pin specimens 1/4 dia., sixty of which can be cooled below the gas stream temperature. The nominal exposure environment of 1650/sup 0/F, 10 atm, 27 fps should ensure representative corrosive conditions, without erosion. The control system for the LTMT facility is designed to operate the rig in such a manner that the test specimens are subjected to constant, controlled conditions representative of the actual service environment. The Preliminary Test Plan presented in Section V outlines three phases of PFB testing, plus screening tests for candidate materials. Operating costs have been updated to reflect the preliminary rig design data and current raw material quotes. The projected operating costs have been effected by raw material costs since the time of the original estimate, but the overall cost per hour of test is still very low: $122/test hour.

  6. Evaluation on the Feasibility of Using Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density/Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.

    2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical letter report provides the status of an assessment undertaken by PNNL at the request of the NRC to verify the capability of periodic ASME-required volumetric examinations of reactor vessels to characterize the density and distribution of flaws of interest for applying §50.61a on a plant-by-plant basis. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), "Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events," establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. Recently, the NRC completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed and promulgated an alternate PTS rule, §50.61a, that can be implemented by PWR licensees. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants.

  7. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  8. Recapturing Graphite-Based Fuel Element Technology for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trammell, Michael P [ORNL; Jolly, Brian C [ORNL; Miller, James Henry [ORNL; Qualls, A L [ORNL; Harrison, Thomas J [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ORNL is currently recapturing graphite based fuel forms for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP). This effort involves research and development on materials selection, extrusion, and coating processes to produce fuel elements representative of historical ROVER and NERVA fuel. Initially, lab scale specimens were fabricated using surrogate oxides to develop processing parameters that could be applied to full length NTP fuel elements. Progress toward understanding the effect of these processing parameters on surrogate fuel microstructure is presented.

  9. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  10. Non-thermal phenomena in galaxies clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gianfranco Brunetti

    2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery of diffuse synchrotron radio emission and, more recently, of the hard X-ray (HXR) tails have triggered a growing interest about non-thermal phenomena in galaxy clusters. After a brief review of the most important evidences for non-thermal emission, I will focus on the origin of the emitting particles and of the hadronic component. In particular I will describe the particle-injection and -acceleration mechanisms at work in the intra-cluster medium (ICM) and, at the same time, discuss the possibility to test current modellings of these phenomena with future radio, HXR, and gamma rays observatories.

  11. Thermal codes benchmarking: HEATING6 results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryan, C.B.; Childs, K.W.

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in support of Sandia National Laboratories Transportation Technology Center, has developed solutions to four model test problems which serve as comparison benchmarks for thermal computer codes currently being used in the design and analysis of nuclear fuel shipping casks. These problems include steady-state and transient simulations; conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer mechanisms; internal heat sources; multiple materials; and one- and two-dimensional geometries. Solutions to these model thermal problems produced by an enhanced version of HEATING6 are presented in this report. 4 refs., 19 figs., 14 tabs.

  12. Solar Thermal Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

  13. Disk-shaped Compact Tension Test for Plain Concrete A. Amirkhanian1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Disk-shaped Compact Tension Test for Plain Concrete A. Amirkhanian1 , D. Spring1 , J. Roesler1 , K cracking prediction of concrete pavement systems. The single-edge notched beam test has been used energy in asphalt concrete using the disk-shaped compact tension (DCT) test. The benefit of this specimen

  14. TENSILE AND CREEP BEHAVIOR OF GEOSYNTHETICS USING CONFINED-ACCELERATED TESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    TENSILE AND CREEP BEHAVIOR OF GEOSYNTHETICS USING CONFINED-ACCELERATED TESTS COMPORTEMENT EN tensile and creep standard tests are performed with in-isolation specimens, they may not reproduce the possibly significant effect of soil-geosynthetic interaction. A new creep testing machine was recently

  15. Thermal insulations using vacuum panels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

  16. Thermal conductivity of ultra-thin chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alam, M. T.; Haque, M. A., E-mail: mah37@psu.edu [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Bresnehan, M. S.; Robinson, J. A. [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA and The Center for Two-Dimensional and Layered Materials, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal conductivity of freestanding 10?nm and 20?nm thick chemical vapor deposited hexagonal boron nitride films was measured using both steady state and transient techniques. The measured value for both thicknesses, about 100?±?10?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}, is lower than the bulk basal plane value (390?W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1}) due to the imperfections in the specimen microstructure. Impressively, this value is still 100 times higher than conventional dielectrics. Considering scalability and ease of integration, hexagonal boron nitride grown over large area is an excellent candidate for thermal management in two dimensional materials-based nanoelectronics.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF A THERMAL SWITCH WITH A DIELECTRIC LIQUID (GLYCERIN) MICRO DROPLET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Gary S.

    the experimental test stand 3. Calibration of laser sensor detector 4. Using the load cell and the step motorResistance(ohm) Heater Voltage (V) Thermal resistance vs. heater voltage "on state" 400 micron 300 micron 50 micron 0 micron 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 0 5 10 15 20 ThermalResistance(ohm) Heater Voltage (V) Thermal resistance

  18. NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hacke, P.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

  19. Fatigue Testing of Abrasive Water Jet Cut Titanium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Dahl, Michael E.; Williford, Ralph E.

    2009-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle Memorial Institute as part of its U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830 to operate the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provides technology assistance to qualifying small businesses in association with a Technology Assistance Program (TAP). Qualifying companies are eligible to receive a set quantity of labor associated with specific technical assistance. Having applied for a TAP agreement to assist with fatigue characterization of Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) cut titanium specimens, the OMAX Corporation was awarded TAP agreement 09-02. This program was specified to cover dynamic testing and analysis of fatigue specimens cut from titanium alloy Ti-6%Al-4%V via AWJ technologies. In association with the TAP agreement, a best effort agreement was made to characterize fatigue specimens based on test conditions supplied by OMAX.

  20. Acoustic Emission and Guided Wave Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Growth on a Full Pipe Specimen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous on-line monitoring of active and passive systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants will be critical to extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants in the US beyond 60 years. Acoustic emission and guided ultrasonic waves are two tools for continuously monitoring passive systems, structures and components within nuclear power plants and are the focus of this study. These tools are used to monitor fatigue damage induced in a SA 312 TP304 stainless steel pipe specimen. The results of acoustic emission monitoring indicate that crack propagation signals were not directly detected. However, acoustic emission monitoring exposed crack formation prior to visual confirmation through the detection of signals caused by crack closure friction. The results of guided ultrasonic wave monitoring indicate that this technology is sensitive to the presence and size of cracks. The sensitivity and complexity of GUW signals is observed to vary with respect to signal frequency and path traveled by the guided ultrasonic wave relative to the crack orientation.

  1. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cors, J F; Delamarche, E; Kaigala, G V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 X 100 X 140 mm^3 and can scan an area of 45 X 45 mm^2 on a surface with an accuracy of +-15 um. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized chip-to-world and chip-to-platform interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 seconds using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 uL. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in t...

  2. High Strain Rate Tensile Testing of DOP-26 Iridium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneibel, Joachim H [ORNL; Carmichael Jr, Cecil Albert [ORNL; George, Easo P [ORNL

    2007-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 was developed through the Radioisotope Power Systems Program in the Office of Nuclear Energy of the Department of Energy. It is used for clad vent set cups containing radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) heat sources which provide electric power for spacecraft. This report describes mechanical testing results for DOP-26. Specimens were given a vacuum recrystallization anneal of 1 hour at 1375 C and tested in tension in orientations parallel and perpendicular to the rolling direction of the sheet from which they were fabricated. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1090 C and strain rates ranging from 1 x 10{sup -3} to 50 s{sup -1}. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup -4} Torr. The yield stress (YS) and the ultimate tensile stress (UTS) decreased with increasing temperature and increased with increasing strain rate. Between 600 and 1090 C, the ductility showed a slight increase with increasing temperature. Within the scatter of the data, the ductility did not depend on the strain rate. The reduction in area (RA), on the other hand, decreased with increasing strain rate. The YS and UTS values did not differ significantly for the longitudinal and transverse specimens. The ductility and RA values of the transverse specimens were marginally lower than those of the longitudinal specimens.

  3. Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator (NTREES)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emrich, William J. Jr. [NASA--Marshall Space Flight Center, M.S. ER24, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    To support a potential future development of a nuclear thermal rocket engine, a state-of-the-art non nuclear experimental test setup has been constructed to evaluate the performance characteristics of candidate fuel element materials and geometries in representative environments. The test device simulates the environmental conditions (minus the radiation) to which nuclear rocket fuel components could be subjected during reactor operation. Test articles mounted in the simulator are inductively heated in such a manner as to accurately reproduce the temperatures and heat fluxes normally expected to occur as a result of nuclear fission while at the same time being exposed to flowing hydrogen. This project is referred to as the Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environment Simulator or NTREES. The NTREES device is located at the Marshall Space flight Center in a laboratory which has been modified to accommodate the high powers required to heat the test articles to the required temperatures and to handle the gaseous hydrogen flow required for the tests. Other modifications to the laboratory include the installation of a nitrogen gas supply system and a cooling water supply system. During the design and construction of the facility, every effort was made to comply with all pertinent regulations to provide assurance that the facility could be operated in a safe and efficient manner. The NTREES system can currently supply up to 50 kW of inductive heating to the fuel test articles, although the facility has been sized to eventually allow test article heating levels of up to several megawatts.

  4. Thermal Insulation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  5. Thermally driven circulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelken, Haim

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several problems connected by the theme of thermal forcing are addressed herein. The main topic is the stratification and flow field resulting from imposing a specified heat flux on a fluid that is otherwise confined to a ...

  6. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  7. Inverse problem for the identification of Chaos representa-tions of random fields using experimental vibrational tests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to be identified by using an experimental database constituted of vibrational tests related to 100 speci- mens in the frequency band [0-50]kHz. There are 60 sensors measuring accelerations. All the specimens are excited

  8. INFLUENCE OF SPECIMEN DESIGN ON THE DEFORMATION AND FAILURE OF ZIRCALOY CLADDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motta, Arthur T.

    In a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA), a control rod ejection or drop causes a sudden increase in reactor power. Currently, there is no consensus as to the exact nature of the loading on the cladding during an RIA considerable interest and effort in supplementing integral RIA tests with separate-effects ring tests

  9. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  10. Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frances M. Marshall; Todd R. Allen; James I. Cole; Jeff B. Benson; Mary Catherine Thelen

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is one of the world’s premier test reactors for studying the effects of intense neutron radiation on reactor materials and fuels. The ATR began operation in 1967, and has operated continuously since then, averaging approximately 250 operating days per year. The combination of high flux, large test volumes, and multiple experiment configuration options provide unique testing opportunities for nuclear fuels and material researchers. The ATR is a pressurized, light-water moderated and cooled, beryllium-reflected highly-enriched uranium fueled, reactor with a maximum operating power of 250 MWth. The ATR peak thermal flux can reach 1.0 x1015 n/cm2-sec, and the core configuration creates five main reactor power lobes (regions) that can be operated at different powers during the same operating cycle. In addition to these nine flux traps there are 68 irradiation positions in the reactor core reflector tank. The test positions range from 0.5” to 5.0” in diameter and are all 48” in length, the active length of the fuel. The INL also has several hot cells and other laboratories in which irradiated material can be examined to study material radiation effects. In 2007 the US Department of Energy (DOE) designated the ATR as a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to facilitate greater access to the ATR and the associated INL laboratories for material testing research by a broader user community. Goals of the ATR NSUF are to define the cutting edge of nuclear technology research in high temperature and radiation environments, contribute to improved industry performance of current and future light water reactors, and stimulate cooperative research between user groups conducting basic and applied research. The ATR NSUF has developed partnerships with other universities and national laboratories to enable ATR NSUF researchers to perform research at these other facilities, when the research objectives cannot be met using the INL facilities. The ATR NSUF program includes a robust education program enabling students to participate in their research at INL and the partner facilities, attend the ATR NSUF annual User Week, and compete for prizes at sponsored conferences. Development of additional research capabilities is also a key component of the ATR NSUF Program; researchers are encouraged to propose research projects leading to these enhanced capabilities. Some ATR irradiation experiment projects irradiate more specimens than are tested, resulting in irradiated materials available for post irradiation examination by other researchers. These “extra” specimens comprise the ATR NSUF Sample Library. This presentation will highlight the ATR NSUF Sample Library and the process open to researchers who want to access these materials and how to propose research projects using them. This presentation will provide the current status of all the ATR NSUF Program elements. Many of these were not envisioned in 2007, when DOE established the ATR NSUF.

  11. RMOTC - Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sale of Equipment and Materials DOE to Sell NPR-3 Testing Tomorrow's Technology Today RMOTC - Testing - From Lab to Industry, Moving Your Ideas Forward RMOTC provides a neutral,...

  12. RESULTS OF THE EXAMINATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL NOISE PROBE SPECIMENS REMOVED FROM TANK 241-AN-107 JUNE 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOKE GA; WYRWAS RB; DUNCAN JB

    2010-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An Integrated Multi-function Corrosion Probe (IMCP) was installed in Tank 241-AN-107 on September 20, 2006. A portion of the probe was retrieved on June 8, 2010 and the sections holding the detectors were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for analysis. The examination and disassembly of the probe sections encountered a number of challenges. However, disassembly and relevant analyses were successfully completed. The following summarizes our observations. Brittle failure of the fiberglass probe in the middle of detector 2 resulted in the recovery of only three vapor space C-rings and six supernatant bullet specimens. The design of the bullets and how they were attached to the probe made the recovery of the components more difficult. The use of glue/epoxy on the bullets and the attachment of the flat bottom of the bullets to the curved surface of the fiberglass probe body meant that weight loss on cleaning and surface area of the specimens could not be determined with acceptable accuracy. Macrophotography of all specimens reveals that corrosion was slight in the vapor space and extremely slight in the supernatant. The one pre-cracked C-ring recovered from the vapor space still had the stress bulge visible on the polished surface, indicating that crack propagation had not occurred in the tank. No photographs were taken of the C-ring before deployment. No further analysis was conducted on this specimen. A detailed discussion and photographic documentation are provided in this report.

  13. Phyllosilicates In this lab you will examine specimens of the phyllosilicate or sheet silicate minerals. In regard to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dundas, Robert G.

    Phyllosilicates In this lab you will examine specimens of the phyllosilicate or sheet silicate, you should simply know that they are hydrous alumino-silicates (Al will substitute for Si) and you- silicate with K, Mg and Fe". Mineral formulae are provided for convenience. Phyllosilicates Serpentine

  14. 6 TRANSPORTATION OF SPECIMENS All samples to be transported should be packaged in heavy-duty containers and should comply

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marsh, Helene

    plastic bags (see Webb 1998). Place samples in a strong insulated container or cardboard box. Addresses-duty containers and should comply with the appropriate local protocol. It is important that all agencies involved with tape and enclosed in sealed plastic bags. Specimens can also be sent wrapped; place tissues in paper

  15. Effect of Specimen Conditioning on Geosynthetic Clay Liner Shear J.S. McCartney & J.G. Zornberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zornberg, Jorge G.

    635 Effect of Specimen Conditioning on Geosynthetic Clay Liner Shear Strength J.S. McCartney & J of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) must replicate field conditions while still accounting for time and cost to conditioning. 1 INTRODUCTION Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) are prefabricated geocomposite materials used

  16. 2013 Chevrolet Volt - VIN 3929 - Advanced Vehicle Testing - Beginning...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Voltage 3 : 3.00 V Thermal Management: Active - Liquid cooled BATTERY LABORATORY TEST RESULTS SUMMARY Vehicle Mileage and Testing Date Vehicle Odometer: 4,007 mi Date of...

  17. Residential gas-fired sorption heat Test and technology evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test and technology evaluation Energiforskningsprogram EFP05 Journal nr: 33031-0054 December 2008 #12;Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps Test.............................................................................................................................................5 1 Residential gas-fired thermally driven heat pumps

  18. A study of coal particle shape and three-body wear: Part 1, Design and development of a new three-body wear testing machine: Part 2, Particle shape and three-body wear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, N.N.; Means, K.H.; James, R.; Thompson, T.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-body wear involves two surfaces and an intermediate particle trapped between the two surfaces. A machine has been constructed to measure normal and frictional forces due to three-body wear. This machine accurately positions specimens a predetermined distance apart from each other and introduces particles to the interface between the specimens. Different types of specimen combinations have been tested to give a variety of data. Loads that result from the wear test are sampled and stored. Wear coefficients and rates of wear have been calculated for all specimens. (VC)

  19. Charpy impact test results for low activation ferritic alloys irradiated to 30 dpa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, L.E.; Hamilton, M.L.; Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Miniature specimens of six low activation ferritic alloys have been impact field tested following irradiation at 370{degrees}C to 30 dpa. Comparison of the results with those of control specimens and specimens irradiated to 10 dpa indicates that degradation in the impact behavior appears to have saturated by {approx}10 dpa in at least four of these alloys. The 7.5Cr-2W alloy referred to as GA3X appears most promising for further consideration as a candidate structural material in fusion reactor applications, although the 9Cr-1V alloy may also warrant further investigation.

  20. Reversible Bending Fatigue Testing on Zry-4 Surrogate Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom [ORNL; Howard, Rob L [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Testing high-burnup spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presents many challenges in areas such as specimen preparation, specimen installation, mechanical loading, load control, measurements, data acquisition, and specimen disposal because these tasks are complicated by the radioactivity of the test specimens. Research and comparison studies conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) resulted in a new concept in 2010 for a U-frame testing setup on which to perform hot-cell reversible bending fatigue testing. Subsequently, the three-dimensional finite element analysis and the engineering design of components were completed. In 2013 the ORNL team finalized the upgrade of the U-frame testing setup and the integration of the U-frame setup into a Bose dual linear motor test bench to develop a cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT). A final check was conducted on the CIRFT test system in August 2013, and the CIRFT was installed in the hot cell in September 2013 to evaluate both the static and dynamic mechanical response of SNF rods under simulated loads. The fatigue responses of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding and the role of pellet pellet and pellet clad interactions are critical to SNF vibration integrity, but such data are not available due to the unavailability of an effective testing system. While the deployment of the developed CIRFT test system in a hot cell will provide the opportunity to generate the data, the use of a surrogate rod has proven quite effective in identifying the underlying deformation mechanism of an SNF composite rod under an equivalent loading condition. This paper presents the experimental results of using surrogate rods under CIRFT reversible cyclic loading. Specifically, monotonic and cyclic bending tests were conducted on surrogate rods made of a Zry-4 tube and alumina pellet inserts, both with and without an epoxy bond.

  1. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  2. Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL] [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida] [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida] [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

  3. Structural Testing at the Micro and Nano Scales: Breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ballarini, Roberto

    Structural Testing at the Micro and Nano Scales: Breaking Invisible Specimens With Zero Force). "Nano measurements with micro devices: mechanical properties of hydrated collagen fibrils," J. of the R tangential slots · Fuel swirls in the spin chamber and exits through the orifice in a hollow conical spray

  4. CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY-COATED REINFORCEMENTBEAM TESTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin, University of

    CORROSION PERFORMANCE OF EPOXY-COATED REINFORCEMENT­BEAM TESTS by Khaled Z. Kahhaleh, Enrique Vaca which simulate a highly corrosive environment and under loading conditions producing concrete cracking was intended to produce a very aggressive environment and to accelerate corrosion of the specimens. The state

  5. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  6. Holographic thermalization in noncommutative geometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Xiong Zeng; Xian-Ming Liu; Wen-Biao Liu

    2015-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational collapse of a shell of dust in noncommutative geometry is probed by the renormalized geodesic length, which is dual to probe the thermalization by the two-point correlation function in the dual conformal field theory. We find that larger the noncommutative parameter is, longer the thermalization time is, which implies that the large noncommutative parameter delays the thermalization process. We also investigate how the noncommutative parameter affects the thermalization velocity and thermalization acceleration.

  7. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C., E-mail: acbento@uem.br [Departamento de Física, Grupo de Espectroscopia Fotoacústica e Fototérmica, Universidade Estadual de Maringá – UEM, Av. Colombo 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, Paraná (Brazil); Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S. [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho – UNESP, Av. Brasil 56, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (?7?min) and with similar thermal expansion (?12??strain/?°C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 ?m thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) ?m, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) ?l. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup ?3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 ?m using 57 ?l of distilled water)

  8. Effects of variations in rate of temperature rise, curing temperature and size of specimen on selected physical properties of concrete made with type III cement and steam cured at atmospheric pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldridge, Weldon Wayne

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    made with Type III Portland cement, 2. to determine the interrelationships of the physical pro- perties of the steam cured concrete as exhibited by the variation in size of the test specimens, 3. to compare certain physical properties of steam cured... it was believed that Type III Portland cement would respond favorably, to temperatures 1n the higher ranges. Due to this same reasoning the rate of temperature rise was varied between 40 F, 60o F and 80 F per hour. These oombinations of curing temperature...

  9. The thermal and structural properties of a Hanna Basin Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, R.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to understand the cavity growth mechanisms occurring during an Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test, a study of the thermomechanical effects has been initiated at Sandia National Laboratories. The first phase of this study has been the determination of the intrinsic thermal and structural properties of the Hanna Basin Coal that was utilized in a series of four UCG tests near the town of Hanna, Wyoming. The result of this study is a consistent set of thermal and structural properties of a Hanna Basin coal. This set has been used in a model that successfully simulated the growth of the cavity observed during the Hanna II UCG test.

  10. Test quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, R.S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Keller, A.E. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test`s ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing.

  11. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  12. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  13. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  14. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  15. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  16. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  17. Materials testing at the Hanna-IV and Hoe Creek-III in situ coal-gasification sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loop, R.B.; LaRue, D.M.

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Candidate structural alloys were exposed to the direct product gas stream during three different in situ coal gasification experiments at two sites. Physical appearance and chemical analysis indicate that the coating on the specimens following exposure is typical of condensed hydrocarbons, coal char, coal ash, and mineral particles from the overburden. Deposits on specimens from one test had a fairly high concentration of sulfur (about 8 w/o) while the others had very low sulfur concentrations (0.313 w/o and 0.014 w/o, respectively). Energy-dispersive x-ray spectra indicate that corrosion occurred principally by oxidation, with some sulfidation. Mean penetration rates expressed in millimetres/year were calculated from weight loss data. No material evaluated showed a truly unacceptable degradation. There was no consistent difference in the amount of material removed from specimens with or without welds. Specimens from one test experienced no consistent difference in material removal between different exposure angles; a consistent difference in material loss and dents from particle impact indicated that erosion may have occurred in the other two tests. There was no indication of carburization, decarburization, or severe localized attack in the form of pitting or intergranular corrosion on any of the specimens examined. Results obtained for the flame-sprayed 316 SS specimens and one of the Alonized specimens indicated that use of these processes may be questionable in this environment.

  18. Systems analysis of thermal storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During FY 1981, analyses were conducted on thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications. These studies include estimates of both the obtainable costs of thermal storage concepts and their worth to a user (i.e., value). Based on obtainable costs and performance, an in-depth study evaluated thermal storage concepts for water/steam, organic fluid, and gas/Brayton solar thermal receivers. Promising and nonpromising concepts were identified. A study to evaluate thermal storage concepts for a liquid metal receiver was initiated. The value of thermal storage in a solar thermal industrial process heat application was analyzed. Several advanced concepts are being studied, including ground-mounted thermal storage for parabolic dishes with Stirling engines.

  19. Test quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartley, R.S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Keller, A.E. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing.

  20. Test Images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Test Images. I hope to have a set of test images for the course soon. Some images are available now; some will have to wait until I can find another 100-200

  1. Stress corrosion testing of a superplastically deformed aluminum-lithium alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was conducted to study the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tendency of a superplastically deformed aluminum-lithium-based alloy (AA X2094 [UNS A92094]) that had been received in a thermomechanically processed form suitable for dynamic recrystallization. Tensile specimens made from sheets of this material were superplastically deformed at a constant true strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}/s and a temperature of {approximately}500 C. Specimens then were subjected to stress corrosion testing using the slow strain rate tensile testing (SSRT) technique at a constant initial strain rate of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/s. Effects of different superplastic deformation variables and stress corrosion testing conditions on the stress-strain relationship of the test specimens were studied.

  2. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature is described. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical. 1 figure.

  3. IFP --Oil & Gas Science and Technology --(Script : 1er specimen) --1 --Oil & Gas Science and Technology --rev. IFP, Vol. xx (2009), No X, pp. 00-00

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IFP -- Oil & Gas Science and Technology -- (Script : 1er specimen) -- 1 -- Oil & Gas Science2010 Author manuscript, published in "Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Rev. IFP, 65, 3 (2010) 435-444" DOI : 10.2516/ogst/2010007 #12;IFP -- Oil & Gas Science and Technology -- (Script : 1er specimen) -- 2

  4. On some Panamerican Cretaceous crabs (Decapoda: Raninoida) 263 Decapod crustacean specimens recently collected from new and previously reported localities of USA, Mexico, and Colombia, as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bermingham, Eldredge

    specimens recently collected from new and previously reported localities of USA, Mexico, and Colombia Colombia, Oklahoma and Mexico. Specimens of Cenomanocarcinus vanstraeleni from the Turonian of Mexico and Colombia include features not described previously for this species, such as variation in the shape

  5. Analysis of stress-induced Burgers vector anisotropy in pressurized tube specimens of irradiated ferritic-martensitic steel: JLF-1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gelles, D.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shibayama, T. [Univ. of Hokkaido, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. for Materials Research

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A procedure for determining the Burgers vector anisotropy in irradiated ferritic steels allowing identification of all a<100> and all a/2<111> dislocations in a region of interest is applied to a pressurized tube specimen of JLF-1 irradiated at 430 C to 14.3 {times} 10{sup 22} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV) or 61 dpa. Analysis of micrographs indicates large anisotropy in Burgers vector populations develop during irradiation creep.

  6. Waste Acceptance Testing of Secondary Waste Forms: Cast Stone, Ceramicrete and DuraLith

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Chung, Chul-Woo; Lindberg, Michael J.; Parker, Kent E.

    2011-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions has initiated secondary-waste-form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is conducting tests on four candidate waste forms to evaluate their ability to meet potential waste acceptance criteria for immobilized secondary wastes that would be placed in the IDF. All three waste forms demonstrated compressive strengths above the minimum 3.45 MPa (500 psi) set as a target for cement-based waste forms. Further, none of the waste forms showed any significant degradation in compressive strength after undergoing thermal cycling (30 cycles in a 10 day period) between -40 C and 60 C or water immersion for 90 days. The three leach test methods are intended to measure the diffusion rates of contaminants from the waste forms. Results are reported in terms of diffusion coefficients and a leachability index (LI) calculated based on the diffusion coefficients. A smaller diffusion coefficient and a larger LI are desired. The NRC, in its Waste Form Technical Position (NRC 1991), provides recommendations and guidance regarding methods to demonstrate waste stability for land disposal of radioactive waste. Included is a recommendation to conduct leach tests using the ANS 16.1 method. The resulting leachability index (LI) should be greater than 6.0. For Hanford secondary wastes, the LI > 6.0 criterion applies to sodium leached from the waste form. For technetium and iodine, higher targets of LI > 9 for Tc and LI > 11 for iodine have been set based on early waste-disposal risk and performance assessment analyses. The results of these three leach tests conducted for a total time between 11days (ASTM C1308) to 90 days (ANS 16.1) showed: (1) Technetium diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that all the waste forms had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium; (2) Rhenium diffusivity: Cast Stone 2M specimens, when tested using EPA 1315 protocol, had leachability indices better than the target LI > 9 for technetium based on rhenium as a surrogate for technetium. All other waste forms tested by ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 test methods had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 9 for Tc based on rhenium release. These studies indicated that use of Re(VII) as a surrogate for 99Tc(VII) in low temperature secondary waste forms containing reductants will provide overestimated diffusivity values for 99Tc. Therefore, it is not appropriate to use Re as a surrogate 99Tc in future low temperature waste form studies. (3) Iodine diffusivity: ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315 tests indicated that the three waste forms had leachability indices that were below the target LI > 11 for iodine. Therefore, it may be necessary to use a more effective sequestering material than silver zeolite used in two of the waste forms (Ceramicrete and DuraLith); (4) Sodium diffusivity: All the waste form specimens tested by the three leach methods (ANSI/ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308, and EPA 1315) exceeded the target LI value of 6; (5) All three leach methods (ANS 16.1, ASTM C1308 and EPA 1315) provided similar 99Tc diffusivity values for both short-time transient diffusivity effects as well as long-term ({approx}90 days) steady diffusivity from each of the three tested waste forms (Cast Stone 2M, Ceramicrete and DuraLith). Therefore, any one of the three methods can be used to determine the contaminant diffusivities from a selected waste form.

  7. Nonclassicality of Thermal Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars M. Johansen

    2004-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that thermal radiation of small occupation number is strongly nonclassical. This includes most forms of naturally occurring radiation. Nonclassicality can be observed as a negative weak value of a positive observable. It is related to negative values of the Margenau-Hill quasi-probability distribution.

  8. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  9. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  10. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fleurial, J.P.; Caillat, T.; Borshchevsky, A.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  11. Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to us, like reflective ("nearreflective ("near--" infrared (0.7" infrared (0.7 -- 3.03.0 µµm)m) andand near-infrared far infrared ultraviolet Thermal Infrared refers to region o EM spectrum from ~3 - 14 µm.landscape. IMPORTANT: NEARIMPORTANT: NEAR--INFRARED is short enough wavelength toINFRARED is short enough wavelength

  12. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  13. Thermal performance of steel-framed walls. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, E. [NAHB Research Center, Inc., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Inc., Bedford, MA (United States); Kosny, J.; Christian, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In wall construction, highly conductive members spaced along the wall, which allow higher heat transfer than that through less conductive areas, are referred to as thermal bridges. Thermal bridges in walls tend to increase heat loss and, under certain adverse conditions, can cause dust streaking (``ghosting``) on interior walls over studs due to temperature differentials, as well as condensation in and on walls. Although such adverse conditions can be easily avoided by proper thermal design of wall systems, these effects have not been well understood and thermal data has been lacking. Therefore, the present study was initiated to provide (1) a better understanding of the thermal behavior of steel-framed walls, (2) a set of R-values for typical wall constructions, and (3) information that could be used to develop improved methods of predicting R-values. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them to choose the optimum choice for construction. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C9761) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Test results were compared to R-value estimates using the parallel path method, the isothermal planes method and the ASHRAE Zone method. The comparison showed that the known procedures do not fully account for the three-dimensional effects created by steel framing in a wall.

  14. High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    3 Q1 High-Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production - FY13 Q1 This document summarizes the progress of this Los Alamos National Laboratory...

  15. Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    Effective Thermal Conductivity of Graded Nanocomposites with Interfacial Thermal Resistance H Engineering, Newmark Laboratory, 205 North Mathews Avenue, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 4139 Engineering Gateway, University

  16. Investigation of stabilization/solidification for treatment of electric arc furnace dust: Dynamic leaching of monolithic specimens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laforest, Guylaine [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton, Departement de Geologie et de Genie Geologique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Qc, G1K 7P4 (Canada)], E-mail: guylaine.laforest.1@ulaval.ca; Duchesne, Josee [Centre de Recherche sur les Infrastructures en Beton, Departement de Geologie et de Genie Geologique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Qc, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Diffusion-controlled leaching of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) from electric arc furnace dust treated with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) was evaluated. Monolithic specimens were evaluated under dynamic leaching conditions for 84 days with periodic leachant renewal. The influence of leaching time, nature of the leachant, binder type and the water/solid ratio of the monoliths were investigated. Results obtained showed both binders can immobilize heavy metals in the monoliths under dynamic leaching conditions, with cumulative quantity of leached metal under 0.138 mg (Cr). Alkaline leachant increased metal release from specimens and reducing the water/solid ratio of the monolith allowed for a decrease in the cumulative mass of metals leached. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations indicated that the metals were evenly distributed throughout the specimens for both binders. Decalcification was observed on the OPC monolith border following leaching. This decrease in Ca corresponded to an altered zone (20 {mu}m), identified by scanning electron microscopy. The GGBFS sample did not show an altered zone.

  17. Testing and evaluation of damaged tubular jacket braces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moehlman, Scott Alan

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . In addition, crack growth at welded connections may also occur due to corrosion. Due to the high costs and dire consequences of catastrophic failure of an offshore platform, there exists the need to assess the structural integrity of platforms... will be presented. Experimental results of pure compression tests on undamaged, steel, tubular columns were reported by Bouwkamp (1975). Three fabricated electric-weld pipes and four seamless pipe were used for this study. The specimens were tested in pure...

  18. A SOLAR TEST COLLECTOR FOR EVALUATION OF BOTH SELECTIVE AND NON-SELECTIVE ABSORBERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lampert, Carl M.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coating Applied to Collector Design, Proceedings North American Solarsolar test collector was designed for the testing of thermally absorbing coatingssolar test collector was designed so that certain collector parameters could be held constant or controlled and yet different coatings

  19. CU-LASP Test Facilities ! and Instrument Calibration Capabilities"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    CU-LASP Test Facilities ! and Instrument Calibration Capabilities" Ginger Drake Calibration Group of LASP's vacuum chambers · Ideal for performing top-level instrument tests ­ Thermal Vacuum tests ­ In-band light testing (EUV-IR) · Independently temperature- controlled shroud and platen · Optional 4-axis

  20. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang Li, Lingling Jin, Wei Wu, Sheldon X.-D. Tan, Jun Yang Department of Electrical Engineering temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach

  1. VAPOR SPACE AND LIQUID/AIR INTERFACECORROSION TESTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.

    2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

  2. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High temperature underground thermal energy storage, inProceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:underground thermal energy storage, in ATES newsletter:

  3. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withconcept of thermal energy storage in aquifers was suggestedLow Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Program of Oak Ridge

  4. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sands, M.Dale

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftin Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology haveThe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 2rogrammatic

  6. THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE IN AQUIFERS WORKSHOP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Survey of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Coupled withAnnual Thermal Energy Storage Contractors' InformationLarge-Scale Thermal Energy Storage for Cogeneration and

  7. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE-A SURVEY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin Fu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1978, High temperature underground thermal energy storage,in Proceedings, Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers Workshop:High temperature underground thermal energy storage, in ATES

  8. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Coated Paper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr, Lei L [ORNL; Pan, Yun-Long [Smart Papers, Hamilton, OH 45013; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton [ORNL; Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Peterson, Robert C. [Miami University, Oxford, OH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we introduce a method for measuring the thermal conductivity of paper using a hot disk system. To the best of our knowledge, few publications are found discussing the thermal conductivity of a coated paper although it is important to various forms of today s digital printing where heat is used for imaging as well as for toner fusing. This motivates us to investigate the thermal conductivity of paper coating. Our investigation demonstrates that thermal conductivity is affected by the coat weight and the changes in the thermal conductivity affect ink gloss and density. As the coat weight increases, the thermal conductivity increases. Both the ink gloss and density decrease as the thermal conductivity increases. The ink gloss appears to be more sensitive to the changes in the thermal conductivity.

  10. Jet Quenching and Holographic Thermalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Caceres; Arnab Kundu; Berndt Müller; Diana Vaman; Di-Lun Yang

    2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We employ the AdS/CFT correspondence to investigate the thermalization of the strongly-coupled plasma and the jet quenching of a hard probe traversing such a thermalizing medium.

  11. A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Albert F.

    A Scaleless Snake: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer Reprinted: Tests of the Role of Reptilian Scales in Water Loss and Heat Transfer A unique specimen of gopher snake of pulmocutaneous water loss and heat transfer, no difference was observed between the scale- less animal

  12. Microviscometric studies on thermal diffusion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reyna, Eddie

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for its improvement. This in~estigation was supported in part by the Convsir Division of General Dynamics Corporation. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter III INTRODUCTION EXPERINENTAL NETHODS AND PROCEDUPJIS Thermal Diffusion Column Viscosity Measurements.... The main interest of 6 tais work was the molecular weight dependence of the thermal diffusion coefficient and the suitability of thermal diffusion as a method of frac- tionation of polymers. Since the work of Debye and Bueche, applications of thermal...

  13. Thermal control of ceramic breeder blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raffray, A.R.; Tillack, M.S.; Abdou, M.A. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal control is an important issue for ceramic breeder blankets since the breeder needs to operate within its temperature window for the tritium release and inventory to be acceptable. A thermal control region is applicable not only to situations where the coolant can be run at low temperature, such as for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) base blanket, but also to ITER test module and power reactor situations, where it would allow for ceramic breeder operation over a wide range of power densities in space and time. Four thermal control mechanisms applicable to ceramic breeder blanket designs are described: A helium gap, a beryllium sintered block region, a beryllium sintered block region with a metallic felt at the beryllium-cladding interface, and a beryllium packed-bed region. Key advantages and issues associated with each of these mechanisms are discussed. Experimental and modeling studies focusing on beryllium packed-bed thermal conductivity and wall conductance, and beryllium sintered block-stainless steel cladding contact resistance are then described. Finally, an assessment of the potential of the different mechanisms for both passive and active control is carried out based on example calculations for a given set of ITER-like conditions. 28 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Methods of forming thermal management systems and thermal management methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gering, Kevin L.; Haefner, Daryl R.

    2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal management system for a vehicle includes a heat exchanger having a thermal energy storage material provided therein, a first coolant loop thermally coupled to an electrochemical storage device located within the first coolant loop and to the heat exchanger, and a second coolant loop thermally coupled to the heat exchanger. The first and second coolant loops are configured to carry distinct thermal energy transfer media. The thermal management system also includes an interface configured to facilitate transfer of heat generated by an internal combustion engine to the heat exchanger via the second coolant loop in order to selectively deliver the heat to the electrochemical storage device. Thermal management methods are also provided.

  15. Concentrating Solar Program; Session: Thermal Storage - Overview (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.; Mehos, M.; Mancini, T.

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project overview of this presentation is: (1) description--(a) laboratory R and D in advanced heat transfer fluids (HTF) and thermal storage systems; (b) FOA activities in solar collector and component development for use of molten salt as a heat transfer and storage fluid; (c) applications for all activities include line focus and point focus solar concentrating technologies; (2) Major FY08 Activities--(a) advanced HTF development with novel molten salt compositions with low freezing temperatures, nanofluids molecular modeling and experimental studies, and use with molten salt HTF in solar collector field; (b) thermal storage systems--cost analysis and updates for 2-tank and thermocline storage and model development and analysis to support near-term trought deployment; (c) thermal storage components--facility upgrade to support molten salt component testing for freeze-thaw receiver testing, long-shafted molten salt pump for parabolic trough and power tower thermal storage systems; (d) CSP FOA support--testing and evaluation support for molten salt component and field testing work, advanced fluids and storage solicitation preparation, and proposal evaluation for new advanced HTF and thermal storage FOA.

  16. Thermal Stabilization Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Blend Plan documents the feed material items that are stored in 2736-2 vaults, the 2736-ZB 638 cage, the 192C vault, and the 225 vault that will be processed through the thermal stabilization furnaces. The purpose of thermal stabilization is to heat the material to 1000 degrees Celsius to drive off all water and leave the plutonium and/or uranium as oxides. The stabilized material will be sampled to determine the Loss On Ignition (LOI) or percent water. The stabilized material must meet water content or LOI of less than 0.5% to be acceptable for storage under DOE-STD-3013-99 specifications. Out of specification material will be recycled through the furnaces until the water or LOI limits are met.

  17. Thermally stable diamond brazing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Robert P. (Kingwood, TX)

    2009-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A cutting element and a method for forming a cutting element is described and shown. The cutting element includes a substrate, a TSP diamond layer, a metal interlayer between the substrate and the diamond layer, and a braze joint securing the diamond layer to the substrate. The thickness of the metal interlayer is determined according to a formula. The formula takes into account the thickness and modulus of elasticity of the metal interlayer and the thickness of the TSP diamond. This prevents the use of a too thin or too thick metal interlayer. A metal interlayer that is too thin is not capable of absorbing enough energy to prevent the TSP diamond from fracturing. A metal interlayer that is too thick may allow the TSP diamond to fracture by reason of bending stress. A coating may be provided between the TSP diamond layer and the metal interlayer. This coating serves as a thermal barrier and to control residual thermal stress.

  18. Thermal synthesis apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Detering, Brent A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for thermal conversion of one or more reactants to desired end products includes an insulated reactor chamber having a high temperature heater such as a plasma torch at its inlet end and, optionally, a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. In a thermal conversion method, reactants are injected upstream from the reactor chamber and thoroughly mixed with the plasma stream before entering the reactor chamber. The reactor chamber has a reaction zone that is maintained at a substantially uniform temperature. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by passage through the nozzle, which "freezes" the desired end product(s) in the heated equilibrium reaction stage, or is discharged through an outlet pipe without the convergent-divergent nozzle. The desired end products are then separated from the gaseous stream.

  19. Standard test method for determining plane-strain crack-arrest fracture toughness, kIa, of ferritic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method employs a side-grooved, crack-line-wedge-loaded specimen to obtain a rapid run-arrest segment of flat-tensile separation with a nearly straight crack front. This test method provides a static analysis determination of the stress intensity factor at a short time after crack arrest. The estimate is denoted Ka. When certain size requirements are met, the test result provides an estimate, termed KIa, of the plane-strain crack-arrest toughness of the material. 1.2 The specimen size requirements, discussed later, provide for in-plane dimensions large enough to allow the specimen to be modeled by linear elastic analysis. For conditions of plane-strain, a minimum specimen thickness is also required. Both requirements depend upon the crack arrest toughness and the yield strength of the material. A range of specimen sizes may therefore be needed, as specified in this test method. 1.3 If the specimen does not exhibit rapid crack propagation and arrest, Ka cannot be determined. 1.4 The values stat...

  20. Smoldering combustion hazards of thermal insulation materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlemiller, T.J.; Rogers, F.E.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Work on the smolder ignitability in cellulosic insulation and on thermal analytical characterization of the oxidation of this material is presented. Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) shows that both retarded and unretarded cellulosic insulation oxidizes in two overall stages, both of which are exothermic. The second stage (oxidation of the char left as a residue of the first stage) is much more energetic on a unit mass basis than the first. However, kinetics and a sufficient exothermicity make the first stage responsible for ignition in most realistic circumstances. Existing smolder retardants such as boric acid have their major effect on the kinetics of the second oxidation stage and thus produce only a rather small (20/sup 0/C) increase in smolder ignition temperature. Several simplified analogs of attic insulations have been tested to determine the variability of minimum smolder ignition temperature. These employed planar or tubular constant temperature heat sources in a thermal environment quite similar to a realistic attic application. Go/no-go tests provided the borderline (minimum) ignition temperature for each configuration. The wide range (150/sup 0/C) of minimum ignition temperatures confirmed the predominant dependence of smolder ignition on heat flow geometry. Other factors (bulk density, retardants) produced much less effect on ignitability.

  1. Thermal reactor safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information is presented concerning new trends in licensing; seismic considerations and system structural behavior; TMI-2 risk assessment and thermal hydraulics; statistical assessment of potential accidents and verification of computational methods; issues with respect to improved safety; human factors in nuclear power plant operation; diagnostics and activities in support of recovery; LOCA transient analysis; unresolved safety issues and other safety considerations; and fission product transport.

  2. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  3. NREL's Advanced Thermal Conversion Laboratory at the Center for Buildings and Thermal Systems: On the Cutting-Edge of HVAC and CHP Technology (Revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brochure describes how the unique testing capabilities of NREL's Advanced Thermal Conversion Laboratory at the Center For Buildings and Thermal Systems can help industry meet the challenge of developing the next generation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and combined heat and power (CHP) equipment and concepts.

  4. Nanofluids for vehicle thermal management.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, S. U.-S.; Yu, W.; Hull, J. R.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lockwood, F. E.; Energy Technology; The Valvoline Co.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applying nanotechnology to thermal engineering, ANL has addressed the interesting and timely topic of nanofluids. We have developed methods for producing both oxide and metal nanofluids, studied their thermal conductivity, and obtained promising results: (1) Stable suspensions of nanoparticles can be achieved. (2) Nanofluids have significantly higher thermal conductivities than their base liquids. (3) Measured thermal conductivities of nanofluids are much greater than predicted. For these reasons, nanofluids show promise for improving the design and performance of vehicle thermal management systems. However, critical barriers to further development and application of nanofluid technology are agglomeration of nanoparticles and oxidation of metallic nanoparticles. Therefore, methods to prevent particle agglomeration and degradation are required.

  5. Thermal control structure and garment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klett, James W. (Knoxville, TN); Cameron, Christopher Stan (Sanford, NC)

    2012-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible thermally conductive structure. The structure generally includes a plurality of thermally conductive yarns, at least some of which are at least partially disposed adjacent to an elastomeric material. Typically, at least a portion of the plurality of thermally conductive yarns is configured as a sheet. The yarns may be constructed from graphite, metal, or similar materials. The elastomeric material may be formed from urethane or silicone foam that is at least partially collapsed, or from a similar material. A thermal management garment is provided, the garment incorporating a flexible thermally conductive structure.

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of a Conduction Cooled Thermal Neutron Filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heather Wampler; Adam Gerth; Heng Ban; Donna Post Guillen; Douglas Porter; Cynthia Papesch

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Installation of a conduction cooled thermal (low-energy) neutron filter in an existing domestic test reactor would provide the U.S. the capability to test new reactor fuels and materials for advanced fast (high-energy) reactor concepts. A composite consisting of Al3Hf-Al has been proposed for the neutron filter due to both the neutron filtering properties of hafnium and the conducting capabilities of aluminum. Knowledge of the thermal conductivity of the Al3Hf-Al composite is essential for the design of the filtering system. The present objectives are to identify a suitable fabrication technique and to measure the thermophysical properties of the Al3Hf intermetallic, which has not been done previous to this study. A centrifugal casting method was used to prepare samples of Al3Hf. X-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis were conducted to determine the structural make-up of each of the samples. Thermophysical properties were measured as follows: specific heat by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal diffusivity by a laser flash thermal diffusivity measuring system, thermal expansion by a dilatometer, and thermal conductivity was calculated based on the previous measurements. All measurements were acquired over a temperature range of 90°C - 375°C with some measurements outside these bounds. The average thermal conductivity of the intermetallic Al3Hf (~7 at.% Hf) was found to be ~ 41 W/m-K for the given temperature range. This information fills a knowledge gap in the thermophysical properties of the intermetallic Al3Hf with the specified percentage of hafnium. A model designed to predict composite properties was used to calculate a thermal conductivity of ~177 W/m-K for an Al3Hf-Al composite with 23 vol% Al3Hf. This calculation was based upon the average thermal conductivity of Al3Hf over the specified temperature range.

  7. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESPONSE OF A HOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TEMPERATURE I I I 4..HEATERS I 3 SOLAR FLUX c- HEATER~ "'e .AND SOLAR FLUX FIG. 2 XBL 7711-10789 30r'---------------------------------------,r-----------------------------~ 4 HEATERS

  8. Improved mechanical design and thermal testing of MIT Solarclave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van den Heuvel, Louise E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solarclave is a solar-powered autoclave designed for use in rural health clinics in developing countries. The autoclave must sufficiently sterilize medical instruments to ensure that they can safely be used in providing ...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trough Systems CLFR Power Towers Acciona Abengoa Sener Solar Millennium SkyFuel Siemens Ausra SPGMann SkyFuel Abengoa Brightsource Energy SolarReserve eSolar Dish Engine...

  10. The Thermal Test and Analysis of Envelope in Existing Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, X.; Li, X.; Sun, J.; Wang, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to improve the health and comfort and minimize the energy consumption costs of existing buildings is quite important. Improving existing buildings can be divided into two parts, envelope and heating system. Much research has been done on building conservation...

  11. DIAGNOSTIC TESTS DETERMINING THE THERMAL RESPONSE OF A HOUSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonderegger, R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contribution from Heat Load Calculation for 3-Bedroom-Wood-to a mere static heat load calculation. The measurement ofpresent in static heat load calculations. The value of H

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biofuels Biofuels Publications Biochemical Conversion Program Lignocellulosic Biomass Microalgae Thermochemical Conversion Sign up for our E-Newsletter Required.gif?3.21 Email...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and reliability. To date, research has been conducted both on externally heated Stirling, organic Rankine, and steam Rankine engines and on the ... Rotating Platform On...

  15. THE MOBILE WINDOW THERMAL TEST FACILITY (MoWiTT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klems, J. H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    facilitieso For a 2 K/W (10 BTU- 1 ft 2 hr F) is reasonable;or 0005 W m- 2 K- l (0.01 BTU hr- 1 ft- 2 ). For a commonthis becomes 0.05 W/K (0.1 BTU hr- 1 F- 1 ). (approximately

  16. Project Profile: National Solar Thermal Test Facility | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010 |of Energy TEES logo TexasEnergy SNL logo

  17. Advanced Powertrain Research Facility Vehicle Test Cell Thermal Upgrade |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of1 AAcceleratedDepartment ofDepartment ofMachines Advanced||

  18. Sandia Energy - National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757Kelley Ruehl HomeCommissioning HomeMore

  19. Sandia Energy » National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementingnpitche Home About npitche ThisStrategic Petroleum Reserve:Energy

  20. NREL Battery Thermal and Life Test Facility | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in Many Devils Wash, Shiprock,Departmentsensor developmentfromNREL