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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Externally excited resonant free piston stirling engine thermal amplifier system and method of operation and control therefor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an externally excited resonant free piston stirling engine thermal amplifier and load system driven thereby which is over damped at all operating load levels and does not freely oscillate. This system and its method of operation consists of: 1.) A variably controlled drive motor coupled with the displacer/piston of the engine; 2.) A controllable power supply coupled to the drive motor to provide variably controlled energizing electric signals to the drive motor; 3.) A device for sensing at least one selected operating parameter of the stirling engine thermal amplifier and load system during operation to drive a load; and 4.) A feedback system which includes a response to the sensed stirling engine thermal amplifier system operating parameter signal for deriving at least one feedback control signal operative to control the energizing electric signals supplied to the drive motor for controlling its operation. These signals then precisely, variably and stably controll the operation of the stirling engine thermal amplifier and load system.

Vitale, N.G.; Dhar, M.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

2

Hard thermal loops in static external fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study, in the imaginary-time formalism, the high temperature behavior of n-point thermal loops in static Yang-Mills and gravitational fields. We show that in this regime, any hard thermal loop gives the same leading contribution as the one obtained by evaluating the loop at zero external energies and momenta.

Frenkel, J; Takahashi, N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Thermal Reservoir coupled to External Field and Quantum Dissipation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the framework of the Caldeira-Leggett model of dissipative quantum mechanics, we investigate the effects of the interaction of the thermal reservoir with an external field. In particular, we discuss how the interaction modifies the conservative dynamics of the central particle, and the mechanism of dissipation. We briefly comment on possible observable consequencies.

Fabrizio Illuminati; Marco Patriarca

1992-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

4

Thermal neutron detection system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Thermal Insulation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy cost reduction programs. One of the best places to start with energy conservation is to employ proper insulation systems. This article discusses the significant properties of thermal insulation materials primarily for industrial application. Some of the information is applicable to commercial and residential insulation. Only hot service conditions will be covered.

Stanley, T. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Thermal ignition combustion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

1988-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

8

An Open Systems Model for Providing Universal, Reusable External...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Open Systems Model for Providing Universal, Reusable External Power Supplies for Consumer Electronics and other DC Powered Products Speaker(s): Gus Pabon Seth Socolow Date:...

9

Exergetic, thermal, and externalities analyses of a cogeneration plant  

SciTech Connect

A thermodynamic study of an 88.4 MW cogeneration plant located in the United States is presented in this paper. The feedstock for this actual plant is culm, the waste left from anthracite coal mining. Before combustion in circulating fluidized bed boilers, the usable carbon within the culm is separated from the indigenous rock. The rock and ash waste from the combustion process fill adjacent land previously scared by strip mining. Trees and grass are planted in these areas as part of a land reclamation program. Analyses based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics using actual operating data are first presented to acquaint the reader with the plant's components and operation. Using emission and other relevant environmental data from the plant, all externalities study is outlined that estimates the plant's effect on the local population. The results show that the plant's cycle performs with a coefficient of utilization of 29% and all approximate exergetic efficiency of 34.5%. In order to increase these values, recommended improvements to the plant are noted. In addition, the externality costs associated with the estimated SO{sub 2} and NOx discharge from the culm fed plant are lower (85-95%) than those associated with a similarly sized coal fed plant. The plant's cycle efficiencies are lower than those associated with more modern technologies; such as all integrated gas turbine combined cycle. However, given the abundant, inexpensive supply of feedstock located adjacent to the plant and the environmental benefit of removing culm banks, the plant's existing operation is unique from an economical and environmental viewpoint.

Bailey, M.B.; Curtiss, P.; Blanton, P.H.; McBrayer, T.B. [Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

10

Thermally activated miniaturized cooling system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A comprehensive study of a miniaturized thermally activated cooling system was conducted. This study represents the first work to conceptualize, design, fabricate and successfully test… (more)

Determan, Matthew Delos

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Climate System Response to External Forcings and Climate Change...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Climate System Response to External Forcings and Climate Change Projections in CCSM4 Submitted by mkaczmar on March 8, 2012 - 11:03 Authors: Meehl, G.A., Washington, WM, Arblaster,...

12

External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for Evaluation of System Level Modeling for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford More Documents & Publications Hanford Site C Tank Farm Meeting Summary - May 2009 System Planning for Low-Activity Waste at Hanford Hanford ETR Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant - Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Technical Review - External

13

Dispersion relations of externally and thermally excited dust lattice modes in 2D complex plasma crystals  

SciTech Connect

The dispersion relations of the externally and thermally (naturally) excited dust lattice modes (both longitudinal and transverse) in two-dimensional Debye-Yukawa complex plasma crystals are investigated. The dispersion relations are calculated numerically by taking the neutral gas damping effects into account and the numerical results are in agreement with the experimental data given by Nunomura et al.[Phys. Rev. E 65, 066402 (2002)]. It is found that for the mode excited by an external disturbance with a real frequency, the dispersion properties are changed at a critical frequency near where the group velocity of the mode goes to zero. Therefore, the high frequency branch with negative dispersion cannot be reached. In contrast, for the thermally excited mode, the dispersion curve can extend all the way to the negative dispersion region, while a 'cut-off' wave number exists at the long wavelength end of the dispersion in the transverse mode.

Yang Xuefeng; Cui Jian; Zhang Yuan [School of Mathematical Sciences, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu Yue [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Lighting system with thermal management system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

15

Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Presents the objectives and motivations for a battery thermal management vehicle system design study.

Kim, G-H.; Pesaran, A.

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Solar thermal power systems. Program summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Each of DOE's solar Thermal Power Systems projects funded and/or in existence during FY 1978 is described and the status as of September 30, 1978 is reflected. These projects are divided as follows: small thermal power applications, large thermal power applications, and advanced thermal technology. Also included are: 1978 project summary tables, bibliography, and an alphabetical index of contractors. (MHR)

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

The Mutual Interaction between External Rossby Waves and Thermal Forcing: The Subpolar Regions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors hypothesize a simple feedback mechanism between external Rossby waves and diabatic heating from convection. This mechanism could explain the large amplitude that external Rossby waves attain as they propagate to mid- and high ...

Isidoro Orlanski; Silvina Solman

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Hydraulic External Pre-Isolator System for LIGO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hydraulic External Pre-Isolator (HEPI) is the first 6 degrees of freedom active seismic isolation system implemented at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Implementation was first completed at the LIGO Livingston Observatory (LLO) prior to LIGO's 5th science run, successfully cutting down the disturbance seen by LLO's suspended optics in the two most prominent seismic disturbance bands, the microseism (0.1-0.3Hz) and the anthropogenic (1-3Hz) bands, by a factor of a few to tens. The improvement in seismic isolation contributed directly to LLO's much improved duty cycle of 66.7% and LIGO's triple coincident duty cycle of 53%. We report the design, control scheme, and isolation performance of HEPI at LLO in this paper. Aided with this success, funding for incorporating HEPI into the LIGO Hanford Observatory was approved and installation is currently underway.

S. Wen; R. Mittleman; K. Mason; J. Giaime; R. Abbott; J. Kern; B. O'Reilly; R. Bork; M. Hammond; C. Hardham; B. Lantz; W. Hua; D. Coyne; G. Traylor; H. Overmier; T. Evans; J. Hanson; O. Spjeld; M. Macinnis; K. Mailand; D. Sellers; K. Carter; P. Sarin

2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

19

Hydraulic External Pre-Isolator System for LIGO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Hydraulic External Pre-Isolator (HEPI) is the first 6 degrees of freedom active seismic isolation system implemented at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Implementation was first completed at the LIGO Livingston Observatory (LLO) prior to LIGO's 5th science run, successfully cutting down the disturbance seen by LLO's suspended optics in the two most prominent seismic disturbance bands, the microseism (0.1-0.3Hz) and the anthropogenic (1-3Hz) bands, by a factor of a few to tens. The improvement in seismic isolation contributed directly to LLO's much improved duty cycle of 66.7% and LIGO's triple coincident duty cycle of 53%. We report the design, control scheme, and isolation performance of HEPI at LLO in this paper. Aided with this success, funding for incorporating HEPI into the LIGO Hanford Observatory was approved and installation is currently underway.

Wen, S; Mason, K; Giaime, J; Abbott, R; Kern, J; O'Reilly, B; Bork, R; Hammond, M; Hardham, C; Lantz, B; Hua, W; Coyne, D; Traylor, G; Overmier, H; Evans, T; Hanson, J; Spjeld, O; Macinnis, M; Mailand, K; Sellers, D; Carter, K; Sarin, P

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Optimal replacement period of a two-unit system with failure rate interaction and external shocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, a periodical replacement model for a two-unit system which is both subjected to failure rate interaction and external shocks will be presented. Without external shocks, each unit 1, whenever it fails, will act as an interior shock to ... Keywords: External shocks, Failure rate interaction, Periodical replacement policy, Two-unit system

Min-Tsai Lai; Ying-Chang Chen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Thermal Barrier Coating Systems II  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 26, 2009... on the application requirements and not on substrate physical properties such as thermal expansion rate Esp. within the same class of alloys.

22

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE OF MANAGED WINDOW SYSTEMS S. E. Selkowitz and V.York, N.Y. , (1971). Windows for Energy Efficient Buildings,thermal performance of a window system are its overall heat

Selkowitz, S. E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF INSULATING WINDOW SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE VALUES FOR SEVERAL WINDOW DESIGNS XBL 796-10098IN MINNEAPOLIS AS A FUNCTION OF WINDOW AREA AND GLAZING/Thermal Performance of Insulating Window Systems Stephen E.

Selkowitz, Stephen E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Dynamic thermal management in chip multiprocessor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently, processor power density has been increasing at an alarming rate result- ing in high on-chip temperature. Higher temperature increases current leakage and causes poor reliability. In our research, we ¯rst propose a Predictive Dynamic Ther- mal Management (PDTM) based on Application-based Thermal Model (ABTM) and Core-based Thermal Model (CBTM) in the multicore systems. Based on predicted temperature from ABTM and CBTM, the proposed PDTM can maintain the system temperature below a desired level by moving the running application from the possi- ble overheated core to the future coolest core (migration) and reducing the processor resources (priority scheduling) within multicore systems. Furthermore, we present the Thermal Correlative Thermal Management (TCDTM), which incorporates three main components: Statistical Workload Estimation (SWE), Future Temperature Estima- tion Model (FTEM) and Temperature-Aware Thread Controller (TATC), to model the thermal correlation e®ect and distinguish the thermal contributions from appli- cations with di®erent workload behaviors at run time in the CMP systems. The pro- posed PDTM and TCDTM enable the exploration of the tradeo® between throughput and fairness in temperature-constrained multicore systems.

Liu, Chih-Chun

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Control and System Integration to someone by E-mail Share Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration on Facebook Tweet about Vehicle Technologies...

27

Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Control and System Integration The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the...

28

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power Title The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in...

29

Design Tool for Cryogenic Thermal Insulation Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal isolation of low-temperature systems from ambient environments is a constant issue faced by practitioners of cryogenics. For energy-efficient systems and processes to be realized, thermal insulation must be considered as an integrated system, not merely an add-on element. A design tool to determine the performance of insulation systems for comparative trade-off studies of different available material options was developed. The approach is to apply thermal analysis to standard shapes (plane walls, cylinders, spheres) that are relatively simple to characterize with a one-dimensional analytical or numerical model. The user describes the system hot and cold boundary geometry and the operating environment. Basic outputs such as heat load and temperature profiles are determined. The user can select from a built-in insulation material database or input user defined materials. Existing information has been combined with the new experimental thermal conductivity data produced by the Cryogenics Test Laboratory for cryogenic and vacuum environments, including high vacuum, soft vacuum, and no vacuum. Materials in the design tool include multilayer insulation, aerogel blankets, aerogel bulk-fill, foams, powders, composites, and other insulation system constructions. A comparison of the design tool to a specific composite thermal insulation system is given.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Fesmire, J. E. [NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, Florida; Augustynowicz, S. D. [Sierra Lobo Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Florida

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

External review of the thermal energy storage (TES) cogeneration study assumptions. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is to provide a detailed review of the basic assumptions made in the design, sizing, performance, and economic models used in the thermal energy storage (TES)/cogeneration feasibility studies conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) staff. This report is the deliverable required under the contract.

Lai, B.Y.; Poirier, R.N. [Chicago Bridge and Iron Technical Services Co., Plainfield, IL (United States)

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings Title Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-51860 Year of Publication 2003 Authors Diamond, Richard C., Craig P. Wray, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, Nance Matson, and Duo Wang Start Page Chapter Abstract Previous research suggests that HVAC thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings suffer from thermal losses, such as those caused by duct air leakage and poor duct location. Due to a lack of metrics and data showing the potentially large energy savings from reducing these losses, the California building industry has mostly overlooked energy efficiency improvements in this area. The purpose of this project is to obtain the technical knowledge needed to properly measure and understand the energy efficiency of these systems. This project has three specific objectives: to develop metrics and diagnostics for determining system efficiencies, to develop design and retrofit information that the building industry can use to improve these systems, and to determine the energy impacts associated with duct leakage airflows in an existing large commercial building. The primary outcome of this project is the confirmation that duct leakage airflows can significantly impact energy use in large commercial buildings: our measurements indicate that adding 15% duct leakage at operating conditions leads to an increase in fan power of about 25 to 35%. This finding is consistent with impacts of increased duct leakage airflows on fan power that have been predicted by previous simulations. Other project outcomes include the definition of a new metric for distribution system efficiency, the demonstration of a reliable test for determining duct leakage airflows, and the development of new techniques for duct sealing. We expect that the project outcomes will lead to new requirements for commercial thermal distribution system efficiency in future revisions of California's Title 24.

32

Microscale Numerical Prediction over Montreal with the Canadian External Urban Modeling System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Canadian urban and land surface external modeling system (known as urban GEM-SURF) has been developed to provide surface and near-surface meteorological variables to improve numerical weather prediction and to become a tool for environmental ...

Sylvie Leroyer; Stéphane Bélair; Jocelyn Mailhot; Ian B. Strachan

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Pulse thermal energy transport/storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pulse-thermal pump having a novel fluid flow wherein heat admitted to a closed system raises the pressure in a closed evaporator chamber while another interconnected evaporator chamber remains open. This creates a large pressure differential, and at a predetermined pressure the closed evaporator is opened and the opened evaporator is closed. This difference in pressure initiates fluid flow in the system.

Weislogel, Mark M. (23133 Switzer Rd., Brookpark, OH 44142)

1992-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

34

Efficient thermal management for multiprocessor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2.2.4 Thermal Modeling . . . . . . . .63 Table 4.3: Thermal Hot Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Performance-Efficient Thermal Management . . . . . . . . . .

Co?kun, Ay?e K?v?lc?m

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a conceptual design study using computer simulations to determine the physical and economic performance of combined photovoltaic/thermal collector heat-pump solar systems for a single-family residence are presented. Economic analyses are based upon projected costs for a 1986 system installation. The results show that PV/T collector systems can be economically competitive for a cold climate residence, that systems employing on-site electrical storage batteries are not economically competitive with utility-interactive systems, and that an ambient-air-source heat-pump system has a lower life-cycle cost than a solar-source heat-pump system.

Russell, M.C.

1979-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

36

BALDR-1: a solar thermal system simulation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar thermal system simulation (BALDR-1) was written in a modular fashion to facilitate expansion and modification. The flexibility of the simulation is derived, in part, from the use of three separate models to constitute the system simulation: FIELD, POWER, and ECON. Each model can be run independently, or they may be coupled and run as a set. The FIELD code models the optical and thermal performance of the collector field. It has separate optical and thermal performance routines for each generic collector type. Meteorological data is read in 15-minute or hourly increments. The POWER code models the performance of power conversion and storage components. It calculates the total thermal and/or electrical energy produced during the year for a set of plant configurations comprised of different collector field sizes, thermal storage sizes, and electrical storage sizes. The POWER code allows the selection of one of several control strategies in the dispatch of thermal and electrical storage. The ECON code calculates the initial capital cost of each power plant configuration modelled in POWER. This capital cost is combined with operations and maintenance costs to calculate a life-cycle busbar energy cost and simple payback period for each plant.

Finegold, J.G.; Herlevich, F.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Solar thermal power systems. Summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work accomplished by the Aerospace Corporation from April 1973 through November 1979 in the mission analysis of solar thermal power systems is summarized. Sponsorship of this effort was initiated by the National Science Foundation, continued by the Energy Research and Development Administration, and most recently directed by the United States Department of Energy, Division of Solar Thermal Systems. Major findings and conclusions are sumarized for large power systems, small power systems, solar total energy systems, and solar irrigation systems, as well as special studies in the areas of energy storage, industrial process heat, and solar fuels and chemicals. The various data bases and computer programs utilized in these studies are described, and tables are provided listing financial and solar cost assumptions for each study. An extensive bibliography is included to facilitate review of specific study results and methodology.

Not Available

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

NONE

1999-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

39

Thermal Storage with Conventional Cooling Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The newly opened Pennsylvania Convention Center in Philadelphia, PA; Exxon's Computer Facility at Florham Park, NJ; The Center Square Building in Philadelphia, are success stories for demand shifting through thermal storage. These buildings employ a simple thermal energy storage system that already exists in almost every structure - concrete. Thermal storage calculations simulate sub-cooling of a building's structure during unoccupied times. During occupied times, the sub-cooled concrete reduces peak cooling demand, thereby lowering demand and saving money. In addition, significant savings are possible in the first cost of chilled water equipment, and the smaller chillers run at peak capacity and efficiency during a greater portion of their run time. The building, controlled by an Energy Management and Control System (EMCS), "learns" from past experience how to run the building efficiently. The result is an optimized balance between energy cost and comfort.

Kieninger, R. T.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal control is a critical factor in power electronics equipment. NREL aims to integrate and improve thermal system performance in power electronics.

Bennion, K.

2007-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

FFT-LB modeling of thermal liquid-vapor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We further develop a thermal LB model for multiphase flows. In the improved model, we propose to use the FFT scheme to calculate both the convection term and external force term. The usage of FFT scheme is detailed and analyzed. By using the FFT algorithm spatiotemporal discretization errors are decreased dramatically and the conservation of total energy is much better preserved. A direct consequence of the improvement is that the unphysical spurious velocities at the interfacial regions can be damped to neglectable scale. Together with the better conservation of total energy, the more accurate flow velocities lead to the more accurate temperature field which determines the dynamical and final states of the system. With the new model, the phase diagram of the liquid-vapor system obtained from simulation is more consistent with that from theoretical calculation. Very sharp interfaces can be achieved. The accuracy of simulation results are also verified by the Laplace law. The FFT scheme can be easily applied t...

Gan, Yanbiao; Zhang, Guangcai; Li, Yingjun

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal solar energy system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Heating and cooling systems that use hybrid solar energy collectors (combination photovoltaic-thermal) have the potential for considerable energy savings, particularly when the system includes a heat pump. Economic evaluations show that photovoltaic systems are potentially most economical, but results depend critically on future collector costs as well as energy prices. Results are based on a specially developed computer program that predicted the total auxiliary energy required for five different solar heating/cooling systems. Performance calculations for a modeled residence and small office building were made using meteorological data from four geographic locations. Annual system costs were also calculated.

Kern, E.C. Jr.; Russell, M.C.

1978-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

43

Variable emissivity laser thermal control system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

Milner, J.R.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

44

Thermal comfort and perceived air quality of a PEC system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

W. , Gong, N. 2007. Thermal performance of a personalizedRESULTS 1. Whole-body thermal sensation and comfort withthe PEC system Whole-body thermal sensation and comfort are

Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Pasut, Wilmer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

System design description PFP thermal stabilization  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing P1ant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The sources of material for this project are residues scraped from glovebox floors and materials already stored in vault storage that need further stabilizing to meet the 3013 storage requirements. Stabilizing this material will promote long term storage and reduced worker exposure. This document addresses: function design, equipment, and safety requirements for thermal stabilization of plutonium residues and oxides.

RISENMAY, H.R.

1998-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

46

External Influences on Nocturnal Thermally Driven Flows in a Deep Valley  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dynamics that govern the evolution of nighttime flows in a deep valley, California’s Owens Valley, are analyzed. Measurements from the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX) reveal a pronounced valley-wind system with often nonclassical ...

Juerg Schmidli; Gregory S. Poulos; Megan H. Daniels; Fotini K. Chow

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Control system for electric water heater with heat pump external heat source  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A control system for an electric water heater operatively associated with an external heat source, such as a heat pump. The water heater includes a water storage tank provided with an electric tank heating unit having a tank thermostat which closes in response to water temperature in the tank, allowing a flow of current through the tank heating unit so as to turn it on to heat the water, and which opens when the tank thermostat has been satisfied, interrupting the current flow so as to turn the tank heating unit off. The control system as responsive to the initial current surge through the tank heating unit when the tank thermostat closes to interrupt the current flow to the tank heating unit so as to maintain the heating unit off and to turn on the external heat source and maintain it on until the tank thermostat opens. The initial current surge cleans the contacts of the tank thermostat by burning off any insulating oxide residues which may have formed on them. The control system includes means responsive to abnormal conditions which would prevent the external heat source from heating water effectively for turning off the external heat source and turning on the tank heating unit and maintaining the external heat source off and the tank heating unit on until the tank thermostat is satisfied.

Shaffer Jr., J. E.; Picarello, J. F.

1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Low-temperature thermally regenerative electrochemical system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally regenerative electrochemical system is described including an electrochemical cell with two water-based electrolytes separated by an ion exchange membrane, at least one of the electrolytes containing a complexing agent and a salt of a multivalent metal whose respective order of potentials for a pair of its redox couples is reversible by a change in the amount of the ocmplexing agent in the electrolyte, the complexing agent being removable by distillation to cause the reversal.

Loutfy, R.O.; Brown, A.P.; Yao, N.P.

1982-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

49

Applications of HVAC System Utilizing Building Thermal Mass in Japan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications of HVAC System Utilizing Building Thermal Mass in Japan Applications of HVAC System Utilizing Building Thermal Mass in Japan Speaker(s): Katsuhiro Miura Date: January 27, 2012 - 10:00am Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Michael Wetter Buildings have a large thermal capacity and it affects much on building thermal load for the HVAC system. The thermal mass can be utilized also to control the thermal load by storing thermal energy before HVAC operation. There are two ways to store thermal energy. One is by operating the HVAC system and the other is by natural ventilation, mainly at night. The latter could be combined with daily HVAC operation as a hybrid ventilation. Thermal mass storage is useful to decrease the hourly peak load and the daily thermal load and can be used for both cooling and heating purpose.

50

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and...

51

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Page 1. Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine Storage ... Suitability of commercial refrigerators for vaccine storage not ...

2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

52

Primer/Paint System for Thermal Insulation of Vehicles  

Disclosure Number 200902299 Technology Summary The present invention comprises an improved primer/paint system for providing enhanced thermal ...

53

Thermal Storage Systems at IBM Facilities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1979, IBM commissioned its first large scale thermal storage system with a capacity of 2.7 million gallons of chilled water and 1.2 million gallons of reclaimed, low temperature hot water. The stored cooling energy represents approximately 27,000 ton hours. Through reduced chiller plant capacity and annual operating cost savings in primarily electric demand charges the payback will be approximately 3 1/2 years. The water is stored in multiple, insulated tanks, located above the ground. A similar but smaller system at IBM's Charlotte, North Carolina plant has no provisions for heat reclaim. Instead, it uses cooling tower water directly in the chilled water circuit when outside conditions permit. This paper presents system designs, control modes and economic considerations and describes IBM's experience to date with large volume storage systems.

Koch, G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy conversion systems ..on thermal energy conversion systems As energy demandsefficient energy conversion in power systems," in Thermal

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Thermal Energy Systems | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy Systems Energy Systems Jump to: navigation, search Name Thermal Energy Systems Place London, United Kingdom Sector Biomass Product UK based company that constructs and installs boilers for biomass projects. Coordinates 51.506325°, -0.127144° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":51.506325,"lon":-0.127144,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

57

Detecting and Attributing External Influences on the Climate System: A Review of Recent Advances  

SciTech Connect

We review recent research that assesses evidence for the detection of anthropogenic and natural external influences on the climate. Externally driven climate change has been detected by a number of investigators in independent data covering many parts of the climate system, including surface temperature on global and large regional scales, ocean-heat content, atmospheric circulation, and variables of the free atmosphere, such as atmospheric temperature and tropopause height. The influence of external forcing is also clearly discernible in reconstructions of hemispheric scale temperature of the last millennium. These observed climate changes are very unlikely to be due only to natural internal climate variability, and they are consistent with the responses to anthropogenic and natural external forcing of the climate system that are simulated with climate models. The evidence indicates that natural drivers such as solar variability and volcanic activity are at most partially responsible for the large-scale temperature changes observed over the past century, and that a large fraction of the warming over the last 50 years can be attributed to greenhouse gas increases. Thus the recent research supports and strengthens the IPCC Third Assessment Report conclusion that ''most of the global warming over the past 50 years is likely due to the anthropogenic increase in greenhouse gases''.

Barnett, T; Zwiers, F; Hegerl, G; Allen, M; Crowley, T; Gillett, N; Hasselmann, K; Jones, P; Santer, B; Schnur, R; Stott, P; Taylor, K; Tett, S

2005-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

58

Thermal reclaimer apparatus for a thermal sand reclamation system  

SciTech Connect

A thermal reclaimer apparatus is disclosed for thermally removing from the used foundry sand the organic matter that is present therein. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus includes chamber means in which the used foundry sand is heated to a predetermined temperature for a preestablished period in order to accomplish the burning away of the organic matter that the used foundry sand contains. The chamber means includes inlet means provided at one end thereof and outlet means provided at the other end thereof. Feed means are cooperatively associated with the pipe means and thereby with the inlet means for feeding the used foundry sand through the inlet means into the chamber means. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus further includes rotating means operative for effecting the rotation of the chamber means as the used foundry sand is being heated therein. The chamber means has cooperatively associated therewith burner means located at the same end thereof as the outlet means. The burner means is operative to effect the heating of the used foundry sand to the desired temperature within the chamber means. Tumbling means are provided inside the chamber means to ensure that the used foundry sand is constantly turned over, i.e., tumbled, and that the lumps therein are broken up as the chamber means rotates. Lastly, the used foundry sand from which the organic matter has been removed leaves the chamber means through the outlet means.

Deve, V.

1984-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems [Heat Transfer and Fluid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Hydraulic Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Capabilities Engineering Computation and Design Engineering and Structural Mechanics Systems/Component Design, Engineering and Drafting Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Overview Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Underhood Thermal Management Combustion Simulations Advanced Model and Methodology Development Multi-physics Reactor Performance and Safety Simulations Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Heat Transfer and Fluid Mechanics Bookmark and Share Thermal Hydraulic Optimization of Nuclear Systems Accelerator Driven Test Facility Target Accelerator Driven Test Facility Target. Click on image to view larger

60

An Operational Global-Scale Ocean Thermal Analysis System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Optimum Thermal Interpolation System (OTIS) is an ocean thermal analysis product developed for real-time operational use at the U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center. It functions in an analysis-prediction-analysis data assimilation ...

R. Michael Clancy; Patricia A. Phoebus; Kenneth D. Pollak

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) External Stakeholders Workshop: Workshop Proceedings, 9 October 2008, Golden, Colorado  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On October 9, 2008, NREL hosted a workshop to provide an opportunity for external stakeholders to offer insights and recommendations on the design and functionality of DOE's planned Energy Systems Infrastructure Facility (ESIF). The goal was to ensure that the planning for the ESIF effectively addresses the most critical barriers to large-scale energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) deployment. This technical report documents the ESIF workshop proceedings.

Komomua, C.; Kroposki, B.; Mooney, D.; Stoffel, T.; Parsons, B.; Hammond, S.; Kutscher, C.; Remick, R.; Sverdrup, G.; Hawsey, R.; Pacheco, M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Battery Thermal Management System Design Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Looks at the impact of cooling strategies with air and both direct and indirect liquid cooling for battery thermal management.

Pesaran, A.; Kim, G. H.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

FFT-LB modeling of thermal liquid-vapor systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We further develop a thermal LB model for multiphase flows. In the improved model, we propose to use the FFT scheme to calculate both the convection term and external force term. The usage of FFT scheme is detailed and analyzed. By using the FFT algorithm spatiotemporal discretization errors are decreased dramatically and the conservation of total energy is much better preserved. A direct consequence of the improvement is that the unphysical spurious velocities at the interfacial regions can be damped to neglectable scale. Together with the better conservation of total energy, the more accurate flow velocities lead to the more accurate temperature field which determines the dynamical and final states of the system. With the new model, the phase diagram of the liquid-vapor system obtained from simulation is more consistent with that from theoretical calculation. Very sharp interfaces can be achieved. The accuracy of simulation results are also verified by the Laplace law. The FFT scheme can be easily applied to other models for multiphase flows.

Yanbiao Gan; Aiguo Xu; Guangcai Zhang; Yingjun Li

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

64

Persistence of entanglement in thermal states of spin systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study and compare the persistence of bipartite and multipartite entanglement in one and two-dimensional spin XY model in an external transverse magnetic field under the effect of thermal excitations. We compare the threshold temperature at which the entanglement vanishes in both cases. We use the concurrence as a measure of the bipartite entanglement and the geometric measure to evaluate the multipartite entanglement of the system. We have found that for the anisotropic and partially anisotropic systems the nearest neighbor bipartite entanglement vanishes asymptotically at much higher magnetic field compared to both the next to nearest neighbor bipartite entanglement and the multipartite entanglement which asymptotically coincide. Also the same behavior was observed for the threshold temperatures where the nearest neighbor bipartite one is much higher than both of the next to nearest neighbor bipartite and multipartite where the latter two coincide asymptotically and the three of them increase monotonically with the magnetic field strength. Thus as the temperature increases to certain value, the threshold, the multipartite entanglement and the bipartite entanglement of the far parts of the system may vanish while the nearest neighbor bipartite entanglement may sustain up to much higher temperature. For the isotropic system, all types of entanglement and threshold temperatures vanish at the same exact small value of the magnetic field. We emphasis the major role played by both the properties of the ground state of the system and the energy gap as well. Furthermore, we found that the quantum effects in the system can be maintained at high temperatures, where we have observed that the different types of entanglements in the lattice sustain at high temperatures if we apply sufficiently high magnetic fields.

Gehad Sadiek; Sabre Kais

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reclamation and solar thermal energy," Energy [accepted]. [and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"and M Dennis, "Solar thermal energy systems in Australia,"

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Total Thermal Management System for Hybrid and Full Electric Vehicles  

Total Thermal Management System for Hybrid and Full Electric Vehicles Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this ...

67

Thermal Management of Onboard Cryogenic Hydrogen Storage Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plan: (A) System Weight and Volume (C) Efficiency (E) ChargingDischarging Rates (J) Thermal Management Technical Targets In this project, studies are being conducted to develop...

68

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table A2-12, p. B2-1....

69

Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation gives an overview of the status and FY09 accomplishments for the NREL Power Electronic Thermal System Performance and Integration Project.

Bennion, K.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 4-1, p. 4-4; and...

71

Thermal-Electric Conversion Efficiency of the Dish/AMTEC Solar Thermal Power System in Wind Condition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dish/AMTEC solar thermal power system is a newly proposed solar energy utilization system that enables the direct thermal-electric conversion. The performance of the solar dish/AMTEC system in wind condition has been theoretically evaluated in addition ... Keywords: dish/AMTEC solar thermal power system, efficiency, thermal-electric conversion, wind condition

Lan Xiao; Shuang-Ying Wu; You-Rong Li

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Thermal Storage System Basics Thermal Storage System Basics Concentrating Solar Power Thermal Storage System Basics August 21, 2013 - 10:33am Addthis One challenge facing the widespread use of solar energy is reduced or curtailed energy production when the sun sets or is blocked by clouds. Thermal energy storage provides a workable solution to this challenge. In a concentrating solar power (CSP) system, the sun's rays are reflected onto a receiver, which creates heat that is used to generate electricity. If the receiver contains oil or molten salt as the heat-transfer medium, then the thermal energy can be stored for later use. This enables CSP systems to be cost-competitive options for providing clean, renewable energy. Several thermal energy storage technologies have been tested and

73

Thermal performance of concrete masonry unit wall systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

New materials, modern building wall technologies now available in the building marketplace, and unique, more accurate, methods of thermal analysis of wall systems create an opportunity to design and erect buildings where thermal envelopes that use masonry wall systems can be more efficient. Thermal performance of the six masonry wall systems is analyzed. Most existing masonry systems are modifications of technologies presented in this paper. Finite difference two-dimensional and three-dimensional computer modeling and unique methods of the clear wall and overall thermal analysis were used. In the design of thermally efficient masonry wall systems is t to know how effectively the insulation material is used and how the insulation shape and its location affect the wall thermal performance. Due to the incorrect shape of the insulation or structural components, hidden thermal shorts cause additional heat losses. In this study, the thermal analysis of the clear wall was enriched with the examination of the thermal properties of the wall details and the study of a quantity defined herein the Thermal Efficiency of the insulation material.

Kosny, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

74

Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This fact sheet describes the purpose, lab specifications, applications scenarios, and information on how to partner with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds test systems that can provide heat transfer fluids for the evaluation of heat exchangers and thermal energy storage devices. The existing system provides molten salt at temperatures up to 800 C. This unit is charged with nitrate salt rated to 600 C, but is capable of handling other heat transfer fluid compositions. Three additional test bays are available for future deployment of alternative heat transfer fluids such as hot air, carbon dioxide, or steam systems. The Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory performs pilot-scale thermal energy storage system testing through multiple charge and discharge cycles to evaluate heat exchanger performance and storage efficiency. The laboratory equipment can also be utilized to test instrument and sensor compatibility with hot heat transfer fluids. Future applications in the laboratory may include the evaluation of thermal energy storage systems designed to operate with supercritical heat transfer fluids such as steam or carbon dioxide. These tests will require the installation of test systems capable of providing supercritical fluids at temperatures up to 700 C.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Design of thermal imprinting system with uniform residual thickness  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new thermal imprinting system for the printed circuit boards (PCBs) with both large areas and fine conducting lines was developed adopting hot airs with a high pressure. Several small nickel stamps were used to cover the large area, and the stamps ... Keywords: Patterned circuit boards, Thermal imprinting system, Uniformity of residual thickness

Won-Ho Shin

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermal barrier coating for alloy systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An alloy substrate is protected by a thermal barrier coating formed from a layer of metallic bond coat and a top coat formed from generally hollow ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix bonded to the bond coat.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); White, Rickey L. (Harriman, TN); Dinwiddie, Ralph B. (Knoxville, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Thermal Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

One challenge facing the widespread use of solar energy is reduced or curtailed energy production when the sun sets or is blocked by clouds. Thermal energy storage provides a workable solution to...

78

Automated rapid thermal imaging systems technology  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A major source of energy savings occurs on the thermal envelop of buildings, which amounts to approximately 10% of annual energy usage in the United States. To pursue these savings, energy auditors use closed loop energy ...

Phan, Long N., 1976-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Near and far field models of external fluid mechanics of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The world is facing the challenge of finding new renewable sources of energy - first, in response to fossil fuel reserve depletion, and second, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) can ...

Rodríguez Buño, Mariana

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Research on the external fluid mechanics of ocean thermal energy conversion plants : report covering experiments in a current  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes a set of experiments in a physical model study to explore plume transport and recirculation potential for a range of generic Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant designs and ambient conditions. ...

Fry, David J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Detecting and Attributing External Influences on the Climate System: A Review of Recent Advances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews recent research that assesses evidence for the detection of anthropogenic and natural external influences on the climate. Externally driven climate change has been detected by a number of investigators in independent data ...

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes work to develop new thermal barrier coating systems, which will be essential to the operation of the ATS engine which is under development. Work is at the stage of process improvement and bond coat improvement, along with proof testing of the coatings under thermal conditions typical of what can be expected in the ATS engine.

NONE

1998-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

84

Technology assessment of external heat systems for Stirling heat pumps. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A technology assessment and design improvement effort was undertaken for the Stirling engine heat pump external heat system (EHS) in order to reduce costs. It was found that only two applicable EHS design approaches have been developed to any extent: a relatively undeveloped design featuring a premixed fuel and air transpiration burner, and a turbulent diffusion type burner system developed by Mechanical Technology, Inc. To evaluate and optimize the design concepts, an analytical model was developed that examined design and performance variables. The model calculated key temperatures, allowing the specification of materials requirements. Adherence to American National Standards Institute appliance furnace code material specifications was assumed. Concepts for EHS control systems were evaluated, and a cost-effective control system design was developed for the turbulent diffusion burner EHS. The study reveals that optimizing the diffusion burner EHS design can result in significant cost savings. No clear choice between the diffusion burner and transpiration burner systems could be determined from this study, but the designs of both were further developed and improved. Estimates show the EHS based on a transpiration burner to have a manufactured cost that is roughly 70% of the turbulent diffusion burner EHS cost, but fuel efficiency is lower by about 18%.

Vasilakis, A.D. [Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc., Newton, MA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Thermal Systems Group; Electricity, Resources, & Building Systems Integration (ERBSI) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Thermal Systems Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Applications of HVAC System Utilizing Building Thermal Mass in...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applications of HVAC System Utilizing Building Thermal Mass in Japan Speaker(s): Katsuhiro Miura Date: January 27, 2012 - 10:00am Location: 90-3122 Seminar HostPoint of Contact:...

87

Optimal control for maximum power in thermal and chemical systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research treats power optimization for energy converters, such like thermal, solar and chemical engines. Thermodynamic analyses lead to converter's efficiency and limiting power. Steady and dynamic systems are investigated. Static optimization of ...

Stanislaw Sieniutycz

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

1992-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Computational Study on Thermal Properties of HVAC System with Building Structure Thermal Storage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Building structure thermal storage (BSTS) HVAC systems can store heat during nighttime thermal storage operation (nighttime operation hours) by using off-peak electricity and release it in the daytime air-conditioning operation (daytime operation hours) by utilizing a large amount of the thermal capacity of building structures such as beams, columns and floors composed of concrete. These BSTS systems have recently been considered as one method for leveling hourly electricity demands for HVAC on a day-to-day basis. Through a simulation using a model developed with experimental data, this paper describes how various factors for the design and operation of a BSTS quantitatively affect the charge/discharge performances of a HVAC system. As a result, the following was revealed: the thermal performance of the system is strongly influenced by the daily heat storage operation hours, supply air volume and supply air temperature during the nighttime operation hours, stored heat caused the total daytime cooling extraction to decrease by 11% to 58% and the daily total cooling extraction through nighttime to daytime to increase by 4% to 17% compared with the values of non- thermal storage HVAC system.

Sato, Y.; Sagara, N.; Ryu, Y.; Maehara, K.; Nagai, T.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Solar thermal repowering systems integration. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report is a solar repowering integration analysis which defines the balance-of-plant characteristics and costs associated with the solar thermal repowering of existing gas/oil-fired electric generating plants. Solar repowering interface requirements for water/steam and salt or sodium-cooled central receivers are defined for unit sizes ranging from 50 MWe non-reheat to 350 MWe reheat. Finally balance-of-plant cost estimates are presented for each of six combinations of plant type, receiver type and percent solar repowering.

Dubberly, L. J.; Gormely, J. E.; McKenzie, A. W.

1979-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Integrated thermal treatment system sudy: Phase 2, Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study, the results of which have been published as an interim report, examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 2 systems. The assumptions and methods were the same as for the Phase 1 study. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in he Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr).

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

The effect of load parameters on system thermal performance  

SciTech Connect

The effects of load size, load profile and hot water set temperature on system thermal performance are investigated in order to determine the relative importance of these design parameters in sizing a solar water heating system. The WATSUN IV computer program was used to introduce various load sizes, load profiles and set temperatures to a base model. The results indicate that variations in load size have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the system. However, variations in load profile and hot water set temperature seem to have no significant effect on system performance.

Vakili, M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Integrated thermal treatment system study -- Phase 2 results. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the second phase of a study on thermal treatment technologies. The study consists of a systematic assessment of nineteen thermal treatment alternatives for the contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. The treatment alternatives consist of widely varying technologies for safely destroying the hazardous organic components, reducing the volume, and preparing for final disposal of the MLLW. The alternatives considered in Phase 2 were innovative thermal treatments with nine types of primary processing units. Other variations in the study examined the effect of combustion gas, air pollution control system design, and stabilization technology for the treatment residues. The Phase 1 study examined ten initial thermal treatment alternatives. The Phase 2 systems were evaluated in essentially the same manner as the Phase 1 systems. The alternatives evaluated were: rotary kiln, slagging kiln, plasma furnace, plasma gasification, molten salt oxidation, molten metal waste destruction, steam gasification, Joule-heated vitrification, thermal desorption and mediated electrochemical oxidation, and thermal desorption and supercritical water oxidation. The quantities, and physical and chemical compositions, of the input waste used in the Phase 2 systems differ from those in the Phase 1 systems, which were based on a preliminary waste input database developed at the onset of the Integrated Thermal Treatment System study. The inventory database used in the Phase 2 study incorporates the latest US Department of Energy information. All systems, both primary treatment systems and subsystem inputs, have now been evaluated using the same waste input (2,927 lb/hr). 28 refs., 88 figs., 41 tabs.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Analysis of the Thermal Loads on the KSTAR Cryogenic System  

SciTech Connect

A large-scale helium refrigeration system is one of the key components for the KSTAR (Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research) device. In the design of the refrigeration system, an estimation of the thermal loads on the cold mass is an important issue according to the operation scenario. The cold mass of the KSTAR device is about 250 tons including 30 superconducting (SC) coils and the magnet structure. In addition to the static thermal loads, pulsed thermal loads to the refrigeration system have been considered in the operation stage. The main pulsed thermal loads on magnet system are AC losses in the SC coils and eddy current losses in the magnet structure that depend on the magnetic field variation rate. The nuclear radiation loss due to plasma pulse operation is also considered. The designed cooling capacity of the refrigeration system is estimated to be about 9 kW at 4.5 K isothermal. In this paper, calculation of the various kinds of thermal loads on KSTAR cryogenic system and design of the large-scale helium refrigeration system are presented.

Kim, Y.S.; Oh, Y.K.; Kim, W.C.; Park, Y.M.; Lee, Y.J.; Jin, S.B.; Sa, J.W.; Choi, C.H.; Cho, K.W.; Bak, J.S.; Lee, G.S. [Korea Basic Science Institute, Yusung-Ku, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2004-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

95

Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors and perform reasonably well. The Simulink modeling platform has been mainly used worldwide on simulation of control systems, digital signal processing and electric circuits, but there are very few examples of application to solar energy systems modeling. This work uses the modular environment of Simulink/Matlab to model individual PV/T system components, and to assemble the entire installation layout. The results show that the modular approach strategy provided by Matlab/Simulink environment is applicable to solar systems modeling, providing good code scalability, faster developing time, and simpler integration with external computational tools, when compared with traditional imperative-oriented programming languages. (author)

da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Combustion chemical vapor deposited coatings for thermal barrier coating systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The new deposition process, combustion chemical vapor deposition, shows a great deal of promise in the area of thermal barrier coating systems. This technique produces dense, adherent coatings, and does not require a reaction chamber. Coatings can therefore be applied in the open atmosphere. The process is potentially suitable for producing high quality CVD coatings for use as interlayers between the bond coat and thermal barrier coating, and/or as overlayers, on top of thermal barrier coatings. In this report, the evaluation of alumina and ceria coatings on a nickel-chromium alloy is described.

Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

97

Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

1992-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

98

Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests  

SciTech Connect

A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests.

Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

1992-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

99

SunShot Initiative: Thermal Storage R&D for CSP Systems  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Storage R&D for CSP Systems to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Thermal Storage R&D for CSP Systems on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Thermal Storage...

100

Vehicle Technologies Office: Thermal Control and System Integration  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thermal Control and System Integration Thermal Control and System Integration The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies. Thermal control is a critical element to enable power density, cost, and reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines (PEEM). Current hybrid electric vehicle systems typically use a dedicated 65°C coolant loop to cool the electronics and electric machines. A primary research focus is to develop cooling technologies that will enable the use of coolant temperatures of up to 105°C. Enabling the higher-temperature coolant would reduce system cost by using a single loop to cool the PEEM, internal combustion engine or fuel cell. Several candidate cooling technologies are being investigated along with the potential to reduce material and component costs through the use of more aggressive cooling. Advanced component modeling, fabrication, and manufacturing techniques are also being investigated.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Thermal Characterization of Molten Salt Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The phase stability of molten salts in an electrorefiner (ER) may be adversely affected by the buildup of sodium, fission products, and transuranics in the electrolyte. Potential situations that need to be avoided are the following: (1) salt freezing due to an unexpected change in the liquidus temperature, (2) phase separation or non-homogeneity of the molten salt due to the precipitation of solids or formation of immiscible liquids, and (3) any mechanism that can result in the separation and concentration of fissile elements from the molten salt. Any of these situations would result in an off-normal condition outside the established safety basis for electrorefiner (ER) operations. The stability (and homogeneity) of the phases can potentially be monitored through the thermal characterization of the salts, which can be a function of impurity concentration. This report describes the experimental results of typical salts compositions, which consist of chlorides of potassium, lithium, strontium, samarium, praseodymium, lanthanum, barium, cerium, cesium, neodymium, sodium and gadolinium chlorides as a surrogate for both uranium and plutonium, used for the processing of used nuclear fuels.

Toni Y. Gutknecht; Guy L. Fredrickson

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Optimal Control of Harvesting Ice Thermal Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal storage is becoming a standard consideration in HVAC and process cooling systems. As the technology is refined, more attention is being given to minimize the energy consumption and power demand requirements. This paper addresses a method for optimal control of a harvesting ice storage system. A simplified procedure is used to develop 24 hour load data. Example installations will be shown.

Knebel, D. E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Secondary concentrators for parabolic dish solar thermal power systems  

SciTech Connect

One approach to production of electricity or high-temperature process heat from solar energy is to use point-focusing, two-axis pointing concentrators in a distributed-receiver solar thermal system. This paper discusses some of the possibilities and problems in using compound concentrators in parabolic dish systems. 18 refs.

Jaffe, L.D.; Poon, P.T.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Metal Hydride Thermal Storage: Reversible Metal Hydride Thermal Storage for High-Temperature Power Generation Systems  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: PNNL is developing a thermal energy storage system based on a Reversible Metal Hydride Thermochemical (RMHT) system, which uses metal hydride as a heat storage material. Heat storage materials are critical to the energy storage process. In solar thermal storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials during the day and released at night—when the sun is not out—to drive a turbine and produce electricity. In nuclear storage systems, heat can be stored in these materials at night and released to produce electricity during daytime peak-demand hours. PNNL’s metal hydride material can reversibly store heat as hydrogen cycles in and out of the material. In a RHMT system, metal hydrides remain stable in high temperatures (600- 800°C). A high-temperature tank in PNNL’s storage system releases heat as hydrogen is absorbed, and a low-temperature tank stores the heat until it is needed. The low-cost material and simplicity of PNNL’s thermal energy storage system is expected to keep costs down. The system has the potential to significantly increase energy density.

None

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

105

Dynamic Thermal Management for High-Performance Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermal-aware design of disk drives is important because high temperatures can cause reliability problems. Dynamic Thermal Management (DTM) techniques have been proposed to operate the disk at the average case temperature, rather than at the worse case by modulating the activities to avoid thermal emergencies. The thermal emergencies can be caused by unexpected events, such as fan-breaks, increased inlet air temperature, etc. One of the DTM techniques is a delay-based approach that adjusts the disk seek activities, cooling down the disk drives. Even if such a DTM approach could overcome thermal emergencies without stopping disk activity, it suffers from long delays when servicing the requests. Thus, in this chapter, we investigate the possibility of using a multispeed disk-drive (called dynamic rotations per minute (DRPM)) that dynamically modulates the rotational speed of the platter for implementing the DTM technique. Using a detailed performance and thermal simulator of a storage system, we evaluate two possible DTM policies (- time-based and watermark-based) with a DRPM disk-drive and observe that dynamic RPM modulation is effective in avoiding thermal emergencies. However, we find that the time taken to transition between different rotational speeds of the disk is critical for the effectiveness of the DRPM based DTM techniques.

Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gurumurthi, Dr Sudhanva [University of Virginia; Sivasubramaniam, Anand [Pennsylvania State University

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

FY 93 Thermal Loading Systems Study Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Thermal Loading Systems Study being conducted by the is to identify a thermal strategy that will meet the performance requirements for waste isolation and will be safe and licensable. Specifically, both postclosure and preclosure performance standards must be met by the thermal loading strategy ultimately selected. In addition cost and schedule constraints must be considered. The Systems Engineering approach requires structured, detailed analyses that will ultimately provide the technical basis for the development, integration, and evaluation of the overall system, not just a subelement of that system. It is also necessary that the systems study construct options from within the range that are allowed within the current legislative and programmatic framework. For example the total amount of fuel that can legally be emplaced is no more than 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) which is composed of 63,000 MTU spent fuel and 7,000 MTU of defense high level waste. It is the intent of this study to begin the structured development of the basis for a thermal loading decision. However, it is recognized that to be able to make a final decision on thermal loading will require underground data on the effects of heating as well as a suite of ''validated'' models. It will be some time before these data and models are available to the program. Developing a final, thermal loading decision will, therefore, be an iterative process. In the interim, the objective of the thermal loading systems study has been to utilize the information available to assess the impact of thermal loading. Where technical justification exists, recommendations to narrow the range of thermal loading options can be made. Additionally, recommendations as to the type of testing and accuracy of the testing needed to establish the requisite information will be made. A constraint on the ability of the study to select an option stems from the lack of primary hard data, uncertainties in derived data, unsubstantiated models, and the inability to fully consider simultaneously coupled processes. As such, the study must rely on idealized models and available data to compare the thermal loading options. This report presents the findings of the FY 1993 MGDS Thermal Loading Systems Study. The objectives of the study were to: (1) if justified, place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading that is ''too hot''; (2) ''grade'' or evaluate the performance as a function of thermal loading of the potential repository to contain high level spent nuclear fuel against performance criteria; (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability; and (4) recommend the additional types of tests and/or analyses to be conducted to provide the necessary information for a thermal loading selection.

S.F. Saterlie

1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

107

Thermal decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence on system performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Inc. , 2004. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 14,distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence onwas used to explain the fundamentals of thermal decay, to

Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

General theme report: Working session 2, Solar thermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Currently, over 90% of the world's large-scale solar electric energy is generated with concentrating solar thermal power plants. Such plants have the potential to meet many of the world's future energy needs. Research efforts are generally focused on generating electricity, though a variety of other applications are being pursued. Today, the technology for using solar thermal energy is well developed, cost competitive, and in many cases, ready for widespread application. The current state of each of the solar thermal technologies and their applications is reviewed, and recommendations for increasing their use are presented. The technologies reviewed in detail are: parabolic trough systems, central tower systems, and parabolic dish systems. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Alpert, D.J.; Kolb, G.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Tehachapi solar thermal system first annual report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The staff of the Southwest Technology Development Institute (SWTDI), in conjunction with the staff of Industrial Solar Technology (IST), have analyzed the performance, operation, and maintenance of a large solar process heat system in use at the 5,000 inmate California Correctional Institution (CCI) in Tehachapi, CA. This report summarizes the key design features of the solar plant, its construction and maintenance histories through the end of 1991, and the performance data collected at the plant by a dedicated on-site data acquisition system (DAS).

Rosenthal, A. [Southwest Technology Development Inst., Las Cruces, NM (US)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

A Monolithic Microconcentrator Receiver For A Hybrid PV?Thermal System: Preliminary Performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An innovative hybrid PV?thermal microconcentrator (MCT) system is being jointly developed by Chromasun Inc.

D. Walter; V. Everett; M. Vivar; J. Harvey; R. Van Scheppingen; S. Surve; J. Muric?Nesic; A. Blakers

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Evaluation of cooling performance of thermally activated building system with evaporative cooling source for typical United States climates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

have higher cooling capacity because the thermal resistancethe thermal comfort requirement unless the cooling capacitysurface cooling system and TABS systems THERMAL COMFORT

Feng, Jingjuan; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Solar thermal parabolic dish systems: technology and applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation surveys the status and some probable future courses of development of parabolic dish solar collector technology and some of the near-term and long-range applications of the technology. Included are fundamentals of the technology, descriptions of current collectors with particular emphasis on the types developed within the Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program, descriptions of current systems and applications, key technical issues and tradeoff considerations which will affect the competition between parabolic dish systems and other solar thermal technologies, and, finally, a discussion of future possibilities for the development of parabolic dish technology.

Leonard, J.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Design and operation of solar thermal heat transfer systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The importance of heat transfer systems in the collection and use of solar energy is discussed. The success or failure of many solar energy systems has been determined by the design of the heat transfer system. This report includes a short summary of some of the DOE sponsored solar industrial process heat sites. From the design, construction, and operation of these systems many lessons were learned which will be important to designers and potential users of solar thermal systems. Also included is a discussion of solar collector foundation over-design that has increased the collector system costs.

Rush, E.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Performance of thermal distribution systems in large commercial buildings  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Performance of thermal distribution systems in large commercial buildings Performance of thermal distribution systems in large commercial buildings Title Performance of thermal distribution systems in large commercial buildings Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-44331 Year of Publication 2002 Authors Xu, Tengfang T., François Rémi Carrié, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, William J. Fisk, Jennifer A. McWilliams, Duo Wang, and Mark P. Modera Journal Energy and Buildings Volume 34 Start Page Chapter Pagination 215-226 Abstract This paper presents major findings of a field study on the performance of five thermal distribution systems in four large commercial buildings. The five systems studied are typical single-duct or dual-duct constant air volume (CAV) systems and variable air volume (VAV) systems, each of which serves an office building or a retail building with floor area over 2,000 m2. The air leakage from ducts are reported in terms of effective leakage area (ELA) at 25 Pa reference pressure, the ASHRAE-defined duct leakage class, and air leakage ratios. The specific ELAs ranged from 0.7 to 12.9 cm2 per m2 of duct surface area, and from 0.1 to 7.7 cm2 per square meter of floor area served. The leakage classes ranged from 34 to 757 for the five systems and systems sections tested. The air leakage ratios are estimated to be up to one-third of the fan- supplied airflow in the constant-air-volume systems. The specific ELAs and leakage classes indicate that air leakage in large commercial duct systems varies significantly from system to system, and from system section to system section even within the same thermal distribution system. The duct systems measured are much leakier than the ductwork specified as "unsealed ducts" by ASHRAE. Energy losses from supply ducts by conduction (including convection and radiation) are found to be significant, on the scale similar to the losses induced by air leakage in the duct systems. The energy losses induced by leakage and conduction suggest that there are significant energy-savings potentials from duct-sealing and insulation practice in large commercial buildings

115

Thermally conductive cementitious grout for geothermal heat pump systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermally conductive cement-sand grout for use with a geothermal heat pump system. The cement sand grout contains cement, silica sand, a superplasticizer, water and optionally bentonite. The present invention also includes a method of filling boreholes used for geothermal heat pump systems with the thermally conductive cement-sand grout. The cement-sand grout has improved thermal conductivity over neat cement and bentonite grouts, which allows shallower bore holes to be used to provide an equivalent heat transfer capacity. In addition, the cement-sand grouts of the present invention also provide improved bond strengths and decreased permeabilities. The cement-sand grouts can also contain blast furnace slag, fly ash, a thermoplastic air entraining agent, latex, a shrinkage reducing admixture, calcium oxide and combinations thereof.

Allan, Marita (Old Field, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than those with some ductwork. 2) Strong dependence on building type. BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 3-1, p. 3-6. 0.3 - 1.0 0.1 - 0.3 0.1 - 0.4

118

Design sensitivity analysis and optimization of steady fluid-thermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design optimization of fluid-thermal systems has been an area of significant research interest for the aerospace and automotive industry. The subject studies the modification of internal and external flow passages under certain specified objective constraints while satisfying the governing flow equations. Amongst various available optimization procedures the analytical sensitivity analyses-based optimization is arguably the most efficient design tool for complex multi-dimensional practical problems. In this paper, we augmented the analysis capabilities of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code with design sensitivity analysis (DSA). The design sensitivities are computed efficiently via analytical differentiation methods. The CFD DSA codes are then combined with numerical optimization schemes. Finally, CFD DSA design optimization algorithm is applied to the optimization of heat exchanger fin and HVAC duct systems. 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Balagangadhar; Uid-thermal Systems

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Thermal oxidation vitrification flue gas elimination system  

SciTech Connect

With minor modifications to a Best Demonstrated Available Technology hazardous waste incinerator, it is possible to obtain combustion without potentially toxic emissions by using technology currently employed in similar applications throughout industry. Further, these same modifications will reduce waste handling over an extended operating envelope while minimizing energy consumption. Three by-products are produced: industrial grade carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a final waste form that will exceed Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedures requirements and satisfy nuclear waste product consistency tests. The proposed system utilizes oxygen rather than air as an oxidant to reduce the quantities of total emissions, improve the efficiency of the oxidation reactions, and minimize the generation of toxic NO{sub x} emissions. Not only will less potentially hazardous constituents be generated; all toxic substances can be contained and the primary emission, carbon dioxide -- the leading ``greenhouse gas`` contributing to global warming -- will be converted to an industrial by-product needed to enhance the extraction of energy feedstocks from maturing wells. Clearly, the proposed configuration conforms to the provisions for Most Achievable Control Technology as defined and mandated for the private sector by the Clear Air Act Amendments of 1990 to be implemented in 1997 and still lacking definition.

Kephart, W. [Foster-Wheeler Environmental Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelo, F. [Resource Energy Corp. (United States); Clemens, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

SciTech Connect

According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

High resolution, low cost, privacy preserving human motion tracking system via passive thermal sensing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal imaging is powerful but expensive. This thesis presents an alternative thermal sensing system capable of tracking human motion by using a novel projection mechanism from an array of inexpensive single-bit thermal ...

Browarek, Sharmeen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, H.R. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

April 15. 2013 | Singh April 15. 2013 | Singh * Thermal modeling will be conducted to establish the benefits of using a high thermal conducting graphite foams in conjunction with PCM and to develop a design for a laboratory scale prototype. * Variety of characterizations will be carried out to qualify the materials (PCMs, alloys, coatings) for the prototype construction. * Process to infiltrate selected PCM into the foam will be developed. * Using the appropriate brazing/joining techniques, prototype will be assembled. * Performance testing of the TES system prototype to ensure a full- scale system will meet the SunShot goals. * Complete cost analysis of the proposed TES system * Complete laboratory scale prototype design * Develop SiC coating using polycarbosilanes for graphite

125

VALIDATION OF A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FUEL COMPACTS  

SciTech Connect

A high temperature guarded-comparative-longitudinal heat flow measurement system has been built to measure the thermal conductivity of a composite nuclear fuel compact. It is a steady-state measurement device designed to operate over a temperature range of 300 K to 1200 K. No existing apparatus is currently available for obtaining the thermal conductivity of the composite fuel in a non-destructive manner due to the compact’s unique geometry and composite nature. The current system design has been adapted from ASTM E 1225. As a way to simplify the design and operation of the system, it uses a unique radiative heat sink to conduct heat away from the sample column. A finite element analysis was performed on the measurement system to analyze the associated error for various operating conditions. Optimal operational conditions have been discovered through this analysis and results are presented. Several materials have been measured by the system and results are presented for stainless steel 304, inconel 625, and 99.95% pure iron covering a range of thermal conductivities of 10 W/m*K to 70 W/m*K. A comparison of the results has been made to data from existing literature.

Jeff Phillips; Colby Jensen; Changhu Xing; Heng Ban

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the-circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate microtiter plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 .mu.l of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded.

Hansen, Anthony D. A. (Berkely, CA); Jaklevic, Joseph M. (Lafayette, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

High-speed thermal cycling system and method of use  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal cycling system and method of use are described. The thermal cycling system is based on the circulation of temperature-controlled water directly to the underside of thin-walled polycarbonate plates. The water flow is selected from a manifold fed by pumps from heated reservoirs. The plate wells are loaded with typically 15-20 microliters of reagent mix for the PCR process. Heat transfer through the thin polycarbonate is sufficiently rapid that the contents reach thermal equilibrium with the water in less than 15 seconds. Complete PCR amplification runs of 40 three-step cycles have been performed in as little as 14.5 minutes, with the results showing substantially enhanced specificity compared to conventional technology requiring run times in excess of 100 minutes. The plate clamping station is designed to be amenable to robotic loading and unloading of the system. It includes a heated lid, thus eliminating the need for mineral oil overlay of the reactants. The present system includes three or more plate holder stations, fed from common reservoirs but operating with independent switching cycles. The system can be modularly expanded. 13 figs.

Hansen, A.D.A.; Jaklevic, J.M.

1996-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

128

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: salt selection  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A research program aimed at the development of a molten salt thermal energy storage system commenced in June 1976. This topical report describes Work performed under Task I: Salt Selection is described. A total of 31 inorganic salts and salt mixtures, including 9 alkali and alkaline earth carbonate mixtures, were evaluated for their suitability as heat-of-fusion thermal energy storage materials at temperatures of 850 to 1000/sup 0/F. Thermophysical properties, safety hazards, corrosion, and cost of these salts were compared on a common basis. We concluded that because alkali carbonate mixtures show high thermal conductivity, low volumetric expansion on melting, low corrosivity and good stability, they are attractive as heat-of-fusion storage materials in this temperature range. A 35 wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (50 mole percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-50 mole percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) mixture was selected as a model system for further experimental work. This is a eutectoid mixture having a heat of fusion of 148 Btu/lb (82 cal/g) that forms an equimolar compound, LiKCO/sub 3/. The Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ mixture is intended to serve as a model system to define heat transfer characteristics, potential problems, and to provide ''first-cut'' engineering data required for the prototype system. The cost of a thermal energy storage system containing this mixture cannot be predicted until system characteristics are better defined. However, our comparison of different salts indicated that alkali and alkaline earth chlorides may be more attractive from a salt cost point of view. The long-term corrosion characteristics and the effects of volume change on melting for the chlorides should be investigated to determine their overall suitability as a heat-of-fusion storage medium.

Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Huang, V.S.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Optimizing the design and operation of aquifer thermal energy systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The design of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems is complicated by significant uncertainties in ones ability to reliably predict the response of the aquifer to fluid and thermal fluxes. Overdesigning the system, to compensate for these uncertainties, reduces the potential economic and energy benefits of an ATES system. Underdesigning the system results in systems that fail to meet design targets. Unfortunately, standard aquifer characterization methods and hydrologic models do not provide adequate information to overcome these uncertainties. Thus, expensive full-scale tests are generally recommended to develop an adequate-understanding of the systems response. However, the standard engineering {open_quotes}design-build-operate{close_quotes} process is not. appropriate for ATES systems because an optimal design cannot be completed without some operational experience, i.e., field tests. A more adaptive engineering process is required. This engineering process should be flexible enough to allow the design to be adjusted during the operation, as monitoring data become available and as an understanding of the system response increases. Engineering approaches being developed for environmental restoration of contaminated soil and groundwater can be adapted to optimally design and operate ATES systems.

Vail, L.W.; Jenne, E.A.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium-temperature (200 to 400{degrees}C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal hydroxides was identified as a leading candidate for meeting Luz International's cost and performance requirements. The principal objectives of this study were to identify the design conditions, requirements, and potential feasibility for a chemical energy storage system applied to a SEGS solar thermal power plant. The remaining sections of this report begin by providing an overview of the chemical reaction energy storage concept and a SEGS solar thermal power plant. Subsequent sections describe the initial screening of alternative evaporation energy sources and the more detailed evaluation of design alternatives considered for the preferred evaporation energy source. The final sections summarize the results, conclusions, and recommendations. 7 refs., 8 figs., 13 tabs.

Brown, D.R.; LaMarche, J.L.; Spanner, G.E.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Systems Components Competitive Awards CSP Research & Development Thermal Storage CSP Recovery Act

132

Integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system performance evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Performance verification tests of an integrated heat pipe-thermal energy storage system have been conducted. This system is being developed as a part of an Organic Rankine Cycle-Solar Dynamic Power System (ORC-SDPS) receiver for future space stations. The integrated system consists of potassium heat pipe elements that incorporate thermal energy storage (TES) canisters within the vapor space along with an organic fluid (toluene) heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the surface of the heat pipe elements of the ORC-SDPS receiver and is internally transferred by the potassium vapor for use and storage. Part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the stored energy in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. A developmental heat pipe element was fabricated that employs axial arteries and a distribution wick connecting the wicked TES units and the heater to the solar insolation surface of the heat pipe. Tests were conducted to verify the heat pipe operation and to evaluate the heat pipe/TES units/heater tube operation by interfacing the heater unit to a heat exchanger.

Keddy, E.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Irrigation market for solar-thermal parabolic-dish systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The potential size of the onfarm-pumped irrigation market for solar thermal parabolic dish systems in seven high-insolation states is estimated. The study is restricted to the displacement of three specific fuels: gasoline, diesel and natural gas. A model was developed to estimate the optimal number of parabolic dish modules per farm based on the minimum cost mix of conventional and solar thermal energy required to meet irrigation needs. Results indicate that the near-term market for such systems depends not only on the type of crop and method of irrigation, but also on the optimal utilization of each added module, which in turn depends on the price of conventional fuel, real discount rate, marginal cost of the solar thermal power system, local insolation level and parabolic dish system efficiency. The study concludes that the potential market size for onfarm-pumped irrigation applications ranges from 101,000 modules when a 14% real discount rate is assumed to 220,000 modules when the real discount rate drops to 8%. Arizona, Kansas, Nebraska, New Mexico and Texas account for 98% of the total demand for this application, with the natural gas replacement market accounting for the largest segment (71%) of the total market.

Habib-agahi, H.; Jones, S.C.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Parabolic trough collector systems for thermal enhanced oil recovery  

SciTech Connect

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques offer a means of increasing US oil production by recovering oil otherwise unavailable when using primary or secondary production methods. The use of parabolic trough collector solar energy systems can expand the production of oil recovered by the most prevalent of these techniques, thermal EOR, by improving the economics and lessening the environmental impacts. These collector systems, their state of development, their application to EOR, and their capacity for expanding oil production are reviewed. An economic analysis which shows that these systems will meet investment hurdle rates today is also presented.

Niemeyer, W.A.; Youngblood, S.B.; Price, A.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

THERMAL HYDRAULIC ANALYSIS OF A GAS TEST LOOP SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses thermal hydraulic calculations for a Gas Test Loop (GTL) system designed to provide a high intensity fast-flux irradiation environment for testing fuels and materials for advanced concept nuclear reactors. To assess the performance of candidate reactor fuels, these fuels must be irradiated under actual fast reactor flux conditions and operating environments, preferably in an existing irradiation facility [1]. Potential users of the GTL include the Generation IV Reactor Program, the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative and Space Nuclear Programs.

Donna Post Guillen; James E. Fisher

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Solar thermal power systems. Annual technical progress report, FY 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technical progress report on the DOE Solar Thermal Power Systems Program is given. Emphasis is on the technical progress of the projects rather than on activities and individual contractor efforts. Each project description indicates its place in the prior to FY 1978 is given; the significant achievements and real progress of each project during FY 1978 are described; and future project activities as well as anticipated significant achievements for each project are forecast. (WHK)

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

An experimental and numerical investigation on the influence of external gas recirculation on the HCCI autoignition process in an engine: Thermal, diluting, and chemical effects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to contribute to the solution of controlling the autoignition in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine, parameters linked to external gas recirculation (EGR) seem to be of particular interest. Experiments performed with EGR present some difficulties in interpreting results using only the diluting and thermal aspect of EGR. Lately, the chemical aspect of EGR is taken more into consideration, because this aspect causes a complex interaction with the dilution and thermal aspects of EGR. This paper studies the influence of EGR on the autoignition process and particularly the chemical aspect of EGR. The diluents present in EGR are simulated by N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, with dilution factors going from 0 to 46 vol%. For the chemically active species that could be present in EGR, the species CO, NO, and CH{sub 2}O are used. The initial concentration in the inlet mixture of CO and NO is varied between 0 and 170 ppm, while that of CH{sub 2}O alters between 0 and 1400 ppm. For the investigation of the effect of the chemical species on the autoignition, a fixed dilution factor of 23 vol% and a fixed EGR temperature of 70 C are maintained. The inlet temperature is held at 70 C, the equivalence ratios between 0.29 and 0.41, and the compression ratio at 10.2. The fuels used for the autoignition are n-heptane and PRF40. It appeared that CO, in the investigated domain, did not influence the ignition delays, while NO had two different effects. At concentrations up until 45 ppm, NO advanced the ignition delays for the PRF40 and at higher concentrations, the ignition delayed. The influence of NO on the autoignition of n-heptane seemed to be insignificant, probably due to the higher burn rate of n-heptane. CH{sub 2}O seemed to delay the ignition. The results suggested that especially the formation of OH radicals or their consumption by the chemical additives determines how the reactivity of the autoignition changed. (author)

Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l'Ecole (France); Guibert, Philippe [UPMC Universite Paris 06, FRT, Institut Jean Le Rond D'Alembert, 2, place de la Gare de Ceinture, 78210 St Cyr l'Ecole (France)

2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

138

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a working molecular solar energy conversion system where noEnergy Storage and Conversion System ..74Thermal (MOST) Energy Storage and Conversion System In this

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Evaluation of diurnal thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of an evaluation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with simple gas turbine cogeneration systems. The TES system captures and stores thermal energy from the gas turbine exhaust for immediate or future generation of process heat. Integrating thermal energy storage with conventional cogeneration equipment increases the initial cost of the combined system; but, by decoupling electric power and process heat production, the system offers the following two significant advantages: (1) Electric power can be generated on demand, irrespective of the process heat load profile, thus increasing the value of the power produced; (2) Although supplementary firing could be used to serve independently varying electric and process heat loads, this approach is inefficient. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the two independent loads while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The study evaluated the cost of power produced by cogeneration and cogeneration/TES systems designed to serve a fixed process steam load. The value of the process steam was set at the levelized cost estimated for the steam from a conventional stand-alone boiler. Power costs for combustion turbine and combined-cycle power plants were also calculated for comparison. The results indicated that peak power production costs for the cogeneration/TES systems were between 25% and 40% lower than peak power costs estimated for a combustion turbine and between 15% and 35% lower than peak power costs estimated for a combined-cycle plant. The ranges reflect differences in the daily power production schedule and process steam pressure/temperature assumptions for the cases evaluated. Further cost reductions may result from optimization of current cogeneration/TES system designs and improvement in TES technology through future research and development.

Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Systems analysis of solar thermal power systems. Report on Task 1: determination and characterization of solar thermal conversion options  

SciTech Connect

Seven general solar thermal conversion concepts were selected initially. The literature review confirmed that these are the only concepts that are developed to a level suitable for inclusion in the comparative analysis to be performed. A summary of information pertaining to these concepts is given and the concepts are briefly described. The information presented is abstracted from applicable references presented in the bibliography. The bibliography and a list of the major contacts established are included in appendices. The seven concepts are: point-focusing distributed receiver system; point focusing, central receiver systems; fixed mirror/distributed focus system; line-focus central receiver system; line-focus distributed receiver system; fixed mirror line-focus distributed receiver system, and low concentrator non-tracking systems. (WHR)

Apley, W.J.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Engineered Barrier Systems Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical Column Test Report  

SciTech Connect

The Engineered Barrier System (EBS) Thermal-Hydraulic-Chemical (THC) Column Tests provide data needed for model validation. The EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Modeling Report (PMR) will be based on supporting models for in-drift THC coupled processes, and the in-drift physical and chemical environment. These models describe the complex chemical interaction of EBS materials, including granular materials, with the thermal and hydrologic conditions that will be present in the repository emplacement drifts. Of particular interest are the coupled processes that result in mineral and salt dissolution/precipitation in the EBS environment. Test data are needed for thermal, hydrologic, and geochemical model validation and to support selection of introduced materials (CRWMS M&O 1999c). These column tests evaluated granular crushed tuff as potential invert ballast or backfill material, under accelerated thermal and hydrologic environments. The objectives of the THC column testing are to: (1) Characterize THC coupled processes that could affect performance of EBS components, particularly the magnitude of permeability reduction (increases or decreases), the nature of minerals produced, and chemical fractionation (i.e., concentrative separation of salts and minerals due to boiling-point elevation). (2) Generate data for validating THC predictive models that will support the EBS Degradation, Flow, and Transport PMR, Rev. 01.

W.E. Lowry

2001-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

142

Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An integrated systems engineering approach is used for uniform comparison of widely varying thermal treatment technologies proposed for management of contact-handled mixed low-level waste (MLLW) currently stored in the US Department of Energy complex. Ten different systems encompassing several incineration design options are studied. All subsystems, including facilities, equipment, and methods needed for integration of each of the ten systems are identified. Typical subsystems needed for complete treatment of MLLW are incoming waste receiving and preparation (characterization, sorting, sizing, and separation), thermal treatment, air pollution control, primary and secondary stabilization, metal decontamination, metal melting, mercury recovery, lead recovery, and special waste and aqueous waste treatment. The evaluation is performed by developing a preconceptual design package and planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for each system. As part of the preconceptual design process, functional and operational requirements, flow sheets and mass balances, and conceptual equipment layouts are developed for each system. The PLCC components estimated are technology development, production facility construction, pre-operation, operation and maintenance, and decontamination and decommissioning. Preconceptual design data and other technology information gathered during the study are examined and areas requiring further development, testing, and evaluation are identified and recommended. Using a qualitative method, each of the ten systems are ranked.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. III. Thermal energy storage subsystems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effects of the use of thermal energy storage (TES) subsystems in solar thermal power systems (STPS) on operating failures and on worker health and safety are examined. Revelant near- and medium-term designs for TES subsystems are reviewed. Generic failure events are considered by an event tree methodology. Three generic categories of initiating events are identified which can lead to release of storage fluids and other hazards. Three TES subsystem designs are selected for, and subjected to, analysis. A fluid release event tree for a sensible heat TES subsystem using mixed media organic oil/crushed rock and sand, designed for the Barstow, CA, 10 MWe pilot plant, is developed. Toxicology and flammability hazards are considered. The effect of component failures, including ullage and fluid maintenance units, on subsystem safety is considered. A latent heat subsystem using NaNO/sub 3//NaOH as the working medium is studied, and relevant failure events delineated. Mechanical equipment failures including the scraped wall heat exchangers, are examined. Lastly, a thermochemical TES subsystem using SO/sub 2//SO/sub 3/ interconversion is considered. Principle hazards identified include mechanical failures and storage fluid release. The integrity of the system is found to depend on catalyst and heat exchanger reliability. Dynamic response to off-normal system events is considered.

Ullman, A.Z.; Sokolow, B.B.; Daniels, J.; Hurt, P.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A prototype photovoltaic/thermal system integrated with transpired collector  

SciTech Connect

Building-integrated photovoltaic/thermal (BIPV/T) systems may be utilized to produce useful heat while simultaneously generating electricity from the same building envelope surface. A well known highly efficient collector is the open-loop unglazed transpired collector (UTC) which consists of dark porous cladding through which outdoor air is drawn and heated by absorbed solar radiation. Commercially available photovoltaic systems typically produce electricity with efficiencies up to about 18%. Thus, it is beneficial to obtain much of the normally wasted heat from the systems, possibly by combining UTC with photovoltaics. Combination of BIPV/T and UTC systems for building facades is considered in this paper - specifically, the design of a prototype facade-integrated photovoltaic/thermal system with transpired collector (BIPV/T). A full scale prototype is constructed with 70% of UTC area covered with PV modules specially designed to enhance heat recovery and compared to a UTC of the same area under outdoor sunny conditions with low wind. The orientation of the corrugations in the UTC is horizontal and the black-framed modules are attached so as to facilitate flow into the UTC plenum. While the overall combined thermal efficiency of the UTC is higher than that of the BIPV/T system, the value of the generated energy - assuming that electricity is at least four times more valuable than heat - is between 7% and 17% higher. Also, the electricity is always useful while the heat is usually utilized only in the heating season. The BIPV/T concept is applied to a full scale office building demonstration project in Montreal, Canada. The ratio of photovoltaic area coverage of the UTC may be selected based on the fresh air heating needs of the building, the value of the electricity generated and the available building surfaces. (author)

Athienitis, Andreas K.; Bambara, James; O'Neill, Brendan; Faille, Jonathan [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 Maisonneuve W., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

LARGO hot water system thermal performance test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal performance tests and results on the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Some objectives of these evaluations are to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of energy delivered to the household as contributed by solar power supplied to operate the system and auxiliary power to maintain tank temperature at proper level, overall system efficiency and to determine temperature distribution within the tank. The tests and evaluation were performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center solar test facility. The Solar Hot Water system is termed a ''Dump-type'' because of the draining system for freeze protection. The solar collector is a single glazed flat plate. An 82-gallon domestic water heater is provided as the energy storage vessel. Water is circulated through the collector and water heater by a 5.3 GPM capacity pump, and control of the pump motor is achieved by a differential temperature controller.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An overview: Component development for solar thermal systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, I review the significant issues and the development of solar concentrators and thermal receivers for central-receiver power plants and dish/engine systems. Due to the breadth of the topic area, I have arbitrarily narrowed the content of this paper by choosing not to discuss line-focus (trough) systems and energy storage. I will focus my discussion on the development of heliostats, dishes, and receivers since the 1970s with an emphasis on describing the technologies and their evolution, identifying some key observations and lessons learned, and suggesting what the future in component development may be.

Mancini, T.R.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Storage System for Solar Plants on Facebook Tweet about...

148

Thermal Solar Energy Systems for Space Heating of Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this study, the simulation and the analysis of a solar flat plate collectors combined with a compression heat pump is carried out. The system suggested must ensure the heating of a building without the recourse to an auxiliary energy source in complement of this heating system. The system is used to heat a building using heating floor. The building considered is located in Constantine-East of Algeria (Latitude 36.28 N, Longitude 6.62 E, Altitude 689m). For the calculation, the month of February was chosen, which is considered as the coldest month according to the weather data of Constantine. The performances of this system were compared to the performances of the traditional solar heating system using solar collectors and an auxiliary heating load to compensate the deficit. In this case a traditional solar heating system having the same characteristics with regard to the solar collecting area and the volume of storage tank is used. It can be concluded that the space heating system using a solar energy combined with heat pump improve the thermal performance of the heat pump and the global system. The performances of the heating system combining heat pump and solar collectors are higher than that of solar heating system with solar collectors and storage tank. The heat pump assisted by solar energy can contribute to the conservation of conventional energy and can be competitive with the traditional systems of heating.

Gomri, R.; Boulkamh, M.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

Wang, Yu

150

Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system X dependence of the thermal stability factor, the width of the thermal energy barrier distribution- ropy energy distribution and the interaction and the thermal energy barrier distribution determined

Laughlin, David E.

151

Thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone in southeastern Idaho  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a regional study of thermal and non-thermal ground water flow systems in the thrust zone of southern Idaho and western Wyoming are presented. The study involved hydrogeologic and hydrochemical data collection and interpretation. Particular emphasis was placed on analyzing the role that thrust zones play in controlling the movement of thermal and non-thermal fluids.

Ralston, D.R.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Thermal comfort and perceived air quality of a PEC system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Akimoto, T. , Genma T. 2007. Thermal sensation and comfortW. , Gong, N. 2007. Thermal performance of a personalizedRESULTS 1. Whole-body thermal sensation and comfort with the

Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui; Pasut, Wilmer; Warneke, Ashley; Bauman, Fred; Higuchi, Hiroshi

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: system integration laboratory test plan (RADL item 6-4)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A general demonstration test plan is provided for the activities to be accomplished at the Systems Integration Laboratory. The Master Control System, Subsystem Distributed Process Control, Representative Signal Conditioning Units, and Redline Units from the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem and other external interface operational functions will be integrated and functionally demonstrated. The Beckman Multivariable Control Unit will be tested for frequency response, static checks, configuration changes, switching transients, and input-output interfaces. Maximum System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of Pilot Plant controls and external interfaces that are available. Minimum System Integration Laboratory testing will be accomplished with reduced set of hardware, which will provide capability for continued development and demonstration of Operational Control System plant control application software. Beam Control System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of the Beam Control System equipment and software. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems. Project 8981, final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The feasibility of storing thermal energy at temperatures of 450/sup 0/ to 535/sup 0/C (850/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/F) in the form of latent heat of fusion has been examined for over 30 inorganic salts and salt mixtures. Alkali carbonate mixtures are attractive as phase-change storage materials in this temperature range because of their relatively high storage capacity and thermal conductivity, moderate cost, low volumetric expansion upon melting, low corrosivity, and good chemical stability. An equimolar mixture of Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, which melts at 505/sup 0/C with a latent heat of 148 Btu/lb, was chosen for experimental study. The cyclic charge/discharge behavior of laboratory- and engineering-scale systems was determined and compared with predictions based on a mathematical heat-transfer model that was developed during this program. The thermal performance of one engineering-scale unit remained very stable during 1400 hours of cyclic operation. Several means of improving heat conduction through the solid salt were explored. Areas requiring further investigation have been identified.

Maru, H.C.; Dullea, J.F.; Kardas, A.; Paul, L.

1978-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

THERMAL STRESS CALCULATIONS FOR HEATPIPE-COOLED REACTOR POWER SYSTEMS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A heatpipe-cooled fast reactor concept has been under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory for the past several years, to be used as a power source for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or as a planetary surface power system. The reactor core consists of an array of modules that are held together by a core lateral restraint system. Each module comprises a single heatpipe surrounded by 3-6 clad fuel pins. As part of the design development and performance assessment activities for these reactors, specialized methods and models have been developed to perform thermal and stress analyses of the core modules. The methods have been automated so that trade studies can be readily performed, looking at design options such as module size, heatpipe and clad thickness, use of sleeves to contain the fuel, material type, etc. This paper describes the methods and models that have been developed, and presents thermal and stress analysis results for a Mars surface power system and a NEP power source.

Kapernick, R. J. (Richard J.); Guffee, R. M. (Ray M.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Preliminary hazards analysis of thermal scrap stabilization system. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

This preliminary analysis examined the HA-21I glovebox and its supporting systems for potential process hazards. Upon further analysis, the thermal stabilization system has been installed in gloveboxes HC-21A and HC-21C. The use of HC-21C and HC-21A simplified the initial safety analysis. In addition, these gloveboxes were cleaner and required less modification for operation than glovebox HA-21I. While this document refers to glovebox HA-21I for the hazards analysis performed, glovebox HC-21C is sufficiently similar that the following analysis is also valid for HC-21C. This hazards analysis document is being re-released as revision 1 to include the updated flowsheet document (Appendix C) and the updated design basis (Appendix D). The revised Process Flow Schematic has also been included (Appendix E). This Current revision incorporates the recommendations provided from the original hazards analysis as well. The System Design Description (SDD) has also been appended (Appendix H) to document the bases for Safety Classification of thermal stabilization equipment.

Lewis, W.S.

1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

157

Installation system for integral mounting of thermal or photovoltaic panels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique installation system for mounting solar thermal or photovoltaic solar collector panels as an integral part of a structure is described. The most common example would have the collector array replacing the sheathing and shingles of a roof supported by trusses or rafters on 24 inch centers. The design achieves the goals of a good integral installation which is reliably weathertight, rapid and easy to execute by typical construction workers with little specific extra training and no special tools. All materials and components are commercially available and have proven performance.

Rost, D.F. (Solar Energy Engineering, Poland, OH); Ameduri, G.; Groves, L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Solar-thermal-energy collection/storage-pond system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A solar thermal energy collection and storage system is disclosed. Water is contained, and the water surface is exposed directly to the sun. The central part of an impermeable membrane is positioned below the water's surface and above its bottom with a first side of the membrane pointing generally upward in its central portion. The perimeter part of the membrane is placed to create a watertight boundary separating the water into a first volume which is directly exposable to the sun and which touches the membranes first side, and a second volumn which touches the membranes second side. A salt is dissolved in the first water volume.

Blahnik, D.E.

1982-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

159

Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are provided for controlling the storing and release of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

Ortega, J.K.E.

1981-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

160

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Photochemical and Photovoltaic Solar Energy Converters,”of solar energy in either photovoltaic or solar thermalphotovoltaic (PV) systems,[13,82,83] and solar thermal systems (energy

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Design and global optimization of high-efficiency solar thermal systems with tungsten cermets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar thermal, thermoelectric, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have high maximum theoretical efficiencies; experimental systems fall short because of losses by selective solar absorbers and TPV selective emitters. To ...

Chester, David A.

162

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heatingsolar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Waste Heat Recovery System: Lightweight Thermal Energy Recovery (LIGHTER) System  

SciTech Connect

Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: GM is using shape memory alloys that require as little as a 10°C temperature difference to convert low-grade waste heat into mechanical energy. When a stretched wire made of shape memory alloy is heated, it shrinks back to its pre-stretched length. When the wire cools back down, it becomes more pliable and can revert to its original stretched shape. This expansion and contraction can be used directly as mechanical energy output or used to drive an electric generator. Shape memory alloy heat engines have been around for decades, but the few devices that engineers have built were too complex, required fluid baths, and had insufficient cycle life for practical use. GM is working to create a prototype that is practical for commercial applications and capable of operating with either air- or fluid-based heat sources. GM’s shape memory alloy based heat engine is also designed for use in a variety of non-vehicle applications. For example, it can be used to harvest non-vehicle heat sources, such as domestic and industrial waste heat and natural geothermal heat, and in HVAC systems and generators.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system (20, 22, 78) and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream (74) and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer (18). The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine.

Yang, Wen-Ching (Export, PA); Newby, Richard A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Bannister, Ronald L. (Winter Springs, FL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Thermal chemical recuperation method and system for use with gas turbine systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system and method are disclosed for efficiently generating power using a gas turbine, a steam generating system and a reformer. The gas turbine receives a reformed fuel stream and an air stream and produces shaft power and exhaust. Some of the thermal energy from the turbine exhaust is received by the reformer. The turbine exhaust is then directed to the steam generator system that recovers thermal energy from it and also produces a steam flow from a water stream. The steam flow and a fuel stream are directed to the reformer that reforms the fuel stream and produces the reformed fuel stream used in the gas turbine. 2 figs.

Yang, W.C.; Newby, R.A.; Bannister, R.L.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

166

External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Monica C. Regalbuto Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM Kevin G. Brown Vanderbilt University and CRESP David W. DePaoli Oak Ridge National Laboratory Candido Pereira Argonne National Laboratory John R. Shultz Office of Waste Processing DOE/EM External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process September 2009 Acknowledgements The Review Team thanks Mr. Glyn Trenchard, Team Lead for Planning and Coordination Waste Disposition Project, U.S. Department of Energy--Office of River Protection, Mr. Paul Rutland, RPP System Planning Manager for Washington River Protection Solutions, and Mr. Ernie Lee,

167

Thermal management system and method for a solid-state energy storing device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved electrochemical energy storing device includes a number of thin-film electrochemical cells which are maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of each electrochemical cell, conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cells and also conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cells and thermally conductive material disposed on a wall structure adjacent the conductors. The wall structure includes electrically resistive material, such as an anodized coating or a thin film of plastic. The thermal conductors are fabricated to include a spring mechanism which expands and contacts to maintain mechanical contact between the electrochemical cells and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the electrochemical cells and the wall structure. An active cooling apparatus may be employed external to a hermetically sealed housing containing the electrochemical cells to enhance the transfer of thermal energy into and out of the electrochemical cells. An integrated interconnect board may be disposed within the housing onto which a number of electrical and electro-mechanical components are mounted. Heat generated by the components is conducted from the interconnect board to the housing using the thermal conductors.

Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Gauthier, Michel (La Prairie, CA); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Shiota, Toshimi (St. Bruno, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

ARM - External Data Center  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govExternal Data Center External Data Center Order Data Description of External Data Streams Data Viewers and Plots (selected data sets) XDC Documentation External Data Center The...

169

Options for thermal energy storage in solar-cooling systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current effort concentrates on design requirements of thermal storage subsystems for active solar cooling systems. The use of thermal storage with respect to absorption, Rankine, and desiccant cooling technologies is examined.

Curran, H.M.; DeVries, J.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Systems Process and Systems Process and Components Laboratory may include: * CSP technology developers * Utilities * Certification laboratories * Government agencies * Universities * Other National laboratories Contact Us If you are interested in working with NREL's Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory, please contact: ESIF Manager Carolyn Elam Carolyn.Elam@nrel.gov 303-275-4311 Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory The focus of the Thermal Systems Process and Components Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) is to research, develop, test, and evaluate new techniques for thermal energy storage systems that are relevant to utility-scale concentrating solar power plants. The laboratory holds

171

Demountable externally anchored low-stress magnet system and related method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Toroidal field coils are interlaced with other toroidal structures and are operated under supercooled conditions. To facilitate demounting the toroidal field coils, which are supercooled, they are made in the form of connected segments constituting coils of polygonal form. The segments may be rectilinear in form, but some may also be U-shaped or L-shaped. The segments are detachable from one another and are supported in load relieving manner. Power devices are used to displace the segments to facilitate removal of the coils from the aforesaid toroidal structures and to provide for the accommodation of dimensional changes and stresses due to thermal and magnetic conditions. The segments are formed of spaced parallel conductive slabs with the slabs of one segment being interdigitated with the slabs of the adjacent segment. The interdigitated slabs may be soldered together or slidingly engaged. The slabs are shaped to accommodate superconductors and to provide passages for a cooling medium. The slabs are moreover separated by insulator slabs with which they form a coil structure which is jacketed.

Powell, James (Wading River, NY); Hsieh, Shih-Yung (Centereach, NY); Lehner, John R. (Rocky Hill, CT)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Climate System Response to External Forcings and Climate Change Projections in CCSM4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results are presented from experiments performed with the Community Climate System Model, version 4 (CCSM4) for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). These include multiple ensemble members of twentieth-century climate with ...

Gerald A. Meehl; Warren M. Washington; Julie M. Arblaster; Aixue Hu; Haiyan Teng; Claudia Tebaldi; Benjamin N. Sanderson; Jean-Francois Lamarque; Andrew Conley; Warren G. Strand; James B. White III

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Analysis of photovoltaic/thermal electric power plant systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A conceptual definition and performance evaluation of a 100 megawatt (MW) hybrid photovoltaic/thermal electric power plant has been carried out. The concept utilizes the ability of gallium arsenide photovoltaic cells to achieve high conversion efficiency at high incident fluxes and elevated temperatures. Solar energy is focused by a field of steerable mirrors (heliostats) onto a tower mounted receiver whose outer surface is covered with gallium arsenide (AlGaAs/GaAs) solar cells and whose inner surface is a water boiler. The solar cells convert a fraction of the incident radiation into electrical energy, and the remaining energy is extracted at approximately 200/sup 0/C and used to power a Rankine cycle turbine generator (bottoming cycle). Water is used as the solar cell array coolant, as the thermodynamic working fluid, and as the thermal energy storage medium. Parametric studies were conducted to select conceptual design parameters and operational characteristics which imply the lowest levelized busbar electric energy costs. Parameters varied were collector area, condenser surface area, fan power, ambient temperature, and electric and thermal energy storage capacities. The report describes the concept, outlines the design analysis method, summarizes the parametric study results, and defines the selected plant configuration. The lowest levelized busbar electric energy generation cost, 70 mills/kilowatt-hr., was achieved with a relatively small collector area, 0.8 x 10/sup 6/ square meters, and no stored energy. A rough comparison of this combined power plant with a similar photovoltaic plant, operated at lower solar cell temperature and with no bottoming cycle, showed the busbar cost of electricity (BBEC) from the combined system to be approximately 9% lower.

Gluck, D.F.; Kelley, W.A.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Influence of External Heat Source on Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Synthetic refrigerants such as CFCs and HCFCs are harmful to the ozone and could cause greenhouse effect. Refrigerant alternatives research is very urgent. CO2 as a natural working fluid has zero ODP and its GWP=1, is receiving more and more attention ... Keywords: Coefficient of Performance, Experimental Investigation, Heat Source, Transcritical CO2 Refrigeration System

Liu Yingfu; Xiao Jian; Jin Guangya

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

June 15, 2013 | Singh * Thermal modeling will be conducted to establish the benefits of using a high thermal conducting graphite foams in conjunction with PCM and to develop a...

176

Thermal energy from a biogas engine/generator system  

SciTech Connect

A biogas fueled engine/generator equipped with heat recovery apparatus and thermal storage is described. The thermal energy is used to fuel a liquid fuel plant. Heat recovery is quantified and the static and dynamic performance of the thermal storage is described. At 1260 rpm the engine/generator produces 21 kW of electric power and 2500 kJ/min of thermal energy.

Stahl, T.; Fischer, J.R.; Harris, F.D.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Selected papers on solar radiation and solar thermal systems  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains a collection of reprints that represent the milestone papers in the fields of optical science and engineering. After a section containing historical papers in solar thermal research, the following sections are included: solar radiation; solar thermal power; solar thermal materials; and solar ponds. A total of 57 papers were indexed separately for the data base.

Osborn, D.E. (ed.) (Sacramento Municipal Utility District, CA (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Thermal performance of residential duct systems in basements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

There are many unanswered questions about the typical effects of duct system operation on the infiltration rates and energy usage of single- family residences with HVAC systems in their basements. In this paper, results from preliminary field studies and computer simulations are used to examine the potential for improvements in efficiency of air distribution systems in such houses. The field studies comprise thermal and flow measurements on four houses in Maryland. The houses were found to have significant envelope leakage, duct leakage, and duct conduction losses. Simulations of a basement house, the characteristics of which were chosen from the measured houses, were performed to assess the energy savings potential for basement house. The simulations estimate that a nine percent reduction in space conditioning energy use is obtained by sealing eighty percent of the duct leaks and insulating ducts to an R-value of 0.88 {degree}C{center_dot}m{sup 2}/W (5{degree}F{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h/BTU) where they are exposed in the basement. To determine the maximum possible reduction m energy use, simulations were run with all ducts insulated to 17.6 {degree}C{center_dot}m{sup 2}/W (100 {degree}F{center_dot}ft{sup 2}{center_dot}h/BTU) and with no duct leakage. A reduction of energy use by 14% is obtained by using perfect ducts instead of nominal ducts.

Treidler, B.; Modera, M.

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Thermal management of long-length HTS cable systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Projections of electric power production suggest a major shift to renewables, such as wind and solar, which will be in remote locations where massive quantities of power are available. One solution for transmitting this power over long distances to load centers is direct current (dc), high temperature superconducting (HTS) cables. Electric transmission via dc cables promises to be effective because of the low-loss, highcurrent- carrying capability of HTS wire at cryogenic temperatures. However, the thermal management system for the cable must be carefully designed to achieve reliable and energyefficient operation. Here we extend the analysis of a superconducting dc cable concept proposed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), which has one stream of liquid nitrogen flowing in a cryogenic enclosure that includes the power cable, and a separate return tube for the nitrogen. Refrigeration stations positioned every 10 to 20 km cool both nitrogen streams. Both go and return lines are contained in a single vacuum/cryogenic envelope. Other coolants, including gaseous helium and gaseous hydrogen, could provide potential advantages, though they bring some technical challenges to the operation of long-length HTS dc cable systems. A discussion of the heat produced in superconducting cables and a system to remove the heat are discussed. Also, an analysis of the use of various cryogenic fluids in long-distance HTS power cables is presented.

Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Hassenzahl, William V [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Thermal-hydraulics Analysis of a Radioisotope-powered Mars Hopper Propulsion System  

SciTech Connect

Thermal-hydraulics analyses results produced using a combined suite of computational design and analysis codes are presented for the preliminary design of a concept Radioisotope Thermal Rocket (RTR) propulsion system. Modeling of the transient heating and steady state temperatures of the system is presented. Simulation results for propellant blow down during impulsive operation are also presented. The results from this study validate the feasibility of a practical thermally capacitive RTR propulsion system.

Robert C. O'Brien; Andrew C. Klein; William T. Taitano; Justice Gibson; Brian Myers; Steven D. Howe

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Technical Research of Thermal Adjusting in Pulverizing System Intermediate Storage Bunker  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As the temperature change effect of the primary air and powder mixture in storage-type milling system, it is difficult to obtain accurate results of the direct measurement of the primary wind speed, resulting in this type of boiler system, the thermal ... Keywords: pulverizing system intermediate storage bunker, thermal adjustment, coal concentration, heat balance

Zhenning Zhao; Yaqin Ge; Hongwei Chen; Ying Zhang; Tao Sun; Xiao Lu

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Heat Pump Thermal Distribution Systems, Volumes 1 and 2: Volumes 1 and 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thermal distribution system significantly affects the first cost and the operating cost of heat pumps. A detailed study has identified central and zoned systems that promise performance and cost benefits. This report discusses the thermal distribution system's applicability to air-source, ground-coupled, nonazeotropic refrigerant mixture and dual-fuel heat pumps.

1990-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

183

Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

184

Viability Of Hybrid Ground Source Heat Pump System With Solar Thermal Collectors.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis presents a study for examining the viability of hybrid ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems that use solar thermal collectors as the supplemental… (more)

Rad, Farzin M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Collector/Receiver Characterization (Fact Sheet), Thermal Systems...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation falling on the trough aperture operating near ambient temperature to the thermal energy collected by the fluid flowing through the receiver tube. A parabolic trough,...

186

Design of a Solar Thermal Powered Cooling System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract The main objective of the thesis was to design a mechanical structure for a desiccant evaporative cooling, to apply solar thermal powered air conditioning… (more)

Hurri, Olli

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

SOLAR THERMAL CONCENTRATOR APPARATUS, SYSTEM, AND METHOD - Energy ...  

SOLAR THERMAL CONCENTRATOR APPARATUS ... The invention was made with the State of California's support under the California Energy Commission contract No. 5005 ...

188

Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with conventional'' HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Case studies of thermal energy storage (TES) systems: Evaluation and verification of system performance. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have developed two case studies to review and analyze energy performance of thermal energy storage CMS systems in commercial buildings. Our case studies considered two partial ice storage systems in Northern California. For each case, we compiled historical data on TES design, installation, and operation. This information was further enhanced by data obtained through interviews with the building owners and operators. The performance and historical data of the TES systems and their components were grouped into issues related to design, installation, operation, and maintenance of the systems. Our analysis indicated that (1) almost all problems related to the operation of TES and non-TES systems could be traced back to the design of the system, and (2) the identified problems were not unique to the TES systems. There were as many original problems with ``conventional`` HVAC systems and components as with TES systems. Judging from the problems related to non-TES components identified in these two case studies, it is reasonable to conclude that conventional systems have as many problems as TES systems, but a failure, in a TES system may have a more dramatic impact on thermal comfort and electricity charges. The objective of the designers of the TES systems in the case-study buildings was to design just-the-right-size systems so that both the initial investment and operating costs would be minimized. Given such criteria, a system is typically designed only for normal and steady-state operating conditions-which often precludes due consideration to factors such as maintenance, growth in the needed capacity, ease of the operation, and modularity of the systems. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that these systems, at least initially, did not perform to the design intent and expectation and that they had to go through extended periods of trouble-shooting.

Akbari, H.; Sezgen, O.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

Balmer, M. Lou (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)); Tonkyn, Russell (Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BPNL)); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana (PNNL); Barlow, Stephen (BPNL); Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory); Hoard, John Wm. (Ford Research Laboratory); Howden, Ken (U.S. Dept. of Energy)

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System: Thermal Storage Using Hybrid Vapor Compression Adsorption System  

SciTech Connect

HEATS Project: UTRC is developing a new climate-control system for EVs that uses a hybrid vapor compression adsorption system with thermal energy storage. The targeted, closed system will use energy during the battery-charging step to recharge the thermal storage, and it will use minimal power to provide cooling or heating to the cabin during a drive cycle. The team will use a unique approach of absorbing a refrigerant on a metal salt, which will create a lightweight, high-energy-density refrigerant. This unique working pair can operate indefinitely as a traditional vapor compression heat pump using electrical energy, if desired. The project will deliver a hot-and-cold battery that provides comfort to the passengers using minimal power, substantially extending the driving range of EVs.

None

2012-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

192

Development of a thermal reclamation system for spent blasting abrasive  

SciTech Connect

Abrasive blasting is the most economical method for paint removal from large surface areas such as the hulls and tanks of oceangoing vessels. Tens of thousands of tons of spent abrasive are generated annually by blasting operations in private and US Navy shipyards. Some of this material is classified as hazardous waste, and nearly all of it is currently being either stockpiled or disposed in landfills. The rapid decline in available landfill space and corresponding rise in landfill tipping fees pose a severe problem for shipyard operators throughout the US. This paper discusses the results of a research and development program initiated by the Institute of Gas Technology and supported by the US Navy to develop and test a fluidized-bed thermal reclamation system for spent abrasive waste minimization. Bench- and pilot-scale reclaimer tests and reclaimed abrasive performance tests are described along with the current status of a program to build and test a 5-ton/hour prototype reclaimer at a US Navy shipyard.

Bryan, B.B.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Thermal Analysis for Ion-Exchange Column System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Models have been developed to simulate the thermal characteristics of crystalline silicotitanate ion exchange media fully loaded with radioactive cesium either in a column configuration or distributed within a waste storage tank. This work was conducted to support the design and operation of a waste treatment process focused on treating dissolved, high-sodium salt waste solutions for the removal of specific radionuclides. The ion exchange column will be installed inside a high level waste storage tank at the Savannah River Site. After cesium loading, the ion exchange media may be transferred to the waste tank floor for interim storage. Models were used to predict temperature profiles in these areas of the system where the cesium-loaded media is expected to lead to localized regions of elevated temperature due to radiolytic decay. Normal operating conditions and accident scenarios (including loss of solution flow, inadvertent drainage, and loss of active cooling) were evaluated for the ion exchange column using bounding conditions to establish the design safety basis. The modeling results demonstrate that the baseline design using one central and four outer cooling tubes provides a highly efficient cooling mechanism for reducing the maximum column temperature. In-tank modeling results revealed that an idealized hemispherical mound shape leads to the highest tank floor temperatures. In contrast, even large volumes of CST distributed in a flat layer with a cylindrical shape do not result in significant floor heating.

Lee, S.

2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Notional all-electric ship systems integration thermal simulation and visualization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This work presents a simplified mathematical model for fast visualization and thermal simulation of complex and integrated energy systems that is capable of providing quick responses during system design. The tool allows for the determination of the ... Keywords: early-stage design tool, medium voltage direct current architecture, relative humidity field, temperature field, thermal management

Jvc Vargas; Ja Souza; R Hovsapian; Jc Ordonez; T Chiocchio; J Chalfant; C Chryssostomidis; E Dilay

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Interim procedure to measure the thermal performance of window systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the report is to review the current sources of information on U-values and to describe the state of thermal test methods used for windows in order to provide the Bonneville Power Administration with some general guidelines in the application of thermal test data for use in the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) by the Northwest Power Planning Council. At present, considerable controversy exists in the window industry regarding the thermal testing of windows, therefore no consensus-based standards are available.

McCabe, M.E.; Goss, W.P.

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Systems analysis techniques for annual cycle thermal energy storage solar systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Community-scale annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) solar systems are promising options for building heat and cooling. A variety of approaches are feasible in modeling ACTES solar systems. The key parameter in such efforts, average collector efficiency, is first examined, followed by several approaches for simple and effective modeling. Methods are also examined for modeling building loads for structures based on both conventional and passive architectural designs. Two simulation models for sizing solar heating systems with annual storage are presented next. Validation is presented by comparison with the results of a study of seasonal storage systems based on SOLANSIM, an hour-by-hour simulation. These models are presently being used to examine the economic trade-off between collector field area and storage capacity. Finally, programs in the US Department of Energy directed toward developing either other system components such as improved tanks and solar ponds or design tools for ACTES solar systems are examined.

Baylin, F.; Sillman, S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Agent-Oriented Intelligent Control Strategies for the Nano-satellite Autonomous Thermal System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper concerns the autonomous thermal control system of Nano-satellite with a study of the combination of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems)-based efficient cooling technique and the agent-oriented intelligent control strategies issue, especially ...

Liu Jia; Li Yunze; Wang Yuying; Wang Jun

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Thermally Forced Stationary Waves in a Quasigeostrophic System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analytical solutions of thermally forced stationary waves in a linear quasigeostrophic model are obtained. It is found that the zonal flow has a profound impact on the structure of the responses. The inviscid solutions on a resting basic state ...

Ping Chen

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Defects, thermal phenomena and design in photonic crystal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The physics of blackbodies has been an ongoing source of fascination and scientific research for over a hundred years. Kirchhoff's law states that emissivity and absorptivity are equal for an object in thermal equilibrium. ...

Chan, David Lik Chin

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Thermal Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar Power | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

that is used to generate electricity. If the receiver contains oil or molten salt as the heat-transfer medium, then the thermal energy can be stored for later use. This enables...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Integrated system for control and monitoring in real time of efficient electrical and thermal energy production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The integrated monitoring and driving system is made of main distributed components: - first level:_one or two computers placed in the control room which monitors the thermal and electrical processes based on the datas provided by the second level via ... Keywords: cogenerative gas power plant, control of distributed parameter systems, distribution management system, electric power systems, optimization, process control, real time systems, simulation

Ion Miciu; Florin Hartescu

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Thermal control system and method for a passive solar storage wall  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention provides a system and method for controlling the storing and elease of thermal energy from a thermal storage wall wherein said wall is capable of storing thermal energy from insolation of solar radiation. The system and method includes a device such as a plurality of louvers spaced a predetermined distance from the thermal wall for regulating the release of thermal energy from the thermal wall. This regulating device is made from a material which is substantially transparent to the incoming solar radiation so that when it is in any operative position, the thermal storage wall substantially receives all of the impacting solar radiation. The material in the regulating device is further capable of being substantially opaque to thermal energy so that when the device is substantially closed, thermal release of energy from the storage wall is substantially minimized. An adjustment device is interconnected with the regulating mechanism for selectively opening and closing it in order to regulate the release of thermal energy from the wall.

Ortega, Joseph K. E. (Westminister, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Similarity and generalized analysis of efficiencies of thermal energy storage systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper examined the features of three typical thermal storage systems including: (1) direct storage of heat transfer fluid in containers, (2) storage of thermal energy in a packed bed of solid filler material, with energy being carried in/out by a flowing heat transfer fluid which directly contacts the packed bed, and (3) a system in which heat transfer fluid flows through tubes that are imbedded into a thermal storage material which may be solid, liquid, or a mixture of the two. The similarity of the three types of thermal storage systems was discussed, and generalized energy storage governing equations were introduced in both dimensional and dimensionless forms. The temperatures of the heat transfer fluid during energy charge and discharge processes and the overall energy storage efficiencies were studied through solution of the energy storage governing equations. Finally, provided in the paper are a series of generalized charts bearing curves for energy storage effectiveness against four dimensionless parameters grouped up from many of the thermal storage system properties including dimensions, fluid and thermal storage material properties, as well as the operational conditions including mass flow rate of the fluid, and the ratio of energy charge and discharge time periods. Engineers can conveniently look up the charts to design and calibrate the size of thermal storage tanks and operational conditions without doing complicated individual modeling and computations. It is expected that the charts will serve as standard tools for thermal storage system design and calibration.

Peiwen Li; Jon Van Lew; Cholik Chan; Wafaa Karaki; Jake Stephens; J. E. O'Brien

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Thermal vs energy optimization for dvfs-enabled processors in embedded systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — In the past, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) has been widely used for power and energy optimization in embedded system design. As thermal issues become increasingly prominent, we propose design-time thermal optimization techniques for embedded systems. By carefully planning DVFS at design time, our techniques proactively optimize system thermal profile, prevent run-time thermal emergencies, minimize cooling costs, and optimize system performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work addressing embedded system designtime thermal optimization using DVFS. We formulate minimization of application peak temperature in the presence of real-time constraints as a nonlinear programming problem. This provides a powerful framework for system designers to determine a proper thermal solution and provide a lower bound on the minimum temperature achievable by DVFS. Furthermore, we examine the differences between optimal energy solutions and optimal peak temperature solutions. Experimental results indicate that optimizing energy consumption can lead to unnecessarily high temperature. Finally, we propose a thermal-constrained energy optimization procedure to minimize system energy consumption under a constraint on peak temperature. I.

Yongpan Liu; Huazhong Yang; Robert P. Dick; Hui Wang; Li Shang

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Descriptive analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic feasibility of large-scale aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) was examined. A key to ATESs attractiveness is its simplicity of design and construction. The storage device consists of two ordinary water wells drilled into an aquifer, connected at the surface by piping and a heat exchanger. During the storage cycle water is pumped out of the aquifer, through the heat exchanger to absorb thermal energy, and then back down into the aquifer through the second well. The thermal storage remains in the aquifer storage bubble until required for use, when it is recovered by reversing the storage operation. For many applications the installation can probably be designed and constructed using existing site-specific information and modern well-drilling techniques. The potential for cost-effective implementation of ATES was investigated in the Twin Cities District Heating-Cogeneration Study in Minnesota. In the study, ATES demonstrated a net energy saving of 32% over the nonstorage scenario, with an annual energy cost saving of $31 million. Discounting these savings over the life of the project, the authors found that the break-even capital cost for ATES construction was $76/kW thermal, far above the estimated ATES development cost of $23 to 50/kW thermal. It appears tht ATES can be highly cost effective as well as achieve substantial fuel savings. ATES would be environmentally beneficial and could be used in many parts of the USA. The existing body of information on ATES indicates that it is a cost-effective, fuel-conserving technique for providing thermal energy for residential, commercial, and industrial users. The negative aspects are minor and highly site-specific, and do not seem to pose a threat to widespread commercialization. With a suitable institutional framework, ATES promises to supply a substantial portion of the nation's future energy needs. (LCL)

Reilly, R.W.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Thermal efficiency standards and codes. Volume 2. Relationships of ASHRAE standards and external factors to energy efficient building practices in new homes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Available data on 1976 and 1979 new home construction practices were used to develop measures of average building practice for each of the 48 contiguous states. Four possible views of the function and purpose of building energy standards and codes were posited and used to guide the search for relationships between building practice and building energy codes and standards implemented by the states. It was found that the average thermal efficiency of new single family homes improved from 1976 to 1979 in each of the 48 states. It was observed that by 1979 the average thermal efficiency of new homes in each of the 48 states exceeded American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers Standard 90-75 (ASHRAE 90). However, in all states, there were substantial numbers of new homes which did not meet the Standard. By January 1, 1979, 23 states had some type of applicable building energy code or standard in effect; 11 of these had state-wide mandatory codes. All codes and standards were either identical to or very similar to the ASHRAE Standard 90-75 in their building shell requirements. A search for statistical evidence of a relationship between state building code activities and building practice was performed. Three marginally significant relationships were found by analysis of variance; however, these relationships were not significant in regression equations with socio-economic variables present. The conclusion here is that the effects of state building code actions on building practices were not detectable by the statistical methods used.

McCold, L.N.; Collins, N.E.; Zuschneid, P.B.; Hofstra, R.B.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, Pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume 1. Executive overview  

SciTech Connect

This summary introduces the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC) Central Receiver System Preliminary Design and reports the results of the Subsystem Research Experiments (SRE) recently completed. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) An external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360-deg array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) Feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes.

Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

1977-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Assessment of the potential of solar thermal small power systems in small utilities. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This study involved an assessment of the potential economic benefit of small solar thermal electric power systems to small municipal and rural electric utilities. Five different solar thermal small power system configurations were considered in the study representing three different solar thermal technologies. The configurations included: (1) 1-MW, 2-MW, and 10-MW parabolic dish concentrators with a 15-kW heat engine mounted at the focal point of each dish. These systems utilized advanced battery energy storage. (2) A 10-MW system with variable slat concentrators and central steam Rankine energy conversion. This system utilized sensible thermal energy storage. (3) A 50-MW central receiver system consisting of a field of heliostats concentrating energy on a tower-mounted receiver and a central steam Rankine conversion system. This system also utilized sensible thermal storage. The approach used in determining the potential for solar thermal small power systems in the small utility market involved a comparison of the economics of power supply expansion plans for seven hypothetical small utilities through the year 2000 both with and without the solar thermal small power systems. Insolation typical of the Southwestern US was assumed. A comparison of the break-even capital costs with the range of plant costs estimated in this study yields the following conclusions: (1) The parabolic dish concentrator systems could be economically competitive with conventional generation if the lowest capital costs can be achieved. (2) The variable slat concentrator and central receiver systems would have to achieve lower costs than the lowest in the cost ranges generally assumed in the study to become economically competitive. (3) All of the solar thermal plant types are potentially more competitive in utilities which are heavily dependent upon oil.

Steitz, P.; Mayo, L.G.; Perkins, S.P. Jr.

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Method and device for predicting wavelength dependent radiation influences in thermal systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for predicting the spectral (wavelength-dependent) radiation transport in thermal systems including interaction by the radiation with partially transmitting medium. The predicted model of the thermal system is used to design and control the thermal system. The predictions are well suited to be implemented in design and control of rapid thermal processing (RTP) reactors. The method involves generating a spectral thermal radiation transport model of an RTP reactor. The method also involves specifying a desired wafer time dependent temperature profile. The method further involves calculating an inverse of the generated model using the desired wafer time dependent temperature to determine heating element parameters required to produce the desired profile. The method also involves controlling the heating elements of the RTP reactor in accordance with the heating element parameters to heat the wafer in accordance with the desired profile.

Kee, Robert J. (864 Lucille St., Livermore, CA 94550); Ting, Aili (7329 Stonedale Dr., Pleasanton, CA 94558)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems typically have as much as 20-40% higher first costs over conventional rooftop systems (Kavanaugh be achieved by utilizing equipment such as a boiler or solar thermal collector with thermal energy storage. 2.1.2 The

212

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

N. et al. , (2007), “Microgrids, An Overview of OngoingSolar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat andSolar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Experimental Study of Non-thermal Plasma Injection System Converting NOx in Simulated Diesel Emissions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to study the removal effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) after-treatment system on diesel engine harmful emissions, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma reactor is designed, and the NOx removal effect is studied under the conditions of ... Keywords: Non-thermal Plasma(NTP), Dielectric Barrier Discharge(DBD, Diesel Engine, Nox

Jing Wang; Yixi Cai; Jun Wang; Dongli Ran

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

A simple enthalpy-based lattice Boltzmann scheme for complicated thermal systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To extend the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method to describe the applicable energy systems, the first key step is to build a suitable thermal LB model and corresponding boundary treatments. There are two main shortcomings in the existing related works: either ... Keywords: Cauchy boundary, Dirichlet boundary, Lattice Boltzmann method, Neumann boundary, Thermal flow

Sheng Chen; K. H. Luo; Chuguang Zheng

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The use of thermal energy storage for energy system based on cogeneration plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Usage of thermal energy storage together with cogeneration technology provides an attractive solution by allowing the production of electricity in the periods, when heat load is low and later consumption of heat, when load is high. The purpose of the ... Keywords: CHP, cogeneration, energy efficiency, energy system, thermal storage

Anna Volkova; Andres Siirde

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage://eetd.lbl.gov/EA/EMP/emp-pubs.html The work described in this paper was funded by the Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can

217

Numerical simulation of thermal properties in two-dimensional Yukawa systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

New results obtained for thermal conduction in 2D Yukawa systems. The results of numerical study of heat transfer processes for quasi equilibrium systems with parameters close to conditions in laboratory experiments with dusty plasma are presented. The Green-Kubo relations are used to calculate thermal conductivity and diffusivity coefficients. For the first time the influence of dissipation (friction) on the heat transfer in non-ideal systems is studied. New approximation is suggested for thermal diffusivity. The comparison with the existing experimental and numerical results is shown.

Khrustalyov, Yu V

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 Thermal Distribution Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by Building Activity Education 0.5 1.3 Food Sales 1.1 6.4 Food Service 1.5 6.4 Health Care 1.5 5.6 Lodging 0.5 1.9...

219

High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document is the sixth volume of the Building America Best Practices Series. It presents information that is useful throughout the United States for enhancing the energy efficiency practices in the specific climate zones that are presented in the first five Best Practices volumes. It provides an introduction to current photovoltaic and solar thermal building practices. Information about window selection and shading is included.

Baechler, M.; Gilbride, T.; Ruiz, K.; Steward, H.; Love, P.

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

SPOT: a smart personalized office thermal control system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) accounts for about half of the energy consumption in buildings. HVAC energy consumption can be reduced by changing the indoor air temperature setpoint, but changing the setpoint too aggressively can overly ... Keywords: HVAC, human thermal comfort, personalization

Peter Xiang Gao, S. Keshav

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory (Fact Sheet), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Storage Materials Storage Materials Laboratory may include: * CSP technology developers * Utilities * Certification laboratories * Government agencies * Universities * Other National laboratories Contact Us If you are interested in working with NREL's Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory, please contact: ESIF Manager Carolyn Elam Carolyn.Elam@nrel.gov 303-275-4311 Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory The Thermal Storage Materials Laboratory at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) investigates materials that can be used as high-temperature heat transfer fluids or thermal energy storage media in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. Research objectives include the discovery and evaluation of

222

Experience base for Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems: A preliminary survey  

SciTech Connect

In the process of considering thermal technologies for potential treatment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory mixed transuranic contaminated wastes, a preliminary survey of the experience base available from Radioactive Waste Thermal Processing Systems is reported. A list of known commercial radioactive waste facilities in the United States and some international thermal treatment facilities are provided. Survey focus is upon the US Department of Energy thermal treatment facilities. A brief facility description and a preliminary summary of facility status, and problems experienced is provided for a selected subset of the DOE facilities.

Mayberry, J.; Geimer, R.; Gillins, R.; Steverson, E.M.; Dalton, D. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Anderson, G.L. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Conversion system overview assessment. Volume III. Solar thermal/coal or biomass derived fuels  

SciTech Connect

The three volumes of this report cover three distinct areas of solar energy research: solar thermoelectrics, solar-wind hybrid systems, and synthetic fuels derived with solar thermal energy. Volume III deals with the conversion of synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat. The method is a hybrid combination of solar energy with either coal or biomass. A preliminary assessment of this technology is made by calculating the cost of fuel produced as a function of the cost of coal and biomass. It is shown that within the projected ranges of coal, biomass, and solar thermal costs, there are conditions when solar synthetic fuels with solar thermal heat will become cost-competitive.

Copeland, R. J.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Monitoring solar-thermal systems: An outline of methods and procedures  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This manual discusses the technical issues associated with monitoring solar-thermal systems. It discusses some successful monitoring programs that have been implemented in the past. It gives the rationale for selecting a program of monitoring and gives guidelines for the design of new programs. In this report, solar thermal monitoring systems are classified into three levels. For each level, the report discusses the kinds of information obtained by monitoring, the effort needed to support the monitoring program, the hardware required, and the costs involved. Ultimately, all monitoring programs share one common requirement: the collection of accurate data that characterize some aspect or aspects of the system under study. This report addresses most of the issues involved with monitoring solar thermal systems. It does not address such topics as design fundamentals of thermal systems or the relative merits of the many different technologies employed for collection of solar energy.

Rosenthal, A. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Southwest Technology Development Inst.

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

External vs. body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External vs. body temperature External vs. body temperature Name: jacqui Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If one's internal body temperature is approximately 98.6, WHY when the external temperature is 98.6 do we feel hot? Since both temperatures are "balanced", shouldn't we feel comfortable? I am assuming here that humidity levels are controlled, and play no factor in the external temperature. Replies: First of all, skin temperature is lower than 98.6F; 98.6F is internal body temperature, so air at 98.6F is hotter than skin. But more important, it is the nervous system, and the cells in your skin that your brain uses to detect temperature that determine whether you "feel" hot or not, not whether the air is hotter than your skin. These are set so that you feel hot when the air is actually colder than your skin. Why? They are probably set to make you feel hot whenever the air is warm enough so that your body has some trouble getting rid of the excess heat it produces through metabolism. This insures that you take some actions to help your body cool off. Like drinking cool water, or reducing exercise

226

Cooled electronic system with thermal spreaders coupling electronics cards to cold rails  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid-cooled electronic systems are provided which include an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket or removal of the card from the socket. A liquid-cooled cold rail is disposed at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader couples the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The thermally conductive extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

227

LARGO hot water system long range thermal performance test report. Addendum  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The test procedure used and the test results obtained during the long range thermal performance tests of the LARGO Solar Hot Water System under natural environmental conditions are presented. Objectives of these tests were to determine the amount of energy collected, the amount of power required for system operation, system efficiency temperature distribution and system performance degradation.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Method and apparatus for thermal management of vehicle exhaust systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic converter is surrounded by variable conductance insulation for maintaining the operating temperature of the catalytic converter at an optimum level, for inhibiting heat loss when raising catalytic converter temperature to light-off temperature, for storing excess heat to maintain or accelerate reaching light-off temperature, and for conducting excess heat away from the catalytic converter after reaching light-off temperature. The variable conductance insulation includes vacuum gas control and metal-to-metal thermal shunt mechanisms. Radial and axial shielding inhibits radiation and convection heat loss. Thermal storage media includes phase change material, and heat exchanger chambers and fluids carry heat to and from the catalytic converter. 7 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

229

Implementations of electric vehicle system based on solar energy in Singapore assessment of solar thermal technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To build an electric car plus renewable energy system for Singapore, solar thermal technologies were investigated in this report in the hope to find a suitable "green" energy source for this small island country. Among all ...

Liu, Xiaogang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The present thesis focuses on the optimal operation and design of solar-thermal energy storage systems. First, optimization of time-variable operation to maximize revenue through selling and purchasing electricity to/from ...

Lizarraga-García, Enrique

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Analysis of a Retrofitted Thermal Energy Storage Air-conditioning System of a Marine Museum.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Thermal energy storage(TES) air-conditioning system is a electrical load management technology with great potential to shift load from peak to off-peak utility periods. TES is… (more)

Yu, Po-wen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Thermal design of humidification dehumidification systems for affordable and small-scale desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The humidification dehumidification (HDH) technology is a carrier-gas-based thermal desalination technique ideal for application in a small-scale system but, currently, has a high cost of water production (about 30 $/m³ ...

Govindan, Prakash Narayan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development. Technical progress report, September 1, 1997--November 30, 1997  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to provide an improved thermal barrier coating system with increased temperature capability and reliability. This report describes bond coat development, manufacturing, nondestructive evaluation, maintenance, and repair, and bench testing.

1997-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

234

High Voltage Thermal Battery Reliability Required to Equal Inverter-Converter Systems  

SciTech Connect

MC-583 and XMC-650 circuits, including associated pulse transformers, are compare with the inverter-converter system typical of present fuses. The required probabilities of thermal battery shorts and opens are determined.

1955-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

235

A prototype data archive for the PIER "thermal distribution systems in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A prototype data archive for the PIER "thermal distribution systems in A prototype data archive for the PIER "thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings" project Title A prototype data archive for the PIER "thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings" project Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-54191 Year of Publication 2004 Authors Diamond, Richard C., Craig P. Wray, Brian V. Smith, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, Nance Matson, and Skylar A. Cox Date Published 01/2004 Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract A prototype archive for a selection of building energy data on thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings was developed and pilot tested. While the pilot demonstrated the successful development of the data archive prototype, several questions remain about the usefulness of such an archive. Specifically, questions on the audience, frequency of use, maintenance, and updating of the archive would need to be addressed before this prototype is taken to the next level.

236

A Novel Integrated Frozen Soil Thermal Energy Storage and Ground-Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, a novel integrated frozen soil thermal energy storage and ground-source heat pump (IFSTS&GSHP) system in which the GHE can act as both cold thermal energy storage device and heat exchanger for GSHP is first presented. The IFSTS&GSHP system can serve as cold energy thermal storage at night, produce chilled water in the daytime in summer and provide hot water for heating in winter. This is followed by its schematic and characteristic description. Then the various operation modes of such system according to different operational strategies are demonstrated in sequence. The system, firstly seen in open literature, is energy-saving, environmental-friendly and promising in the field of air-conditioning systems, and will help solve the problems currently existing with the GSHP system and ITES air conditioning system.

Jiang, Y.; Yao, Y.; Rong, L.; Ma, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Critical review of siting characteristics of small scale solar thermal energy systems  

SciTech Connect

An analysis was made of unique technical issues to be considered in siting solar-thermal energy systems in small communities. Four systems are described: central receiver, parabolic trough, parabolic dish, hemispherical bowl. The difference between central receiver systems and distributed receiver systems are indicated with reference to current applications. Finally, a technical siting comparison is made of the four systems defined, including overall efficiency, end use, land requirements, failure rates, safety considerations, energy backup systems and capital costs.

Sokolow, B.B.; Lobnitz, M.M.; Baruch, S.B.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Preliminary screening of thermal storage concepts for water/steam and organic fluid solar thermal receiver systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A preliminary comparison of thermal storage concepts for solar thermal applications was done generically for large and small solar systems with sensible and latent heat and two-stage storage concepts. Concepts were ranked based on the cost of delivered energy. A +- 20% uncertainty in subsystem cost was included in the analysis. Water/steam and organic fluid collector/receivers were studied separately. For the water/steam concept, Barstow technology (100 MW/sub e/) was examined. A nitrite/nitrate salt with a low-cost solid medium was best for buffer storage; for diurnal storage, the two-stage draw salt/low-cost media and oil/rock concept was best. Phase change concepts require improvements on the concept analyzed to be attractive. For the organic fluid system, a Shenandoah total energy system was examined. The Syltherm trickle charge taconite concept was the most favorable and may be improved by replacing the taconite with a lower-cost oil-compatible medium. Salt concepts can be competitive with this system only if there is a low-cost solid medium that is compatible with the salt and the end use requires a large amount of storage. The phase change concept examined was found to be quite poor for this total energy application.

Copeland, R.J.; Karpuk, M.E.; Ullman, J.L.

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Conceptual design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conceptual design of a power system for application to the OTEC 100-MWe Demonstration Plant is presented. System modeling, design, and performance are described in detail. Materials considerations, module assembly, and cost considerations are discussed. Appendices include: A) systems analysis, B) general arrangements, C) system equipment, D) ammonia system material considerations; E) ammonia cycle, F) auxiliary subsystems, G) DACS availability analysis, H) heat exchanger supporting data, I) rotating machinery, and J) platform influences. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

240

Engineering a thermal squeezed reservoir by system energy-modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that a thermal reservoir can effectively act as a squeezed reservoir on atoms that are subject to energy-level modulation. For sufficiently fast and strong modulation, for which the rotating-wave-approximation is broken, the resulting squeezing persists at long times. These effects are analyzed by a master equation that is valid beyond the rotating wave approximation. As an example we consider a two-level-atom in a cavity with Lorentzian linewidth, subject to sinusoidal energy modulation. A possible realization of these effects is discussed for Rydberg atoms.

Shahmoon, Ephraim

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Development and Demonstration of an Innovative Thermal Energy Storage System for Baseload Power Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to research and develop a thermal energy storage system (operating range 3000C ���¢�������� 450 0C ) based on encapsulated phase change materials (PCM) that can meet the utility-scale base-load concentrated solar power plant requirements at much lower system costs compared to the existing thermal energy storage (TES) concepts. The major focus of this program is to develop suitable encapsulation methods for existing low-cost phase change materials that would provide a cost effective and reliable solution for thermal energy storage to be integrated in solar thermal power plants. This project proposes a TES system concept that will allow for an increase of the capacity factor of the present CSP technologies to 75% or greater and reduce the cost to less than $20/kWht.

D. Y. Goswami

2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

242

Adsorption at the nanoparticle interface for increased thermal capacity in solar thermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In concentrated solar power (CSP) systems, high temperature heat transfer fluids (HTFs) are responsible for collecting energy from the sun at the solar receiver and transporting it to the turbine where steam is produced ...

Thoms, Matthew W

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Integrating Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Systems in Whole Building Energy Simulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper introduces methodologies on how the renewable energy generated by the solar thermal and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed on site can be integrated in the whole building simulation analyses, which then can be available to analyze the energy impact of solar systems installed in commercial buildings. A large prototypical office building (124,000 ft2) was used in simulation modeling. The DOE-2.1e program was used for whole building simulation, F-Chart (Beckman et al., 1977) for solar thermal systems analysis, and PV F-Chart (Klein and Beckman, 1983) for solar PV systems analysis.

Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability. Such coating systems are essential to the ATS engine (gas turbine) meeting its objectives.

NONE

1996-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

246

Lockheed Testing the Waters for Ocean Thermal Energy System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The company is working to develop a system to produce electricity using temperature differences in the ocean.

247

Abstract: Air, Thermal and Water Management for PEM Fuel Cell Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

PEM fuel cells are excellent candidates for transportation applications due to their high efficiencies. PEM fuel cell Balance of Plant (BOP) components, such as air, thermal, and water management sub-systems, can have a significant effect on the overall system performance, but have traditionally not been addressed in research and development efforts. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Energy and Honeywell International Inc. are funding an effort that emphasizes the integration and optimization of air, thermal and water management sub-systems. This effort is one of the major elements to assist the fuel cell system developers and original equipment manufacturers to achieve the goal of an affordable and efficient power system for transportation applications. Past work consisted of: (1) Analysis, design, and fabrication of a motor driven turbocompressor. (2) A systematic trade study to select the most promising water and thermal management systems from five different concepts (absorbent wheel humidifier, gas to gas membrane humidifier, porous metal foam humidifier, cathode recycle compressor, and water injection pump.) This presentation will discuss progress made in the research and development of air, water and thermal management sub-systems for PEM fuel cell systems in transportation applications. More specifically, the presentation will discuss: (1) Progress of the motor driven turbocompressor design and testing; (2) Progress of the humidification component selection and testing; and (3) Progress of the thermal management component preliminary design. The programs consist of: (1) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of a compact motor driven turbocompressor operating on foil air bearings to provide contamination free compressed air to the fuel cell stack while recovering energy from the exhaust streams to improve system efficiency. (2) The analysis, design, fabrication and testing of selected water and thermal management systems and components to improve system efficiency and reduce packaging size.

Mark K. Gee

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Integrating gray system theory and logistic regression into case-based reasoning for safety assessment of thermal power plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Safety assessment of thermal power plants (TPPs) is one of the important means to guarantee the safety of production in thermal power production enterprises. Due to various technical limitations, existing assessment approaches, such as analytic hierarchy ... Keywords: Case-based reasoning, Gray system theory, Intelligent decision support system, Logistic regression, Management safety assessment, Thermal power plants

Changyong Liang; Dongxiao Gu; Isabelle Bichindaritz; Xingguo Li; Chunrong Zuo; Wenen Cheng

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

SunShot Initiative: High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP High-Efficiency Thermal Energy Storage System for CSP ANL logo Photo of a black and white porous material magnified 50 times by a microscope. Microstructure of the highly thermal conductive foam that will be used for the prototype TES system. Image from ANL Argonne National Laboratory and project partner Ohio Aerospace Institute, under the National Laboratory R&D competitive funding opportunity, will design, develop, and test a prototype high-temperature and high-efficiency thermal energy storage (TES) system with rapid charging and discharging times. By increasing the efficiency of TES systems, this project aims to lower the capital costs of concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. Approach The research team is developing and evaluating a novel approach for TES at temperatures greater than 700˚C for CSP systems. The approach uses high thermal conductivity and high-porosity graphite foams infiltrated with a phase change material (PCM) to provide TES in the form of latent heat.

250

High-temperature thermal storage systems for advanced solar receivers materials selections  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Advanced space power systems that use solar energy and Brayton or Stirling heat engines require thermal energy storage (TES) systems to operate continuously through periods of shade. The receiver storage units, key elements in both Brayton and Stirling systems, are designed to use the latent heat of fusion of phase-change materials (PCMs). The power systems under current consideration for near-future National Aeronautics and Space Administration space missions require working fluid temperatures in the 1100 to 1400 K range. The PCMs under current investigation that gave liquidus temperatures within this range are the fluoride family of salts. However, these salts have low thermal conductivity, which causes large temperature gradients in the storage systems. Improvements can be obtained, however, with the use of thermal conductivity enhancements or metallic PCMs. In fact, if suitable containment materials can be found, the use of metallic PCMs would virtually eliminate the orbit associated temperature variations in TES systems. The high thermal conductivity and generally low volume change on melting of germanium and alloys based on silicon make them attractive for storage of thermal energy in space power systems. An approach to solving the containment problem, involving both chemical and physical compatibility, preparation of NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, and initial results for containment of germanium and NiSi/NiSi{sub 2}, are presented. 7 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

Wilson, D.F.; DeVan, J.H.; Howell, M.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Thermal simulation and economic assessment of unglazed transpired collector systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Unglazed transpired collectors (UTCs) have recently emerged as a new solar air heating technology. They are relatively inexpensive, efficient, and particularly suited to applications in which a high outdoor air requirement must be met. A TRNSYS model has been created for UTC systems. Annual simulations are performed for several representative buildings. The statewide economic potential of UTC systems is assessed for Wisconsin. UTC systems on existing buildings are competitive with electric heating systems but not with gas or oil heating. Electric heating is not widely used in most buildings that are well-suited for UTC systems, with the exception of large apartment buildings. Therefore, there is no significant statewide economic potential for retrofit of UTC systems on existing buildings except in the residential sector. However, UTC systems are cost effective for new buildings because their low first cost allows them to compete with gas and oil heating.

Summers, D.N.; Mitchell, J.W.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System. Hailstone simulation test report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the work described is to verify heliostat survival and evaluate material damage resultant from the impact of 1 inch hailstones traveling at terminal velocity (75 feet/second). Data obtained from the tests were also used to predict the loss in specular transmittance of the plastic heliostat enclosures due to hail damage possible at potential solar thermal power plant sites in southwestern United States. The approach taken was to subject several different typical enclosure materials as well as an existing enclosure at Boardman, Oregon, to hailstone bombardment and measure and analyze the effects on enclosure performance. Hailstorm frequency and severity data, although sparse and highly generalized, was found in the literature and used along with the experimental data to predict total accumulative damage after 15 years of exposure. (WHK)

1978-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with Combined Heat and Power  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and noon solar thermal and absorption chiller adoption in 2020,used to supply an absorption chiller. In the CO 2 price run,

Marnay, Chris

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

User's manual for computer code SOLTES-1 (simulator of large thermal energy systems). [For CDC 6600  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

SOLTES simulates the steady-state response of thermal energy systems to time-varying data such as weather and loads. Thermal energy system models of both simple and complex systems can easily be modularly constructed from a library of routines. These routines mathematically model solar collectors, pumps, switches, thermal energy storage, thermal boilers, auxiliary boilers, heat exchangers, extraction turbines, extraction turbine/generators, condensers, regenerative heaters, air conditioners, heating and cooling of buildings, process vapor, etc.; SOLTES also allows user-supplied routines. The analyst need only specify fluid names to obtain readout of property data for heat-transfer fluids and constants that characterize power-cycle working fluids from a fluid property data bank. A load management capability allows SOLTES to simulate total energy systems that simultaneously follow heat and power loads and demands. Generalized energy accounting is available, and values for system performance parameters may be automatically determined by SOLTES. Because of its modularity and flexibility, SOLTES can be used to simulate a wide variety of thermal energy systems such as solar power/total energy, fossil fuel power plants/total energy, nuclear power plants/total energy, solar energy heating and cooling, geothermal energy, and solar hot water heaters.

Fewell, M.E.; Grandjean, N.R.; Dunn, J.C.; Edenburn, M.W.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Review of thermally regenerative electrochemical systems. Volume I. Synopsis and executive summary  

SciTech Connect

Thermally regenerative electrochemical systems (TRES) are closed systems that convert heat into electricity in an electrochemical heat engine that is Carnot cycle limited in efficiency. Past and present work on such systems is reviewed. Two broad classes of TRES are based on the types of energy inputs required for regeneration: thermal alone and coupled thermal and electrolytic. The thermal regeneration alone encompasses electrochemical systems (galvanic or fuel cells) in which one or more products are formed. The regeneration can be performed in single or multiple steps. The compounds include metal hydrides, halides, oxides, chalcogenides, and alloys or bimetallic systems. The coupled thermal and electrolytic regeneration encompasses electrochemical systems (galvanic or fuel cells) regenerated by electrolysis at a different temperature or different pressure. Examples include metal halides and water. Thermogalvanic or nonisothermal cells are included in this category. Also included are electrochemical engines in which the working electroactive fluid is isothermally expanded through an electrolyte. TRES cover temperature ranges from about 20/sup 0/C to 1000/sup 0/C. Engines with power outputs of 0.1 mW/cm/sup 2/ to 1 W/cm/sup 2/ have been demonstrated. Recommendations are made of areas of research in science and engineering that would have long-range benefit to a TRES program.

Chum, H. L.; Osteryoung, R. A.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Thermal analysis of a piston cooling system with reciprocating heat pipes  

SciTech Connect

The reciprocating heat pipe is a very promising technology in engine piston cooling, especially for heavy-duty diesel engines. The concept of the reciprocating heat pipe is verified through the experimental observation of a transparent heat pipe and by thermal testing of a copper/water reciprocating heat pipe. A comparative thermal analysis on the reciprocating heat pipe and gallery cooling systems is performed. The approximate analytical results show that the piston ring groove temperature can be significantly reduced using heat pipe cooling technology, which could contribute to an increase in engine thermal efficiency and a reduction in environmental pollution.

Cao, Y.; Wang, Q. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

None

1999-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development - Complete; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work was performed in Phase II and III of the program during the reporting period.

None

2000-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

259

Advanced Thermal Barrier Coating System Development. Technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objectives of the program are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability relative to current state of the art TBC systems. The development of such a coating system is essential to the ATS engine meeting its objectives. The base program consists of three phases: Phase I: Program Planning - Complete; Phase II: Development; and Phase III: Selected Specimen - Bench Test. Work is being performed in Phase II and III of the program.

None

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

260

Thermal Analysis of Refrigeration Systems Used for Vaccine ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... style refrigerator and a freezerless household refrigerator used ... possible that the nature of the cooling system and ... model simply do not cool the side ...

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Design." Atlanta, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, andRefrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Brake horsepower Building Management System Constant air volume Center for Environmental Design

Xu, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

US Department of Energy Solar Thermal Energy Systems Program. An overview presentation, August 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Intended as both a position paper and a progress report to industry, this document provides a comprehensive overview of the US Department of Energy's Solar Thermal Program. Cost goals, systems design parameters, applications considerations, and the potential for industry involvement in solar thermal development and commercialization are described in detail. Decentralized management of R and D functions is linked to priorities and strategies of the evolving program.

Braun, G W

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

NREL's Advanced Thermal Conversion Laboratory at the Center for Buildings and Thermal Systems: On the Cutting-Edge of HVAC and CHP Technology (Revised)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This brochure describes how the unique testing capabilities of NREL's Advanced Thermal Conversion Laboratory at the Center For Buildings and Thermal Systems can help industry meet the challenge of developing the next generation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and combined heat and power (CHP) equipment and concepts.

Not Available

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Engineering and cost analysis of a dry cooling system augmented with a thermal storage pond  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An engineering and cost study of the capacitive thermal storage pond added to a state-of-the-art dry cooling system is described. The purpose of the study was to assess the potential for reducing the cost of all-dry cooling for thermal electric power plants using a dry cooling system that includes a thermal storage pond. Using the modified BNW-I computer code, the effect of varying significant design parameters was investigated. The parametric study included studying the effects of varying turbine type, pond size, replacement energy costing, capacity penalty methodology, pond location with respect to the dry cooling tower, design temperature, and site location (meteorology). Incremental power production costs for dry cooling (i.e., the portion of the cost of bus-bar electricity from the plant which is attributable to the cost of building and operating the heat rejection system) with a thermal storage pond system were determined for meteorologies of both Wyodak, Wyoming and Phoenix, Arizona. For Wyodak the incremental cost of dry cooling with a thermal storage pond was 2.81 mills/kWh as compared to 2.55 mills/kWh for a system without a thermal storage pond. For Phoenix the incremental cost of dry cooling with a thermal storage pond was 3.66 mills/kWh as compared to 4.31 mills/kWh for a system without a thermal storage pond. If the use of a modified conventional turbine with the dry-cooled system is stipulated in order to stay with proven technology for large turbines, then results of this study show that in extremely hot climates the thermal storage pond can reduce the cost of dry cooling. If no cost penalty is assigned to high back pressure turbines and it can be used, then the thermal storage pond has no advantage in hot climates. However, collateral use of the pond for makeup or emergency cooling water storage may decreae the cost. (LCL)

Drost, M.K.; Allemann, R.T.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Advanced thermal barrier coating system development: Technical progress report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objectives are to provide an improved TBC system with increased temperature capability and improved reliability, for the Advanced Turbine Systems program (gas turbine). The base program consists of three phases: Phase I, program planning (complete); Phase II, development; and Phase III (selected specimen-bench test). Work is currently being performed in Phase II.

NONE

1996-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

266

Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

267

EVALUATION OF FLAT-PLATE PHOTOVOLTAIC THERMAL HYBRID SYSTEMS FOR SOLAR ENERGY UTILIZATION.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical and economic attractiveness of combined photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar energy collectors was evaluated. The study was limited to flat-plate collectors since concentrating photovoltaic collectors require active cooling and thus are inherently PV/T collectors, the only decision being whether to use the thermal energy or to dump it. it was also specified at the outset that reduction in required roof area was not to be used as an argument for combining the collection of thermal and electrical energy into one module. Three tests of economic viability were identified, all of which PV/T must pass if it is to be considered a promising alternative: PV/T must prove to be competitive with photovoltaic-only, thermal-only, and side-by-side photovoltaic-plus-thermal collectors and systems. These three tests were applied to systems using low-temperature (unglazed) collectors and to systems using medium-temperature (glazed) collectors in Los Angeles, New York, and Tampa. For photovoltaics, the 1986 DOE cost goals were assumed to have been realized, and for thermal energy collection two technologies were considered: a current technology based on metal and glass, and a future technology based on thin-film plastics. The study showed that for medium-temperature applications PV/T is not an attractive option in any of the locations studied. For low-temperature applications, PV/T appears to be marginally attractive.

ANDREWS,J.W.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

Smith, S.F. (Wendel Engineers, P.C., Buffalo, NY (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This application describes an apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column. 6 figs.

Swerdlow, H.P.; Wittwer, C.T.

1999-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

270

On-line DNA analysis system with rapid thermal cycling  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus particularly suited for subjecting biological samples to any necessary sample preparation tasks, subjecting the sample to rapid thermal cycling, and then subjecting the sample to subsequent on-line analysis using one or more of a number of analytical techniques. The apparatus includes a chromatography device including an injection means, a chromatography pump, and a chromatography column. In addition, the apparatus also contains a capillary electrophoresis device consisting of a capillary electrophoresis column with an inlet and outlet end, a means of injection, and means of applying a high voltage to cause the differential migration of species of interest through the capillary column. Effluent from the liquid chromatography column passes over the inlet end of the capillary electrophoresis column through a tee structure and when the loading of the capillary electrophoresis column is desired, a voltage supply is activated at a precise voltage and polarity over a specific duration to cause sample species to be diverted from the flowing stream to the capillary electrophoresis column. A laser induced fluorescence detector preferably is used to analyze the products separated while in the electrophoresis column.

Swerdlow, Harold P. (Salt Lake City, UT); Wittwer, Carl T. (Salt Lake City, UT)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Feasibility of a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of introducing a hybrid cooling system in a thermal power plant is investigated with an aim to reduce water use with a minimum impact on plant performance. A number of cooling systems have been modelled including existing evaporative ... Keywords: cooling, hybrid cooling, power station, sustainable water consumption

C. R. Williams; M. G. Rasul

2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

ThermOS: system support for dynamic thermal management of chip multi-processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Constraining the temperature of computing systems has become a dominant aspect in the design of integrated circuits. The supply voltage decrease has lost its pace even though the feature size is shrinking constantly. This results in an increased number ... Keywords: CMP, DTM, OS, chip multi-processor, chip-multiprocessor, dynamic thermal management, multi-core, multicore, operating system

Filippo Sironi, Martina Maggio, Riccardo Cattaneo, Giovanni Francesco Del Nero, Donatella Sciuto, Marco Domenico Santambrogio

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Energy-Saving Analysis on Thermal System in 600MW Supercritical Coal-Fired Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-efficiency, energy-saving and environmentally friendly supercritical thermal power units are gradually becoming main stream in China. In this paper, an advanced energy system analysis method, specific consumption analysis, is used to examine the ... Keywords: supercritical, energy-saving, specific consumption analysis, feed-water heating system, environmentally friendly

Yongping Yang; Yu Wu; Zhiping Yang; Ningling Wang; Gang Xu

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Thermal and mechanical development of the East African Rift System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The deep basins, uplifted flanks, and volcanoes of the Western and Kenya rift systems have developed along the western and eastern margins of the 1300 km-wide East African plateau. Structural patterns deduced from field, ...

Ebinger, Cynthia Joan

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Energy Basics: Thermal Storage Systems for Concentrating Solar...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Systems for Concentrating Solar Power One challenge facing the widespread use of solar energy is reduced or curtailed energy production when the sun sets or is blocked by clouds....

276

Concentrated solar thermal (cst) system for fuelwood replacement and for household water sanitation in developing countries.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrated Solar Thermal (CST) is a proven renewable energy technology that harnesses solar irradiation in its most primitive form. This technology with roots in ancient history is growing at a fast pace in recent times. Developing countries could use CST to solve fundamental human-needs challenges, such as for the substitution of fuelwood and the treatment of water for household use. This paper proposes a conceptual design for a standardized modular CST for these applications in developing countries. A modular-designed parabolic CST with an aperture area of 7.5 m2 is adequate to provide enough solar thermal energy to replace the fuelwood need (5 tons/yr) or to pasteurize the minimum daily water requirement (2500 liters) for a household. Critical parameters of the CST are discussed and an affordable solid thermal storage is recommended to be used as a backup when sunlight is unavailable. A funding program that includes in-country resources and external funding will be needed to sustain the development and wide spread adaptation of this technology.

Akinjiola, O. P.; Balachandran, U. (Energy Systems); (Rsage Research, LLC)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Dependence of information entropy of uniform Fermi systems on correlations and thermal effects  

SciTech Connect

The influence of correlations of uniform Fermi systems (nuclear matter, electron gas, and liquid {sup 3}He) on Shannon's information entropy, S, is studied. S is the sum of the information entropies in position and momentum spaces. It is found that, for three different Fermi systems with different particle interactions, the correlated part of S (S{sub cor}) depends on the correlation parameter of the systems or on the discontinuity gap of the momentum distribution through two parameter expressions. The values of the parameters characterize the strength of the correlations. A two parameter expression also holds between S{sub cor} and the mean kinetic energy (K) of the Fermi system. The study of thermal effects on the uncorrelated electron gas leads to a relation between the thermal part of S (S{sub thermal}) and the fundamental quantities of temperature, thermodynamical entropy, and the mean kinetic energy. It is found that, in the case of low temperature limit, the expression connecting S{sub thermal} with K is the same to the one which connects S{sub cor} with K. There are only some small differences on the values of the parameters. Thus, regardless of the reason (correlations or thermal) that changes K, S takes almost the same value.

Moustakidis, Ch.C.; Massen, S.E. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124, Thessaloniki (Greece)

2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Thermal performance assessment of an advanced glazing system  

SciTech Connect

The four different techniques which were used to test an advanced, four-pane glazing system and standard double-glazed unit are described. The results from each test are compared. Where agreement is not good, explanations are suggested. The advanced glazing system was found to have a U-value of 0.9 W/m[sup 2] K and a shading coefficient of 0.48. The glazing simulation models WINDOW (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley, CA, US) and MULTB (Pilkington Glass, U.K.) were used to predict glazing performance. Simulation of the two glazing systems which were experimentally assessed allows comparison between models, and between predicted and measured performance. Agreement was within the error bands associated with each assessment. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Robinson, P. (Architectural Association, London (United Kingdom)); Littler, J. (Univ. of Westminster, London (United Kingdom))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report March 31, 2012 Michael Schuller, Frank Little, Darren Malik, Matt Betts, Qian Shao, Jun Luo, Wan Zhong, Sandhya Shankar, Ashwin Padmanaban The Space Engineering Research Center Texas Engineering Experiment Station Texas A&M University Abstract We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials,

280

Molten salt thermal energy storage systems: system design. [LiKCO/sub 3/ mixture  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A five-task research program aimed at the development of molten salt thermal energy storage systems commenced in June 1976. The first topical report, covering Task 1, the selection of suitable salt systems for storage at 850 to 1000/sup 0/F, was issued in August 1976. It was concluded that a 35 Wt percent Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-65 Wt percent K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ (LiKCO/sub 3/) mixture was most suitable for the purpose. Interrelationships between various design parameters were examined using the available solutions, and an engineering-scale storage unit was designed. This unit has an annular configuration with a 1-ft OD, 1.5-ft high, 2-in. dia heat transfer well. Preliminary experiments on a pilot size (3-in. OD) unit showed that temperature profiles and progress of the solid-liquid interface agreed with those predicted theoretically. Also, no supercooling was observed during cooldown, and the presence of significant convective mixing was indicated by negligible temperature gradients. Use of a lithium aluminate volume-change suppressor was investigated, but it appears to be nonessential because of the low volume-change in the LiKCO/sub 3/ system. Consideration of the relative heat-transfer resistances under practical conditions suggested that the use of a conductivity promoter will enhance the heat-transfer rates, thereby requiring smaller heat-transfer areas. Different configurations and materials were considered for this application; an aluminum wool appears to be most suitable. The corrosion resistance of various construction materials was investigated. Stainless steels and aluminum appear to be suitable construction materials for carbonates in the 850 to 1000/sup 0/F range. Testing of the engineering-scale system (Task 3) and verification of the conclusions derived under Task 2 are in progress.

Maru, H.C.; Kardas, A.; Huang, V.M.; Dullea, J.F.; Paul, L.; Marianowski, L.G.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Use of GTE-65 gas turbine power units in the thermal configuration of steam-gas systems for the refitting of operating thermal electric power plants  

SciTech Connect

Thermal configurations for condensation, district heating, and discharge steam-gas systems (PGU) based on the GTE-65 gas turbine power unit are described. A comparative multivariant analysis of their thermodynamic efficiency is made. Based on some representative examples, it is shown that steam-gas systems with the GTE-65 and boiler-utilizer units can be effectively used and installed in existing main buildings during technical refitting of operating thermal electric power plants.

Lebedev, A. S.; Kovalevskii, V. P. ['Leningradskii Metallicheskii Zavod', branch of JSC 'Silovye mashiny' (Russian Federation); Getmanov, E. A.; Ermaikina, N. A. ['Institut Teploenergoproekt', branch of JSC 'Inzhenernyi tsentr EES' (Russian Federation)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

OSU Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group Citation Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Experimental validation of the simulation module of the water-cooled variable refrigerant flow system under, Y., J. Wu, and S. Shiochi. 2009. Modeling and energy simulation of the variable refrigerant flow air, J., S.Wang, X. Xu, and Y.Chen. 2009. Short time step heat flow calculation of building constructions

283

FY 93 thermal loading systems study final report: Volume 2. Revision 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ability to meet the overall performance requirements for the proposed Mined Geology Disposal System at Yucca Mountain, Nevada requires the two major subsystem (natural barriers and engineered barriers) to positively contribute to containment and radionuclide isolation. In addition to the postclosure performance the proposed repository must meet preclosure requirements of safety, retrievability, and operability. Cost and schedule were also considered. The thermal loading strategy chosen may significantly affect both the postclosure and preclosure performance of the proposed repository. Although the current Site Characterization Plan reference case is 57 kilowatts (kW)/acre, other thermal loading strategies (different areal mass loadings) have been proposed which possess both advantages and disadvantages. The objectives of the FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study were to (1) place bounds on the thermal loading which would establish the loading regime that is ``too hot`` and the loading regime that is ``too cold``, to (2) ``grade`` or evaluate the performance, as a function of thermal loading, of the repository to contain high level wastes against performance criteria and to (3) evaluate the performance of the various options with respect to cost, safety, and operability. Additionally, the effort was to (4) identify important uncertainties that need to be resolved by tests and/or analyses in order to complete a performance assessment on the effects of thermal loading. The FY 1993 Thermal Loading Study was conducted from December 1, 1992 to December 30, 1993 and this final report provides the findings of the study. Volume 2 consists of 10 appendices which contain the following: Waste Stream Analysis; Waste Package Design Inputs; Subsurface Design Inputs; Thermal-Hydrologic Model Inputs; Near-Field Calculations; Far-Field; Reliability of Electronics as a Function of Temperature; Cost Analysis Details; Geochemistry; and Areas of Uncertainty in Thermal Loading.

NONE

1994-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

284

Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

1979-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

285

Thermal Economic Analysis of an Underground Water Source Heat Pump System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The paper presents the thermal economic analysis of an underground water source heat pump system in a high school building based on usage per exergy cost as an evaluation standard, in which the black box model has been used and the cost of underground water has also been considered. The economics of the heat pump and other cooling and heating sources has been compared and then several simple methods to improve the thermal economics of the underground water heat pump system have been put forward.

Zhang, W.; Lin, B.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Ocean thermal energy conversion power system development-I. Phase I. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Power System Development-I (PSD-I), Phase I, study was to develop conceptual and preliminary designs of closed-cycle ammonia power system modules for the 100-MW(e) OTEC Demonstration Plant, the 400-MW(e) Commercial Size Plant, and Heat Exchanger Test Articles representative of the full-size power system module design. Results are presented.

Not Available

1978-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

287

Consumer thermal energy storage costs for residential hot water, space heating and space cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cost of household thermal energy storage (TES) in four utility service areas that are representative for hot water, space heating, and space cooling systems in the United States is presented. There are two major sections of the report: Section 2.0 is a technology characterization of commercially available and developmental/conceptual TES systems; Section 3.0 is an evaluation of the consumer cost of the three TES systems based on typical designs in four utility service areas.

None

1976-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

288

Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar Power Systems Final Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We demonstrated that adding nanoparticles to a molten salt would increase its utility as a thermal energy storage medium for a concentrating solar power system. Specifically, we demonstrated that we could increase the specific heat of nitrate and carbonate salts containing 1% or less of alumina nanoparticles. We fabricated the composite materials using both evaporative and air drying methods. We tested several thermophysical properties of the composite materials, including the specific heat, thermal conductivity, latent heat, and melting point. We also assessed the stability of the composite material with repeated thermal cycling and the effects of adding the nanoparticles on the corrosion of stainless steel by the composite salt. Our results indicate that stable, repeatable 25-50% improvements in specific heat are possible for these materials. We found that using these composite salts as the thermal energy storage material for a concentrating solar thermal power system can reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 10-20%. We conclude that these materials are worth further development and inclusion in future concentrating solar power systems.

Michael Schuller; Frank Little; Darren Malik; Matt Betts; Qian Shao; Jun Luo; Wan Zhong; Sandhya Shankar; Ashwin Padmanaban

2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

289

Summary of comparative results integrated nonthermal treatment and integrated thermal treatment systems studies  

SciTech Connect

In July 1994, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), under a contract from U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environment Management Office of Science and Technology (OST, EM-50) published a report entitled {open_quotes}Integrated Thermal Treatment System Study - Phase 1 Results{close_quotes} (EGG-MS-11211). This report was the culmination of over a year of analysis involving scientists and engineers within the DOE complex and from private industry. The purpose of that study was {open_quotes}to conduct a systematic engineering evaluation of a variety of mixed low level waste (MLLW) treatment system alternatives.{close_quotes} The study also {open_quotes}identified the research and development, demonstrations, and testing and evaluation needed to assure unit operability in the most promising alternative system.{close_quotes} This study evaluated ten primary thermal treatment technologies, organized into complete {open_quotes}cradle-to-grave{close_quotes} systems (including complete engineering flow sheets), to treat DOE MLLW and calculated mass balances and 20-year total life cycle costs (TLCC) for all systems. The waste input used was a representative heterogenous mixture of typical DOE MLLW. An additional study was conducted, and then, based on response to these studies, additional work was started to investigate and evaluate non-thermal treatment options on a footing comparable to the effort devoted to thermal options. This report attempts to present a summary overview of the thermal and non-thermal treatment technologies which were examined in detail in the process of the above mentioned reviews.

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems study: US Department of Energy Internal Review Panel report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to uniformly evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the advice and guidance of the DOE Office of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel, composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994, to review and comment on the ITTS studies, to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low level wastes (MLLW), and to make recommendations on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies on MLLW.

Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generally mushroom-shaped, open cycle OTEC system and distilled water producer which has a skirt-conduit structure extending from the enlarged portion of the mushroom to the ocean. The enlarged part of the mushroom houses a toroidal casing flash evaporator which produces steam which expands through a vertical rotor turbine, partially situated in the center of the blossom portion and partially situated in the mushroom's stem portion. Upon expansion through the turbine, the motive steam enters a shell and tube condenser annularly disposed about the rotor axis and axially situated beneath the turbine in the stem portion. Relatively warm ocean water is circulated up through the radially outer skirt-conduit structure entering the evaporator through a radially outer portion thereof, flashing a portion thereof into motive steam, and draining the unflashed portion from the evaporator through a radially inner skirt-conduit structure. Relatively cold cooling water enters the annular condenser through the radially inner edge and travels radially outwardly into a channel situated along the radially outer edge of the condenser. The channel is also included in the radially inner skirt-conduit structure. The cooling water is segregated from the potable, motive steam condensate which can be used for human consumption or other processes requiring high purity water. The expansion energy of the motive steam is partially converted into rotational mechanical energy of the turbine rotor when the steam is expanded through the shaft attached blades. Such mechanical energy drives a generator also included in the enlarged mushroom portion for producing electrical energy. Such power generation equipment arrangement provides a compact power system from which additional benefits may be obtained by fabricating the enclosing equipment, housings and component casings from low density materials, such as prestressed concrete, to permit those casings and housings to also function as a floating support vessel.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

External Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix G External Dose Estimates from Global Fallout G-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure from the fallout from all of these tests was about 0.7 mSv, about equivalent to 2-3 years of external radiation exposure from natural background. In contrast to the fallout from tests at the Nevada Test site

293

User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Ground state cooling is not possible given initial system-thermal bath factorization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we prove that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption often included in many descriptions of system-bath dynamics. The analogous conclusion holds for 'cooling' to any pure state of the system.

Lian-Ao Wu; Dvira Segal; Paul Brumer

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

295

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride thermal energy storage for space power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Inclusion of thermal energy storage in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. In this mode, waste heat generated during the brief high-power burst operation is placed in the thermal store; later, the heat in the store is dissipated to space via the radiator over the much longer nonoperational period of the orbit. Thus, the radiator required is of significantly smaller capacity. Scoping analysis indicates that use of lithium hydride as the thermal storage medium results in system mass reduction benefits for burst periods as long as 800 s. A candidate design for the thermal energy storage component utilizes lithium hydride encapsulated in either 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Key issues associated with the system design include phase-change induced stresses in the shell, lithium hydride and shell compatibility, lithium hydride dissociation and hydrogen loss from the system, void presence and movement associated with the melt-freeze process, and heat transfer limitations on obtaining the desired energy storage density. 58 refs., 40 figs., 11 tabs.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

A 20-SUN HYBRID PV-THERMAL LINEAR MICRO-CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM FOR URBAN ROOFTOP APPLICATIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

factor satisfies aesthetic demands for general rooftop solar technologies, and is a marked departure fromA 20-SUN HYBRID PV-THERMAL LINEAR MICRO-CONCENTRATOR SYSTEM FOR URBAN ROOFTOP APPLICATIONS D Walter has been developed specifically for urban rooftop environments. The light- weight, low-profile form

297

Study on the Mode of Power Plant Circulating Water Waste Heat Regenerative Thermal System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power Plant Circulating Water (PPCW) waste heat recycling is an important way of increasing a power plant’s primary energy ratio. According to the PPCW waste heat regenerative thermal system, the authors propose two modes of heat pump heat regenerative ... Keywords: heat pump, power plant circulating water (PPCW), waste heat recycling, energy saving

Bi Qingsheng; Ma Yanliang; Yang Zhifu

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Thermal Energy Storage Systems Operation and Control Strategies Under Real Time Pricing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a methodology that was developed for evaluation of operation and control strategies for thermal energy storage (TES) systems under emerging real-time price (RTP) rate structures. The methodology was demonstrated on a prototype office building in two southeastern United States climates.

2004-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

299

INTEGRATING THE DESIGN AND RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF A HYBRID PV-THERMAL MICROCONCENTRATOR SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRATING THE DESIGN AND RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT OF A HYBRID PV-THERMAL MICROCONCENTRATOR SYSTEM M that the materials from the power electronics industry are also reliable when used in a concentrator PV module and reliability testing have been integrated as concurrent processes, enabling the early optimisation

300

COMPARISON OF THERMAL PROPERTIES OF THERMAL BARRIER COATING DEPOSITED ON IN738 USING STANDARD AIR PLASMA SPRAY WITH 100HE PLASMA SPRAY SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

A typical blade material is made of Nickel super alloy and can bear temperatures up to 950°C. But the operating temperature of a gas turbine is above the melting point of super alloy nearly at 1500°C. This could lead to hot corrosions, high temperature oxidation, creep, thermal fatigue may takes place on the blade material. Though the turbine has an internal cooling system, the cooling is not adequate to reduce the temperature of the blade substrate. Therefore to protect the blade material as well as increase the efficiency of the turbine, thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be used. A TBC coating of 250 ?m thick can reduce the temperature by up to 200° C. Air Plasma Spray Process (APS) and High Enthalpy Plasma Spray Process (100HE) were the processes used for coating the blades with the TBCs. Because thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperature, it is desired that these processes yield very low thermal conductivities at high temperatures in order not to damage the blade. An experiment was carried out using Flash line 5000 apparatus to compare the thermal conductivity of both processes.The apparatus could also be used to determine the thermal diffusivity and specific heat of the TBCs. 75 to 2800 K was the temperature range used in the experimentation. It was found out that though 100HE has high deposition efficiency, the thermal conductivity increases with increase in temperatures whiles APS yielded low thermal conductivities.

Uppu, N.; Mensah, P.F.; Ofori, D.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Energy, cost, and CO 2 emission comparison between radiant wall panel systems and radiator systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The main goal of this paper is to evaluate the possibility of application or replacement of radiators with low-temperature radiant panels. This paper shows the comparison results of operations of 4 space heating systems: the low-temperature radiant panel system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WOI), the low-temperature radiant panel system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (PH-WI), the radiator system without any additional thermal insulation of external walls (the classical heating system) (RH-WOI), and the radiator system with additional thermal insulation of external walls (RH-WI). The operation of each system is simulated by software EnergyPlus. The investigation shows that the PH-WI gives the best results. The RH-WOI has the largest energy consumption, and the largest pollutant emission. However, the PH-WI requires the highest investment.

Milorad Boji?; Dragan Cvetkovi?; Marko Mileti?; Jovan Maleševi?; Harry Boyer

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

302

Carbonate fuel cell system with integrated carbon dioxide/thermal management  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Upon successful completion of Phase 1, the Phase 2 activities were initiated in July 1994 to define the stack design and system requirements for a commercial-scale burnerless carbonate fuel cell stack with an integrated carbon dioxide management system. The major goals of this program are to define the stack design and the system requirements of the integrated design. The approach taken was to maximize the similarities of this stack with ERC`s proven baseline stack design and power plant system. Recent accomplishments include a detailed stack design which retains all the essential elements of the baseline stack as well as the power plant system designs. All the auxiliary hardware and external flow patterns remain unchanged, only the internal flow configurations are modified.

Paetsch, L.; Ding, J.; Hunt, J.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

303

Applications of IR Thermography in Capturing Thermal Transients and Other High-Speed Thermal Events  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The high-speed, snap-shot mode, and the external triggering capability of an IR camera allows thermal transients to be captured. These advanced features were used to capture thermal transients during electrical breakdown of ZnO varistors and to freeze the rotation of an automobile disk brake in order to study thermoplastic instability in the braking system. The IR camera also showed the thermoplastic effect during cyclic fatigue testing of a glass matrix composite.

Dinwiddie, R.B.; Graham, S.; Wang, H.

1999-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

304

Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System, Phase 1. CDRL Item 10. Final technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of analysis and design efforts by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company (MDAC), Rocketdyne, Stearns-Roger, Inc., Sheldahl, Inc., and the University of Houston between 1 July 1975 and 30 June 1977 are summarized. This is the Final Technical Progress Report published on the Phase 1 Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System contract. Historical summaries and final selection of 10-MWe pilot plant and 100-MWe commercial systems are presented, with emphasis on the collector field characteristics, overall system performance, selection of steam/feedwater operating conditions, and rationale for system and subsystem selection. The commercial and pilot plant designs, as well as the subsystem research experiment activities for the collector, receiver, and thermal storage subsystems are presented, including a historical summary, design summary, and a description of the overall SRE test program and major test results for each of the subsystems.

Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

1978-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

A thermal energy storage system for adsorbent low-pressure natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Thermal energy storage (TES) was previously demonstrated to be a potentially promising technique to mitigate heat effects associated with low-pressure carbon adsorption systems for natural gas storage. Further investigations were conducted to develop information for the design of an optimized adsorption system that incorporates TES heat management. The selection of appropriate phase-change materials and nucleating agents, encapsulant materials, and corrosion inhibitors for a TES heat management system are discussed and the results of extended thermal cyclic behavior are presented. Engineering analyses and finite element analyses are employed to calculate adsorption rates, heat generation, temperatures, and heat transfer within the adsorbent bed. The size, volume, and arrangement of components for an operational TES system designed to accommodate fast-fill within a defined time limit is presented.

Jasionowski, W.J.; Kountz, K.J.; Blazek, C.F.; Tiller, A.J. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Gauthier, S.W.; Takagishi, S.K. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

A thermal energy storage system for adsorbent low-pressure natural gas storage  

SciTech Connect

Carbon-based adsorbents were determined to be the best enhanced storage media that would store more natural gas at low pressures than achieved with compression only. Thermal energy storage (TES) was previously demonstrated to be a potentially promising technique to mitigate heat effects associated with low-pressure carbon adsorption systems for natural gas storage. Further investigations were conducted to develop information for the design of an optimized adsorption system that incorporates TES heat management. The selection of appropriate phase-change materials and nucleating agents, encapsulant materials, and corrosion inhibitors for a TES heat management system are discussed and the results of extended thermal cyclic behavior are presented. Engineering analyses and finite element analyses are employed to calculate adsorption rates, heat generation, temperatures, and heat transfer within the adsorbent bed. The size, volume, and arrangement of components for an operational TES system designed to accommodate fast-fill within a defined time limit is presented.

Blazek, C.F.; Jasionowski, W.J.; Kountz, K.J.; Tiller, A.J. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Gauthier, S.W.; Takagishi, S.K. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

307

Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research  

SciTech Connect

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, building diagnostics, and research utilization and technology transfer. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) progress report for DOE Office of Buildings Energy Research  

SciTech Connect

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Building thermal envelope systems and materials (BTESM) monthly progress report for DOE Office Buildings Energy Research  

SciTech Connect

The Monthly Report of the Building Thermal Envelope Systems and Materials (BTESM) Program is a monthly update of both in-house ORNL projects and subcontract activities in the research areas of building materials, wall systems, foundations, roofs, and building diagnostics. Presentations are not stand-alone paragraphs every month. Their principal values are the short-time lapse between accomplishment and reporting and their evolution over a period of several months.

Burn, G. (comp.)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Advanced Thermal Storage System with Novel Molten Salt: December 8, 2011 - April 30, 2013  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Final technical progress report of Halotechnics Subcontract No. NEU-2-11979-01. Halotechnics has demonstrated an advanced thermal energy storage system with a novel molten salt operating at 700 degrees C. The molten salt and storage system will enable the use of advanced power cycles such as supercritical steam and supercritical carbon dioxide in next generation CSP plants. The salt consists of low cost, earth abundant materials.

Jonemann, M.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

System for thermal energy storage, space heating and cooling and power conversion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An integrated system for storing thermal energy, for space heating and cong and for power conversion is described which utilizes the reversible thermal decomposition characteristics of two hydrides having different decomposition pressures at the same temperature for energy storage and space conditioning and the expansion of high-pressure hydrogen for power conversion. The system consists of a plurality of reaction vessels, at least one containing each of the different hydrides, three loops of circulating heat transfer fluid which can be selectively coupled to the vessels for supplying the heat of decomposition from any appropriate source of thermal energy from the outside ambient environment or from the spaces to be cooled and for removing the heat of reaction to the outside ambient environment or to the spaces to be heated, and a hydrogen loop for directing the flow of hydrogen gas between the vessels. When used for power conversion, at least two vessels contain the same hydride and the hydrogen loop contains an expansion engine. The system is particularly suitable for the utilization of thermal energy supplied by solar collectors and concentrators, but may be used with any source of heat, including a source of low-grade heat.

Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); Fields, Paul R. (Chicago, IL)

1981-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

312

Hanford External Dosimetry Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Fix, J.J.

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Analyzing the Effects of Climate and Thermal Configuration on Community Energy Storage Systems (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Community energy storage (CES) has been proposed to mitigate the high variation in output from renewable sources and reduce peak load on the electrical grid. Thousands of these systems may be distributed around the grid to provide benefits to local distribution circuits and to the grid as a whole when aggregated. CES must be low cost to purchase and install and also largely maintenance free through more than 10 years of service life to be acceptable to most utilities.Achieving the required system life time is a major uncertainty for lithium-ion batteries. The lifetime and immediate system performance of batteries can change drastically with battery temperature, which is a strong function of system packaging, local climate, electrical duty cycle, and other factors. In other Li-ion applications, this problem is solved via air or liquid heating and cooling systems that may need occasional maintenance throughout their service life. CES requires a maintenance-free thermal management system providing protection from environmental conditions while rejecting heat from a moderate electrical duty cycle. Thus, the development of an effective, low-cost, zero-maintenance thermal management system poses a challenge critical to the success of CES. NREL and Southern California Edison have collaborated to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of various CES thermal configurations in multiple climates by building a model of CES based on collected test data, integrating it with an NREL-developed Li-ion degradation model, and applying CES electrical duty cycles and historic location-specific meteorological data to forecast battery thermal response and degradation through a 10-year service life.

Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.; Coleman, D.; Chen, D.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

The Moana geothermal system in Reno, Nevada: A hydrologic, geochemical, and thermal analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Moana geothermal systems, located in Reno, Nevada, is a moderate-temperature geothermal resource used for space heating applications. Both historic and new hydrologic, thermal, and groundwater chemistry data were collected to evaluate the Moana system and to develop a calibrated numerical model of the geothermal aquifer for investigation of resource development scenarios. The new data collection consisted of static water level measurements and temperature with depth measurements for a 13-month period at 26 geothermal wells to investigate hydrologic and thermal changes with time. In addition, groundwater chemistry sampling at 10 wells was used to evaluate mixing of thermal and nonthermal waters. Collected information indicates that in the most heavily used portion of the geothermal aquifer, the hydraulic heads have declined. This decline may induce additional leakage of cooler water from the overlying unconfined aquifer and lead to decreased temperatures at well locations in the geothermal aquifer. The groundwater chemistry data show concentration changes with temperature for boron, chloride, fluoride, lithium, and bicarbonate that are a function of the degree of mixing of thermal and nonthermal waters. Temporal changes in these constituents may be used as an indication of relative temperature changes in the geothermal system caused by mixing at a given location. An attempt was made to use the hydraulic head and maximum temperature data to develop a calibrated numerical model for the Moana geothermal system. However, lack of information about the horizontal and vertical thermal and fluid fluxes made the development of a calibrated model not possible at this time. 25 refs., 54 figs., 6 tabs.

Jacobson, E.A.; Johnston, J.W.

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Thermal and lighting performance of toplighting systems in the hot and humid climate of Thailand  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This study evaluated the potential of toplighting systems in the hot and humid tropics by using Bangkok, Thailand (latitude 13.7�°N) as a test location. The analysis tested both the thermal and lighting performance of three toplighting systems. Toplighting, designed for use in one-story buildings or on the top floor of taller buildings, yields a uniformly distributed light throughout a space. However, in lower latitude locations, where there is no heating period, heat gain is a critical design issue since it significantly affects the annual energy consumption of the building. Accordingly, the decision to use toplighting in these locations needs to be carefully examined before any design considerations occur. In this study, the thermal and lighting performance of three toplighting systems were compared. For the thermal performance, total cooling loads, heat gains and losses, and interior temperature were evaluated. The lighting performance parameters examined were daylight factor, illuminance level, light distribution, and uniformity. EnergyPlus was used as the thermal analysis tool, and RADIANCE, along with a physical scale model, was used as the lighting performance analysis tool. The sky conditions tested were overcast, clear sky, and intermediate sky. Results have shown that, for locations with hot and humid climates with variable sky conditions such as Bangkok, Thailand, the roof monitors perform better than the other two systems in terms of the thermal and lighting performance. With similar cooling loads, the roof monitor provides better illuminance uniformity than the skylights and lightscoops, with adequate illuminance level (at mostly higher than 500 lux).

Harntaweewongsa, Siritip

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Environmental assessment of the potential effects of aquifer thermal energy storage systems on microorganisms in groundwater  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the potential environmental effects (both adverse and beneficials) of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) technology pertaining to microbial communities indigenous to subsurface environments (i.e., aquifers) and the propagation, movement, and potential release of pathogenic microorganisms (specifically, Legionella) within ATES systems. Seasonal storage of thermal energy in aquifers shows great promise to reduce peak demand; reduce electric utility load problems; contribute to establishing favorable economics for district heating and cooling systems; and reduce pollution from extraction, refining, and combustion of fossil fuels. However, concerns that the widespread implementation of this technology may have adverse effects on biological systems indigeneous to aquifers, as well as help to propagate and release pathogenic organisms that enter thee environments need to be resolved. 101 refs., 2 tabs.

Hicks, R.J.; Stewart, D.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator  

SciTech Connect

A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

Xu, Guoying [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, 210096 Nanjing (China); Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Deng, Shiming [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China); Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, 210096 Nanjing (China)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Exchangers,” Applied Thermal Engineering, 25 (1), pp.Raad P. E. , 2008, “Thermal Challenges in Next-GenerationAssessment of High-Heat-Flux Thermal Management Schemes,”

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF BUILDINGS AND BUILDING ENVELOPE SYSTEMS: AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in predicting dynamic thermal performance by the admittancea lumped parameter thermal analog model for dynamic ther-5 Presented at the DOE/ASTM Thermal Insulation Conference,

Carroll, William L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

2009, “Solar Thermal Power Plants,” The European PhysicalThermal Energy Storage for Parabolic Trough Power Plants,”fuel based power plants, and most nuclear and solar thermal

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Review on Sustainable thermal Energy Storage Technologies,D. , 2009, “Review on Thermal Energy Storage with PhaseW. , 2002, “Survey of Thermal Energy Storage for Parabolic

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Solar Thermal Small Power Systems Study. Inventory of US industrial small electric power generating systems. [Less than 10 MW  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This inventory of small industrial electric generating systems was assembled by The Aerospace Corporation to provide a data base for analyses being conducted to estimate the potential for displacement of these fossil-fueled systems by solar thermal electric systems no larger than 10 MW in rated capacity. The approximately 2100 megawatts generating capacity of systems in this category constitutes a potential market for small solar thermal and other solar electric power systems. The sources of data for this inventory were the (former) Federal Power Commission (FPC) Form 4 Industrial Ledger and Form 12-C Ledger for 1976. Table 1 alphabetically lists generating systems located at industrial plants and at Federal government installations in each of the 50 states. These systems are differentiated by type of power plant: steam turbine, diesel generator, or gas turbine. Each listing is designated as a power system rather than a power unit because the FPC Ledgers do not provide a means of determining whether more than one unit is associated with each industrial installation. Hence, the user should consider each listing to be a system capacity rating wherein the system may consist of one or more generating units with less than 10 MW/sub e/ combined rating. (WHK)

Not Available

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications. Volume II. Analysis of thermal energy production costs for systems from 50 to 600 MWt  

SciTech Connect

A comparative analysis of solar thermal concepts that are potentially suitable for development as large process heat systems (50 to 600 MWt) was performed. The concepts considered can be classified into three categories based on the type of solar tracking used by the collector: (1) two-axis tracking, in which concentrators track the sun's motion in both azimuth and altitude; (2) one-axis tracking, in which concentrators track changes in either azimuth or altitude; and (3) non-tracking, in which the concentrators are fixed. Seven generic types of collectors were considered. Conceptual designs developed for the seven systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts.

Bird, S.P.; Apley, W.J.; Barnhart, J.S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Assessment of generic solar thermal systems for large power applications. Volume II. Analysis of thermal energy production costs for systems from 50 to 600 MWt  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative analysis of solar thermal concepts that are potentially suitable for development as large process heat systems (50 to 600 MWt) was performed. The concepts considered can be classified into three categories based on the type of solar tracking used by the collector: (1) two-axis tracking, in which concentrators track the sun's motion in both azimuth and altitude; (2) one-axis tracking, in which concentrators track changes in either azimuth or altitude; and (3) non-tracking, in which the concentrators are fixed. Seven generic types of collectors were considered. Conceptual designs developed for the seven systems were based on common assumptions of available technology in the 1990 to 2000 time frame. Costs were estimated on the basis of identical assumptions, ground rules, methodologies, and unit costs of materials and labor applied uniformly to all of the concepts.

Bird, S.P.; Apley, W.J.; Barnhart, J.S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.; Fort, J.A.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Control of External Documents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

2 Control of External Documents Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 5 2 Control of External Documents Process 11_0304 Page 1 of 5 EOTA - Business Process Document Title: Control of External Documents Process Document Number P-002 Rev 11_0304 Document Owner: Elizabeth Sousa Backup Owner: Melissa Otero Approver(s): Melissa Otero Parent Document: Q-001, Quality Manual Notify of Changes: EOTA Employees Referenced Document(s): REG-002, External Document Register P-002 Control of External Documents Process 11_0304 Page 2 of 5 Revision History: Rev. Description of Change A Initial Release 11_0304 Changed revision format from alpha character to numbers; modified process to include a step directing addition to REG-002 External Document Register and changed verbiage to clarify and more accurately reflect current process.

326

Methods of valuing environmental externalities  

SciTech Connect

Estimating a monetary value for environmental externalities provides an approximation of the societal value of reducing impacts on human health and the environment from electrical energy supply. This method can be used for comparison of resources, including utility and nonutility generation, demand-side management and off-system power purchases. A dollar estimate of the full societal cost of the supply option is established by placing a value on its air, water and terrestrial effects and adding these costs to the option's capital, operating and maintenance costs. This article provides a rationale for monetizing externalities and addresses the strengths and weaknesses of four techniques for monetizing, with examples of the application of each method. The authors preferred technique for incorporating externalities into utility planning in the near term - implied valuation through the estimation of the marginal cost of abatement - is discussed in detail. 2 tabs.

Chernick, P.; Caverhill, E. (Resource Insight, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

PETSc: External Software  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External Software External Software Home Download Features Documentation Applications/Publications Miscellaneous External Software Developers Site PETSc interfaces to the following optional external software (installing packages) (manual pages): ADIFOR - automatic differentiation for the computation of sparse Jacobians. AMD - Approximate minimum degree orderings. AnaMod - a library of matrix analysis modules; part of the Salsa project. BLAS and LAPACK Chaco - a graph partitioning package. ESSL - IBM's math library for fast sparse direct LU factorization. Euclid - parallel ILU(k) developed by David Hysom, accessed through the Hypre interface. FFTW - Fastest Fourier Transform in the West, developed at MIT by Matteo Frigo and Steven G. Johnson. Hypre - the LLNL preconditioner library.

328

Economic analysis of community solar heating systems that use annual cycle thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economics of community-scale solar systems that incorporate a centralized annual cycle thermal energy storage (ACTES) coupled to a distribution system is examined. Systems were sized for three housing configurations: single-unit dwellings, 10-unit, and 200-unit apartment complexes in 50-, 200-, 400-, and 1000-unit communities in 10 geographic locations in the United States. Thermal energy is stored in large, constructed, underground tanks. Costs were assigned to each component of every system in order to allow calculation of total costs. Results are presented as normalized system costs per unit of heat delivered per building unit. These methods allow: (1) identification of the relative importance of each system component in the overall cost; and (2) identification of the key variables that determine the optimum sizing of a district solar heating system. In more northerly locations, collectors are a larger component of cost. In southern locations, distribution networks are a larger proportion of total cost. Larger, more compact buildings are, in general, less expensive to heat. For the two smaller-scale building configurations, a broad minima in total costs versus system size is often observed.

Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.; Hooper, F.C.; McClenahan, J.D.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

10 MWe solar thermal central receiver pilot plant control system automation test report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes results of tests on the automatic features added to the control system for the 10 MWe Solar Thermal Central Receiver Pilot Plant located near Barstow, CA. The plant, called Solar One, is a cooperative activity between the Department of Energy and the Associates: Southern California Edison, the Los Angeles Dept. of Water and Power and the California Energy Commission. This report provides an overview of the automation features added to the plant control system, a description of tests performed on the system, and the results of those tests.

Not Available

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown disposal. Membrane treatment (nanofiltration or reverse osmosis) can be employed to reduce TDS and sulfate concentrations to acceptable levels for reuse of the blowdown in the cooling systems as makeup water.

Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

2009-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

331

Algebraic Turbulent Heat Flux Model for Prediction of Thermal Stratification in Piping Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Special Issue on the 14th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics (NURETH-14) / Thermal Hydraulics

M. Pellegrini; H. Endo; E. Merzari; H. Ninokata

332

REED BESLER BOILER HIGH PRESSURE STEAM SYSTEM AND THERMAL CYCLING FACILITY. Summary Report  

SciTech Connect

A high pressure boiler has been installed at ORNL. This Besler boiler is capabie of producing from 150 to 2000 psi saturated steam at steaming rates up to 5000 lbs/hr. The boiler is part of a water-steam circuit whteh also includes two spray water pumps, a steam pressure control valve, a high pressure trapping station, and a low pressure deaerated feedwater system. The new boiler system is piped and instrumented to serve as a thermal cycling facility. Shakedown test thermal cycles to requirements set forth in HRT Specification 1113a have been conducted using the existing Dump Test Autoclave as a test piece. Fourty-four cycles have been run through mid February, 1958. The boiler has been operated a total of 142 hours. Cycles are run completely automatically. Better than three- fourths of the cycles as run fall within the specification prescribed limits. (auth)

Holz, P.P.

1958-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

333

Application of field-modulated generator systems to dispersed solar thermal electric generation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A Parabolic Dish-Electric Transport concept for dispersed solar thermal generation is considered. In this concept the power generated by 15 kWe Solar Generation Units is electrically collected in a large plant. Various approaches are possible for the conversion of mechanical shaft output of the heat engines to electricity. This study focuses on the Application of Field Modulated Generation System (FMGS) for that purpose. Initially the state-of-the-art of FMGS is presented, and the application of FMGS to dispersed solar thermal electric generation is investigated. This is followed by the definition of the control and monitoring requirements for solar generation system. Then comparison is made between FMGS approach and other options. Finally, the technology developmental needs are identified.

Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

1979-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

334

Dish/Stirling systems: Overview of an emerging commercial solar thermal electric technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Dish/Stirling is a solar thermal electric technology which couples parabolic, point-focusing solar collectors and heat engines which employ the Stirling thermodynamic cycle. Since the late 1970s, the development of Dish/Stirling systems intended for commercial use has been in progress in Germany, Japan, and the US. In the next several years it is expected that one or more commercial systems will enter the market place. This paper provides a general overview of this emerging technology, including: a description of the fundamental principles of operation of Dish/Stirling systems; a presentation of the major components of the systems (concentrator, receiver, engine/alternator, and controls); an overview of the actual systems under development around the world, with a discussion of some of the technical issues and challenges facing the Dish/Stirling developers. A brief discussion is also presented of potential applications for small Dish/Stirling systems in northern Mexico.

Strachan, J.W.; Diver, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Estrada, C. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Spain)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Interaction of a solar space heating system with the thermal behavior of a building  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal behavior of a building in response to heat input from an active solar space heating system is analyzed to determine the effect of the variable storage tank temperature on the cycling rate, on-time, and off-time of a heating cycle and on the comfort characteristics of room air temperature swing and of offset of the average air temperature from the setpoint (droop). A simple model of a residential building, a fan coil heat-delivery system, and a bimetal thermostat are used to describe the system. A computer simulation of the system behavior has been developed and verified by comparisons with predictions from previous studies. The system model and simulation are then applied to determine the building response to a typical hydronic solar heating system for different solar storage temperatures, outdoor temperatures, and fan coil sizes. The simulations were run only for those cases where there was sufficient energy from storage to meet the building load requirements.

Vilmer, C.; Warren, M.L.; Auslander, D.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Central receiver solar thermal system. Phase 1, CDRL item 10. Second quarterly technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results of analysis and design efforts are summarized. This is the second quarterly technical progress report published on the Phase 1 Central Receiver Solar Thermal Power System contract. The dominant activities during the reporting period have involved the detailed definition of the subsystem research experiments and the design of the test articles and test facilities. Summaries of these activities are presented. Design changes to the 10-MWe pilot plant preliminary design baseline which have occurred during the report period are also described.

Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

1976-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

MAAP5 BWR Primary System Thermal-Hydraulics Model Enhancement Description  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes proposed enhancements to the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) reactor coolant system (RCS) thermal-hydraulics model for BWRs. MAAP is an EPRI-owned and -licensed computer program that simulates the operation of light water moderated nuclear power plants for both current and advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs.EPRI introduced a new RCS model for PWRs in MAAP version 5.00. The new PWR RCS model includes mechanistic calculation of gas and water flows ...

2013-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

338

Evaluation of diurnal thermal energy storage combined with cogeneration systems. Phase 2  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a study of thermal energy storage (TES) systems integrated with combined-cycle gas turbine cogeneration systems. Integrating thermal energy storage with conventional cogeneration equipment increases the initial cost of the combined system; but, by decoupling electric power and process heat production, the system offers two significant advantages. First, electric power can be generated on demand, irrespective of the process heat load profile, thus increasing the value of the power produced. Second, although supplementary firing could be used to serve independently varying electric and process heat loads, this approach is inefficient. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the two independent loads while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. An earlier study analyzed TES integrated with a simple-cycle cogeneration system. This follow-on study evaluated the cost of power produced by a combined-cycle electric power plant (CC), a combined-cycle cogeneration plant (CC/Cogen), and a combined-cycle cogeneration plant integrated with thermal energy storage (CC/TES/Cogen). Each of these three systems was designed to serve a fixed (24 hr/day) process steam load. The value of producing electricity was set at the levelized cost for a CC plant, while the value of the process steam was for a conventional stand-alone boiler. The results presented here compared the costs for CC/TES/Cogen system with those of the CC and the CC/Cogen plants. They indicate relatively poor economic prospects for integrating TES with a combined-cycle cogeneration power plant for the assumed designs. The major reason is the extremely close approach temperatures at the storage media heaters, which makes the heaters large and therefore expensive.

Somasundaram, S.; Brown, D.R.; Drost, M.K.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

External Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix E External Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout E-1 #12;External Radiation Exposure as the dependence on fallout time of arrival. The most exposed individuals were outdoor workers; the least exposed was about a factor of 20 less than that from "global fallout" from high- yield weapons tests carried out

340

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse has completed the Preliminary Design Phase for the Power System Development of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Demonstration Plant project. This study included the development of a preliminary design for a Modular Application scaled power system (10MWe) and Heat Exchanger Test Articles, both based on the concept developed in the Conceptual Design Phase. The results of this study were used to improve the baseline design of the 50MWe module for the Commercial Size Power System, which was recommended for the demonstration plant by the conceptual design study. The 50MWe module was selected since it has the lowest cost, and since its size convincingly demonstrates that future economically viable commercial plants, having reliable operation with credible anticipated costs, are possible. Additional optimization studies on the size of the power system plus hull continue to identify 50MWe as the preferred minimum cost configuration. This study was limited to a closed cycle ammonia power system module, using a seawater temperature difference of 40/sup 0/F, and a surface platform/ship reference hull. This volume describes system operation, a complete test program to verify mechanical reliability and thermal performance, fabrication and installation operations, and a cost analysis. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Application of Functional Link Neural Network to HVAC Thermal Dynamic System Identification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract — Recent efforts to incorporate aspects of artificial intelligence into the design and operation of automatic control systems have focused attention on techniques such as fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, and expert systems. The use of computers for direct digital control highlights the recent trend toward more effective and efficient heating, ventilating, and airconditioning (HVAC) control methodologies. Researchers in the HVAC field have stressed the importance of self learning in building control systems and have encouraged further studies in the integration of optimal control and other advanced techniques into the formulation of such systems. Artificial neural networks can also be used to emulate the plant dynamics, in order to estimate future plant outputs and obtain plant input/output sensitivity information for on-line neural control adaptation. This paper describes a functional link neural network approach to performing the HVAC thermal dynamic system identification. Methodologies to reduce inputs of the functional link network to reduce the complexity and speed up the training speed will be presented. Analysis and comparison between the functional link network approach and the conventional network approach for the HVAC thermal modeling will also be presented. Index Terms—Functional link, HVAC, intelligent control, neural network, system identification.

Jason Teeter; Mo-yuen Chow; Senior Member

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Final Report: Development of a Thermal and Water Management System for PEM Fuel Cell  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This final program report is prepared to provide the status of program activities performed over the period of 9 years to develop a thermal and water management (TWM) system for an 80-kW PEM fuel cell power system. The technical information and data collected during this period are presented in chronological order by each calendar year. Balance of plant (BOP) components of a PEM fuel cell automotive system represents a significant portion of total cost based on the 2008 study by TIAX LLC, Cambridge, MA. The objectives of this TWM program were two-fold. The first objective was to develop an advanced cooling system (efficient radiator) to meet the fuel cell cooling requirements. The heat generated by the fuel cell stack is a low-quality heat (small difference between fuel cell stack operating temperature and ambient air temperature) that needs to be dissipated to the ambient air. To minimize size, weight, and cost of the radiator, advanced fin configurations were evaluated. The second objective was to evaluate air humidification systems which can meet the fuel cell stack inlet air humidity requirements. The moisture from the fuel cell outlet air is transferred to inlet air, thus eliminating the need for an outside water source. Two types of humidification devices were down-selected: one based on membrane and the other based on rotating enthalpy wheel. The sub-scale units for both of these devices have been successfully tested by the suppliers. This project addresses System Thermal and Water Management.

Zia Mirza, Program Manager

2011-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

343

Quality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

an auxiliary heater supplies the consumers with warm water even in the case of failures. In order to assureQuality assurance with the ISFH-Input/Output-Procedure 6-year-experience with 14 solar thermal of standard solar thermal systems usually don't recognise failures affecting the solar yield, because

344

Encapsulated sink-side thermal energy storage for pulsed space power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In sprint mode space applications, which require high power for relatively short durations, energy storage devices may be employed to reduce the size and mass of the thermal management system. This is accomplished by placing the reject heat in the thermal store during the sprint mode. During the remaining nonoperational portion of the orbit the stored heat is dissipated to space. The heat rejection rate is thus reduced, and this results in a smaller radiator being required. Lithium hydride (LiH) has been identfied as the best candidate for use in power system sink-side thermal energy storage applications due to its superior heat storage properties and suitable melt temperature (T/sub m/ = 962K). To maximize storage density, both sensible and latent modes of heat storage are used. This paper focuses on the use of encapsulated lithium hydride shapes in a packed bed storage unit with lithium or NaK as the heat transport fluid. Analytical and experimental development work associated with the concept is described. Since the program is in its early stages, emphasis thus far has been on feasibility issues associated with encapsulating lithium hydride spheres. These issues include shell stress induced by phase-change during heating, hydrogen diffusion through the encapsulating shell, heat transfer limitations due to poor conductivity of the salt, void behavior, and material constraints. The impact of these issues on the design of encapsulated lithium hydride spheres has been evaluated, and design alternatives have been identified for circumventing key problem areas.

Foote, J.P.; Morris, D.G.; Olszewski, M.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report covers the conceptual and preliminary design of closed-cycle, ammonia, ocean thermal energy conversion power plants by Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Preliminary designs for evaporator and condenser test articles (0.13 MWe size) and a 10 MWe modular experiment power system are described. Conceptual designs for 50 MWe power systems, and 100 MWe power plants are also descirbed. Design and cost algorithms were developed, and an optimized power system design at the 50 MWe size was completed. This design was modeled very closely in the test articles and in the 10 MWe Modular Application. Major component and auxiliary system design, materials, biofouling, control response, availability, safety and cost aspects are developed with the greatest emphasis on the 10 MWe Modular Application Power System. It is concluded that all power plant subsystems are state-of-practice and require design verification only, rather than continued research. A complete test program, which verifies the mechanical reliability as well as thermal performance, is recommended and described.

Not Available

1978-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

346

Thermal Study Proposal Sprint/Nextel Shelters With iDEN EBTS Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Race to Failure" Race to Failure" Energy Storage Program Sprint/Nextel Shelters With iDEN ® EBTS Systems Emerson Network Power Paul Misar Director of Wireless Solutions November 3, 2006 2 Emerson Confidential "Race to Failure" Problem Statement  Wireless communication fails rapidly after commercial power loss  Traditional energy storage (batteries) fail after several hours  Failure mode involves rapid build up of heat within wireless shelters and enclosures  Result: Temperature sensitive telecom electronics are forced to thermally shut down prior to depletion of on site energy storage  Solution must address the following at the Telecom Site: - Lack of thermal energy storage (cooling) - Lack of extended DC power back up (batteries) - Leverage existing energy storage at site

347

Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The models results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E.

1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Analysis of annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a project to model the annual thermal and moisture performance of radiant barrier systems installed in residential attics. A previously developed model for the thermal performance of attics with radiant barriers was modified to allow estimates of moisture condensation on the underside of radiant barriers that are laid directly on top of existing attic insulation. The model was partially validated by comparing its predictions of ceiling heat flows and moisture condensation with data and visual observations made during a field experiment with full-size houses near Knoxville, Tennessee. Since the model predictions were found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, the models were used to estimate annual energy savings and moisture accumulation rates for a wide variety of climatic conditions. The model results have been used to identify locations where radiant barriers are cost effective and also where radiant barriers have potential for causing moisture problems. 58 refs., 20 figs., 32 tabs.

Wilkes, K.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

350

Results of a field test of heating system efficiency and thermal distribution system efficiency in a manufactured home  

SciTech Connect

A two-day test using electric coheating was performed on a manufactured home in Watertown, New York. The main objective of the test was to evaluate planned procedures for measuring thermal distribution system efficiency. (Thermal distribution systems are the ductwork or piping used to transport heat or cooling effect from the equipment that produces it to the building spaces in which it is used.) These procedures are under consideration for a standard method of test now being prepared by a special committee of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The ability of a coheating test to give a credible and repeatable value for the overall heating system efficiency was supported by the test data. Distribution efficiency is derived from system efficiency by correcting for energy losses from the equipment. Alternative means for achieving this were tested and assessed. The best value for system efficiency in the Watertown house was 0.53, while the best value for distribution efficiency was 0.72.

Andrews, J.W.; Krajewski, R.F.; Strasser, J.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Kinney, L.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Modeling, design and thermal performance of a BIPV/T system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab in a low energy solar house: Part 1, BIPV/T system and house energy concept  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the first of two papers that describe the modeling, design, and performance assessment based on monitored data of a building-integrated photovoltaic-thermal (BIPV/T) system thermally coupled with a ventilated concrete slab (VCS) in a prefabricated, two-storey detached, low energy solar house. This house, with a design goal of near net-zero annual energy consumption, was constructed in 2007 in Eastman, Quebec, Canada - a cold climate area. Several novel solar technologies are integrated into the house and with passive solar design to reach this goal. An air-based open-loop BIPV/T system produces electricity and collects heat simultaneously. Building-integrated thermal mass is utilized both in passive and active forms. Distributed thermal mass in the direct gain area and relatively large south facing triple-glazed windows (about 9% of floor area) are employed to collect and store passive solar gains. An active thermal energy storage system (TES) stores part of the collected thermal energy from the BIPV/T system, thus reducing the energy consumption of the house ground source heat pump heating system. This paper focuses on the BIPV/T system and the integrated energy concept of the house. Monitored data indicate that the BIPV/T system has a typical efficiency of about 20% for thermal energy collection, and the annual space heating energy consumption of the house is about 5% of the national average. A thermal model of the BIPV/T system suitable for preliminary design and control of the airflow is developed and verified with monitored data. (author)

Chen, Yuxiang; Athienitis, A.K.; Galal, Khaled [Dept. of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, 1455 De Maisonneuve West, EV6.139, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

352

Methods and systems to thermally protect fuel nozzles in combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

A method of assembling a gas turbine engine is provided. The method includes coupling a combustor in flow communication with a compressor such that the combustor receives at least some of the air discharged by the compressor. A fuel nozzle assembly is coupled to the combustor and includes at least one fuel nozzle that includes a plurality of interior surfaces, wherein a thermal barrier coating is applied across at least one of the plurality of interior surfaces to facilitate shielding the interior surfaces from combustion gases.

Helmick, David Andrew; Johnson, Thomas Edward; York, William David; Lacy, Benjamin Paul

2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

353

Development of an integrated heat pipe-thermal storage system for a solar receiver  

SciTech Connect

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) Solar Dynamic Power System (SDPS) is one of the candidates for Space Station prime power application. In the low earth orbit of the Space Station approximately 34 minutes of the 94-minute orbital period is spent in eclipse with no solar energy input to the power system. For this period the SDPS will use thermal energy storage (TES) material to provide a constant power output. Sundstrand Corporation is developing a ORC-SDPS candidate for the Space Station that uses toluene as the organic fluid and LiOH as the TES material. An integrated heat-pipe thermal storage receiver system is being developed as part of the ORC-SDPS solar receiver. This system incorporates potassium heat pipe elements to absorb and transfer the solar energy within the receiver cavity. The heat pipes contain the TES canisters within the potassium vapor space with the toluene heater tube used as the condenser region of the heat pipe. During the insolation period of the earth orbit, solar energy is delivered to the heat pipe in the ORC-SDPS receiver cavity. The heat pipe transforms the non-uniform solar flux incident in the heat pipe surface within the receiver cavity to an essentially uniform flux at the potassium vapor condensation interface in the heat pipe. During solar insolation, part of the thermal energy is delivered to the heater tube and the balance is stored in the TES units. During the eclipse period of the orbit, the balance stored in the TES units is transferred by the potassium vapor to the toluene heater tube. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Keddy, E.S.; Sena, J.T.; Merrigan, M.A.; Heidenreich, G.; Johnson, S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system: A review  

SciTech Connect

The convection heat loss from cavity receiver in parabolic dish solar thermal power system can significantly reduce the efficiency and consequently the cost effectiveness of the system. It is important to assess this heat loss and subsequently improve the thermal performance of the receiver. This paper aims to present a comprehensive review and systematic summarization of the state of the art in the research and progress in this area. The efforts include the convection heat loss mechanism, experimental and numerical investigations on the cavity receivers with varied shapes that have been considered up to date, and the Nusselt number correlations developed for convection heat loss prediction as well as the wind effect. One of the most important features of this paper is that it has covered numerous cavity literatures encountered in various other engineering systems, such as those in electronic cooling devices and buildings. The studies related to those applications may provide valuable information for the solar receiver design, which may otherwise be ignored by a solar system designer. Finally, future development directions and the issues that need to be further investigated are also suggested. It is believed that this comprehensive review will be beneficial to the design, simulation, performance assessment and applications of the solar parabolic dish cavity receivers. (author)

Wu, Shuang-Ying; Xiao, Lan; Li, You-Rong [College of Power Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Cao, Yiding [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

2010-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

355

EMSL: External Peer Reviewers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EXTERNAL PEER REVIEWERS EXTERNAL PEER REVIEWERS Additional Information User Portal 2014 Call for Proposals 2014 Proposal Guidance 2014 Proposal Review Criteria Guidance for Letters of Intent to JGI-EMSL Collaborative Science Call Guidance for Full Proposals to JGI-EMSL Collaborative Science Call (Invited Only) 2014 Proposal Planning 2014 Proposal Summary/Extension Previous Calls External Peer Reviewers Fellowships and Awards Nufo, logo External peer reviewers are valuable contributors to EMSL's user proposals process. They provide objective evaluations of the quality of the proposals according to established review criteria, and participate on Review Panels that calibrate the proposals into a ranked order. EMSL is truly grateful to the researchers who donated their time and efforts in fiscal year 2012 to

356

External Technical Review Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

External Technical Review Report External Technical Review Report March 2010 U U . . S S . . D D e e p p a a r r t t m m e e n n t t o o f f E E n n e e r r g g y y O O f f f f i i c c e e o o f f E E n n v v i i r r o o n n m m e e n n t t a a l l M M a a n n a a g g e e m m e e n n t t External Technical Review (ETR) Process Guide September 2008 U.S. DOE Office of Environmental Management September 2008 External Technical Review Process Guide Page 2 of 37 TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................... 3 1.1 Purpose of Process ............................................................................................................ 3 1.2 Background .........................................................................................................................

357

External Technical Review Report  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This document has been developed to guide individuals and teams who will be involved in External Technical Reviews (ETR) of U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM)...

358

Description of the University of Texas at Arlington Solar Energy Research Facility photovoltaic/thermal residential system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The addition of a photovoltaic array to a solar-heated single-family residence at the University of Texas at Arlington permits the study of combined photovoltaic/thermal system operation. Equipment and construction details are presented.

Darkazalli, G.

1979-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

359

Development and testing of thermal-energy-storage modules for use in active solar heating and cooling systems. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Additional development work on thermal-energy-storage modules for use with active solar heating and cooling systems is summarized. Performance testing, problems, and recommendations are discussed. Installation, operation, and maintenance instructions are included. (MHR)

Parker, J.C.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in thermal energy conversion efficiency over present solarsolar thermal- photovoltaic co-generation scheme could have potentially very high solar-to-electric efficiency.solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies are attained and no thermal

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Thermal stability of nano-structured selective emitters for thermophotovoltaic systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A fundamental challenge in solar-thermal-electrical energy conversion is the thermal stability of materials and devices at high operational temperatures. This study focuses on the thermal stability of tungsten selective ...

Lee, Heon Ju, 1977-

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

The design, construction, and monitoring of photovoltaic power system and solar thermal system on the Georgia Institute of Technology Aquatic Center. Volume 1  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is a report on the feasibility study, design, and construction of a PV and solar thermal system for the Georgia Tech Aquatic Center. The topics of the report include a discussion of site selection and system selection, funding, design alternatives, PV module selection, final design, and project costs. Included are appendices describing the solar thermal system, the SAC entrance canopy PV mockup, and the PV feasibility study.

Long, R.C.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

363

External Science Review Report of the External Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 External Science Review Report of the External Science Review Committee The Nature Conservancy and Design: Lee Meinicke Jonathan Adams Design and Layout: Naomi Nickerson #12;3 External Science Review............................................................................................................................... 10 The Challenge of Changing Conservation and Changing Science

Power, Mary Eleanor

364

Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Proc. ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC/CIBSE Thermal Performance of theProc. ASHRAE/DOE/BTECC/CIBSE Thermal Performance of the

Walker, Iain; Sherman, M.; Siegel, J.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

R. a. , 2012, “Molecular Solar Thermal (MOST) Energy Storageand Nocera D. G. , 2010, “Solar Energy Supply and Storage20] Kalogirou S. a. , 2004, “Solar Thermal Collectors and

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Field Study Of A Radiant Heating System For Sleep Thermal Comfort And Potential Energy Saving.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??As sleep is unconscious, the traditional definition of thermal comfort with conscious judgment does not apply. In this thesis sleep thermal comfort is defined as… (more)

Wang, Christopher L. K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Stochastic Lagrangian relaxation applied to power scheduling in a hydro-thermal system under uncertainty  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A dynamic (multi-stage) stochastic programming model for the weekly cost-optimal generation of electric power in a hydro-thermal generation system under uncertain load is developed. The model involves a large number of mixed-integer (stochastic) decision variables and constraints linking time periods and operating power units. Astochastic Lagrangian relaxation scheme is designed by assigning (stochastic) multipliers to all constraints coupling power units. It is assumed that the stochastic load process is given (or approximated) by a nite number of realizations (scenarios) in scenario tree form. Solving the dual by a bundle subgradient method leads to a successive decomposition into stochastic single (thermal or hydro) unit subproblems. The stochastic thermal and hydro subproblems are solved by astochastic dynamic programming technique and by a speci c descent algorithm, respectively. A Lagrangian heuristics that provides approximate solutions for the rst stage (primal) decisions starting from the optimal (stochastic) multipliers is developed. Numerical results are presented for realistic data from a German power utility andfornumbers of scenarios ranging from 5 to 100 and a time horizon from 7 to 9 days. The sizes of the corresponding optimization problems go up to 200.000 binary and 350.000 continuous variables, and more than 500.000 constraints.

M. P. Nowak; W. Römisch

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Lead Coolant Test Facility Systems Design, Thermal Hydraulic Analysis and Cost Estimate  

SciTech Connect

The Idaho National Laboratory prepared a preliminary technical and functional requirements (T&FR), thermal hydraulic design and cost estimate for a lead coolant test facility. The purpose of this small scale facility is to simulate lead coolant fast reactor (LFR) coolant flow in an open lattice geometry core using seven electrical rods and liquid lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. Based on review of current world lead or lead-bismuth test facilities and research needs listed in the Generation IV Roadmap, five broad areas of requirements were identified as listed: (1) Develop and Demonstrate Feasibility of Submerged Heat Exchanger; (2) Develop and Demonstrate Open-lattice Flow in Electrically Heated Core; (3) Develop and Demonstrate Chemistry Control; (4) Demonstrate Safe Operation; and (5) Provision for Future Testing. This paper discusses the preliminary design of systems, thermal hydraulic analysis, and simplified cost estimate. The facility thermal hydraulic design is based on the maximum simulated core power using seven electrical heater rods of 420 kW; average linear heat generation rate of 300 W/cm. The core inlet temperature for liquid lead or Pb/Bi eutectic is 4200 C. The design includes approximately seventy-five data measurements such as pressure, temperature, and flow rates. The preliminary estimated cost of construction of the facility is $3.7M (in 2006 $). It is also estimated that the facility will require two years to be constructed and ready for operation.

Soli Khericha; Edwin Harvego; John Svoboda; Ryan Dalling

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Thermal analysis of heat storage canisters for a solar dynamic, space power system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermal analysis was performed of a thermal energy storage canister of a type suggested for use in a solar receiver for an orbiting Brayton cycle power system. Energy storage for the eclipse portion of the cycle is provided by the latent heat of a eutectic mixture of LiF and CaF/sub 2/ contained in the canister. The chief motivation for the study is the prediction of vapor void effects on temperature profiles and the identification of possible differences between ground test data and projected behavior in microgravity. The first phase of this study is based on a two-dimensional, cylindrical coordinates model using an interim procedure for describing void behavior in 1/minus/g and microgravity. The thermal anaylsis includes the effects of solidification front behavior, conduction in liquid/solid salt and canister materials, void growth and shrinkage, radiant heat transfer across the void, and convection in the melt due to Marangoni-induced flow and, in 1/minus/g, flow due to density gradients. A number of significant differences between 1/minus/g and 0/minus/g behavior were found. These resulted from differences in void location relative to the maximum heat flux and a significantly smaller effective conductance in 0/minus/g due to the absence of gravity-induced convection.

Wichner, R.P.; Solomon, A.D.; Drake, J.B.; Williams, P.T.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Geometrical phase of thermal state in hydrogen atom  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, the geometric phase of thermal state in hydrogen atom under the effects of external magnetic field is considered. Especially the effects of the temperature upon the geometric phase is discussed. Also we discuss the time evolution of entanglement of the system. They show some similar behaviors.

Guo-Qiang Zhu

2006-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

372

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Commercial buildings often have extensive periods where one space needs cooling and another heating. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If a building's heating and cooling system could be integrated with the building's structural mass such that the mass can be used to collect, store, and deliver energy, significant energy might be saved. Computer models were developed to simulate this interaction for an existing office building in Seattle, Washington that has a decentralized water-source heat pump system. Metered data available for the building was used to calibrate a base'' building model (i.e., nonintegrated) prior to simulation of the integrated system. In the simulated integration strategy a secondary water loop was manifolded to the main HVAC hydronic loop. tubing in this loop was embedded in the building's concrete floor slabs. Water was routed to this loop by a controller to charge or discharge thermal energy to and from the slabs. The slabs were also in thermal communication with the conditioned spaces. Parametric studies of the building model, using weather data for five other cities in addition to Seattle, predicted that energy can be saved on cooling dominated days. On hot, dry days and during the night the cooling tower can beneficially be used as a free cooling'' source for thermally charging'' the floor slabs using cooled water. Through the development of an adaptive/predictive control strategy, annual HVAC energy savings as large as 30% appear to be possible in certain climates. 8 refs., 13 figs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Results from a workshop on research needs for modeling aquifer thermal energy storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A workshop an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system modeling was conducted in Seattle, Washington, on November 30 and December 1, 1989 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The goal of the workshop was to develop a list of high-priority research activities that would facilitate the commercial success of ATES. During the workshop, participants reviewed currently available modeling tools for ATES systems and produced a list of significant issues related to modeling ATES systems. Participants assigned a priority to each issue on the list by voting and developed a list of research needs for each of four high-priority research areas; the need for a feasibility study model, the need for engineering design models, the need for aquifer characterization, and the need for an economic model. The workshop participants concluded that ATES commercialization can be accelerated by aggressive development of ATES modeling tools and made specific recommendations for that development. 2 tabs.

Drost, M K

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

375

Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 6: High-Performance Home Technologies: Solar Thermal & Photovoltaic Systems  

SciTech Connect

This guide is was written by PNNL for the US Department of Energy's Building America program to provide information for residential production builders interested in building near zero energy homes. The guide provides indepth descriptions of various roof-top photovoltaic power generating systems for homes. The guide also provides extensive information on various designs of solar thermal water heating systems for homes. The guide also provides construction company owners and managers with an understanding of how solar technologies can be added to their homes in a way that is cost effective, practical, and marketable. Twelve case studies provide examples of production builders across the United States who are building energy-efficient homes with photovoltaic or solar water heating systems.

Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Steward, Heidi E.; Love, Pat M.

2007-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Operation o Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) Hybrid System in KIER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The details of the Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) hybrid air heating system, UTC air heating system and its effect on the performance of photovoltaic (PV) module and room temperature in KIER are explained in this paper. Two identical test rooms were constructed such that one had unglazed transpired collector on its south facing wall while other had no solar wall. The temperature inside the room with UTC was 10-20oC higher than the temperature inside the room without UTC on a typical winter day. In second set of experiments, 75W PV modules were installed on the south facing walls of each test rooms. The temperature of the PV module with UTC was 5-9?lower than the PV module without UTC resulting in a 6% recovery of output electrical power under the forced ventilation. PVT hybrid system may alleviate burden on conventional energy consumption in Korea for heating the buildings and electricity generation.

Naveed, A.T.; Lee, E. J.; Kang, E. C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

An Integrated Analysis of a NERVA Based Nuclear Thermal Propulsion System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents results and conclusions derived from an integrated analysis of a NERVA based Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system. The NTP system is sized to generate a thrust of 70,000 N (15,000 lbf), and have a specific impulse (Isp) of 860 s. This implies a reactor that operates at 350 MWth and has a mixed mean propellant outlet temperature of 2760 K. The integrated analysis will require that self-consistent neutronic/thermal-hydraulic/stress analyses be carried out. The major code packages used in this analysis are MCNP, RELAP, and ANSYS. Results from this analysis indicate that nuclear data will have to be re-generated to cover the wide temperature range, zone loading will be necessary to avoid entering the liquidus region for the fuel, and the effectiveness of the ZrC insulator will have implications for bi-modal applications. These results suggest a path forward in the development of a viable NTP system based on a NERVA reactor should initially concentrate on fuel and structural materials and associated coating development. A series of safety related criticality determinations were carried out addressing water immersion following a launch incident.

Ludewig, Hans; Cheng, L.-Y.; Ecker, Lynne; Todosow, Michael [Energy Sciences and Technology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

378

Thermal runaway reaction hazard and decomposition mechanism of the hydroxylamine system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical reactivity hazards have posed a significant challenge for industries that manufacture, store, and handle reactive chemicals. Without proper management and control of reactivity, numerous incidents have caused tremendous loss of property and human lives. The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) reported 167 incidents involving reactive chemicals that occurred in the U.S. from 1980 to 2001. According to the report, 35 percent of the incidents were caused by thermal runaway reactions, such as incidents that involved hydroxylamine and hydroxylamine nitrate. The thermal stability of hydroxylamine system under various industrial conditions was studied thoroughly to develop an understanding necessary to prevent recurrence of incidents. The macroscopic runaway reaction behavior of hydroxylamine system was analyzed using a RSST (Reactive System Screening Tool) and an APTAC (Automatic Pressure Tracking Calorimeter). Also, computational chemistry was employed as a powerful tool to evaluate and predict the measured reactivity. A method was proposed to develop a runaway reaction mechanism that provides atomic level ofinformation on elementary reaction steps, in terms of reaction thermochemistry, activation barriers, and reaction rates. This work aims to bridge molecular and macroscopic scales for process safety regarding reactive chemicals and to understand macroscopic runaway reaction behaviors from a molecular point of view.

Wei, Chunyang

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Detailed thermal performance data on conventional and highly insulating window systems  

SciTech Connect

Data on window heat-transfer properties (U-value and shading coefficient (SC)) are usually presented only for a few window designs at specific environmental conditions. With the introduction of many new window glazing configurations (using low-emissivity coatings and gas fills) and the interest in their annual energy performance, it is important to understand the effects of window design parameters and environmental conditions on U and SC. This paper discusses the effects of outdoor temperature, wind speed, insolation, surface emittance, and gap width on the thermal performance of both conventional and highly insulating windows. Some of these data have been incorporated into the fenestration chapter of the ''ASHRAE Handbook - 1985 Fundamentals.'' The heat-transfer properties of multiglazed insulating window designs are also presented. These window systems include those having (1) one or more low-emittance coatings; (2) low-conductivity gas-fill or evacuated cavities; (3) a layer of transparent silica aerogel, a highly insulating microporous material; or (4) combinations of the above. Using the detailed building energy analysis program, DOE 2.1B, we show that these systems, which all maintain high solar transmittance, can add more useful thermal energy to a space than they lose, even in a northern climate. Thus, in terms of seasonal energy flows, these fenestration systems out-perform insulated walls or roofs.

Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Hartmann, J.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Thermal Analysis of the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System Piping During the Gas Baking Process  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary analysis has been performed examining the temperature distribution in the Divertor Primary Heat Transfer System (PHTS) piping and the divertor itself during the gas baking process. During gas baking, it is required that the divertor reach a temperature of 350 C. Thermal losses in the piping and from the divertor itself require that the gas supply temperature be maintained above that temperature in order to ensure that all of the divertor components reach the required temperature. The analysis described in this report was conducted in order to estimate the required supply temperature from the gas heater.

Yoder Jr, Graydon L [ORNL; Harvey, Karen [ORNL; Ferrada, Juan J [ORNL

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor  

SciTech Connect

Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Hard thermal loops in static background fields  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the high temperature behavior of retarded thermal loops in static external fields. We employ an analytic continuation of the imaginary time formalism and use a spectral representation of the thermal amplitudes. We show that, to all orders, the leading contributions of static hard thermal loops can be directly obtained by evaluating them at zero external energies and momenta.

Brandt, F T; Siqueira, J B

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Energy Comparison Between Conventional and Chilled Water Thermal Storage Air Conditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

During the summer of previous years, Kuwait faced a series of power shortages emphasizing the need for urgent commissioning of power generation projects. It is estimated that the demand for electricity is growing at an average of 6.2% per year, encouraged by government subsidies and driven by the rapid and continual expansion in building construction, urban development, and the heavy reliance on Air Conditioning (AC) systems for the cooling of buildings. The Chilled Water Thermal Storage (CWTS) system is one of the available techniques that can be utilized to reduce peak electricity demand of buildings when national electricity consumption is at its highest level. This paper demonstrates that the use of CWTS system reduces the peak power demand and energy consumption of AC systems for design day conditions by 36.7% - 87.5% and 5.4% - 7.2%, respectively. This reduction depends on selected operating strategies as compared with conventional AC system. Furthermore, results show that the annual energy consumption of CWTS systems decreases by between 4.5% and 6.9% compared with conventional systems, where chillers and pumps significantly contribute to this reduction.

Sebzali, M.; Hussain, H. J.; Ameer, B.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Simulation System on the Thermal Stress and Fatigue Life Loss of Startup and Shutdown for a Domestic 600MW Steam Turbo Generator Unit  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Simulation System on the thermal stresses and fatigue life loss of the rotator during startup and shutdown for a domestic 600MW steam turbo generator unit, By means of the analysis of Simulation System on the thermal stress and life loss of the rotor, ... Keywords: steam turbine unit, thermal stress, Fatigue Life Loss, rotator, startup, shutdown

Yunchun Xia

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

On the participant-spectator matter and thermalization of neutron-rich systems in heavy-ion collisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the participant-spectator matter at the energy of vanishing flow for neutron-rich systems. Our study reveals similar behaviour of articipant-spectator for neutron-rich systems as for stable systems and also points towards nearly mass independence behaviour of participant-spectator matter for neutron-rich systems at the energy of vanishing flow. We also study the thermalization reached in the reactions of neutron-rich systems.

Sakshi Gautam; Rajeev K. Puri

2011-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

386

Dynamic thermal testing of lead-acid batteries for the PREPA battery energy storage system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A test is being carried out to determine the thermal load that will be present in a 20 MW battery energy storage system (BESS) facility being built by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA). Efforts were made to duplicate, on a smaller scale, the arrangement of the flooded lead-acid cells in the BESS and to generate ambient temperatures typical of Puerto Rico through use of an environmental chamber. A utility energy storage (UES) test cycle for the 12-cell series string was set up based on projected operating parameters scaled from the BESS for frequency regulation and spinning reserve operating modes. Battery temperatures were measured during UES cycling and fit to a thermal model for the system. Cell temperatures increased slowly over a week-long utility cycle and eventually were elevated by 13{degrees}C (23{degrees}F) in the most extreme case observed to date. Temperature increases are expected to be lower in the BESS facility due to a much higher air flow rate than in the test chamber.

Jungst, R.G.; Freese, J.M.; Rodriguez, G.P.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; Braithwaite, J.W.; Woods, C.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Ice Thermal Storage Systems for Nuclear Power Plant Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Availability of cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. One potential solution is to use ice thermal storage (ITS) systems that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses the ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS also provides a way to shift a large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ITS systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss during hot weather so that new plants could be considered in regions lack of cooling water. This paper will review light water reactor cooling issues and present the feasibility study results.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Program on Technology Innovation: Evaluation of Concentrating Solar Thermal Energy Storage Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Adding solar thermal energy storage to concentrating solar thermal power plants expands both the amount of power and the timing of production. With thermal energy storage, plant power output can be firmed and shaped to better match consumer demand for electricity. Thermal storage associated with these plants is typically much more efficient and cost-effective than electrical or mechanical forms of storage. In many cases, the addition of thermal energy storage can lower the levelized electricity productio...

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

389

Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting  

SciTech Connect

Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic benefits and avoid forced derating and shutdown during extremely hot weather. For the new plants using dry cooling towers, adding the ice thermal storage systems can effectively reduce the efficiency loss and water consumption during hot weather so that new LWRs could be considered in regions without enough cooling water. \\ This paper presents the feasibility study of using ice thermal storage systems for LWR supplemental cooling and peak power shifting. LWR cooling issues and ITS application status will be reviewed. Two ITS application case studies will be presented and compared with alternative options: one for once-through cooling without enough cooling for short time, and the other with dry cooling. Because capital cost, especially the ice storage structure/building cost, is the major cost for ITS, two different cost estimation models are developed: one based on scaling method, and the other based on a preliminary design using Building Information Modeling (BIM), an emerging technology in Architecture/Engineering/Construction, which enables design options, performance analysis and cost estimating in the early design stage.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

MASSIVELY PARALLEL FULLY COUPLED IMPLICIT MODELING OF COUPLED THERMAL-HYDROLOGICAL-MECHANICAL PROCESSES FOR ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEM RESERVOIRS  

SciTech Connect

Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing) to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. In order to increase our understanding of how reservoirs behave under these conditions, we have developed a physics-based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by coupling a discrete element model (DEM) for fracturing with a continuum multiphase flow and heat transport model. In DEM simulations, solid rock is represented by a network of discrete elements (often referred as particles) connected by various types of mechanical bonds such as springs, elastic beams or bonds that have more complex properties (such as stress-dependent elastic constants). Fracturing is represented explicitly as broken bonds (microcracks), which form and coalesce into macroscopic fractures when external load is applied. DEM models have been applied to a very wide range of fracturing processes from the molecular scale (where thermal fluctuations play an important role) to scales on the order of 1 km or greater. In this approach, the continuum flow and heat transport equations are solved on an underlying fixed finite element grid with evolving porosity and permeability for each grid cell that depends on the local structure of the discrete element network (such as DEM particle density). The fluid pressure gradient exerts forces on individual elements of the DEM network, which therefore deforms and fractures. Such deformation/fracturing in turn changes the permeability, which again changes the evolution of fluid pressure, coupling the two phenomena. The intimate coupling between fracturing and fluid flow makes the meso-scale DEM simulations necessary, as these methods have substantial advantages over conventional continuum mechanical models of elastic rock deformation. The challenges that must be overcome to simulate EGS reservoir stimulation, preliminary results, progress to date and near future research directions and opportunities will be discussed.

Robert Podgorney; Hai Huang; Derek Gaston

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Worker health and safety in solar thermal power systems. IV. Routine failure hazards  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Routine failure events in selected solar thermal power system designs are examined, and their rates of occurrence estimated. The results are used to compare and rank the systems considered. Modules of 1 to 100 MWe are developed based on reference or other near-term designs. Technologies used include parabolic trough, parabolic dish, and central tower focusing; central and distributed power generation; and proximate and independent siting of power modules. Component counts and failure rates estimated include heat transfer system leaks, sensor failures, and mechanical and electrical component failures, such as pumps, motors, and wire and cable. Depending on the technology chosen, leak rates can approach 1000 per year per 100 MWe system capacity, while component failure rates can be several times that level. Within categories of failures, the various technologies can have rates differing by a factor of 1000 or more. A uniform weighting for the consequences of the various failure types is proposed. Under this weighting, central tower systems are most favored, followed by parabolic trough, parabolic dishes with dispersed power generation, and parabolic dishes with central power generation. This weighting does not account for possible variations in the technologies. A sensitivity analysis is used to bound the relative hazards of the various failure events required to invert one or more of the system rankings.

Ullman, A.Z.; Sokolow, B.B.; Hill, J.; Meunier, G.; Busick, H. III

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion power system development. Phase I: preliminary design. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Westinghouse has completed the Preliminary Desigh Phase for the Power System Development of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Demonstration Plant project. This study included the development of a preliminary design for a Modular Application scaled power system (10MWe) and Heat Exchanger Test Articles, both based on the concept developed in the Conceptual Design Phase. The results of this study were used to improve the baseline design of the 50MWe module for the Commercial Size Power System, which was recommended for the demonstration plant by the conceptual design study. The 50MWe module was selected since it has the lowest cost, and since its size convincingly demonstrates that future economically viable commercial plants, having reliable operation with credible anticipated costs, are possible. Additional optimization studies on the size of the power system plus hull continue to identify 50MWe as the preferred minimum cost configuration. This study was limited to a closed cycle ammonia power system module, using a seawater temperature difference of 40/sup 0/F, and a surface platform/ship reference hull. This volume presents the preliminary design configuration and system optimization. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

393

Solar thermal small power systems study, program summary report. Phase II: study results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Phase II Study of small solar power systems (SSPS) has been structured to determine conditions under which SSPS can be cost-effective sources of electric power in the US in the period 1985 to 2015. An extensive data base, which provides a discrete identification of all utility and industrial electric generating units up to and including 10 MW/sub e/ in rated capacity, has been prepared. This data base defines the market for which comparative evaluations are made of SSPS and alternative fossil-fueled power plants. The market penetration of SSPS is determined and the effect of economic incentives on accelerating the penetration is evaluated. The solar electric power system is evaluated as either a complete replacement for existing conventional electric power systems or as a repowering installation for boilers supplying steam to turbine-driven generators. The cost data used in the market penetration analysis are for a central receiver-type of small solar theral power system. While the market penetration discussed herein is for this type of SSPS, the sensitivity data in the report can be used to determine the market penetration of other types of solar thermal power systems (e.g., point focus distributed receiver) with different system costs.

Lapedes, D.E.; Munjal, P.K.; Sitney, L.R.

1979-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

394

Development of a Predictive Optimal Controller for Thermal Energy Storage Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper describes the development and simulation of a predictive optimal controller for thermal energy storage systems. The `optimal' strategy minimizes the cost of operating the cooling plant over the simulation horizon. The particular case of a popular ice storage system (ice-on-coil with internal melt) has been investigated in a simulation environment. Various predictor models have been analyzed with respect to their performance in forecasting cooling load data and information on ambient conditions (dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures). The predictor model provides load and weather information to the optimal controller in discrete time steps. An optimal storage charging and discharging strategy is planned at every time step over a fixed look-ahead time window utilizing newly available information. The first action of the optimal sequence of actions is executed over the next time step and the planning process is repeated at every following time step. The effect of the length of the...

Gregor Henze; Robert H. Dodier; Moncef Krarti

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Thermal and hydraulic analyses of TFTR cooling water system and magnetic field coils  

SciTech Connect

The TFTR toroidal field coils, ohmic heating, hybrid and equilibrium field coils are cooled by water from the machine area cooling water system. The system has the following major equipment and capacities: flow rate of 3600 gpm; ballast tank volume of 5500 gal; pumps of 70.4 m head; chiller refrigeration rating of 3300 tons and connecting pipe of 45.7 cm I.D. The performance of the closed loop system was analyzed and found to be adequate for the thermal loads. The field coils were analyzed with detailed thermal and hydraulic models, including a simulation of the complete water cooling loop. Under the nominal operating mode of one second of toroidal field flat top time and 300 seconds of pulse cycle time, the maximum temperature for the TF coils is 53/sup 0/C; for the OH coils 46/sup 0/C and for the EF coils 39/sup 0/C, which are well below the coil design limit of 120/sup 0/C. The maximum TF coil coolant temperature is 33/sup 0/C which is below the coolant design limit of 100/sup 0/C. The overall pressure loss of the system is below 6.89 x 10/sup 5/ Pa (100 psi). With the given chiller refrigeration capacity, the TF coils can be operated to yield up to 4 seconds of flat top time. The TF coils can be operated on a steady state basis at up to 20% of the pulsed duty design current rating of 7.32 kA/coil (36.6 kA/conductor).

Lee, A.Y.

1975-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Leakage diagnostics, sealant longevity, sizing and technologytransfer in residential thermal distribution systems: Part II.Residential thermal Distribution Systesm, Phase VI FinalReport  

SciTech Connect

This report builds on and extends our previous efforts as described in "Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal Distribution Systems- CIEE Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Phase V Final Report, October 1997". New developments include defining combined duct and equipment efficiencies in a concept called "Tons At the Register" and on performance issues related to field use of the aerosol sealant technology. Some of the key results discussed in this report include: o Register, boot and air handler cabinet leakage can often represent a significant fraction of the total duct leakage in new construction. Because of the large range of pressures in duct systems an accurate characterization may require separating these components through improved leakage testing. o Conventional duct tape failed our accelerated longevity testing and is not, therefore, considered generally acceptable for use in sealing duct systems. Many other tapes and sealing approaches are available and practical and have passed our longevity tests. o Simulations of summer temperature pull-down time have shown that duct system improvements can be combined with equipment downsizing to save first cost, energy consumption, and peak power and still provide equivalent or superior comfort. o Air conditioner name plate capacity ratings alone are a poor indicator of how much cooling will actually be delivered to the conditioned space. Duct system efficiency can have as large an impact on performance as variations in SEER. o Mechanical duct cleaning techniques do not have an adverse impact on the ducts sealed with the Aerosol sealant. The material typically used in Aerosol sealing techniques does not appear to present a health or safety hazard. Results from this study were used by the California Energy Commission in the formation of the current Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings (CEC, (1998)), often referred to as Title 24. Current information on ducts and thermal distribution research can be found at http://ducts.lbl.gov

Buchanan, C.; Modera, M.; Sherman, M.; Siegel, J.; Walker, I.; Wang, D.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

ENHANCED THERMAL VACUUM TEST CAPABILITY FOR RADIOISOTOPE POWER SYSTEMS AT THE IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY BETTER SIMULATES ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS OF SPACE  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is preparing to fuel and test the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), the next generation space power generator. The INL identified the thermal vacuum test chamber used to test past generators as inadequate. A second vacuum chamber was upgraded with a thermal shroud to process the unique needs and to test the full power capability of the new generator. The thermal vacuum test chamber is the first of its kind capable of testing a fueled power system to temperature that accurately simulate space. This paper outlines the new test and set up capabilities at the INL.

J. C. Giglio; A. A. Jackson

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Annual-cycle thermal energy storage for a community solar system: details of a sensitivity analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results and conclusions of a simulation and sensitivity analysis of community-sized, annual-cycle thermal-energy-storage (ACTES) solar energy systems. The analysis which is based on an hourly simulation is used to (1) size systems in 10 locations, (2) identify critical design parameters, and (3) provide a basic conceptual approach for future studies and designs. This research is a forerunner to an economic analysis of this particular system (based on large constructed tanks) and a general analysis of the value of ACTES technologies for solar applications. A total of 440 systems were sized for 10 locations in the United States. Three different building types and four different community sizes were modeled. All designs used each of two collector types at each of two different tilt angles. Two linear relationships were derived which simplify system sizing. The average ambient temperature is used to determine average yearly collector efficiency. This parameter combined with estimates of space/DHW loads, storage/distribution losses, and total yearly insolation per square meter allows estimation of collector area. Storage size can be estimated from the winter net load which is based on space and DHW loads, storage and distribution losses, and collector solar heat gain for the winter months.

Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Power system development: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC). Preliminary design report: appendices, Part 2 (Final)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the electrical system, instrumentation and control, ammonia pump evaluation study, ammonia and nitrogen support subsystems, piping and support design calculations, and plant availability. (WHK)

None

1978-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

400

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power system development. Preliminary design report, Appendices, Part 1 (Final)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this project is the development of a preliminary design for a full-sized, closed cycle, ammonia power system module for the 100 MWe OTEC demonstration plant. In turn, this demonstration plant is to demonstrate, by 1984, the operation and performance of an Ocean Thermal Power Plant having sufficiently advanced heat exchanger design to project economic viability for commercial utilization in the late 1980's and beyond. Included in this power system development are the preliminary designs for a proof-of-concept pilot plant and test article heat exchangers which are scaled in such a manner as to support a logically sequential, relatively low-cost development of the full-scale power system module. The conceptual designs are presented for the demonstration plant power module, the proof-of-concept pilot plant, and for a pair of test article heat exchangers. Costs associated with the design, development, fabrication, checkout, delivery, installation, and operation are included. The accompanying design and producibilty studies on the full-scale power system module project the performance/economics for the commercial plant. This section of the report contains appendices on the developed computer models, water system dynamic studies, miscellaneous performance analysis, materials and processes, detailed equipment lists, turbine design studies, tube cleaner design, ammonia leak detection, and heat exchanger design supporting data. (WHK)

Not Available

1978-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

External Memory Algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Data sets in large applications are often too massive to fit completely inside the computer's internal memory. The resulting input/ output communication (or I/O) between fast internal memory and slower external memory (such as disks) can be a major performance ...

Jeffrey Scott Vitter

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Diagnostics of the Synchronization of Self-Oscillatory Systems by an External Force with Varying Frequency with the Use of Wavelet Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A diagnostics method based on a continuous wavelet transform is proposed. This method makes it possible to diagnose the presence of synchronization of the oscillations of a self-excited oscillator locked by an external force with a linearly modulated frequency and to distinguish such a situation from the case when an external signal leaks into self-oscillations; i.e., the signals are summed without a change in the self-oscillation frequency. The method's efficiency is shown with the use of a Van der Pol generator and experimental physiological data as examples.

Alexey Koronovskii; Vladimir Ponomarenko; Mikhail Prokhorov; Alexander Hramov

2007-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

403

External Technical Reviews | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » Waste Management » Tank Waste and Waste Processing » External Technical Reviews External Technical Reviews Documents Available for Download September 1, 2011 Peer Review of the ASCEM Program 2010 Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download September 1, 2011 Compilation of ETR Summaries ETR Summaries from 2011 February 15, 2011 External Technical Review Report for Small Column Ion Exchange Technology at Savannah River Site Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download September 30, 2009 External Technical Review for Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Hanford Site Liquid Waste Process Full Document and Summary Versions are available for download June 30, 2009 Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of

404

Power management in a hydro-thermal system under uncertainty by Lagrangian relaxation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a dynamic multistage stochastic programming model for the cost-optimal generation of electric power in a hydro-thermal system under uncertainty in load, inflow to reservoirs and prices for fuel and delivery contracts. The stochastic load process is approximated by a scenario tree obtained by adapting a SARIMA model to historical data, using empirical means and variances of simulated scenarios to construct an initial tree, and reducing it by a scenario deletion procedure based on a suitable probability distance. Our model involves many mixed-integer variables and individual power unit constraints, but relatively few coupling constraints. Hence we employstochastic Lagrangian relaxation that assigns stochastic multipliers to the coupling constraints. Solving the Lagrangian dual by a proximal bundle method leads to successive decomposition into single thermal and hydro unit subproblems that are solved by dynamic programming and a specialized descent algorithm, respectively. The optimal stochastic multipliers are used in Lagrangian heuristics to construct approximately optimal first stage decisions. Numerical results are presented for realistic data from a German power utility, with a time horizon of one week and scenario numbers ranging from 5 to 100. The corresponding optimization problems have up to 200,000 binary and 350,000 continuous variables, and more than 500,000 constraints.

Nicole Gröwe-Kuska; Krzysztof C. Kiwiel; Matthias P. Nowak; Werner Römisch; Isabel Wegner

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Comprehensive tables giving physical data and thermal energy estimates for young igneous systems of the United States  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two tables are presented. The first is a comprehensive table of 157 young igneous systems in the western United States, giving locations, physical data, and thermal energy estimates, where appropriate for each system. The second table is a list of basaltic fields probably less than 10,000 years old in the western United States.

Smith, R.L.; Shaw, H.R.; Leudke, R.G.; Russell, S.L.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Acceptance Performance Test Guideline for Utility Scale Parabolic Trough and Other CSP Solar Thermal Systems: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Prior to commercial operation, large solar systems in utility-size power plants need to pass a performance acceptance test conducted by the engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) contractor or owners. In lieu of the present absence of ASME or other international test codes developed for this purpose, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has undertaken the development of interim guidelines to provide recommendations for test procedures that can yield results of a high level of accuracy consistent with good engineering knowledge and practice. Progress on interim guidelines was presented at SolarPACES 2010. Significant additions and modifications were made to the guidelines since that time, resulting in a final report published by NREL in April 2011. This paper summarizes those changes, which emphasize criteria for assuring thermal equilibrium and steady state conditions within the solar field.

Mehos, M. S.; Wagner, M. J.; Kearney, D. W.

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Development of encapsulated lithium hydride sink-side thermal energy storage for pulsed space power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Value analysis indicates that inclusion of thermal energy storage (TES) as an element in a pulsed space power supply will reduce the mass of the heat rejection system. A candidate design for the TES component utilizes lithium hydride (LiH) encapsulated in 304L stainless steel or molybdenum in a packed-bed configuration with a lithium or sodium-potassium (NaK) heat transport fluid. Critical concerns with this concept are the need to (1) accommodate shell stresses induced by volumetric expansion of the melting salt or surface gripping by the freezing salt and (2) minimize hydrogen loss through the shell due to LiH dissociation at high temperatures. Experimental observation of significant cracking of the LiH during cooling mitigates the first of these issues by providing a leakage path into the interior void as melting occurs at the salt-containment interface, thus allowing use of thin shells.

Morris, D.G.; Foote, J.P.; Olszewski, M.; Whittaker, J.W.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Technology Potential of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) Systems in Federal Facilities  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thermal energy storage (TES) reduces electric costs by shifting chilling activities to off-peak times. Water is chilled or ice is made during the night to either replace or augment operation of cooling equipment during the day. Off-peak demand and consumption rates produce significant dollar savings. TES requires favorable electric rate structures, available space to house the associated equipment, and either variation in buildings cooling loads or favorable climatic conditions. TES can be implemented anywhere cooling loads can be shifted to off-peak housrs with the best applications being office buildings, hospitals, and schools. Most TES projects are implemented inconjunction with an existing cooling system expansion, replacement of older cooling equipment, or new construction, thus reducing energy costs, consumption, and demand.

Chvala, William D.

2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

409

Solar thermal electric power systems with line-focus collectors. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Electric power generation by conventional Rankine cycle heat engines with heat supplied by line-focus solar collectors was investigated. The objectives of the study were: (1) determine which of four types of line-focus solar collectors coupled with turbine-generators of conventional design has the potential to produce low-cost electric power with thermal energy in 100 to 300/sup 0/C range; (2) develop performance and cost relationships for organic Rankine cycle engines for power generation capacities from 3 MW/sub e/ to 300 MW/sub e/; (3) develop conceptual storage units for organic fluid systems. Evaluation procedures and study results and conclusion are presented and discussed in detail. (WHK)

Duff, W.S.; Karaki, S.; Shaner, W.W.; Wilbur, P.J.; Somers, E.V.; Grimble, R.E.; Wilson, H.S.; Watt, A.D.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Mixed Variable Optimization of the Number and Composition of Heat Intercepts in a Thermal Insulation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: In the literature, thermal insulation systems with a xed number of heat intercepts have been optimized with respect to intercept locations and temperatures. The number of intercepts and the types of insulators that surround them were chosen by parametric studies. This was because the optimization methods used could not treat such categorical variables. Discrete optimization variables are categorical if the objective function or the constraints can not be evaluated unless the variables take one of a prescribed enumerable set of values. The key issue is that categorical variables can not be treated as ordinary discrete variables are treated by relaxing them to continuous variables with a side constraint that they be discrete at the solution. A new mixed variable programming (MVP) algorithm makes it possible to optimize directly with respect to mixtures of discrete, continuous, and categorical decision variables. The result of applying MVP is shown here to give a 65% reduction in the ...

Michael Kokkolaras; Charless Audet; J. E. Dennis, Jr.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Video and thermal imaging system for monitoring interiors of high temperature reaction vessels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system and method for real-time monitoring of the interior of a combustor or gasifier wherein light emitted by the interior surface of a refractory wall of the combustor or gasifier is collected using an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end. Color information in the light is captured with primary color (RGB) filters or complimentary color (GMCY) filters placed over individual pixels of color sensors disposed within a digital color camera in a BAYER mosaic layout, producing RGB signal outputs or GMCY signal outputs. The signal outputs are processed using intensity ratios of the primary color filters or the complimentary color filters, producing video images and/or thermal images of the interior of the combustor or gasifier.

Saveliev, Alexei V. (Chicago, IL); Zelepouga, Serguei A. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL)

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

412

Experimental investigation on the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system on water-heating mode  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An experimental study on operation performance of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was conducted in this paper. The experimental system of photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system was set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure, the condensation pressure and the coefficient of performance (COP) of heat pump air-conditioning system, the water temperature and receiving heat capacity in water heater, the photovoltaic (PV) module temperature and the photovoltaic efficiency were investigated. The experimental results show that the mean photovoltaic efficiency of photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar heat pump air-conditioning system reaches 10.4%, and can improve 23.8% in comparison with that of the conventional photovoltaic module, the mean COP of heat pump air-conditioning system may attain 2.88 and the water temperature in water heater can increase to 42 C. These results indicate that the photovoltaic-thermal solar heat pump air-conditioning system has better performances and can stably work. (author)

Fang, Guiyin; Hu, Hainan; Liu, Xu [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Waste heat recovery system having thermal sleeve support for heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A system for recovering waste heat from a stream of heated gas is disclosed. The system includes a convection heat transfer chamber, a boiler tank, and a plurality of heat pipes thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. Each of the heat pipes includes an evaporator section which is disposed in heat transfer relation with a stream of heated gas flowing through the convection heat transfer chamber, and a condenser section disposed in heat transfer relation with a volume of water contained within the boiler tank. The boiler tank is provided with a header plate having an array of heat pipe openings through which the heat pipes project. A heat pipe support sleeve is received in each heat pipe opening in sealed engagement with the header plate, with the heat pipes projecting through the support sleeves and thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. An intermediate portion of each heat pipe is received in sealed engagement with its associated support sleeve. In a preferred embodiment, heat transfer through the support sleeve is minimized in an arrangement in which each heat pipe opening is reduced by a stepped bore with the support sleeve connected in threaded, sealed engagement with the stepped bore. Futhermore, in this arrangement, the support sleeve has swaged end portions which project beyond the header plate and engage the heat pipe on opposite sides at points which are remote with respect to the support sleeve/header plate interface. One of the swages end portions is sealed against the heat pipe in a fluid-tight union within the boiler tank. The support sleeve is radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe, and is also radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe opening whereby heat transfer through the walls of the heat pipe to the support sleeve and to the header plate is minimized by concentric annular air gaps.

McCurley, J.

1984-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

415

Waste heat recovery system having thermal sleeve support for heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A system for recovering waste heat from a stream of heated gas is disclosed. The system includes a convection heat transfer chamber, a boiler tank, and a plurality of heat pipes thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. Each of the heat pipes includes an evaporator section which is disposed in heat transfer relation with a stream of heated gas flowing through the convection heat transfer chamber, and a condenser section disposed in heat transfer relation with a volume of water contained within the boiler tank. The boiler tank is provided with a header plate having an array of heat pipe openings through which the heat pipes project. A heat pipe support sleeve is received in each heat pipe opening in sealed engagement with the header plate, with the heat pipes projecting through the support sleeves and thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. An intermediate portion of each heat pipe is received in sealed engagement with its associated support sleeve. In a preferred embodiment, heat transfer through the support sleeve is minimized in an arrangement in which each heat pipe opening is reduced by a stepped bore with the support sleeve connected in threaded, sealed engagement with the stepped bore. Furthermore, in this arrangement, the support sleeve has swaged end portions which project beyond the header plate and engage the heat pipe on opposite sides at points which are remote with respect to the support sleeve/header plate interface. One of the swaged end portions is sealed against the heat pipe in a fluid-tight union within the boiler tank. The support sleeve is radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe, and is also radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe opening whereby heat transfer through the walls of the heat pipe to the support sleeve and to the header plate is minimized by concentric annular air gaps.

McCurley, J.

1984-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

416

Waste heat recovery system having thermal sleeve support for heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A system for recovering waste heat from a stream of heated gas is disclosed. The system includes a convection heat transfer chamber, a boiler tank, and a plurality of heat pipes thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. Each of the heat pipes includes an evaporator section which is disposed in heat transfer relation with a stream of heated gas flowing through the convection heat transfer chamber, and a condenser section disposed in heat transfer relation with a volume of water contained within the boiler tank. The boiler tank is provided with a header plate having an array of heat pipe openings through which the heat pipes project. A heat pipe support sleeve is received in each heat pipe opening in sealed engagement with the header plate, with the heat pipes projecting through the support sleeves and thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. An intermediate portion of each heat pipe is received in sealed engagement with its associated support sleeve. In a preferred embodiment, heat transfer through the support sleeve is minimized in an arrangement in which each heat pipe opening is reduced by a stepped bore with the support sleeve connected in threaded, sealed engagement with the stepped bore. Furthermore, in this arrangement, the support sleeve has swaged end portions which project beyond the header plate and engage the heat pipe on opposite sides at points which are remote with respect to the support sleeve/header plate interface. One of the swaged end portions is sealed against the heat pipe in a fluid-tight union within the boiler tank. The support sleeve is radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe and is also radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe opening whereby heat transfer through the walls of the heat pipe to the support sleeve and to the header plate is minimized by concentric annular air gaps.

McCurley, J.

1984-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

417

Waste heat recovery system having thermal sleeve support for heat pipe  

SciTech Connect

A system for recovering waste heat from a stream of heated gas is disclosed. The system includes a convection heat transfer chamber, a boiler tank, and a plurality of heat pipes thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. Each of the heat pipes includes an evaporator section which is disposed in heat transfer relation with a stream of heated gas flowing through the convection heat transfer chamber, and a condenser section disposed in heat transfer relation with a volume of water contained within the boiler tank. The boiler tank is provided with a header plate having an array of heat pipe openings through which the heat pipes project. A heat support sleeve is received in each heat pipe opening in sealed engagement with the header plate, with the heat pipes projecting through the support sleeves and thermally interconnecting the convection heat transfer chamber with the boiler tank. An intermediate portion of each heat pipe is received in sealed engagement with its associated support sleeve. In a preferred embodiment, heat transfer through the support sleeve is minimized in an arrangement in which each heat pipe opening is reduced by a stepped bore with the support sleeve connected in threaded, sealed engagement with the stepped bore. Furthermore, in this arrangement, the support sleeve has swaged end portions which project beyond the header plate and engage the heat pipe on opposite sides at points which are remote with respect to the support sleeve/header plate interface. One of the swaged end portions is sealed against the heat pipe in a fluid-tight union within the boiler tank. The support sleeve is radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe, and is also radially spaced with respect to the heat pipe opening whereby heat transfer through the walls of the heat pipe to the support sleeve and to the header plate is minimized by concentric annular air gaps.

McCurley, J.

1984-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

418

The integration of water loop heat pump and building structural thermal storage systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many commercial buildings need heat in one part and, at the same time, cooling in another part. Even more common is the need for heating during one part of the day and cooling during another in the same spaces. If that energy could be shifted or stored for later use, significant energy might be saved. If a building's heating and cooling subsystems could be integrated with the building's structural mass and used to collect, store, and deliver energy, the energy might be save cost-effectively. To explore this opportunity, researchers at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the thermal interactions between the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system and the structure of a commercial building. Computer models were developed to simulate the interactions in an existing building located in Seattle, Washington, to determine how these building subsystems could be integrated to improve energy efficiency. The HVAC subsystems in the existing building were modeled. These subsystems consist of decentralized water-source heat pumps (WSHP) in a closed water loop, connected to cooling towers for heat rejection during cooling mode and boilers to augment heating. An initial base case'' computer model of the Seattle building, as-built, was developed. Metered data available for the building were used to calibrate this model to ensure that the analysis would provide information that closely reflected the operation of a real building. The HVAC system and building structure were integrated in the model using the concrete floor slabs as thermal storage media. The slabs may be actively charged during off-peak periods with the chilled water in the loop and then either actively or passively discharged into the conditioned space during peak periods. 21 refs., 37 figs., 17 tabs.

Marseille, T.J.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Mixed variable optimization of a load-bearing thermal insulation system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

categorical variables, mixed variable programming, pattern search algorithm, filter algorithm, nonlinear constraints Abstract: This paper describes the optimization of a load-bearing thermal insulation system characterized by hot and cold surfaces with a series of heat intercepts and insulators between them. The optimization problem is represented as a mixed variable programming (MVP) problem with nonlinear constraints, in which the objective is to minimize the power required to maintain the heat intercepts at fixed temperatures so that one surface is kept sufficiently cold. MVP problems are more general than mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problems in that the discrete variables are categorical; i.e., they must always take on values from a predefined enumerable set or list. Thus, traditional approaches that use branch and bound techniques cannot be applied. In a previous paper, a linearly constrained version of this problem was solved numerically using the Audet-Dennis generalized pattern search (GPS) method for MVP problems. However, this algorithm may not work for problems with general nonlinear constraints. A new algorithm that extends that of Audet and Dennis by incorporating a filter to handle nonlinear constraints makes it possible to solve the more general problem. Additional nonlinear constraints on stress, May 5, 2003 2 mass, and thermal contraction are added to that of the previous work in an effort to find a more realistic feasible design. Several computational experiments show a substantial improvement in power required to maintain the system, as compared to the previous literature. The addition of the new constraints leads to a very different design without significantly changing the power required. The results demonstrate that the new algorithm can be applied to a very broad class of optimization problems, for which no previous algorithm with provable convergence results could be applied. 1

Mark A. Abramson

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Thermal plant outages in a large hydro-thermal power supply system a method in probabilistic simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The advent of large computers has made a significant impact upon decision theory with their ability to generate a large number of simulations within a relatively short period of time. Better estimates of a system's capabilities and parameters can be ...

Charles W. Eastwood

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "thermal systems external" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Sensitivity analysis of a community solar system using annual cycle thermal energy storage  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this research is to assess the sensitivity of design parameters for a community solar heating system having annual thermal energy storage to factors including climate, building type, community size, and collector type and inclination. The system under consideration uses a large, water-filled, concrete-constructed tank for providing space heating, and domestic hot water (DHW). Collector field area and storage volume have been sized for 440 community designs in 10 geographic locations. Analysis of the data has allowed identification of those parameters that have first order effects on component sizing. Two linear relationships were derived which allow system sizing. The average ambient temperature is used to determine average yearly collector efficiency. This parameter combined with estimates of space/DHW loads, storage/distribution losses, and total yearly insolation per square meter allows estimation of collector area. Storage size can be estimated from the winter net load which is based on space and DHW loads, storage/distribution losses, and collector solar heat for the winter months. (MHR)

Baylin, F.; Monte, R.; Sillman, S.

1979-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

25 kWe solar thermal stirling hydraulic engine system: Final conceptual design report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to the 11-meter Test Bed Concentrator at Sandia National Laboratories. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made by Pioneer Engineering and Manufacturing. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000-hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, >33.3% overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs of $300/kW. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high-pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk. The engine design is based on a highly refined Stirling hydraulic engine developed over 20 years as a fully implantable artificial heart power source. 4 refs., 19 figs., 3 tabs.

Not Available

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Thermal Characterization and Analysis of A123 Systems Battery Cells, Modules and Packs: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-07-243  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In support of the A123 Systems battery development program with USABC/DOE, NREL provided technical support in thermal characterization, analysis and management of batteries. NREL's effort was part of Energy Storage Project funded by DOE Vehicle Technologies Program. The purpose of this work was for NREL to perform thermal characterization and analysis of A123 Systems cells and modules with the aim for Al23 Systems to improve the thermal performance of their battery cells, modules and packs.

Pesaran, A.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

425

Dual Path HVAC System Demonstration in School: Leveraging Thermal Energy Storage and Cold Air Distribution to Enhance System Perform ance in a Florida Elementary School  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This document reports on a novel dual-path, low-temperature air distribution system demonstrated in a Florida elementary school. This system addresses high humidity levels and indoor air quality problems normally found in schools due to their large ventilation requirements, especially in humid climates. The dual-path system is also integrated with synergistic use of thermal energy storage and low-temperature air distribution, reduced energy use, and initial cost. The field data confirmed that the system ...

2002-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

426

Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others] [and others

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Review of sodium effects on candidate materials for central receiver solar-thermal power systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Available information on the corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of structural materials in a high-temperature sodium environment has been reviewed to compile a data base for selection of materials for advanced central-receiver solar-power systems, for which sodium is being considered as a heat-transfer fluid and thermal-storage medium. Candidate materials for this application (e.g., Types 304, 316, and 321 stainless steel, Alloy 800, and Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1Mo and Fe-9Cr-1Mo ferritic steels) have been used in the construction of various components for liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors in this country and abroad with considerable success. Requirements for additional information on material properties in a sodium environment are identified. The additional data coupled with more quantitative deformation models, failure criteria, and component design rules will further reduce uncertainties in the assessment of performance limits and component reliability in large sodium heat-transport systems. 120 references.

Chopra, O.K.; Wang, J.Y.N.; Natesan, K.

1979-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Active and passive mode calibration of the Combined Thermal Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) system  

SciTech Connect

The Combined Thermal/Epithermal Neutron (CTEN) non-destructive assay (NDA) system was designed to assay transuranic waste by employing an induced active neutron interrogation and/or a spontaneous passive neutron measurement. This is the second of two papers, and focuses on the passive mode, relating the net double neutron coincidence measurement to the plutonium mass via the calibration constant. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) calibration standards were used and the results verified with NIST-traceable verification standards. Performance demonstration program (PDP) 'empty' 208-L matrix drum was used for the calibration. The experimentally derived calibration constant was found to be 0.0735 {+-} 0.0059 g {sup 240}Pu effective per unit response. Using this calibration constant, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) criteria was satisfied with five minute waste assays in the range from 3 to 177g Pu. CTEN also participated in the PDP Cycle 8A blind assay with organic sludge and metal matrices and passed the criteria for accuracy and precision in both assay modes. The WIPP and EPA audit was completed March 1, 2002 and full certification is awaiting the closeout of one finding during the audit. With the successful closeout of the audit, the CTEN system will have shown that it can provide very fast assays (five minutes or less) of waste in the range from the minimum detection limit (about 2 mg Pu) to 177 g Pu.

Veilleux, J. M. (John M.)

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders.

Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Pleasanton, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Active cooling-based surface confinement system for thermal soil treatment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thermal barrier is disclosed for surface confinement with active cooling to control subsurface pressures during thermal remediation of shallow (5-20 feet) underground contaminants. If steam injection is used for underground heating, the actively cooled thermal barrier allows the steam to be injected into soil at pressures much higher (20-60 psi) than the confining strength of the soil, while preventing steam breakthrough. The rising steam is condensed to liquid water at the thermal barrier-ground surface interface. The rapid temperature drop forced by the thermal barrier drops the subsurface pressure to below atmospheric pressure. The steam and contaminant vapors are contained by the thermal blanket, which can be made of a variety of materials such as steel plates, concrete slabs, membranes, fabric bags, or rubber bladders. 1 fig.

Aines, R.D.; Newmark, R.L.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

431

External split field generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A generator includes a coil disposed about a core. A first stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a first end portion of the core and a second stationary magnetic field source may be disposed on a second end portion of core. The first and second stationary magnetic field sources apply a stationary magnetic field to the coil. An external magnetic field source may be disposed outside the coil to apply a moving magnetic field to the coil. Electrical energy is generated in response to an interaction between the coil, the moving magnetic field, and the stationary magnetic field.

Thundat, Thomas George (Knoxville, TN); Van Neste, Charles W. (Kingston, TN); Vass, Arpad Alexander (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

432

Thermal Performance Predictions of a Heat Pipe and Heat Dissipation Systems Using FEM.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The aim of this work is to carry out analyses, thermal and fluid dynamics of element used to heat transimission that can be utilized to… (more)

VIGNA, GIUSEPPE

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

A solar thermal cooling and heating system for a building: Experimental and model based performance analysis and design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A solar thermal cooling and heating system at Carnegie Mellon University was studied through its design, installation, modeling, and evaluation to deal with the question of how solar energy might most effectively be used in supplying energy for the operation of a building. This solar cooling and heating system incorporates 52 m{sup 2} of linear parabolic trough solar collectors; a 16 kW double effect, water-lithium bromide (LiBr) absorption chiller, and a heat recovery heat exchanger with their circulation pumps and control valves. It generates chilled and heated water, dependent on the season, for space cooling and heating. This system is the smallest high temperature solar cooling system in the world. Till now, only this system of the kind has been successfully operated for more than one year. Performance of the system has been tested and the measured data were used to verify system performance models developed in the TRaNsient SYstem Simulation program (TRNSYS). On the basis of the installed solar system, base case performance models were programmed; and then they were modified and extended to investigate measures for improving system performance. The measures included changes in the area and orientation of the solar collectors, the inclusion of thermal storage in the system, changes in the pipe diameter and length, and various system operational control strategies. It was found that this solar thermal system could potentially supply 39% of cooling and 20% of heating energy for this building space in Pittsburgh, PA, if it included a properly sized storage tank and short, low diameter connecting pipes. Guidelines for the design and operation of an efficient and effective solar cooling and heating system for a given building space have been provided. (author)

Qu, Ming [School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2051 (United States); Yin, Hongxi [School of Engineering Education, Purdue University, 701 W. Stadium Ave., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2061 (United States); Archer, David H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

Thermal-Hydraulic Modeling of the Primary Coolant System of Light Water Reactors During Severely Degraded Core Accidents  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The transport of fission-product vapors and aerosols that would be released from an LWR primary system in postulated severe accidents depends on the prevalent thermal-hydraulic conditions. The analytic models developed in this study are incorporated in the PSAAC modular computer program, which can help predict more realistic estimates of accident consequences.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Advanced turbine systems - research and development of thermal barrier coatings technology: 2nd bimonthly report, February 1996  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Objective of the ATS program is the development of ultra-highly efficient, environmentally superior, and cost-competitive gas turbine systems, with long, less cyclic operating profiles than aircraft gas turbine engines. Durability and performance demands of ATS can be achieved by means of thermal barrier coatings. Phase I (program plan) is complete. Phase II is in progress.

NONE

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Potential benefits of thermal energy storage in the proposed Twin Cities district heating-cogeneration system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new, large, cogeneration-district heating system has been proposed for the Twin Cities area, using hot water in a closed-loop system. The proposed system, as described by Studsvik Energiteknik AB of Sweden, does not employ thermal energy storage (TES). Four cases have been developed, describing system configurations which would employ TES, to evaluate the potential benefits of incorporating annual-cycle TES into the Twin Cities system. The potential benefits are found to be substantial, confirming results of earlier, generic studies of aquifer TES. The reference (Studsvik) system employs oil-fired boilers to supplement cogenerated heat, for handling peak loads and providing standby reserve. TES can serve the same function, with net energy savings in spite of heat losses during storage, by making it possible to operate the cogeneration equipment at higher capacity factors. Coal replaces oil as the fuel consumed. Energy savings of the reference system are impressive; energy savings with TES are 2 to 22% better. Capital cost requirements for boilers, cogeneration equipment, and pipelines are reduced by $66 to $258 million. The breakeven capital cost of TES is estimated to range from $43 to $76 per kilowatt peak thermal input to or withdrawal from aquifer TES. A factor in evaluating the breakeven operating cost of TES is the $14 to $31 million per year saving in cost of fuel. Abatement of air pollution and thermal pollution are concomitant benefits.

Meyer, C.F.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z