National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for thermal resistance measured

  1. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved cement, causing its volume to expand.

  2. SEMI-THERM 21, SEMICONDUCTOR THERMAL MEASUREMENT AND MANAGMENT SYMPOSIUM, SAN JOSE. MAR 15-17, 2005. 1 Thermal Contact Resistance: Effect of Elastic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    in the microelectronics industry is low due to load constraints. In this paper a new model is presented which is moreSEMI-THERM 21, SEMICONDUCTOR THERMAL MEASUREMENT AND MANAGMENT SYMPOSIUM, SAN JOSE. MAR 15-17, 2005 elastic modulus, Pa F = applied load, N Hmic = microhardness, Pa H = non-dimensional microhardness Hmic

  3. Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coral Thermal Tolerance: Tuning Gene Expression to Resist Thermal Stress Anthony J. Bellantuono1 thermal tolerance in the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora, corals preconditioned to a sub under which non-preconditioned corals bleached and preconditioned corals (thermal-tolerant) maintained

  4. Thermal conductivity measurements of Summit polycrystalline silicon.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clemens, Rebecca; Kuppers, Jaron D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2006-11-01

    A capability for measuring the thermal conductivity of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) materials using a steady state resistance technique was developed and used to measure the thermal conductivities of SUMMiT{trademark} V layers. Thermal conductivities were measured over two temperature ranges: 100K to 350K and 293K to 575K in order to generate two data sets. The steady state resistance technique uses surface micromachined bridge structures fabricated using the standard SUMMiT fabrication process. Electrical resistance and resistivity data are reported for poly1-poly2 laminate, poly2, poly3, and poly4 polysilicon structural layers in the SUMMiT process from 83K to 575K. Thermal conductivity measurements for these polysilicon layers demonstrate for the first time that the thermal conductivity is a function of the particular SUMMiT layer. Also, the poly2 layer has a different variation in thermal conductivity as the temperature is decreased than the poly1-poly2 laminate, poly3, and poly4 layers. As the temperature increases above room temperature, the difference in thermal conductivity between the layers decreases.

  5. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranville, Frédéric; Guichard, Stéphane; Boyer, Harry; Praene, Jean Philippe; Bigot, Dimitri

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer

  6. Evaluation of the thermal resistance of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier for tropical and humid conditions: Experimental study from field measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frédéric Miranville; Ali Hamada Fakra; Stéphane Guichard; Harry Boyer; Jean Philippe Praene; Dimitri Bigot

    2012-12-19

    This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of a roof-mounted multi-reflective radiant barrier (MRRB), installed according to the state of the art, on a dedicated test cell. An existing experimental device was completed with a specific system for the regulation of the airflow rate in the upper air layer included in a typical roof from Reunion Island. Several experimental sequences were conducted to determine the thermal resistance of the roof according to several parameters and following a specific method. The mean method, well known in international standards (ISO 9869 - 1994) for the determination of the thermal resistance using dynamic data, was used. The method was implemented in a building simulation code in order to allow the determination of the thermal indicator automatically. Experimental results are proposed according to different seasonal periods and for different values of the airflow rate in the upper air layer.

  7. 3 omega method for specific heat and thermal conductivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Lu; W. Yi; D. L. Zhang

    2002-02-06

    We present a 3 omega method for simultaneously measuring the specific heat and thermal conductivity of a rod- or filament-like specimen using a way similar to a four-probe resistance measurement. The specimen in this method needs to be electrically conductive and with a temperature-dependent resistance, for acting both as a heater to create a temperature fluctuation and as a sensor to measure its thermal response. With this method we have successfully measured the specific heat and thermal conductivity of platinum wire specimens at cryogenic temperatures, and measured those thermal quantities of tiny carbon nanotube bundles some of which are only 10^-9 g in mass.

  8. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

    2007-03-13

    A power module assembly with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate with passageways or openings for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface to an upper surface. A circuit substrate is provided and positioned on the spreader plate to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate includes a bonding layer configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening in the plate. The assembly includes power modules mounted on the circuit substrate on a surface opposite the bonding layer. The power modules are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  9. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brig B.

    2005-08-23

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process. The sintering inhibiting material (22) has a morphology adapted to improve the functionality of the sintering inhibiting material (22), characterized as continuous, nodule, rivulet, grain, crack, flake and combinations thereof and being disposed within at least some of the vertical and horizontal gaps.

  10. Low thermal resistance power module assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hassani, Vahab (Denver, CO); Vlahinos, Andreas (Castle Rock, CO); Bharathan, Desikan (Arvada, CO)

    2010-12-28

    A power module assembly (400) with low thermal resistance and enhanced heat dissipation to a cooling medium. The assembly includes a heat sink or spreader plate (410) with passageways or openings (414) for coolant that extend through the plate from a lower surface (411) to an upper surface (412). A circuit substrate (420) is provided and positioned on the spreader plate (410) to cover the coolant passageways. The circuit substrate (420) includes a bonding layer (422) configured to extend about the periphery of each of the coolant passageways and is made up of a substantially nonporous material. The bonding layer (422) may be solder material which bonds to the upper surface (412) of the plate to provide a continuous seal around the upper edge of each opening (414) in the plate. The assembly includes power modules (430) mounted on the circuit substrate (420) on a surface opposite the bonding layer (422). The power modules (430) are positioned over or proximal to the coolant passageways.

  11. Influence of surface roughness and waviness upon thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yovanovich, M. Michael

    1967-01-01

    This work deals with the phenomenon of thermal resistance between contacting solids. Attention is directed towards contiguous solids possessing both surface roughness and waviness. When two such surfaces are brought together ...

  12. Earth resistivity measurement near substation ground grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lodwig, S.G.; Mateja, S.A. [ComEd, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Proper substation grounding grid design requires good, accurate soil resistivity measurements. This data is essential to model the substation ground grid to design a safe ground grid with a satisfactory ground grid resistance at minimum cost. For substations with several decades of service, there is some concern that a grid may have deteriorated, been damaged during equipment installation or excavation, or that initial soil resistivity measurements were lost or may not have been correctly performed. Ground grid conductors change the substation surface voltage distribution. Any voltage measurements taken at the complete substation will also vary from the tests made without conductors present. During testing, current was injected in the soil by probes placed near the ground grid. The current tends to follow the ground grid conductors since copper is a far better conductor than the soil it is placed in. Resistance readings near grids will be lower than readings in undisturbed soil. Since computer models were unavailable for many years, analyzing the effect of the grid conductors on soil resistivity measurements was very difficult. As a result, soil resistivity measurements made close to substations were of little use to the engineer unless some means of correcting the measured values could be developed. This paper will present results of soil resistivity measurements near a substation ground grid before and after a ground grid has been installed and describes a means of calculating the undisturbed soil model.

  13. Weak measurement based on thermal noise effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gang Li; Tao Wang; Shuang Xu; He-Shan Song

    2015-07-03

    Weak measurement with thermal state pointer can give rise to an amplification effect, and we give the generalization of the mechanism behind the amplification with pure Gaussion state pointer. We find that the maximal value of this effect can reach thermal fluctuations, and propose two schemes to implement room temperature weak measurement with thermal state pointer in optomechanical system.

  14. Thermal and mechanical properties of EPDM/PP + thermal shock-resistant ceramic composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    Thermal and mechanical properties of EPDM/PP + thermal shock-resistant ceramic composites Witold the polymer matrix. The brittleness, B, decreases upon surface modification of the ceramic. The highest value-scale ceramic powder. To overcome the difficulty of particles dispersion and adhe- sion, the filler was modified

  15. A technique for calculating the effective thermal resistance of steel stud walls for code compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, W.C.; Swinton, M.C.; Haysom, J.C. [National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Canada`s Model National Energy Codes for Houses and for Buildings contain prescriptive requirements in the form of minimum thermal characteristics of envelope assemblies, including steel stud walls. To assist in the uniform enforcement of these requirements, it was necessary for the codes to prescribe acceptable methods of calculating the thermal resistance of steel and assemblies. The ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals proposes a simple method for predicting the thermal performance of stud walls, which is based on a weighted average of the values predicted by isothermal planes and parallel path calculation methods. The thermal resistance of 2440 mm x 2440 mm (8 ft x 8 ft) wall specimens, with 92 mm (3-5/8 in.) steel studs, was measured in a series of guarded hot box tests. Two stud gauges were evaluated, as well as two stud spacings, with one wood-based and three insulating sheathings. The measurements demonstrated that a weighting of 2:1 (isothermal planes:parallel path) provided an/ accurate prediction of the thermal resistance of walls with steel studs at 406 mm (16 in.) o.c., but that a 1:1 weighting best predicted the thermal resistance of walls with steel studs at 610 mm (24 in.) o.c. These results applied to walls with wood-based sheathing directly applied to the studs, whether or not the walls had insulating sheathing. Finally, the measurements demonstrated that an intermediate weighting of 3:2 best predicted the thermal resistance of walls with insulating sheathing installed directly onto the studs, i.e., without intermediate structural sheathing.

  16. Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    Measurements of the Thermal Neutron Scattering Kernel Li (Emily) Liu, Yaron Danon, Bjorn Becker and discussions Problems and Future study Questions #12;3 M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering experimental data used was from 1973-1974! M. Mattes and J. Keinert, Thermal Neutron Scattering Data

  17. Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    of oxidation and hot corrosion of inter- nally cooled superalloy structures in gas turbine engines [1­ 4Delamination resistance of thermal barrier coatings containing embedded ductile layers Matthew R 93106, USA b Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA

  18. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, S.Y.

    1996-01-30

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub 2X}O{sub 24}, {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}2X}Y{sub 2X}P{sub 6}O{sub 24} and {phi}{sub 1+X}Zr{sub 4{minus}X}Y{sub X}P{sub 6{minus}2X}Si{sub X}O{sub 24} wherein {phi} is either strontium or barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures. 7 figs.

  19. Ultra low thermal expansion, highly thermal shock resistant ceramic

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Limaye, Santosh Y. (1440 Sandpiper Cir. #38, Salt Lake City, UT 84117)

    1996-01-01

    Three families of ceramic compositions having the given formula: .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4 P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.2X O.sub.24, .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-2X Y.sub.2X P.sub.6 O.sub.24 and .phi..sub.1+X Zr.sub.4-X Y.sub.X P.sub.6-2X Si.sub.X O.sub.24 wherein .phi. is either Strontium or Barium and X has a value from about 0.2 to about 0.8 have been disclosed. Ceramics formed from these compositions exhibit very low, generally near neutral, thermal expansion over a wide range of elevated temperatures.

  20. Thermal emission measurement and calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Susannah (Susannah R.)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis details a measurement setup and experimental procedures for emittance measurements using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. We calibrate the FTIR measurement system using measurements of a blackbody ...

  1. Reexamination of Basal Plane Thermal Conductivity of Suspended Graphene Samples Measured by Electro-Thermal Micro-Bridge Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun; Pettes, Michael; Lindsay, Lucas R; Ou, Eric; Weathers, Annie; Moore, Arden; Yao, Zhen; Shi, Li

    2015-01-01

    Thermal transport in suspended graphene samples has been measured in prior works and this work with the use of a suspended electro-thermal micro-bridge method. These measurement results are analyzed here to evaluate and eliminate the errors caused by the extrinsic thermal contact resistance. It is noted that the thermal resistance measured in a recent work increases linearly with the suspended length of the single-layer graphene samples synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and that such a feature does not reveal the failure of Fourier s law despite the increase in the apparent thermal conductivity with length. The re-analyzed thermal conductivity of a single-layer CVD graphene sample reaches about ( 1680 180 )Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, which is close to the highest value reported for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. In comparison, the thermal conductivity values measured for two suspended exfoliated bi-layer graphene samples are about ( 880 60 ) and ( 730 60 ) Wm-1K-1 at room temperature, and approach that of the natural graphite source above room temperature. However, the low-temperature thermal conductivities of these suspended graphene samples are still considerably lower than the graphite values, with the peak thermal conductivities shifted to much higher temperatures. Analysis of the thermal conductivity data reveals that the low temperature behavior is dominated by phonon scattering by polymer residue instead of by the lateral boundary.

  2. Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.

  3. Highly defective oxides as sinter resistant thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Ramesh

    2005-08-16

    A thermal barrier coating material formed of a highly defective cubic matrix structure having a concentration of a stabilizer sufficiently high that the oxygen vacancies created by the stabilizer interact within the matrix to form multi-vacancies, thereby improving the sintering resistance of the material. The concentration of stabilizer within the cubic matrix structure is greater than that concentration of stabilizer necessary to give the matrix a peak ionic conductivity value. The concentration of stabilizer may be at least 30 wt. %. Embodiments include a cubic matrix of zirconia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % yttria, and a cubic matrix of hafnia stabilized by at least 30-50 wt. % gadolinia.

  4. Graphite having improved thermal stress resistance and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating a graphite article comprises the steps of impregnating a coke article by first heating the coke article in contact with a thermoplastic pitch at a temperature within the range of 250.degree.-300.degree. C. at a pressure within the range of 200-2000 psig for at least 4-10 hours and then heating said article at a temperature within the range of 450.degree.-485.degree. C. at a pressure of 200-2000 psig for about 16-24 hours to provide an impregnated article; heating the impregnated article for sufficient time to carbonize the impregnant to provide a second coke article, and graphitizing the second coke article. A graphite having improved thermal stress resistance results when the coke to be impregnated contains 1-3 wt.% sulfur and no added puffing inhibitors. An additional improvement in thermal stress resistance is achieved when the second coke article is heated above about 1400.degree. C. at a rate of at least 10.degree. C./minute to a temperature above the puffing temperature.

  5. Antibiotic Resistance Bioscene 17 Measurement of Mutation to Antibiotic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonovics, Janis

    . Ampicillin resistance (Apr ) in Gram-negative bacteria can arise from mutations in outer membrane proteinsAntibiotic Resistance Bioscene 17 Measurement of Mutation to Antibiotic Resistance: Ampicillin Resistance in Serratia marcescens *Pryce L. Haddix, Eric T. Paulsen and Terry F. Werner Harris-Stowe State

  6. A multi-scale iterative approach for finite element modeling of thermal contact resistance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2007-01-01

    Surface topography has long been considered a key factor in the performance of many contact applications including thermal contact resistance. However, essentially all analytical and numerical models of thermal contact ...

  7. Wavelength Invariant Bi/In Thermal Resist As A Si Anisotropic Etch Masking Layer And Direct Write Photomask Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    . Thermal modeling has confirmed the exposure time/optical energy requirements for Bi/In. Exposed these problems: an inorganic based resist activated by optically driven thermal processes, i.e. a thermal resistWavelength Invariant Bi/In Thermal Resist As A Si Anisotropic Etch Masking Layer And Direct Write

  8. Sensing of buried wastes through resistivity measurements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Bollam Muralidhar

    1991-01-01

    for detailed hydrogeologic studies. In this work, the applicability of one of the geophysical methods namely "earth resistivity" to ground water contamination problem is investigated. The earth resistivity is inversely proportional to the conductivity... of effort in a site investigation program. ACRNOWLEDGEMENTS I wish to express my sincere appreciation and thanks to Dr. Derek V. Morris, chair of the advisory committee, for his guidance and support throughout the course of my study. z would like...

  9. Resistance of fly ash-Portland cement blends to thermal shock

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pyatina, Tatiana; Sugama, Toshifumi

    2015-09-11

    Thermal-shock resistance of high-content fly ash-Portland cement blends was tested in the following ways. Activated and non-activated blends with 80-90 % fly ash F (FAF) were left to set at room temperature, then hydrated for 24 hours at 85°C and 24-more hours at 300°C and tested in five thermal-shock cycles (600°C heat - 25°C water quenching). XRD, and thermal gravimetric analyses, along with calorimetric measurements and SEM-EDX tests demonstrated that the activated blends form more hydrates after 24 hours at 300°C, and achieve a higher short-term compressive strength than do non-activated ones. Sodium meta-silicate and sodaash engendered the concomitant hydrationmore »of OPC and FAF, with the formation of mixed crystalline FAF-OPC hydrates and FAF hydrates, such as garranite, analcime, and wairakite, along with the amorphous FAF hydration products. In SS-activated and non-activated blends separate OPC (tobermorite) and FAF (amorphous gel) hydrates with no mixed crystalline products formed. The compressive strength of all tested blends decreased by nearly 50% after 5 thermal-shock test cycles. These changes in the compressive strength were accompanied by a marked decrease in the intensities of XRD patterns of the crystalline hydrates after the thermalshock. As a result, there was no significant difference in the performance of the blends with different activators« less

  10. Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Chirality of Carbon Nanotube on the Interfacial Thermal Resistance 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Yuzhu

    2014-06-05

    . In this study, the interfacial thermal resistance between a carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbonate molten salt eutectics were calculated by using numerical models that were then implemented in Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The estimates for “R_(k)” obtained...

  11. Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Resistivity measurements before and after injection Test 5 at Raft River KGRA, Idaho. Final report Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report:...

  12. Sandia Energy - Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of Thermal Stratification in a Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition Engine Home Energy Transportation Energy CRF Facilities Partnership News News & Events Research &...

  13. Thermal Behavior of As-Recovered (Unneutralized) Aspigel (Pressure Measurements)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, Randall D.

    2010-07-02

    This brief report provides unreported pressures measured in accelerating rate calorimeter experiments performed to determine the thermal sensitivity of as-recovered and unneutralized Aspigel.

  14. Improving Glass Walls Thermal Resistance In Air-Conditioned Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galal, T.; Kulaib, A. M.; Alajmi, R.; Al-Ansary. A; Abuzaid, M.

    2010-01-01

    walls; as one of envelope surfaces; has an important impact on solar radiation. Design and construction of glass walls have significant effects on building comfort and energy consumption. This paper describes methods of improving glass walls thermal...

  15. A simplified model for thermal-wave cavity self-consistent measurement of thermal diffusivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Jun, E-mail: jun.shen@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Zhou, Jianqin; Gu, Caikang [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 4250 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5 (Canada)] [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 4250 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1W5 (Canada); Neill, Stuart [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-9, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)] [Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Building M-9, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Michaelian, Kirk H.; Fairbridge, Craig [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, One Oil Drive Patch, Devon, Alberta T9G 1A8 (Canada)] [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada, One Oil Drive Patch, Devon, Alberta T9G 1A8 (Canada); Astrath, Nelson G. C.; Baesso, Mauro L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, Maringá, Paraná 87020-900 (Brazil)] [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo 5790, Maringá, Paraná 87020-900 (Brazil)

    2013-12-15

    A simplified theoretical model was developed for the thermal-wave cavity (TWC) technique in this study. This model takes thermal radiation into account and can be employed for absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivity of gas and liquid samples without any knowledge of geometrical and thermal parameters of the components of the TWC. Using this model and cavity-length scans, thermal diffusivities of air and distilled water were accurately and precisely measured as (2.191 ± 0.004) × 10{sup ?5} and (1.427 ± 0.009) × 10{sup ?7} m{sup 2}?s{sup ?1}, respectively, in very good agreement with accepted literature values.

  16. Measurement of thermal diffusivity of air using photopyroelectric interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada Received 9 is periodically heated using either a laser beam or direct ac electrical resistive heating; the other wall consists of the PVDF transducer itself at a distance L from the thermal-wave source wall. By scan- ning

  17. Thermal engineering of non-local resistance in lateral spin valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasai, S. Takahashi, Y. K.; Hirayama, S.; Mitani, S.; Hono, K.; Adachi, H.; Ieda, J.; Maekawa, S.

    2014-04-21

    We study the non-local spin transport in Permalloy/Cu lateral spin valves (LSVs) fabricated on thermally oxidized Si and MgO substrates. While these LSVs show the same magnitude of spin signals, significant substrate dependence of the baseline resistance was observed. The baseline resistance shows much weaker dependence on the inter-electrode distance than that of the spin transport observed in the Cu wires. A simple analysis of voltage-current characteristics in the baseline resistance indicates the observed result can be explained by a combination of the Peltier and Seebeck effects at the injector and detector junctions, suggesting the usage of high thermal conductivity substrate (or under-layer) is effective to reduce the baseline resistance.

  18. Study on the thermal resistance in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel by molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, M. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China); Department of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Qiu, L., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zheng, X. H., E-mail: qiulin111@sina.com, E-mail: jzzhengxinghua@163.com; Zhu, J.; Tang, D. W. [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing100190 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this article, molecular dynamics simulation was performed to study the heat transport in secondary particles chain of silica aerogel. The two adjacent particles as the basic heat transport unit were modelled to characterize the heat transfer through the calculation of thermal resistance and vibrational density of states (VDOS). The total thermal resistance of two contact particles was predicted by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations (NEMD). The defects were formed by deleting atoms in the system randomly first and performing heating and quenching process afterwards to achieve the DLCA (diffusive limited cluster-cluster aggregation) process. This kind of treatment showed a very reasonable prediction of thermal conductivity for the silica aerogels compared with the experimental values. The heat transport was great suppressed as the contact length increased or defect concentration increased. The constrain effect of heat transport was much significant when contact length fraction was in the small range (<0.5) or the defect concentration is in the high range (>0.5). Also, as the contact length increased, the role of joint thermal resistance played in the constraint of heat transport was increasing. However, the defect concentration did not affect the share of joint thermal resistance as the contact length did. VDOS of the system was calculated by numerical method to characterize the heat transport from atomic vibration view. The smaller contact length and greater defect concentration primarily affected the longitudinal acoustic modes, which ultimately influenced the heat transport between the adjacent particles.

  19. Resistance and spontaneous potential measurements over Heald Bank, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferebee, Thomas Wilson

    1974-01-01

    OF SCIENCE December 1974 Major Subject: Oceanography RESISTANCE AND SPONTANEOUS POTENTIAL MEASUREMENTS OVER HEALD BANK, TEXAS A Thesis by THOMAS WILSON FEREBEE, JR. Approved as to sty1e and content by: au. ~~ C ai rman o f C ommi ttee Head o Depar... and Bouma (1970), Bouma and others (1971), and Sweet (1972). Bouma and others (1971) and Huebner and others (1973) combined electric logging with a towed electrical array to measure the resistivity and spontaneous potential of marine sediments. The f...

  20. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  1. Measurements of the thermodynamic equation of state via the pressure dependence of thermophysical properties of air by a thermal-wave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada Received 17 April 1998; accepted, and thermal-wave-source infrared emissivity were measured. The experimental results were found of the resistively heated Cr­Ni thermal-wave thin-film strip source cavity wall was measured as a function

  2. Method for measuring thermal properties using a long-wavelength infrared thermal image

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles L. (Albuquerque, NM); Costin, Laurence S. (Albuquerque, NM); Smith, Jody L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moya, Mary M. (Albuquerque, NM); Mercier, Jeffrey A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-01-30

    A method for estimating the thermal properties of surface materials using long-wavelength thermal imagery by exploiting the differential heating histories of ground points in the vicinity of shadows. The use of differential heating histories of different ground points of the same surface material allows the use of a single image acquisition step to provide the necessary variation in measured parameters for calculation of the thermal properties of surface materials.

  3. Communication Damage monitoring of cement paste by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    on the use of electrical resistance measurement to sense strain in cement reinforced with short carbon fibers of curing [2±5]. How- ever, this paper is not concerned with carbon fiber-rein- forced cement. 2 in the elastic deformation regime. However, damage in the plastic deformation regime is much more significant

  4. Corrosion-resistant coating prepared by the thermal decomposition of lithium permanganate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferrando, W.A.

    1999-09-01

    A ceramic, metal, or metal alloy surface is covered with lithium permanganate which is then thermally decomposed to produce a corrosion resistant coating on the surface. This coating serves as a primer coating which is preferably covered with an overcoat of a sealing paint.

  5. Thermal decomposition and flammability of fire-resistant, UV/visible-sensitive polyarylates, copolymers and blends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Technology, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw, Poland Received 22 April 2002; accepted 27 June 2002 Abstract of engineering thermo- plastics with enhanced long-term resistance to elevated temperature in advanced of all existing thermo- plastics. Recently, UV/visible-sensitive polyarylates with improved thermal

  6. Thermal resistance of bridged cracks in fiber-reinforced ceramic John Dryden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zok, Frank

    -reinforced ceramic composites obtain high toughness is through the de- velopment of multiple matrix cracksThermal resistance of bridged cracks in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites John Dryden Department in a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite is analyzed. The problem is cast in terms of a unit cell comprising

  7. Molecular dynamics simulations of grain boundary thermal resistance in UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tianyi Chen; Di Chen; Bulent H. Sencer; Lin Shao

    2014-09-01

    By means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have calculated Kaptiza resistance of UO2 with or without radiation damage. For coincident site lattice boundaries of different configurations, the boundary thermal resistance of unirradiated UO2 can be well described by a parameter-reduced formula by using boundary energies as variables. We extended the study to defect-loaded UO2 by introducing damage cascades in close vicinity to the boundaries. Following cascade annealing and defect migrations towards grain boundaries, the boundary energy increases and so does Kaptiza resistance. The correlations between these two still follow the same formula extracted from the unirradiated UO2. The finding will benefit multi-scale modeling of UO2 thermal properties under extreme radiation conditions by combining effects from boundary configurations and damage levels.

  8. Anomalous Viscosity, Resistivity, and Thermal Diffusivity of the Solar Wind Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahendra K. Verma

    1995-09-05

    In this paper we have estimated typical anomalous viscosity, resistivity, and thermal difffusivity of the solar wind plasma. Since the solar wind is collsionless plasma, we have assumed that the dissipation in the solar wind occurs at proton gyro radius through wave-particle interactions. Using this dissipation length-scale and the dissipation rates calculated using MHD turbulence phenomenology [{\\it Verma et al.}, 1995a], we estimate the viscosity and proton thermal diffusivity. The resistivity and electron's thermal diffusivity have also been estimated. We find that all our transport quantities are several orders of magnitude higher than those calculated earlier using classical transport theories of {\\it Braginskii}. In this paper we have also estimated the eddy turbulent viscosity.

  9. The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berkery, J. W. Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.; Guazzotto, L.; Manickam, J.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of an anisotropic pressure of thermal particles on resistive wall mode stability in tokamak fusion plasmas is derived through kinetic theory and assessed through calculation with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 0?57301 (2005)]. The fluid anisotropy is treated as a small perturbation on the plasma equilibrium and modeled with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function. A complete stability treatment without an assumption of high frequency mode rotation leads to anisotropic kinetic terms in the dispersion relation in addition to anisotropy corrections to the fluid terms. With the density and the average pressure kept constant, when thermal particles have a higher temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field than parallel, the fluid pressure-driven ballooning destabilization term is reduced. Additionally, the stabilizing kinetic effects of the trapped thermal ions can be enhanced. Together these two effects can lead to a modest increase in resistive wall mode stability.

  10. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, V.K.

    1990-08-21

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications is disclosed. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al[sub x]N[sub y]O[sub z] layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  11. Oxidation resistant high temperature thermal cycling resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates and process for the production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sarin, Vinod K. (Lexington, MA)

    1990-01-01

    An oxidation resistant, high temperature thermal cycling resistant coated ceramic article for ceramic heat engine applications. The substrate is a silicon-based material, i.e. a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based monolithic or composite material. The coating is a graded coating of at least two layers: an intermediate AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and an aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. The composition of the coating changes gradually from that of the substrate to that of the AlN or Al.sub.x N.sub.y O.sub.z layer and further to the composition of the aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide outer layer. Other layers may be deposited over the aluminum oxide layer. A CVD process for depositing the graded coating on the substrate is also disclosed.

  12. Ultrahigh-resolution pyroelectric thermal-wave technique for the measurement of thermal diffusivity of low-concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Ultrahigh-resolution pyroelectric thermal-wave technique for the measurement of thermal diffusivity Thermal diffusivities of water-methanol and water-ethanol mixtures were measured using a thermal in real-time water pollution monitoring. © 2005 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1063/1.2074627 I

  13. Surface-resistance measurements using superconducting stripline resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hafner, Daniel; Dressel, Martin; Scheffler, Marc, E-mail: scheffl@pi1.physik.uni-stuttgart.de [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)] [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, D-70550 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    We present a method to measure the absolute surface resistance of conductive samples at a set of GHz frequencies with superconducting lead stripline resonators at temperatures 1–6 K. The stripline structure can easily be applied for bulk samples and allows direct calculation of the surface resistance without the requirement of additional calibration measurements or sample reference points. We further describe a correction method to reduce experimental background on high-Q resonance modes by exploiting TEM-properties of the external cabling. We then show applications of this method to the reference materials gold, tantalum, and tin, which include the anomalous skin effect and conventional superconductivity. Furthermore, we extract the complex optical conductivity for an all-lead stripline resonator to find a coherence peak and the superconducting gap of lead.

  14. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications John D. Pye1 , Clifford K. Ho2 2 6125 8778, john.pye@anu.edu.au. 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. ckho of the solar-weighted reflectivity of the receiver component in CSP systems. Such reflectivity measurement

  15. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marat Khafizov; Clarissa Yablinsky; Todd Allen; David Hurley

    2014-04-01

    We investigate the influence of proton irradiation on thermal conductivity in single crystal silicon. We apply laser based modulated thermoreflectance technique to extract the change in conductivity of the thin layer damaged by proton irradiation. Unlike time domain thermoreflectance techniques that require application of a metal film, we perform our measurement on uncoated samples. This provides greater sensitivity to the change in conductivity of the thin damaged layer. Using sample temperature as a parameter provides a means to deduce the primary defect structures that limit thermal transport. We find that under high temperature irradiation the degradation of thermal conductivity is caused primarily by extended defects.

  16. Measurement and modeling thermal conductivity of baked products 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Islas Rubio, Alma Rosa

    1990-01-01

    MEASUREMENT AND MODELING THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF BAKED PRODUCTS A Thesis by ALMA ROSA ISLAS RUBIO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies ot' Iexas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... on thermal conductivity. Water content did not appear to be a, significant factor over the limited water content range studied. The models k = 0. 0598 + 0. 1270D and k = 0. 0844 + 0. 0892D were developed for bread and cakes, respectively. The statistical...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2005-02-07

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete high oil saturated shallow sand intervals. During the second report period, well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months. Post workover well production was marginally increased to 3.7 BOPD on average for the following six months.

  18. The Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Tile Roofs with and without Batten Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, William A [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Clay and concrete tile roofs were installed on a fully instrumented attic test facility operating in East Tennessee s climate. Roof, attic and deck temperatures and heat flows were recorded for each of the tile roofs and also on an adjacent attic cavity covered with a conventionally pigmented and direct-nailed asphalt shingle roof. The data were used to benchmark a computer tool for simulation of roofs and attics and the tool used to develop an approach for computing an equivalent seasonal R-value for sub-tile venting. The approach computed equal heat fluxes through the ceilings of roofs having different combinations of surface radiation properties and or building constructions. A direct nailed shingle roof served as a control for estimating the equivalent thermal resistance of the air space. Simulations were benchmarked to data in the ASHRAE Fundamentals for the thermal resistance of inclined and closed air spaces.

  19. Measurements of thermal photons in heavy ion collisions with PHENIX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torsten Dahms; for the PHENIX Collaboration

    2008-04-29

    Thermal photons are thought to be the ideal probe to measure the temperature of the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy ion collisions. PHENIX has measured direct photons with p_T < 5 GeV/c via their internal conversions into e+e- pairs in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 200 GeV and has now provided a baseline measurement from p+p data.

  20. SSC 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat thermal measurement results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Nicol, T.H.; Ruschman, M.K.; Schoo, C.J.

    1993-05-01

    A prototype Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 50 mm dipole magnet cryostat, DCA323, was instrumented at Fermilab and delivered to the SSC Laboratory for installation into the accelerator systems string test facility. In series with other magnets, the instrumented cryostat will be used to quantify and verify cryostat thermal performance with respect to design requirements. Prior to leaving Fermilab, DCA323 was subjected to magnetic testing at the Magnet Test Facility (MTF). This presented an opportunity to obtain preliminary thermal performance data under simulated operating conditions. It should be noted that measurements of overall cryostat thermal performance were not possible during the MTF measurements as the magnet test stands are designed for magnetic rather than thermal testing. They are not designed to limit heat inleak to the ends of the cryostat, which has been shown to have a significant effect on overall measured thermal performance. Nonetheless, these measurements do offer insight into the performance of several of the cryostat components and sub-systems.

  1. Residual Stress Measurements in Side Bonded Resistance Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PAUL, KORINKO

    2005-04-18

    Resistance upset welding is used to attach small diameter machined tubes to small gas vessels. Recently there has been interest in determining the level of residual stresses caused by this attachment method and its influence on environmental interactions. A test program was initiated to determine the residual stresses present due to welding using the nominal weld parameters and varying the interference between the foot and the counter bore. In this paper, the residual stress measurement technique is described, the welding conditions are provided, and the residual stress due to welding at the nominal conditions are presented.

  2. Development of Bypassed Oil Reserves Using Behind Casing Resistivity Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner

    2004-02-14

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF BYPASSED OIL RESERVES USING BEHIND CASING RESISTIVITY MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Conner; Jeffrey A. Blesener

    2006-04-02

    Tubing and rods of the S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.1 well were pulled and the well was prepared for running of Schlumberger's Cased Hole Formation Resistivity Tool (CHFR) in selected intervals. The CHFR tool was successfully run and data was captured. The CHFR formation resistivity readings were compared to original open hole resistivity measurements. Separation between the original and CHFR resistivity curves indicate both swept and un-swept sand intervals. Both watered out sand intervals and those with higher remaining oil saturation have been identified. Due to the nature of these turbidite sands being stratigraphically continuous, both the swept and unswept layers have been correlated across to one of the four nearby offset shallow wells. As a result of the cased hole logging, one well was selected for a workover to recomplete and test suspected oil saturated shallow sand intervals. Well S.P. Pedro-Nepple No.2 was plugged back with cement excluding the previously existing production interval, squeeze cemented behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Bell'' zone and placed on production to develop potential new oil reserves and increase overall well productivity. Prior workover production averaged 3.0 BOPD for the previous six-months from the original ''Meyer'' completion interval. Post workover well production was increased to 5.3 BOPD on average for the following fifteen months. In December 2005, a bridge plug was installed above the ''Bell'' zone to test the ''Foix'' zone. Another cement squeeze was performed behind casing, selectively perforated in the shallower ''Foix'' zone and placed on production. The ''Foix'' test has produced water and a trace of oil for two months.

  4. Measurement and quantification of aggregate thermal coefficient of expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chande, Gautam U

    1997-01-01

    method of cells 18 Summary. CHAPTER III DESCRIPTION OF TEST METHOD 20 Introduction 20 Test method 20 Apparatus . Calibration. 20 . 22 Procedure 24 Sample preparation 25 Measurement 26 Results of dilatometer method. 27 Scanning electron... 46 64 . . . 71 LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure I Aggregate mortar matrix . 8 Figure 2 Models for concrete 17 Figure 3. Glass flask dilatometer Figure 4 Equipment components . Figure 5 Aggregate samples for measurement of thermal expansion 21 22...

  5. Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal-term behavior of ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE) is critical to the design and energy analysis of ground in the tube to guarantee a low convective heat transfer resistance. However, for some antifreeze types

  6. Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    source heat pump (GSHP) systems. Thermal load profiles vary significantly from building to buildingModeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal-term behavior of ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE) is critical to the design and energy analysis of ground

  7. High Resolution Viscosity Measurement by Thermal Noise Detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandoval, Felipe Aguilar; Bellon, Ludovic; Melo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An interferometric method is implemented in order to accurately assess the thermal fluctuations of a micro-cantilever sensor in liquid environments. The power spectrum density (PSD) of thermal fluctuations together with Sader's model of the cantilever allow for the indirect measurement of the liquid viscosity with good accuracy. The good quality of the deflection signal and the characteristic low noise of the instrument allow for the detection and corrections of drawbacks due to both the cantilever shape irregularities and the uncertainties on the position of the laser spot at the fluctuating end of the cantilever. Variation of viscosity below 0.03 mPa$\\cdot$s was detected with the alternative to achieve measurements with a volume as low as 50 $\\mu$L.

  8. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?thermal absorbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiaobai; Wang, Xiaoxin; Liu, Jifeng; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Juchuan

    2014-08-21

    Metal oxidation at high temperatures has long been a challenge in cermet solar thermal absorbers, which impedes the development of atmospherically stable, high-temperature, high-performance concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. In this work, we demonstrate solution-processed Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?thermal absorbers that exhibit a strong anti-oxidation behavior up to 600?°C in air. The thermal stability is far superior to previously reported Ni nanoparticle-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} selective solar thermal absorbers, which readily oxidize at 450?°C. The SiO{sub x} (x?resistant Ni nanochain-SiO{sub x} (x?measured at 300?°C. These results open the door towards atmospheric stable, high temperature, high-performance solar selective absorber coatings processed by low-cost solution-chemical methods for future generations of CSP systems.

  9. Design and calibration of a test facility for MLI thermal performance measurements below 80K. [Multilayer insulation (MLI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.; Kunzelman, R.; Ruschman, M.; Schoo, C.

    1992-04-01

    The design geometry of the SSC dipole cryostat includes active thermal radiation shields operating at 80K and 20K respectively. Extensive measurements conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) have been used to evaluate the thermal performance of candidate multilayer insulation (MLI) systems for the 80K thermal shield, with the present system design based upon those measurement results. With the 80K MLI geometry established, efforts have focused on measuring the performance of MLI systems near 20K. A redesign of the HLTF has produced a measurement facility capable of conducting measurements with the warm boundary fixed at 80K and the cold boundary variable from 10K to 50K. Removing the 80K shield permits measurements with a warm boundary at 300K. The 80K boundary consists of a copper shield thermally anchored to a liquid nitrogen reservoir. The cold boundary consists of a copper anchor plate whose temperature is varied through boil-off gas from a 500 liter helium supply dewar. A transfer line heat exchanger supplies the boil-off gas to the anchor plate at a constant and controlled rate. The gas, which serves as cooling gas, is routed through a copper cooling tube soldered into the anchor plate. Varying the cooling gas flow rate varies the amount of refrigeration supplied to the anchor plate, thereby determining the plate temperature. A resistance heater installed on the anchor plate is regulated by a cryogenic temperature controller to provide final temperature control. Heat leak values are measured using a heatmeter which senses heat flow as a temperature gradient across a fixed thermal impedance. Since the thermal conductivity of the thermal impedance changes with temperature, the heatmeter is calibrated at key cold boundary temperatures. Thus, the system is capable of obtaining measurement data under a variety of system conditions. 7 refs.

  10. Measuring PV System Series Resistance Without Full IV Curves Joshua S. Stein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measuring PV System Series Resistance Without Full IV Curves Joshua S. Stein1 , Shawn McCaslin2 resistance of the PV module, string, or array that does not require measuring a full IV curve and current, which can be readily obtained using standard PV monitoring equipment; measured short circuit

  11. Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved electroluminescence imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1/12 Measuring sheet resistance of CIGS solar cell's window layer by spatially resolved model to simulate the behavior of CIGS solar cells based on the spread sheet resistance effect on the determination of the window layer sheet resistance in CIGS solar cells, but our approach could be transferred

  12. Simultaneous temperature and velocity Lagrangian measurements in turbulent thermal convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liot, O; Zonta, F; Chibbaro, S; Coudarchet, T; Gasteuil, Y; Pinton, J -F; Salort, J; Chillà, F

    2015-01-01

    We report joint Lagrangian velocity and temperature measurements in turbulent thermal convection. Measurements are performed using an improved version (extended autonomy) of the neutrally-buoyant instrumented particle that was used by to performed experiments in a parallelepipedic Rayleigh-Benard cell. The temperature signal is obtained from a RFtransmitter. Simultaneously, we determine particle's position and velocity with one camera, which grants access to the Lagrangian heat flux. Due to the extended autonomy of the present particle, we obtain well converged temperature and velocity statistics, as well as pseudo-eulerian maps of velocity and heat flux. Present experimental results have also been compared with the results obtained by a corresponding campaign of Direct Numerical Simulations and Lagrangian Tracking of massless tracers. The comparison between experimental and numerical results show the accuracy and reliability of our experimental measurements. Finally, the analysis of lagrangian velocity and t...

  13. Measurement of directional thermal infrared emissivity of vegetation and soils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, J.M. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Soil Science; Balick, L.K. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-10-01

    A new method has been developed for measuring directional thermal emissivity as a function of view angle for plant canopies and soils using two infrared thermometers each sensitive to a different wavelength band. By calibrating the two infrared thermometers to 0.1C consistency, canopy directional emissivity can be estimated with typical errors less than 0.005 in the 8--14 um wavelength band, depending on clarity of the sky and corrections for CO{sub 2} absorption by the atmosphere. A theoretical justification for the method is developed along with an error analysis. Laboratory measurements were used to develop corrections for CO{sub 2}, absorption and a field calibration method is used to obtain the necessary 0.1C consistency for relatively low cost infrared thermometers. The emissivity of alfalfa (LAI=2.5) and corn (LAI=3.2) was near 0.995 and independent of view angle. Individual corn leaves had an emissivity of 0.97. A wheat (LAI=3.0) canopy had an emissivity of 0.985 at nadir and 0.975 at 75 degree view angle. The canopy emissivity values tend to be higher than values in the literature, and are useful for converting infrared thermometer measurements to kinetic temperature and interpreting satellite thermal observations.

  14. Thermal Transport in Nanoporous Materials for Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, Jin

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Conductivity Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal ConductivityThermal Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Thermal

  15. Resistivity measurements at the bit provide real-time formation evaluation before invasion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergt, D.

    1995-06-01

    Real-time formation evaluation with today`s conventional horizontal drilling techniques is limited by the distance between the bit and resistivity measurements. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) sensors reach the formation long before wireline measurements, and so generally view it before wellbore degradation, but not before some invasion has occurred. Rapid invasion, called spurt, may mask true resistivity in some formations. The solution to this problem is to relocate logging measurements to the bit itself. A new LWD resistivity tool improves and simplifies formation evaluation by allowing geologists to visualize and log the formation around the wellbore before mud invasion or wellbore damage has occurred. The tool is normally run as a near-bit stabilizer on a rotary bottomhole assembly or just above the motor in a steerable assembly. It makes five formation evaluation resistivity measurements and an azimuthal gamma ray measurement. This paper reviews the performance of this tool.

  16. Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ionchamber for Process Tritium Measurement and use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Development of a Novel Contamination Resistant Ionchamber for Process Tritium Measurement and use in the JET First Trace Tritium Experiment

  17. Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bane, K L F; Tu, J J

    2006-01-01

    Reflectivity Measurements for Copper and Aluminumin the Far Infrared and the Resistive Wall Impedance in the LCLS Undulator

  18. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measuring Thermal Evolution...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Tracer Interpretation Project Description The concepts and theory behind the use of heat-sensitive tracers to study the thermal evolution of geothermal reservoirs was...

  19. Enhancement of thermal stability and water resistance in yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2}/Ge gate stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Cimang, E-mail: cimang@adam.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Hyun Lee, Choong; Zhang, Wenfeng; Nishimura, Tomonori; Nagashio, Kosuke; Toriumi, Akira [Department of Materials Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); JST, CREST, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    We have systematically investigated the material and electrical properties of yttrium-doped GeO{sub 2} (Y-GeO{sub 2}) on Germanium (Ge). A significant improvement of both thermal stability and water resistance were demonstrated by Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack, compared to that of pure GeO{sub 2}/Ge stack. The excellent electrical properties of Y-GeO{sub 2}/Ge stacks with low D{sub it} were presented as well as enhancement of dielectric constant in Y-GeO{sub 2} layer, which is beneficial for further equivalent oxide thickness scaling of Ge gate stack. The improvement of thermal stability and water resistance are discussed both in terms of the Gibbs free energy lowering and network modification of Y-GeO{sub 2}.

  20. A Study of UO2 Grain Boundary Structure and Thermal Resistance Change under Irradiation using Molecular Dynamics Simulations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tianyi

    2013-08-02

    OF UO2 GRAIN BOUNDARY STUCTURE AND THERMAL RESISTANCE CHANGE UNDER IRRADIATION USING MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS A Thesis by TIANYI CHEN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...] As the fuel expands to reach the cladding, the fuel cladding interaction begins to draw attention. The first thing is the fuel/cladding mechanical interaction. This phenomenon is very serious in early designed reactors since they do not have enough spaces...

  1. Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    renewed interest in the develop- ment of new methods of determining the thermal properties of materials in the context of the rapid advances in materials technology and the many new applications of materials under very severe environ- mental conditions. Thermal diffusivity of a material is a very important parameter

  2. Impact of Columns and Beams on the Thermal Resistance of the Building Envelope 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Omar, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of thermal bridging due to columns and beams on energy consumption and peak load requirements of typical private residential villas in Kuwait. Although it is common practice to apply thermal insulation to walls...

  3. Journal of Power Sources 161 (2006) 11061115 Direct measurement of through-plane thermal conductivity and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01

    and Diagnostics Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University® membrane; Diffusion media; Thermal contact resistance 1. Introduction Detailed knowledge of the internal management. In a fuel cell, local variation in temperature can be attributed to the waste heat generation

  4. Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wunderle, Stefan

    Validation of satellite observed thermal emission with in-situ measurements over an urban surface: Meteorology applied to urban pollution problems). Besides very detailed field measurements of the structure and validations of thermal satellite imagery are conducted in rural, mostly homogeneous areas (Sobrino et al

  5. Radiometric comparison of Mars Climate Sounder and Thermal Emission spectrometer measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandfield, Joshua L.

    accounting for the local time differences. Any potential interannual variations in global average temperature Sounder (MCS) nadir oriented thermal infrared and solar channel measurements are com- pared with Thermal compared by convolving the TES data using the MCS spectral band passes. The MCS solar channel measurements

  6. Thermal Mediation in a Natural Littoral Wetland: Measurements and Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andradottir, Hrund O.

    As a river flows through shallow littoral regions such as wetlands, forebays, and side arms, the temperature of the water is modified through atmospheric heat exchange. This process, which we call thermal mediation, can ...

  7. Thermal Transport Measurement of Silicon-Germanium Nanowires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwak, Yunki

    2010-10-12

    Thermal properties of one dimensional nanostructures are of interest for thermoelectric energy conversion. Thermoelectric efficiency is related to non dimensional thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT=S^2 o T/k, where S ,o , k and T are Seebeck...

  8. Portable measurement system for soil resistivity and application to Quaternary clayey sediment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakagawa, Koichi; Morii, Takeo

    1999-07-01

    A simple device to measure electrical resistivity has been developed for field and laboratory use. The measurement system comprises a probe unit, current wave generator, amplified, A/D converter, data acquisition unit with RS-232C interface and notebook personal computer. The system is applicable to soils and soft rocks as long as the probe needles can pierce into them. Frequency range of the measurement system extends from 100 Hz to 10 MHz. The total error of the system is less than 5%. In situ measurements of the resistivity and shear resistance by means of pocket-sized penetrometer were applied to Pleistocene clayey beds. Some laboratory tests were also conducted to examine the interpretation of the in situ resistivity. Marine and non-marine clayey sediments are different in their resistivities of the stratum by in situ test and the clay suspension sampled from the strata. Physical and mechanical properties were compared with the resistivity and general relationships among them were explored to clarify the characteristics of inter-particle bonding. Some possible mechanism regarding the peculiar weathering of clayey sediment or mudstone beds is discussed from the viewpoint of physico-chemical process, which is conspicuous especially near the ground surface.

  9. SIMULATION OF RESISTIVITY LOGGING-WHILE-DRILLING (LWD) MEASUREMENTS USING A SELF-ADAPTIVE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SIMULATION OF RESISTIVITY LOGGING-WHILE-DRILLING (LWD) MEASUREMENTS USING A SELF-ADAPTIVE GOAL simulate electromagnetic (EM) measurements acquired with a Logging-While- Drilling (LWD) instrument-oriented hp-adaptivity becomes essential to simulate LWD instruments, since it reduces the computational cost

  10. Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    on a variety of 0.43 cm2 area, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) polycrystalline thin film solar cellsEffects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a) John H Energy Materials and Solar Cells on April 17, 1994) Admittance measurements have been performed

  11. Impact damage of carbon fiber polymermatrix composites, studied by electrical resistance measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Deborah D.L.

    properties; D. Non-destructive testing; Damage 1. Introduction Impact is a commonly encountered cause measurement, which is non-destructive, to evaluate impact damage after damage affliction. Although, resistance of the techniques, such as residual strength measurement, are destructive. Study of the impact damage process has

  12. ON THE INFLUENCE OF COLD WORK ON RESISTIVITY VARIATIONS WITH THERMAL EXPOSURE IN IN-718 NICKEL-BASE SUPERALLOY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhi, Elhoucine; Nagy, Peter B. [Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2010-02-22

    In nickel-base superalloys, irreversible electrical conductivity changes occur above a transition temperature where thermally-activated microstructural evolution initiates. The electrical conductivity first decreases above about 450 deg. C then increases above 600 deg. C. However, the presence of plastic deformation results in accelerated microstructure evolution at an earlier transition temperature. It was recently suggested that this well-known phenomenon might explain the notable conductivity difference between the peened near-surface part and the intact part at sufficiently large depth in surface-treated specimens. The influence of cold work on the electrical conductivity change with thermal exposure offers a probable answer to one of the main remaining questions in eddy current residual stress assessment, namely unusually fast and occasionally even non-monotonic decay of the apparent eddy current conductivity (AECC) change that was observed at temperatures as low as 400 deg. C. To validate this explanation, the present study investigates the influence of cold work on low-frequency Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) resistivity variations with thermal exposure. In-situ resistivity monitoring was conducted throughout various heating cycles using the ACPD technique. IN-718 nickel-base superalloy specimens with different levels of cold work were exposed to gradually increasing peak temperatures from 400 deg. C to 800 deg. C. The results indicate that the initial irreversible rise in resistivity is approximately one order of magnitude higher and occurs at about 50 deg. C lower temperature in cold-worked samples of 30% plastic strain than in the intact material.

  13. Bi/In Bimetallic Thermal Resists for Microfabrication, Photomasks and Micromachining Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Glenn H.

    that it can be used as a direct laser write electroplating resist material. Copper and nickel plating were the potential to remove many problems generated by spin-coating, such as edge bead formation and coating

  14. Lifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Toughness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, John W.

    Lifetime Assessment for Thermal Barrier Coatings: Tests for Measuring Mixed Mode Delamination Mechanisms leading to degradation of the adherence of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) used in aircraft of coatings have not emerged based on predictions of the degradation processes due to their complexity

  15. StressCam: Non-contact Measurement of Users' Emotional States through Thermal Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    states of computer users. The method is based on thermal imaging of the face. To the user, the imaging of Energy Expenditure (EE). The new method is highly correlated with the established, but awkward EEStressCam: Non-contact Measurement of Users' Emotional States through Thermal Imaging Colin Puri1

  16. Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Power Handling of the Bulk Tungsten Divertor Row at JET: First Measurements and Comparison to the GTM Thermal Model

  17. Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pararell Electron temperature and Density Gradients measured in the JET Mk I Divertor using Thermal Helium Beams

  18. Comparison of Dynamic Data Analysis Methods for Thermal Property Measurement of a Building Wall 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, K.; Gong, Y.

    2006-01-01

    results more accurate. In this paper, two methods for analyzing the building wall's thermal transmittance, where data is measured on site, are presented. They are respectively called the dynamic analysis method and the system identification method. The two...

  19. Effective thermal conductivity measurements relevant to deep borehole nuclear waste disposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh, Samina

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to measure the effective thermal conductivity of a number of materials (particle beds, and fluids) proposed for use in and around canisters for disposal of high level nuclear waste in deep ...

  20. Development of a nanostructure thermal property measurement platform compatible with a transmission electron microscope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, C. Thomas (Charles Thomas)

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the electrical and thermal transport properties of one-dimensional nanostructures (e.g., nanotubes and nanowires) typically are obtained without detailed knowledge of the specimen's atomicscale structure ...

  1. SHORT-TERM THERMAL RESISTANCE OF ZOEAE OF 10 SPECIES OF CRABS FROM PUGET SOUND, WASHINGTON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the im,pact of entrainment and the discharge of altered waste water on the associated life; temperature through heat exchangers of steam electric stations and in mixing with thermal plumes of the waste water

  2. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Unlike time domain thermoreflectance techniques that require application of a metal film, we perform our measurement on uncoated samples. This provides greater sensitivity to...

  3. Transient Non-linear Thermal FEM Simulation of Smart Power Switches and Verification by Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Kosel; R. Sleik; M. Glavanovics

    2008-01-07

    Thermal FEM (Finite Element Method) simulations can be used to predict the thermal behavior of power semiconductors in application. Most power semiconductors are made of silicon. Silicon thermal material properties are significantly temperature dependent. In this paper, validity of a common non-linear silicon material model is verified by transient non-linear thermal FEM simulations of Smart Power Switches and measurements. For verification, over-temperature protection behavior of Smart Power Switches is employed. This protection turns off the switch at a pre-defined temperature which is used as a temperature reference in the investigation. Power dissipation generated during a thermal overload event of two Smart Power devices is measured and used as an input stimulus to transient thermal FEM simulations. The duration time of the event together with the temperature reference is confronted with simulation results and thus the validity of the silicon model is proved. In addition, the impact of non-linear thermal properties of silicon on the thermal impedance of power semiconductors is shown.

  4. A Measurement Method of Actual Thermal Performance of Detached Houses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iwamae, A.; Nagai, H.; Miura, H.

    2004-01-01

    method in Japan if people don?t have time of more than 3 days for the measurement and have many measurement tools. The other hand, SP (Swedish National Testing and Resear itute) have developed the testing method for prefabricated house which is based... OF DETACHED HOUSES Atsushi IWAMAE Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Sc l of Science and Engineering, Kinki University 3-4-1 Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, Japan 577-8502 Hisaya NAGAI Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, Faculty...

  5. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-04-11

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes. 3 figs.

  6. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  7. Thermal resistance and phonon scattering at the interface between carbon nanotube and amorphous polyethylene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, James

    dynamics study of heat conduction in carbon nanotube (CNT)/polyethylene (PE) composites. Particular thermal conductivity of a macroscopic CNT/PE composite is quantified based on an effective medium approximation model. Ó 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Polymer composites are employed

  8. Differential heating: A versatile method for thermal conductivity measurements in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, Y.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Sio, H.; Correa, A.; Shepherd, R.; Landen, O.; London, R. A.; Sterne, P. A.; Whitley, H. D.; Fratanduono, D.; et al

    2015-09-04

    We propose a method for thermal conductivity measurements of high energy density matter based on differential heating. A temperature gradient is created either by surface heating of one material or at an interface between two materials by different energy deposition. The subsequent heat conduction across the temperature gradient is observed by various time-resolved probing techniques. Conceptual designs of such measurements using laser heating, proton heating, and x-ray heating are presented. As a result, the sensitivity of the measurements to thermal conductivity is confirmed by simulations.

  9. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toews, W. H.; Hill, R. W.

    2014-04-15

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness.

  10. Solar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    for the Solar Orbiter mission. One can already figure out what could be the Te gra- dients in this radial rangeSolar wind electron temperature and density measurements on the Solar Orbiter with thermal noise Abstract The measurement of the solar wind electron temperature in the unexplored region between 1 and 45

  11. Title: StressCam: Non-contact Measurement of Users' Emotional States through Thermal Imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and compared against real-time measurements of Energy Expenditure (EE). The new method is highly correlatedTitle: StressCam: Non-contact Measurement of Users' Emotional States through Thermal Imaging: We present a novel methodology for monitoring the affective state of computer users. The method

  12. A method for measuring non-linear elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.A.; Ruud, J.A.; Kaya, A.C.; deLorenzi, H.G.

    1995-06-01

    Accurate characterization of the elastic properties of thermal barrier coatings (TBC`s) is important for failure prediction. Thermally sprayed coatings often exhibit anisotropic and nonlinear elastic properties due to the coating microstructure that results from the thermal spray process. A method was developed for determining the elastic behavior of TBC`s on substrates by measuring the in-plane modulus as a function of residual coating stress. The in-plane modulus was determined by resonant frequency measurement, and the residual stress was measured from the substrate curvature. The residual stress was varied both by increasing the temperature of the TBC and substrate and by applying compressive plastic strain to the metal substrate. The stress-strain behavior of the TBC was derived from the data for modulus versus residual stress, and significant nonlinear elastic behavior was observed.

  13. Impact of Temperature-dependent resistivity and thermal conduction on plasmoid Instabilities in current sheets in the solar corona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Lei; Lin, Jun; Ziegler, Udo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate, by means of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations, the impact of temperature-dependent resistivity and thermal conduction on the development of plasmoid instabilities in reconnecting current sheets in the solar corona. We find that the plasma temperature in the current sheet region increases with time and it becomes greater than that in the inflow region. As secondary magnetic islands appear, the highest temperature is not always found at the reconnection $X$-points, but also inside the secondary islands. One of the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction is to decrease the temperature of the reconnecting $X-$points and transfer the heat into the $O-$points, the plasmoids, where it gets trapped. In the cases with temperature-dependent magnetic diffusivity, $\\eta \\sim T^{-3/2}$, the decrease in plasma temperature at the $X-$points leads to: (i) increase in the magnetic diffusivity until the characteristic time for magnetic diffusion becomes comparable to that of therma...

  14. Thermal properties measurements on rocksalt samples from the site of the proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, J. N.; McCreight, J. E.

    1980-05-13

    Thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, and specific heat measurements have been made on a number of specimens. The specific heat measurements were made by differential scanning calorimetry and the results showed that the specific heats of both clean rocksalt samples and of dirty samples with less than or equal to 7% insoluble impurities were essentially identical to the published specific heat for pure NaCl. In the thermal expansion measurements, two distinct groups of samples were identified. The first group had average expansion coefficients in the temperature range 300 to 700/sup 0/K close to that reported for pure NaCl. All the samples in this group were composed predominantly of halite, with only small amounts of other minerals or materials present. A second group of samples had expansion coefficients only approx. 0.3 to 0.5 that of NaCl. The samples in this group were composed largely of polyhalite, anhydrite, or siltstone. The measurements first reported by Acton on the thermal conductivity of samples taken from a borehole at the site of the proposed nuclear waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM, have been extended to include additional samples and higher temperature measurements. This is not believed to be the result of the onset of radiative thermal transport because the deviations are negative as well as positive. Infrared transmission measurements on rocksalt samples from the proposed WIPP site show no transmission in the 3 to 10 ..mu..m wavelength range for samples > 5 cm thick. Use of the estimated infrared absorption coefficient leads to the conclusion that there is little radiative heat transport for T < 800/sup 0/K. All samples were dense with little or no porosity evident. On the basis of these experiments, it is concluded that the thermal conductivity of materials found at the site can be predicted to an accuracy +- 30% from knowledge of the composition and grain size of these materials.

  15. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.

    1999-01-19

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature. 5 figs.

  16. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Ericson, M. Nance (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  17. Advanced Testing Techniques to Measure the PWSCC Resistance of Alloy 690 and its Weld Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.Andreson

    2004-10-01

    Wrought Alloy 600 and its weld metals (Alloy 182 and Alloy 82) were originally used in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) due to the material's inherent resistance to general corrosion in a number of aggressive environments and because of a coefficient of thermal expansion that is very close to that of low alloy and carbon steel. Over the last thirty years, stress corrosion cracking in PWR primary water (PWSCC) has been observed in numerous Alloy 600 component items and associated welds, sometimes after relatively long incubation times. The occurrence of PWSCC has been responsible for significant downtime and replacement power costs. As part of an ongoing, comprehensive program involving utilities, reactor vendors and engineering/research organizations, this report will help to ensure that corrosion degradation of nickel-base alloys does not limit service life and that full benefit can be obtained from improved designs for both replacement components and new reactors.

  18. Pump-probe measurements of the thermal conductivity tensor for materials lacking in-plane symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feser, Joseph P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Liu, Jun; Cahill, David G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    We previously demonstrated an extension of time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) which utilizes offset pump and probe laser locations to measure in-plane thermal transport properties of multilayers. However, the technique was limited to systems of transversely isotropic materials studied using axisymmetric laser intensities. Here, we extend the mathematics so that data reduction can be performed on non-transversely isotropic systems. An analytic solution of the diffusion equation for an N-layer system is given, where each layer has a homogenous but otherwise arbitrary thermal conductivity tensor and the illuminating spots have arbitrary intensity profiles. As a demonstration, we use both TDTR and time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect measurements to obtain thermal conductivity tensor elements of <110> ?-SiO{sub 2}. We show that the out-of-phase beam offset sweep has full-width half-maxima that contains nearly independent sensitivity to the in-plane thermal conductivity corresponding to the scanning direction. Also, we demonstrate a Nb-V alloy as a low thermal conductivity TDTR transducer layer that helps improve the accuracy of in-plane measurements.

  19. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1997-01-01

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation.

  20. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III

    1997-05-27

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity are disclosed. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie`s Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. 7 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V. (Williamsburg, VA); Dotson, Danny Wayne (Gloucester, VA)

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  2. Quantum optimality of photon counting for temperature measurement of thermal astronomical sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranjith Nair; Mankei Tsang

    2015-07-28

    Using the quantum Cram\\'{e}r-Rao bound from quantum estimation theory, we derive a fundamental quantum limit on the sensitivity of a temperature measurement of a thermal astronomical source. This limit is expressed in terms of the source temperature $T_s$, input spectral bandwidth $\\Delta \

  3. Signal generation mechanisms, intracavity-gas thermal-diffusivity temperature dependence, and absolute infrared emissivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    Diagnostics Laboratories (PODL), University of Toronto, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 boundary layer adjacent to the cavity thermal source a metallic Cr­Ni alloy strip . This resulted cavity lengths allowed the measurement of the absolute infrared emissivity of the thin Cr­Ni strip source

  4. Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films W. Holmes,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Paul L.

    Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films W. Holmes,a) J. M. Gildemeister, and P. L. Richardsb) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 V. Kotsuboc

  5. Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Solar wind electron density and temperature over solar cycle 23: Thermal noise measurements on Wind; received in revised form 6 April 2005; accepted 25 April 2005 Abstract We present the solar wind plasma parameters obtained from the Wind spacecraft during more than nine years, encompassing almost the whole solar

  6. Formation resistivity measurements from within a cased well used to quantitatively determine the amount of oil and gas present

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Methods to quantitatively determine the separate amounts of oil and gas in a geological formation adjacent to a cased well using measurements of formation resistivity. The steps include obtaining resistivity measurements from within a cased well of a given formation, obtaining the porosity, obtaining the resistivity of formation water present, computing the combined amounts of oil and gas present using Archie's Equations, determining the relative amounts of oil and gas present from measurements within a cased well, and then quantitatively determining the separate amounts of oil and gas present in the formation. Resistivity measurements are obtained from within the cased well by conducting A.C. current from within the cased well to a remote electrode at a frequency that is within the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 20 Hz.

  7. Calorimetric and Resistive Measurements of Amorphous Splat Cooled La1-Xgax Foils 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SHULL, WH; Naugle, Donald G.; POON, SJ; JOHNSON, WL.

    1978-01-01

    VOLUME 18, NUMBER 7 1 OCTOBER 1978 Calorimetric and resistive measurements of amorphous "splat cooled" Lat Ga? foils %. H. Shull' and D. G. Naugle Texax Ad'cM University, College Station, Texas 77843 and S. J. Poon~ and W. L. Johnson 8'. M. Keck...- stants as large as 2.4 values of 2he/ks T, around 4.5; (ii) the electronic properties are well described by the simple free-electron model with the exception of the alloy systems of Bi and Pb which appear to be more complicated; and (iii) n'(re) F...

  8. Measurements of Non-Thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brooks, David H

    2015-01-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1--5MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of $\\textit{Hinode}$ Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17km s$^{-1}$, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfv\\'en wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small their measurements are ...

  9. Pointer-based simultaneous measurements of conjugate observables in a thermal environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raoul Heese; Matthias Freyberger

    2014-05-06

    We combine traditional pointer-based simultaneous measurements of conjugate observables with the concept of quantum Brownian motion of multipartite systems to phenomenologically model simultaneous measurements of conjugate observables in a thermal environment. This approach provides us with a formal solution of the complete measurement dynamics for quadratic Hamiltonians and we can therefore discuss the measurement uncertainty and optimal measurement times. As a main result, we obtain a lower bound for the uncertainty of a noisy measurement, which is an extension of a previously known uncertainty relation and in which the squeezing of the system state to be measured plays an important role. This also allows us to classify minimal uncertainty states in more detail.

  10. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail III, William Banning; Momii, Steven Thomas

    2003-06-10

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  11. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    2000-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  12. Electrical voltages and resistances measured to inspect metallic cased wells and pipelines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William Banning (Bothell, WA); Momii, Steven Thomas (Seattle, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A cased well in the earth is electrically energized with A.C. current. Voltages are measured from three voltage measurement electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing while the casing is electrically energized. In a measurement mode, A.C. current is conducted from a first current carrying electrode within the cased well to a remote second current carrying electrode located on the surface of the earth. In a calibration mode, current is passed from the first current carrying electrode to a third current carrying electrode located vertically at a different position within the cased well, where the three voltage measurement electrodes are located vertically in between the first and third current carrying electrodes. Voltages along the casing and resistances along the casing are measured to determine wall thickness and the location of any casing collars present so as to electrically inspect the casing. Similar methods are employed to energize a pipeline to measure the wall thickness of the pipeline and the location of pipe joints to electrically inspect the pipeline.

  13. CT-scan-monitored electrical-resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L. (Mobil R and D Corp. (US)); Desai, K.P. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports on x-ray computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples which revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the lengths of the samples. The electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent used in electric-log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone: a stationary front formed in one sample at 1-psi oil/brine capillary pressure, a moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressure {le}4 psi in samples tested in fresh mixed-wettability and cleaned water-wet states, and the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated in the samples.

  14. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubey, P. K. Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-15

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  15. Report on Thermal Neutron Diffusion Length Measurement in Reactor Grade Graphite Using MCNP and COMSOL Multiphysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Mirfayzi

    2013-01-08

    Neutron diffusion length in reactor grade graphite is measured both experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work includes Monte Carlo (MC) coding using 'MCNP' and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coding suing 'COMSOL Multiphysics' and Matlab. The MCNP code is adopted to simulate the thermal neutron diffusion length in a reactor moderator of 2m x 2m with slightly enriched uranium ($^{235}U$), accompanied with a model designed for thermal hydraulic analysis using point kinetic equations, based on partial and ordinary differential equation. The theoretical work includes numerical approximation methods including transcendental technique to illustrate the iteration process with the FEA method. Finally collision density of thermal neutron in graphite is measured, also specific heat relation dependability of collision density is also calculated theoretically, the thermal neutron diffusion length in graphite is evaluated at $50.85 \\pm 0.3cm$ using COMSOL Multiphysics and $50.95 \\pm 0.5cm$ using MCNP. Finally the total neutron cross-section is derived using FEA in an inverse iteration form.

  16. Thermal conductivity and contact resistance of metal foams This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    distribution in metal foams is necessary for design and modelling of thermal-hydraulic systems incorporating conductivity and TCR in metal foams is described. Measurements are performed in a vacuum under varying

  17. Absolute measurement of thermal noise in a resonant short-range force experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Yan; E. A. Housworth; H. O. Meyer; G. Visser; E. Weisman; J. C. Long

    2014-10-23

    Planar, double-torsional oscillators are especially suitable for short-range macroscopic force search experiments, since they can be operated at the limit of instrumental thermal noise. As a study of this limit, we report a measurement of the noise kinetic energy of a polycrystalline tungsten oscillator in thermal equilibrium at room temperature. The fluctuations of the oscillator in a high-Q torsional mode with a resonance frequency near 1 kHz are detected with capacitive transducers coupled to a sensitive differential amplifier. The electronic processing is calibrated by means of a known electrostatic force and input from a finite element model. The measured average kinetic energy is in agreement with the expected value of 1/2 kT.

  18. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  19. Measurement of the Equivalent Thermal Resistance of Rooftop Lawns in a Hot-Climate Wind Tunnel 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, L.

    2006-01-01

    rooftop lawn. A hot-climate wind tunnel experiment was carried out in order to obtain and analyze the heat and moisture transport in the rooftop lawn. Furthermore, a calculation with the energy conservation equation was carried out using the results...

  20. Measurement of neutron capture on $^{48}$Ca at thermal and thermonuclear energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Beer; C. Coceva; P. V. Sedyshev; Yu. P. Popov; H. Herndl; R. Hofinger; P. Mohr; H. Oberhummer

    1996-08-07

    At the Karlsruhe pulsed 3.75\\,MV Van de Graaff accelerator the thermonuclear $^{48}$Ca(n,$\\gamma$)$^{49}$Ca(8.72\\,min) cross section was measured by the fast cyclic activation technique via the 3084.5\\,keV $\\gamma$-ray line of the $^{49}$Ca-decay. Samples of CaCO$_3$ enriched in $^{48}$Ca by 77.87\\,\\% were irradiated between two gold foils which served as capture standards. The capture cross-section was measured at the neutron energies 25, 151, 176, and 218\\,keV, respectively. Additionally, the thermal capture cross-section was measured at the reactor BR1 in Mol, Belgium, via the prompt and decay $\\gamma$-ray lines using the same target material. The $^{48}$Ca(n,$\\gamma$)$^{49}$Ca cross-section in the thermonuclear and thermal energy range has been calculated using the direct-capture model combined with folding potentials. The potential strengths are adjusted to the scattering length and the binding energies of the final states in $^{49}$Ca. The small coherent elastic cross section of $^{48}$Ca+n is explained through the nuclear Ramsauer effect. Spectroscopic factors of $^{49}$Ca have been extracted from the thermal capture cross-section with better accuracy than from a recent (d,p) experiment. Within the uncertainties both results are in agreement. The non-resonant thermal and thermonuclear experimental data for this reaction can be reproduced using the direct-capture model. A possible interference with a resonant contribution is discussed. The neutron spectroscopic factors of $^{49}$Ca determined from shell-model calculations are compared with the values extracted from the experimental cross sections for $^{48}$Ca(d,p)$^{49}$Ca and $^{48}$Ca(n,$\\gamma$)$^{49}$Ca.

  1. Measurement of the anisotropic thermal conductivity of molybdenum disulfide by the time-resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun Choi, Gyung-Min; Cahill, David G.

    2014-12-21

    We use pump-probe metrology based on the magneto-optic Kerr effect to measure the anisotropic thermal conductivity of (001)-oriented MoS{sub 2} crystals. A ?20?nm thick CoPt multilayer with perpendicular magnetization serves as the heater and thermometer in the experiment. The low thermal conductivity and small thickness of the CoPt transducer improve the sensitivity of the measurement to lateral heat flow in the MoS{sub 2} crystal. The thermal conductivity of MoS{sub 2} is highly anisotropic with basal-plane thermal conductivity varying between 85–110 W?m{sup -1}?K{sup -1} as a function of laser spot size. The basal-plane thermal conductivity is a factor of ?50 larger than the c-axis thermal conductivity, 2.0±0.3?W?m{sup -1}?K{sup -1}.

  2. Quantifying the Effect of Kerogen on Electrical Resistivity Measurements on Organic-rich Source Rocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kethireddy, Nikhil Reddy

    2013-12-04

    Interpretation of electrical resistivity logs in organic-rich source rocks has been challenging for petrophysicists. Conventional resistivity-porosity-saturation models (e.g., Archie’s, Dual-Water, and Waxman-Smits equations) ...

  3. New contactless method for thermal diffusivity measurements using modulated photothermal radiometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pham Tu Quoc, S. Cheymol, G.; Semerok, A.

    2014-05-15

    Modulated photothermal radiometry is a non-destructive and contactless technique for the characterization of materials. It has two major advantages: a good signal-to-noise ratio through a synchronous detection and a low dependence on the heating power and the optical properties of the sample surface. This paper presents a new method for characterizing the thermal diffusivity of a material when the phase shift between a modulated laser power signal and the thermal signal of a plate sample is known at different frequencies. The method is based on a three-dimensional analytical model which is used to determine the temperature amplitude and the phase in the laser heating of the plate. A new simple formula was developed through multi-parametric analysis to determine the thermal diffusivity of the plate with knowledge of the frequency at the minimum phase shift, the laser beam radius r{sub 0} and the sample thickness L. This method was developed to control the variation of the thermal diffusivity of nuclear components and it was first applied to determine the thermal diffusivity of different metals: 304 L stainless steel, nickel, titanium, tungsten, molybdenum, zinc, and iron. The experimental results were obtained with 5%–10% accuracy and corresponded well with the reference values. The present paper also demonstrates the limit of application of this method for plate with thickness r{sub 0}/100 ? L ? r{sub 0}/2. The technique is deemed interesting for the characterization of barely accessible components that require a contactless measurement.

  4. In situ changes in the moisture content of heated, welded tuff based on thermal neutron measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez, A.L.; Carlson, R.C.; Buscheck, T.A.

    1991-07-01

    Thermal neutron logs were collected to monitor changes in moisture content within a welded tuff rock mass heated from a borehole containing an electrical heater which remained energized for 195 days. Thermal neutron measurements were made in sampling boreholes before, during and after heating. The results generally corroborated our conceptual understanding of hydrothermal flow as well as most of the numerical modeling conducting for this study. Conceptual models have been developed in conjunction with the numerical model calculations to explain differences in the drying and re-wetting behavior above and below the heater. Numerical modeling indicated that the re-wetting of the dried-out zone was dominated by the binary diffusion of water vapor through fractures. Saturation gradients in the rock matrix resulted in relative humidity gradients which drove water vapor (primarily along fractures) back to the dried-out zone where it condensed along the fracture walls and was imbibed by the matrix. 4 refs., 28 figs.

  5. High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials: Iron-Based Amorphous-Metal Thermal-Spray Coatings: SAM HPCRM Program ? FY04 Annual Report ? Rev. 0 - DARPA DSO & DOE OCRWM Co-Sponsored Advanced Materials Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J; Haslam, J; Wong, F; Ji, S; Day, S; Branagan, D; Marshall, M; Meacham, B; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Buffa, E; Blue, C; Rivard, J; Beardsley, M; Weaver, D; Aprigliano, L; Kohler, L; Bayles, R; Lemieux, E; Wolejsza, T; Martin, F; Yang, N; Lucadamo, G; Perepezko, J; Hildal, K; Kaufman, L; Heuer, A; Ernst, F; Michal, G; Kahn, H; Lavernia, E

    2007-09-19

    The multi-institutional High Performance Corrosion Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Team is cosponsored by the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Science Office (DSO) and the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), and has developed new corrosion-resistant, iron-based amorphous metals that can be applied as coatings with advanced thermal spray technology. Two compositions have corrosion resistance superior to wrought nickel-based Alloy C-22 (UNS No. N06022) in very aggressive environments, including concentrated calcium-chloride brines at elevated temperature. Corrosion costs the Department of Defense billions of dollars every year, with an immense quantity of material in various structures undergoing corrosion. For example, in addition to fluid and seawater piping, ballast tanks, and propulsions systems, approximately 345 million square feet of structure aboard naval ships and crafts require costly corrosion control measures. The use of advanced corrosion-resistant materials to prevent the continuous degradation of this massive surface area would be extremely beneficial. The Fe-based corrosion-resistant, amorphous-metal coatings under development may prove of importance for applications on ships. Such coatings could be used as an 'integral drip shield' on spent fuel containers, as well as protective coatings that could be applied over welds, thereby preventing exposure to environments that might cause stress corrosion cracking. In the future, such new high-performance iron-based materials could be substituted for more-expensive nickel-based alloys, thereby enabling a reduction in the $58-billion life cycle cost for the long-term storage of the Nation's spent nuclear fuel by tens of percent.

  6. Measurement of cryogenic moderator temperature effects in a small heterogeneous thermal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoovler, G.S.; Ball, R.M.; Lewis, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    Past papers have described a critical experiment (CX) built at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the neutronic behavior of the particle-bed reactor (PBK). Among the experiments previously reported were tests to measure the reactivity effect of uniform temperature variations between 20 and 80{degree}C. This paper describes additional experiments designed to examine the effects of cryogenic moderator temperatures on core reactivity and neutron spectrum. The general importance of temperature effects to the design of the PBR have been previously discussed. A unique feature of the PBR is that the moderator may be at cryogenic temperatures during reactor startup. Because temperature effects in small, heterogeneous thermal reactors can be significant and because we found no integral measurements with cryogenic moderators in such systems, an experiment with a cryogenic moderator was designed and performed in the CX as an extension to the isothermal measurements previously reported.

  7. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify ? and ? particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through ? spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pbmore »–210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by ? spectroscopy and the ? decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.« less

  8. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify ? and ? particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through ? spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pb –210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by ? spectroscopy and the ? decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.

  9. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A; Bertou, X; Bole, D; Butner, M; Cancelo, G; Vázquez, A Castañeda; Chavarria, A E; Neto, J R T de Mello; Dixon, S; D'Olivo, J C; Estrada, J; Moroni, G Fernandez; Torres, K P Hernández; Izraelevitch, F; Kavner, A; Kilminster, B; Lawson, I; Liao, J; López, M; Molina, J; Moreno-Granados, G; Pena, J; Privitera, P; Sarkis, Y; Scarpine, V; Schwarz, T; Haro, M Sofo; Tiffenberg, J; Machado, D Torres; Trillaud, F; You, X; Zhou, J

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are su...

  10. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon CCDs of the DAMIC experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Aguilar-Arevalo; D. Amidei; X. Bertou; D. Bole; M. Butner; G. Cancelo; A. Castañeda Vázquez; A. E. Chavarria; J. R. T. de Mello Neto; S. Dixon; J. C. D'Olivo; J. Estrada; G. Fernandez Moroni; K. P. Hernández Torres; F. Izraelevitch; A. Kavner; B. Kilminster; I. Lawson; J. Liao; M. López; J. Molina; G. Moreno-Granados; J. Pena; P. Privitera; Y. Sarkis; V. Scarpine; T. Schwarz; M. Sofo Haro; J. Tiffenberg; D. Torres Machado; F. Trillaud; X. You; J. Zhou

    2015-07-09

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through $\\alpha$ spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the $^{238}$U ($^{232}$Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from $^{32}$Si-$^{32}$P or $^{210}$Pb-$^{210}$Bi sequences of $\\beta$ decays. The decay rate of $^{32}$Si was found to be $80^{+110}_{-65}$ kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CI). An upper limit of $\\sim$35 kg$^{-1}$ d$^{-1}$ (95% CL) on the $^{210}$Pb decay rate was obtained independently by $\\alpha$ spectroscopy and the $\\beta$ decay sequence search. These levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.

  11. An Information-Theoretic Measure of Uncertainty due to Quantum and Thermal Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arlen Anderson; Jonathan J. Halliwell

    1993-04-28

    We study an information-theoretic measure of uncertainty for quantum systems. It is the Shannon information $I$ of the phase space probability distribution $\\la z | \\rho | z \\ra $, where $|z \\ra $ are coherent states, and $\\rho$ is the density matrix. The uncertainty principle is expressed in this measure as $I \\ge 1$. For a harmonic oscillator in a thermal state, $I$ coincides with von Neumann entropy, $- \\Tr(\\rho \\ln \\rho)$, in the high-temperature regime, but unlike entropy, it is non-zero at zero temperature. It therefore supplies a non-trivial measure of uncertainty due to both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We study $I$ as a function of time for a class of non-equilibrium quantum systems consisting of a distinguished system coupled to a heat bath. We derive an evolution equation for $I$. For the harmonic oscillator, in the Fokker-Planck regime, we show that $I$ increases monotonically. For more general Hamiltonians, $I$ settles down to monotonic increase in the long run, but may suffer an initial decrease for certain initial states that undergo ``reassembly'' (the opposite of quantum spreading). Our main result is to prove, for linear systems, that $I$ at each moment of time has a lower bound $I_t^{min}$, over all possible initial states. This bound is a generalization of the uncertainty principle to include thermal fluctuations in non-equilibrium systems, and represents the least amount of uncertainty the system must suffer after evolution in the presence of an environment for time $t$.

  12. An apparatus for the measurement of thermal conductivity of liquid neon 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jensen, Jerald Norman

    1967-01-01

    AN APPARATUS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID NEON A Thesis By JERALD NORMAN JENSEN Submitted. to the Graduate College of the Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1967 Ma)or Su'bisect: Physics AN APPAHATUS FOH THE J'lEASURENENT OF THEHiiLM CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUID NEOiV A Thesis JEHALD NOLAN JENSEN Approved as to style and content by: tH *i *f D p tm~t (I"ember) , i~ember Nay 1967 !$ ~c g tg...

  13. A thermal method for measuring the rate of water movement in plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloodworth, Morris Elkins

    1958-01-01

    L?BP A 8 V a L ?BPA8B8 op A THERMAL METHOD FOR MEASURING THE RATE OF WATER MOVEMENT IN PLANTS A Dissertation By Morris Elkins Bloodworth Vao Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial... ??BLA? ? ? ? ? ? ?? ?B?8?8?A B? ??A8? o? ????A???????????? ?? ??? ?????????^pP ??^i?? ?????????????????????????? ?? p? ??B?8???8? ??? ???A???8?A?AoB? ? ? ? ? ?? ?? ^8?A ???o?oAo8? ? ????A ???o?B??8?A?? ?B?A?B? ? ? o A...

  14. Heat transmission between a profiled nanowire and a thermal bath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, Christophe; Heron, Jean-Savin; Fournier, Thierry; Bourgeois, Olivier

    2014-07-28

    Thermal transport through profiled and abrupt contacts between a nanowire and a reservoir has been investigated by thermal conductance measurements. It is demonstrated that above 1?K the transmission coefficients are identical between abrupt and profiled junctions. This shows that the thermal transport is principally governed by the nanowire itself rather than by the resistance of the thermal contact. These results are perfectly compatible with the previous theoretical models. The thermal conductance measured at sub-Kelvin temperatures is discussed in relation to the universal value of the quantum of thermal conductance.

  15. Pre-resistance-welding resistance check

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Destefan, Dennis E. (Broomfield, CO); Stompro, David A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1991-01-01

    A preweld resistance check for resistance welding machines uses an open circuited measurement to determine the welding machine resistance, a closed circuit measurement to determine the parallel resistance of a workpiece set and the machine, and a calculation to determine the resistance of the workpiece set. Any variation in workpiece set or machine resistance is an indication that the weld may be different from a control weld.

  16. Measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of multi-layer insulation between 20 K and 90 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Joseph A.; Van Sciver, Steven W.

    2014-01-29

    NASA has the need to efficiently store cryogenic propellants in space for long periods of time. One method to improve storage efficiency is to use multi-layer insulation (MLI), a technique that minimizes the boiling rate due to radiation heat transfer. Typically, the thermal performance of MLI is determined by measuring the rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen from a calibrated cryostat. The main limitation with this method is that testing conditions are restricted by the boiling temperature of the LN{sub 2}, which may not match the requirements of the application. The Multi-Layer Insulation Thermal Conductivity Experiment (MIKE) at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is capable of measuring the effective thermal conductivity of MLI at variable boundary temperatures. MIKE uses cryo-refrigerators to control boundary temperatures in the calorimeter and a calibrated thermal link to measure the heat load. To make the measurements requested by NASA, MIKE needed to be recalibrated for the 20 K to 90 K range. Also, due to the expectation of a lower heat transfer rate, the heat load support rod material was changed to one with a lower thermal conductivity to ensure the temperature difference seen on the cold rod could be measurable at the estimated heat load. Presented are the alterations to MIKE including calibration data and heat load measurements on new load-bearing MLI supplied by NASA.

  17. A compact and miniaturized high resolution capacitance dilatometer for measuring thermal expansion and magnetostriction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuechler, R.; Bauer, T.; Brando, M.; Steglich, F.

    2012-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, calibration, and two different applications of a miniature capacitance dilatometer. The device is suitable for thermal expansion and magnetostriction measurements from 300 K down to about 25 mK, with a resolution of 0.02 A at low temperatures. The main body of the dilatometer is fabricated from a single block of a Be-Cu alloy by electrical discharge milling. This creates an extremely compact high-resolution measuring cell. We have successfully tested and operated dilatometers of this new type with the commonly used physical property measurement system by quantum design, as well as with several other cryogenic refrigeration systems down to 25 mK and in magnetic fields up to 20 T. Here, the capacitance is measured with a commercially available capacitance bridge. Using a piezoelectric rotator from Attocube Systems, the cell can be rotated at T= 25 mK inside of an inner vacuum chamber of 40 mm diameter. The miniaturized design for the one-axis rotation setup allows a rotation of 360 Degree-Sign .

  18. Strains in Thermally Growing Alumina Films Measured in-situ usingSynchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

    2006-01-02

    Strains in thermally grown oxides have been measured in-situ, as the oxides develop and evolve. Extensive data have been acquired from oxides grown in air at elevated temperatures on different model alloys that form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using synchrotron x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source (Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the oxidizing specimen were recorded every 5 minutes during oxidation and subsequent cooling. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strains in the oxides, as well as phase changes and the degree of texture. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, the oxidizing temperature was quickly cooled from 1100 to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. This paper describes this new experimental approach and gives examples from oxidized {beta}-NiAl, Fe-20Cr-10Al, Fe-28Al-5Cr and H{sub 2}-annealed Fe-28Al-5Cr (all at. %) alloys to illustrate some current understanding of the development and relaxation of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  19. Electrical resistance measurements of highly inhibited SiC coated carbon-carbon laminates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Paul Albert

    1998-01-01

    transverse and longitudinal fiber bundles as well as creating some matrix cracks. Mass loss results revealed that the oxidation reaction is diffusion controlled at this temperature. The shear modulus decreased whereas the electrical resistance increased...

  20. Benchmark Test of Differential Emission Measure Codes and Multi-Thermal Energies in Solar Active Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aschwanden, M J; Caspi, A; McTiernan, J M; Ryan, D; Warren, H P

    2015-01-01

    We compare the ability of 11 Differential Emission Measure (DEM) forward-fitting and inversion methods to constrain the properties of active regions and solar flares by simulating synthetic data using the instrumental response functions of SDO/AIA, SDO/EVE, RHESSI, and GOES/XRS. The codes include the single-Gaussian DEM, a bi-Gaussian DEM, a fixed-Gaussian DEM, a linear spline DEM, the spatial synthesis DEM, the Monte-Carlo Markov chain DEM, the regularized DEM inversion, the Hinode/XRT method, a polynomial spline DEM, an EVE+GOES, and an EVE+RHESSI method. Averaging the results from all 11 DEM methods, we find the following accuracies in the inversion of physical parameters: the EM-weighted temperature $T_w^{fit}/T_w^{sim}=0.9\\pm0.1$, the peak emission measure $EM_p^{fit}/EM_p^{sim}=0.6\\pm0.2$, the total emission measure $EM_t^{fit}/EM_t^{sim}=0.8\\pm0.3$, and the multi-thermal energies $E_{th}^{fit}/EM_{th}^{sim}=1.2\\pm0.4$. We find that the AIA spatial synthesis, the EVE+GOES, and the EVE+RHESSI method yiel...

  1. Experimental Development and Demonstration of Ultrasonic Measurement Diagnostics for Sodium Fast Reactor Thermal-hydraulics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Jones, Byron

    2013-09-13

    This research project will address some of the principal technology issues related to sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR), primarily the development and demonstration of ultrasonic measurement diagnostics linked to effective thermal convective sensing under normatl and off-normal conditions. Sodium is well-suited as a heat transfer medium for the SFR. However, because it is chemically reactive and optically opaque, it presents engineering accessibility constraints relative to operations and maintenance (O&M) and in-service inspection (ISI) technologies that are currently used for light water reactors. Thus, there are limited sensing options for conducting thermohydraulic measurements under normal conditions and off-normal events (maintenance, unanticipated events). Acoustic methods, primarily ultrasonics, are a key measurement technology with applications in non-destructive testing, component imaging, thermometry, and velocimetry. THis project would have yielded a better quantitative and qualitative understanding of the thermohydraulic condition of solium under varied flow conditions. THe scope of work will evaluate and demonstrate ultrasonic technologies and define instrumentation options for the SFR.

  2. Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Xe-Implanted Uranium Dioxide Thick Films using Multilayer Laser Flash Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    The Fuel Cycle Research and Development program's Advanced Fuels campaign is currently pursuing use of ion beam assisted deposition to produce uranium dioxide thick films containing xenon in various morphologies. To date, this technique has provided materials of interest for validation of predictive fuel performance codes and to provide insight into the behavior of xenon and other fission gasses under extreme conditions. In addition to the structural data provided by such thick films, it may be possible to couple these materials with multilayer laser flash analysis in order to measure the impact of xenon on thermal transport in uranium dioxide. A number of substrate materials (single crystal silicon carbide, molybdenum, and quartz) containing uranium dioxide films ranging from one to eight microns in thickness were evaluated using multilayer laser flash analysis in order to provide recommendations on the most promising substrates and geometries for further investigation. In general, the uranium dioxide films grown to date using ion beam assisted deposition were all found too thin for accurate measurement. Of the substrates tested, molybdenum performed the best and looks to be the best candidate for further development. Results obtained within this study suggest that the technique does possess the necessary resolution for measurement of uranium dioxide thick films, provided the films are grown in excess of fifty microns. This requirement is congruent with the material needs when viewed from a fundamental standpoint, as this length scale of material is required to adequately sample grain boundaries and possible second phases present in ceramic nuclear fuel.

  3. Intermttional Jourmtl ~/" Thermophysics. I,'ol. 18. No. I. 1997 Measurements of the Thermal Diffusivity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    , transient, and novel hybrid heat-flow methods. In the periodic thermal-wave method, a sample of known

  4. COMBINED THERMAL MEASUREMENT AND SIMULATION FOR THE DETAILED ANALYSIS OF FOUR OCCUPIED LOW-ENERGY BUILDINGS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gieseler, Udo D. J.

    are equipped with a ventilation system. Ob- jects 3 and 4 are supported by flat-plate thermal solar collectors

  5. Laboratory Measurements of Electrical Resistivity of Kerogen in Organic-Rich Mudrocks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firdaus, Gama

    2015-08-06

    .2 Elemental Analysis ................................................................................................. 33 2.3 Rock-Eval Pyrolysis ............................................................................................... 35 2.4 TEM... and Analysis .......................................................................... 55 4.3 Rock-Eval Pyrolysis Analysis ................................................................................ 59 4.4 The Effect of Thermal Maturity on Electrical...

  6. Quantitative one-dimensional thermal-wave cavity measurements of fluid thermophysical properties through equivalence studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandelis, Andreas

    of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S3G8, Canada Received 11 April 2006; accepted 13 May 2006; published online 22 due to an intensity modulated pump laser source. The thermal wave inside a sample diffuses over as a thermal-wave generator, and a pyroelectric film placed parallel to the thermal-source surface at a fixed

  7. Utility of transient testing to characterize thermal interface materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Smith; T. Brunschwiler; B. Michel

    2008-01-07

    This paper analyzes a transient method for the characterization of low-resistance thermal interfaces of microelectronic packages. The transient method can yield additional information about the package not available with traditional static methods at the cost of greater numerical complexity, hardware requirements, and sensitivity to noise. While the method is established for package-level thermal analysis of mounted and assembled parts, its ability to measure the relatively minor thermal impedance of thin thermal interface material (TIM) layers has not yet been fully studied. We combine the transient thermal test with displacement measurements of the bond line thickness to fully characterize the interface.

  8. High-resolution thermal expansion measurements under helium-gas pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manna, Rudra Sekhar; Wolf, Bernd; Souza, Mariano de; Lang, Michael

    2012-08-15

    We report on the realization of a capacitive dilatometer, designed for high-resolution measurements of length changes of a material for temperatures 1.4 K Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To T Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 300 K and hydrostatic pressure P Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 250 MPa. Helium ({sup 4}He) is used as a pressure-transmitting medium, ensuring hydrostatic-pressure conditions. Special emphasis has been given to guarantee, to a good approximation, constant-pressure conditions during temperature sweeps. The performance of the dilatometer is demonstrated by measurements of the coefficient of thermal expansion at pressures P Asymptotically-Equal-To 0.1 MPa (ambient pressure) and 104 MPa on a single crystal of azurite, Cu{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, a quasi-one-dimensional spin S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet. The results indicate a strong effect of pressure on the magnetic interactions in this system.

  9. Frequency-Dependent Photothermal Measurement of Transverse Thermal Diffusivity of Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Brill; Maryam Shahi; Marcia M. Payne; Jesper Edberg; Y. Yao; Xavier Crispin; J. E. Anthony

    2015-09-08

    We have used a photothermal technique, in which chopped light heats the front surface of a small ( ~ 1 mm2) sample and the chopping frequency dependence of thermal radiation from the back surface is measured with a liquid nitrogen cooled infrared detector. In our system, the sample is placed directly in front of the detector within its dewar. Because the detector is also sensitive to some of the incident light which leaks around or through the sample, measurements are made for the detector signal that is in quadrature with the chopped light. Results are presented for layered crystals of semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pn) and for papers of cellulose nanofibrils coated with semiconducting poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (NFC-PEDOT). For NFC-PEDOT, we have found that the transverse diffusivity, smaller than the in-plane value, varies inversely with thickness, suggesting that texturing of the papers varies with thickness. For TIPS-pn, we have found that the interlayer diffusivity is an order of magnitude larger than the in-plane value, consistent with previous estimates, suggesting that low-frequency optical phonons, presumably associated with librations in the TIPS side-groups, carry most of the heat.

  10. Frequency-Dependent Photothermal Measurement of Transverse Thermal Diffusivity of Organic Semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. W. Brill; Maryam Shahi; Marcia M. Payne; Jesper Edberg; Y. Yao; Xavier Crispin; J. E. Anthony

    2015-08-13

    We have used a photothermal technique, in which chopped light heats the front surface of a small ( ~ 1 mm2) sample and the chopping frequency dependence of thermal radiation from the back surface is measured with a liquid nitrogen cooled infrared detector. In our system, the sample is placed directly in front of the detector within its dewar. Because the detector is also sensitive to some of the incident light which leaks around or through the sample, measurements are made for the detector signal that is in quadrature with the chopped light. Results are presented for layered crystals of semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pn) and for papers of cellulose nanofibrils coated with semiconducting poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (NFC-PEDOT). For NFC-PEDOT, we have found that the transverse diffusivity, smaller than the in-plane value, varies inversely with thickness, suggesting that texturing of the papers varies with thickness. For TIPS-pn, we have found that the interlayer diffusivity is an order of magnitude larger than the in-plane value, consistent with previous estimates, suggesting that low-frequency optical phonons, presumably associated with librations in the TIPS side-groups, carry most of the heat.

  11. Characterizing eigenstate thermalization via measures in the Fock space of operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavan Hosur; Xiao-Liang Qi

    2015-07-25

    The eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) attempts to bridge the gap between quantum mechanical and statistical mechanical descriptions of isolated quantum systems. Here, we define unbiased measures for how well the ETH works in various regimes, by mapping general interacting quantum systems on regular lattices onto a single particle living on a high-dimensional graph. By numerically analyzing deviations from ETH behavior in the non-integrable Ising model, we propose a quantity that we call the $n$-$weight$ to democratically characterize the average deviations for all operators residing on a given number of sites, irrespective of their spatial structure. It appears to have a simple scaling form, that we conjecture to hold true for all non-integrable systems. A closely related quantity, that we term the $n$-$distinguishability$, tells us how well two states can be distinguished if only $n$-site operators are measured. Along the way, we discover that complicated operators on average are worse than simple ones at distinguishing between neighboring eigenstates, contrary to the naive intuition created by the usual statements of the ETH that few-body (many-body) operators acquire the same (different) expectation values in nearby eigenstates at finite energy density. Finally, we sketch heuristic arguments that the ETH originates from the limited ability of simple operators to distinguish between quantum states of a system, especially when the states are subject to constraints such as roughly fixed energy with respect to a local Hamiltonian.

  12. Detailed thermal performance measurements and cost effectiveness of earth-sheltered construction: a case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christian, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    Earth-covering, solar gain, and massive construction are the design concepts successfully blended to produce an energy-efficient, durable, and comfortable building. Twenty-four-hour-quiet sleeping quarters and quality office space were the first design objectives of this building, these were successfully accomplished. The data acquisition system and a unique energy-balance analysis documents the thermal performance of each envelope component. Since the building's typical number of occupants, size, and internal electric loads are similar to those of a large residential building, the energy-performance data are extended to the residential marketplace. First-cost estimates for the whole building, earth-covered roof, and bermed wall are used with the detailed measured energy-use data to estimate cost effectiveness using residential economics criteria, such as 3% discount rate and 30-year life. The results from this analysis confirm the fact that earth, sun, and mass can save substantial amounts of annual and peak energy demand. However, further construction cost reductions are needed to produce more favorable cost effectiveness in the residential market arena. The overall thermal conductance value of this building is lower than the average values from the 300 low-energy residences as reported in the Building Energy-Use Compilation and Analysis, Part A (BECA-A), data base. However, the balance point of this building, with mechanical ventilation to ensure about 0.5 air change per hour, is substantially higher than those reported for low-energy residential buildings. This suggests that most of the energy-efficient homes either have an air-to-air heat exchanger or infiltration levels far below the generally accepted 0.5 air change per hour to ensure healthy indoor air quality. Reflective insulating blinds were installed in this building and have enhanced the daylighting and usability of the building. 9 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. MONITORING POWER PLANT EFFICIENCY USING THE MICROWAVE-EXCITED THERMAL-ACOUSTIC EFFECT TO MEASURE UNBURNED CARBON

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert C. Brown; Robert J. Weber; Jeffrey J. Swetelitsch

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to explore microwave-excited thermal-acoustic (META) phenomena for quantitative analysis of granular and powdered materials, with the culmination of the research to be an on-line carbon-in-ash monitor for coal-fired power plants. This technique of analyzing unburned carbon in fly ash could be a less tedious and time consuming method as compared to the traditional LOI manual procedure. Phase 1 of the research focused on off-line single-frequency thermal-acoustic measurements where an off-line fly ash monitor was constructed that could operate as analytical tool to explore instrument and methodology parameters for quantifying the microwave-excited thermal-acoustic effect of carbon in fly ash, and it was determined that the off-line thermal-acoustic technique could predict the carbon content of a random collection of fly ashes with a linear correlation constant of R{sup 2} = 0.778. Much higher correlations are expected for fly ashes generated from a single boiler. Phase 2 of the research developing a methodology to generate microwave spectra of various powders, including fly ash, coal, and inorganic minerals, and to determine if these microwave spectra could be used for chemical analyses. Although different minerals produced different responses, higher resolution microwave spectra would be required to be able to distinguish among minerals. Phase 3 of the research focused on the development of an on-line fly ash monitor that could be adapted to measure either a thermal-acoustic or thermal-elastic response to due microwave excitation of fly ash. The thermal-acoustic response was successfully employed for this purpose but the thermal-elastic response was too weak to yield a useful on-line device.

  14. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    The plastic materials used in the multilayer insulation (MLI) blankets of the superconducting magnets of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are comprised entirely of polyesters. This paper reports on tests conducted in three separate experimental blanket arrangements. The tests explore the thermal performance of two candidate blanket joint configurations each employing a variation of a stepped-butted joint nested between sewn blanket seams. The results from the joint configurations are compared to measurements made describing the thermal performance of the basic blanket materials as tested in an ideal joint configuration. Twenty foil sensors were incorporated within each test blanket to measure interstitial layer and joint layer temperatures. Heat flux and thermal gradients are reported for high and degraded insulating vacuums, and during transient and steady state conditions. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head but with the title extension Part 1: Instrumentation and experimental preparation (300K-80K)'. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Ground truth measurements plan for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.J.

    2000-01-03

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) have developed a diverse group of algorithms for processing and analyzing the data that will be collected by the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) after launch late in 1999. Each of these algorithms must be verified by comparison to independent surface and atmospheric measurements. SRTC has selected 13 sites in the continental U.S. for ground truth data collections. These sites include a high altitude cold water target (Crater Lake), cooling lakes and towers in the warm, humid southeastern US, Department of Energy (DOE) climate research sites, the NASA Stennis satellite Validation and Verification (V and V) target array, waste sites at the Savannah River Site, mining sites in the Four Corners area and dry lake beds in the southwestern US. SRTC has established mutually beneficial relationships with the organizations that manage these sites to make use of their operating and research data and to install additional instrumentation needed for MTI algorithm V and V.

  16. Thermal Interface Materials for Power Electronics Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.; Mihalic, M.; Kelly, K.; Eesley, G.

    2008-07-01

    The thermal resistance of the thermal interface material layer greatly affects the maximum temperature of the power electronics.

  17. Silica and boron-containing ultraphosphate laser glass with low concentration quenching and improved thermal shock resistance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Lee M. (Duryea, PA); Stokowski, Stanley E. (Danville, CA)

    1987-04-28

    Neodymium-doped phosphate glasses having a refractive index, nd>1.520; an Abbe number, Vd, <60; a density <3.0 g/cm.sup.3, a thermal expansion coefficient, .alpha., .ltoreq.110.times.10.sup.-7 .degree.C..sup.-1 ; a Young's Modulus, E, <70.times.10.sup.3 N/mm.sup.2 ; a Poisson's Ratio, .nu., <0.28; a thermal conductivity, K, >0.5 W/m.multidot.K, a thermal FOM=(1-.nu.).multidot.K/.alpha.E>0.7, consisting essentially of, in mol. %: P.sub.2 O.sub.5 : 40-70% SiO.sub.2 : 0-20% B.sub.2 O.sub.3 : 5-20% Sum SiO.sub.2 +B.sub.2 O.sub.3 : 5-35% Sum Li.sub.2 O+Na.sub.2 O+K.sub.2 O: 5-20% Sum La.sub.2 O.sub.3 +Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 : 3-10% Sum MgO+CaO+SrO+BaO+ZnO: 0-10% and preferably containing an amount of Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 effective for laser activity having an emission cross-section, .sigma., >3.5.times.10.sup.-20 cm.sup.2 ; a fluorescence linewidth (.DELTA..lambda..sub.f1)<23.5 nm; a first e-folding time of the Nd.sup.3+ fluorescence at 0.5 wt. % Nd.sub.2 O.sub.3 >375 .mu.sec, and a first e-folding time of the Nd.sup.3+ fluorescence at 10 wt. % >175 .mu.sec at 10 wt. %, have very low self-concentration quenching rates.

  18. Resistance in cotyledons, leaves, stems and bolls conferred by several B genes in Gossypium hirsutum L. as measured by races of Xanthomonas Malvacearum (E.F.Sm) Dows 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tayel, Mohamed Aly Fathalla

    1967-01-01

    RESISTANCE IN COTYLEDONS, LEAVES, STEMS AND BOLLS CONFERRED BY SEVERAL B GENES IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. AS MEASURED BY RACES OF XANTHOMONAS MALVACEARUM (E. F. Sm) DOWS A Thesis By M, A. F. Tayel Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas... A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1967 Major Subject Genetics RESISTANCE IN COTYLEDONS & LEAVES, STEMS AND BULLS CONFERRED BY SEVERAL B GENES IN GOSSYPIUM HIRSUTUM L. AS MEASURED...

  19. A dual-laser interferometry system for thin film measurements in thermal vapor deposition applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Allen Shiping

    2012-01-01

    Lithography processes harnessing the phase change of the chemically inert carbon dioxide as a resist have been shown as a possible alternative to patterning thin film organic semiconductors and metals. The ability to control ...

  20. Investigation of Thermal Interface Materials Using Phase-Sensitive Transient Thermoreflectance Technique: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, X.; King, C.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01

    With increasing power density in electronics packages/modules, thermal resistances at multiple interfaces are a bottleneck to efficient heat removal from the package. In this work, the performance of thermal interface materials such as grease, thermoplastic adhesives and diffusion-bonded interfaces are characterized using the phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance technique. A multi-layer heat conduction model was constructed and theoretical solutions were derived to obtain the relation between phase lag and the thermal/physical properties. This technique enables simultaneous extraction of the contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity of the TIMs. With the measurements, the bulk thermal conductivity of Dow TC-5022 thermal grease (70 to 75 um bondline thickness) was 3 to 5 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 5 to 10 mm2-K/W. For the Btech thermoplastic material (45 to 80 ?m bondline thickness), the bulk thermal conductivity was 20 to 50 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 2 to 5 mm2-K/W. Measurements were also conducted to quantify the thermal performance of diffusion-bonded interface for power electronics applications. Results with the diffusion-bonded sample showed that the interfacial thermal resistance is more than one order of magnitude lower than those of traditional TIMs, suggesting potential pathways to efficient thermal management.

  1. Optical transient grating measurements of micro/nanoscale thermal transport and mechanical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eliason, Jeffrey Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The laser-based transient grating technique was used to study phonon mediated thermal transport in bulk and nanostructured semiconductors and surface wave propagation in a monolayer of micron sized spheres. In the transient ...

  2. Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester MLI (multilayer insulation) system for the Superconducting Super Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boroski, W.N.; Gonczy, J.D.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-09-01

    Thermal performance measurements of a 100 percent polyester multilayer insulation (MLI) system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) were conducted in a Heat Leak Test Facility (HLTF) under three experimental test arrangements. Each experiment measured the thermal performance of a 32-layer MLI blanket instrumented with twenty foil sensors to measure interstitial layer temperatures. Heat leak values and sensor temperatures were monitored during transient and steady state conditions under both design and degraded insulating vacuums. Heat leak values were measured using a heatmeter. MLI interstitial layer temperatures were measured using Cryogenic Linear Temperature Sensors (CLTS). Platinum resistors monitored system temperatures. High vacuum was measured using ion gauges; degraded vacuum employed thermocouple gauges. A four-wire system monitored instrumentation sensors and calibration heaters. An on-line computerized data acquisition system recorded and processes data. This paper reports on the instrumentation and experimental preparation used in carrying out these measurements. In complement with this paper is an associate paper bearing the same title head, but with the title extension Part 2: Laboratory results (300K--80K). 13 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.

    2014-09-15

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ?4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  4. VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS A Rapid Luminescent Assay for Measuring Cytochrome P450 Activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Cytochrome P450 Activity in Individual Larval Culex pipiens Complex Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) A. B. J. CORNEL2 J. Med. Entomol. 46(1): 83Ð92 (2009) ABSTRACT Multiple assays are available to measure PÞcity,sensitivity,cost,and/ortimerequiredtoprepareactiveenzymehomogenates.Inthisstudy, a commercially available luminescent assay, P450-Glo, was modiÞed and evaluated to measure P450 activity from

  5. An experimental measurement of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of a porous solid-liquid system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunn, James Elliott

    1959-01-01

    . 6. The Relation of to SE for Values of K Calculated by the Heat Neter K SE Nethod 10 13 15 17 22 7. The Relation of the Thermal Conductivity of Fluid Saturated Sandstone to the Thermal Conductivity of the Saturating Fluid 8. The Variation... of pressures and temperatures and at flow and non-flow states (3)~(6), (7), The advent of widespread interest in increasing petroleum recovery from subterranean reservoirs by applying heat to an oil-bearing for- mation (8), (9), (10) has created a need...

  6. The measurement of thermal conductivity of jelly from 25 to 95 C 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yih-Rong

    1985-01-01

    of LMP jelly samples in the temperature range from 25 to 95 'C 53 16 Effect of pectin content on the thermal conductivity of HMP jelly samples in the temperature range from 25 to 95 'C . . . . . . . . . . 54 17 Jelly formation dependent upon pectin... conductivity of LMP jelly versus temperature at the moisture content between 60. 5 and 77. 1 percent, depicting how the regression lines fit to the experimental data 59 22 Comparison of linear r thermal conductivities and sugar solutions as content at 25...

  7. Thermal imaging measurement of lateral diffusivity and non-invasive material defect detection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sun, Jiangang (Westmont, IL); Deemer, Chris (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method for determining lateral thermal diffusivity of a material sample using a heat pulse; a sample oriented within an orthogonal coordinate system; an infrared camera; and a computer that has a digital frame grabber, and data acquisition and processing software. The mathematical model used within the data processing software is capable of determining the lateral thermal diffusivity of a sample of finite boundaries. The system and method may also be used as a nondestructive method for detecting and locating cracks within the material sample.

  8. The material dependence of temperature measurement resolution in thermal scanning electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaowei; Hull, Robert [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)] [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Thermal scanning electron microscopy is a recently developed temperature mapping technique based on thermal diffuse scattering in electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope. It provides nano-scale and non-contact temperature mapping capabilities. Due to the specific temperature sensitive mechanism inherent to this technique, the temperature resolution is highly material dependent. A thorough investigation of what material properties affect the temperature resolution is important for realizing the inherent temperature resolution limit for each material. In this paper, three material dependent parameters-the Debye-Waller B-factor temperature sensitivity, backscatter yield, and lattice constant-are shown to control the temperature resolution.

  9. Thermal indicator for wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaven, Jr., Joseph V. (Oakton, VA); Bak, Chan S. (Newbury Park, CA)

    1983-01-01

    Minute durable plate-like thermal indicators are employed for precision measuring static and dynamic temperatures of well drilling fluids. The indicators are small enough and sufficiently durable to be circulated in the well with drilling fluids during the drilling operation. The indicators include a heat resistant indicating layer, a coacting meltable solid component and a retainer body which serves to unitize each indicator and which may carry permanent indicator identifying indicia. The indicators are recovered from the drilling fluid at ground level by known techniques.

  10. Development and validation of capabilities to measure thermal properties of layered monolithic U-Mo alloy plate-type fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkes, Douglas; Casella, Andrew M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Edwards, Matthew K.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Pool, Karl N.; Smith, Frances N.; Steen, Franciska H.

    2014-07-19

    The uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy in a monolithic form has been proposed as one fuel design capable of converting some of the world’s highest power research reactors from the use of high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). One aspect of the fuel development and qualification process is to demonstrate appropriate understanding of thermal conductivity behavior of the fuel system as a function of temperature and expected irradiation conditions. The purpose of this paper is to verify and validate the functionality of equipment methods installed in hot cells for eventual measurements on irradiated uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) monolithic fuel specimens, procedures to operate the equipment, and models to extract the desired thermal properties. The results presented here demonstrate the adequacy of the equipment, procedures and models that have been developed for this purpose based on measurements conducted on surrogate depleted uranium-molybdenum (DU-Mo) alloy samples containing a zirconium diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061 (AA6061). The results are in excellent agreement with thermal property data reported in the literature for similar U-Mo alloys as a function of temperature.

  11. Comparing Time Domain Reflectometry and Electrical Resistivity Tomography Measurements for Estimating Soil Water Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sailhac, Pascal

    of an earth dam depending on hydraulic loads. Such continuous moisture measurements have been realised Mechanics and Rock Mechanics, Division of Embankment Dams and Landfill Technology, University of Karlsruhe 3 dams have to be observed, because of their high exposure. For this purpose, pressure gauges are used

  12. Freeze resistant buoy system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hill, David E [Knoxville, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21

    A freeze resistant buoy system includes a tail-tube buoy having a thermally insulated section disposed predominantly above a waterline, and a thermo-siphon disposed predominantly below the waterline.

  13. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1984-03-30

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the controlled source audio frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (1) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (2) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the conate water of the production field; (3) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (4) mathematically comparing the maps from step (1) and step (3) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  14. Methods for enhancing mapping of thermal fronts in oil recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., James R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method for enhancing the resistivity contrasts of a thermal front in an oil recovery production field as measured by the CSAMT technique is disclosed. This method includes the steps of: (a) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field; (b) introducing a solution of a dopant material into the production field at a concentration effective to alter the resistivity associated with the thermal front; said dopant material having a high cation exchange capacity which might be selected from the group consisting of montmorillonite, illite, and chlorite clays; said material being soluble in the connate water of the production field; (c) preparing a CSAMT-determined topological resistivity map of the production field while said dopant material is moving therethrough; and (d) mathematically comparing the maps from step (a) and step (c) to determine the location of the thermal front. This method is effective with the steam flood, fire flood and water flood techniques.

  15. Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness Akira E. Villar, Eric D. Black, Riccardo DeSalvo, and Kenneth G. Libbrecht

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Libbrecht, Kenneth G.

    Measurement of thermal noise in multilayer coatings with optimized layer thickness Akira E. Villar; published 3 June 2010) A standard quarter-wavelength multilayer optical coating will produce the highest reflectivity for a given number of coating layers, but in general it will not yield the lowest thermal noise

  16. Measuring the thermal boundary conductance between graphite and thin film by time-domain thermoreflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    Variable Delay CCD Detector Aperture /2 plate Optical Isolator Electro-Optic Modulator Pump Beam Probe Beam in this study: (a) sectional view; and (b) TBC model. Probe HOPG Al thin film Pump z dHOPG dAlkAl kHOPG DAl()sinh( )sinh( 1 )cosh( f M f qdqdkq qd kq qd f (2) Volumetric heat capacity [106 Jm-3 K-1 ] Thermal

  17. Characterization of room temperature recrystallization kinetics in electroplated copper thin films with concurrent x-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treger, Mikhail; Noyan, I. C.; Witt, Christian; Cabral, Cyril; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Rosenberg, Robert; Eisenbraun, Eric

    2013-06-07

    Concurrent in-situ four-point probe resistivity and high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to characterize room temperature recrystallization in electroplated Cu thin films. The x-ray data were used to obtain the variation with time of the integrated intensities and the peak-breadth from the Cu 111 and 200 reflections of the transforming grains. The variation of the integrated intensity and resistivity data with time was analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. For both 111-textured and non-textured electroplated Cu films, four-point probe resistivity measurements yielded shorter transformation times than the values obtained from the integrated intensities of the corresponding Cu 111 reflections. In addition, the JMAK exponents fitted to the resistivity data were significantly smaller. These discrepancies could be explained by considering the different material volumes from which resistivity and diffraction signals originated, and the physical processes which linked these signals to the changes in the evolving microstructure. Based on these issues, calibration of the resistivity analysis with direct structural characterization techniques is recommended.

  18. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 432 (1999) 403}409 Measurement of the thermal and fast neutron #ux in a research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    1999-01-01

    the neutron converter material to measure neu- trons of various energies, such as fast, thermal and epithermal positions, such as between the fuel plates of an MTR-type reactor. At the same time, its sensitive volume

  19. Measured thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, ATR Cycle 100-BC, April 23, 1993--May 13, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L.D.; Murray, R.K.; Rogers, J.W.

    1993-07-01

    This report contains the thermal (2200 m/s) and fast (E>1MeV) neutron fluence rate data for ATR Cycle 100-BC which were measured by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) as requested by the Power Reactor Programs (ATR Experiments) Radiation Measurements Work Order. This report contains fluence rate values corresponding to the particular elevations (relative to the 80 ft. core elevation) where the measurements were taken. The data in this report consists of (1) a table of the ATR power history and distribution, (2) a hard copy listing of all thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, (3) plots of both the thermal and fast neutron fluence rates, and (4) a magnetic record (3.5 inch diskette) containing a listing of only the fast neutron fluence rates, their assigned elevations and proper header identification of all monitor positions contained herein. The fluence rates reported are for the average power levels given in the table of power history and distribution. All {open_quotes}H{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 54 inches long. All {open_quotes}SR{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 55 inches long. This length allows measurement of the full core region and makes the first count elevation 24.73 inches above core midplane. Due to the safety rod problems in the west lobe, {open_quotes}BR{close_quotes} holders were used in the W-1, 2, 3, and 4 positions. All {open_quotes}BR{close_quotes} holder monitor wires for this cycle are 56.25 inches long. The distance from the end of the wires to the first count position was 4.25 inches for all wires counted from this cycle. The results from the measurements in the W-1, 2, 3, 4 monitor positions indicate that the safety rod followers were rotated to a different azimuthal orientation relative to the normal orientation. The results indicate that the rotation was counterclockwise from their normal orientation. This is the same condition observed starting with Cycle 99-B.

  20. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND OTHER PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-05-01

    The thermal conductivity and other properties cementitious grouts have been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. In addition to thermal conductivity, the cementitious grouts were also tested for bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the results for selected grout mixes. Relatively high thermal conductivities were obtained and this leads to reduction in predicted bore length and installation costs. Improvements in shrinkage resistance and bonding were achieved.

  1. Photo-Thermal Transfer Function of Dielectric Mirrors for Precision Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan W. Ballmer

    2015-01-07

    The photo-thermal transfer function from absorbed power incident on a dielectric mirror to the effective mirror position is calculated using the coating design as input. The effect is found to change in amplitude and sign for frequencies corresponding to diffusion length comparable to the coating thickness. Transfer functions are calculated for the $Ti$-doped ${\\rm Ta_2O_5:SiO_2}$ coating used in Advanced LIGO and for a crystalline ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coating. The shape of the transfer function at high frequencies is shown to be a sensitive indicator of the effective absorption depth, providing a potentially powerful tool to distinguish coating-internal absorption from surface contamination related absorption. The sign change of the photo-thermal effect could also be useful to stabilize radiation pressure-based opto-mechanical systems. High frequency corrections to the previously published thermo-optic noise estimates are also provided. Finally, estimating the quality of the thermo-optic noise cancellation occurring in fine-tuned ${\\rm Al_xGa_{1-x}As}$ coatings requires the detailed heat flow analysis done in this paper.

  2. A Method for Rapid Measurement of Heat or Cold Resistance of Small R. B. Huey; W. D. Crill; J. G. Kingsolver; K. E. Weber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huey, Raymond B.

    A Method for Rapid Measurement of Heat or Cold Resistance of Small Insects R. B. Huey; W. D. Crill of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyrightnotice that appears on the screen or printed page of such transmission. JSTOR is an independentnot-for-profitorganizationdedicated to creating and preserving a digital

  3. Measurements of the spatial and energy distribution of thermal neutrons in uranium, heavy water lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Paul S. (Paul Sherman)

    1962-01-01

    Intracell activity distributions were measured in three natural uranium, heavy water lattices of 1. 010 inch diameter, aluminum clad rods on triangular spacings of 4. 5 inches, 5. 0 inches, and 5. 75 inches, respectively, ...

  4. Note: A simple model for thermal management in solenoids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McIntosh, E. M. Ellis, J.

    2013-11-15

    We describe a model of the dynamical temperature evolution in a solenoid winding. A simple finite element analysis is calibrated by accurately measuring the thermally induced resistance change of the solenoid, thus obviating the need for accurate knowledge of the mean thermal conductivity of the windings. The model predicts quasi thermal runaway for relatively modest current increases from the normal operating conditions. We demonstrate the application of this model to determine the maximum current that can be safely applied to solenoids used for helium spin-echo measurements.

  5. Building design and thermal renovation measures proposal by means of regression models issued from dynamic simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    using their positions to exert political pressure" , "inadequate energy efficiency measures in Europe and China (and about 30­40% world-wide) [2]. Most of this energy is for supplying the energy for lighting comparison between different energy reduction strategies, like improving the insulation levels or increasing

  6. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet thermal management and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Measurements for fuel reforming for scramjet. Different cooling strategies have been evaluated by MBDA-France (calculations, material tests). Metallic. The time allocated to mix the injected fuel with inlet air, to ignite the combustion and to complete

  7. Field-measured performance of four full-scale cylindrical stratified chilled-water thermal storage tanks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musser, A.; Bahnfleth, W.P.

    1999-07-01

    Results are presented for controlled flow rate tests in four full-scale cylindrical chilled-water storage tanks. The tanks range in volume from 1.15 to 5.18 million gallons (4.35 to 19.61 million liters) and have water depths of 40 to 65 ft (12.2 to 19.8 m). Water is introduced into and withdrawn from two of these tanks using radial parallel plate diffusers, while the remaining two tanks utilize octagonal slotted pipe diffuser designs. Thermal performance is quantified for full cycles in terms of Figure of Merit, for single charge and discharge processes as half-cycle Figure of Merit, and for incomplete charge and discharge processes as Lost Capacity. Results show that the thermal performance of all four tanks is excellent, with less than 4% of theoretical cooling capacity lost to inlet mixing and other degradation mechanisms for flow rates less than or equal to design. Based on these results, the appropriateness of current design guidance is discussed. Operational issues that affect implementation of controlled flow rate full-scale tests are also identified, and measurement issues are addressed.

  8. Heat Exchanger Fouling- Prediction, Measurement and Mitigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, G. R.

    1989-01-01

    of an industrial gas stream and to derive the fouling thermal resistance. The probe is a hollow metal cylinder capable of measuring the average heat flux along the length of the tube. The local heat flux is also measured by a heat flux meter embedded in the probe...

  9. Measurement of molecular motion in organic semiconductors by thermal diffuse electron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggeman, Alexander S.; Illig, Steffen; Troisi, Alessandro; Sirringhaus, Henning; Midgley, Paul A.

    2013-07-28

    be accessed at: Nature Materials 12, 1045-1049 (2013) http://www.nature.com/doifinder/10.1038/nmat3710 1 Title: Direct Measurement of Molecular Motion in Organic Semiconductors Authors: Alexander S. Eggeman,1? Steffen Illig,2? Alessandro Troisi,3 Henning... . 220, 1027 (2005). 11. D. C. M. Jihua Chen, J. E. Anthony, Journal of Materials Research pp. 1701 – 1709 (2007). 12. F. Banhart, Reports on Progress in Physics 62, 1181 (1999). 13. R. F. Loane, P. Xu, J. Silcox, Acta Crystallographica Section A 47, 267...

  10. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  11. Measurement and modeling of thermal properties of sorghum and soy flours 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez Palacios, Lazaro

    1981-01-01

    transfer to or from the sample. Figure 2 (which will be explained in detail later) shows some typical Fusion trask HEAT slOW l RATE col/ sec 0 starling Transient lsotherma Grass Transition Crystal li sation Prrak Eras ne Transient Isothermal...H) required for this transition was measured by integrating the area under the peak with a planimeter and comparing it to the area obtained from a known transit1on of a standard. The standard used was indium which has a melting transition (see fusion peak...

  12. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  13. Measuring the Optical Performance of Evacuated Receivers via an Outdoor Thermal Transient Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kutscher, C.; Burkholder, F.; Netter, J.

    2011-08-01

    Modern parabolic trough solar collectors operated at high temperatures to provide the heat input to Rankine steam power cycles employ evacuated receiver tubes along the collector focal line. High performance is achieved via the use of a selective surface with a high absorptance for incoming short-wave solar radiation and a low emittance for outgoing long-wave infrared radiation, as well as the use of a hard vacuum to essentially eliminate convective and conductive heat losses. This paper describes a new method that determines receiver overall optical efficiency by exposing a fluid-filled, pre-cooled receiver to one sun outdoors and measuring the slope of the temperature curve at the point where the receiver temperature passes the glass envelope temperature (that is, the point at which there is no heat gain or loss from the absorber). This transient test method offers the potential advantages of simplicity, high accuracy, and the use of the actual solar spectrum.

  14. Measurement of plutonium and americium volatilities under thermal process conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Condit, R.H.; Fontes, A.S. Jr.; Fleming, D.L.; Magana, J.W.; Morris, W.F.; Adamson, M.G.

    1993-04-28

    We have used the transpiration method to measure volatilities of Pu and Am from PuO{sub 2}(s) and PuO{sub 2}/2% AmO{sub 2}(s) in the presence of steam and oxygen at temperatures of 1230--1430 K. We find the volatile species to be PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) and AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g) at vapor pressures on the order of 10{sup {minus}10} atm and 10 {sup {minus}12} atm respectively under measurement conditions. For the Pu volatilization reaction, PuO{sub 2}(s) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = PuO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain a free energy of reaction of {Delta}G{sup O}{sub T} = 231.3--0.0109 T in kj/mol, and for the Am volatilization reaction, AmO{sub 2}(s.s. in PuO{sub 2}) + 1/2 0{sub 2}(9) + H{sub 2}0(g) = AmO{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}(g), we obtain AG{sup O}{sub T} = 223.9--0.0109 T in kj/mol. We apply these results to the Rocky Flats Plant Fluidized Bed Incinerator to assess the amount of volatile Pu and Am produced in the secondary combustor chamber. Taking operating conditions of 550C combustor temperature, 40 kmols/h of total gas flow at 1 atm pressure, 0.1 atm 0{sub 2}(9), 0.05 atm H{sub 2}0(g), PuO{sub 2} (s) containing 200 ppm AmO{sub 2} in the bed, and 6000 h of operating time per year, gives volatilization rates of 7 {times} 10 {sup {minus}6}g Pu and 4 {times} 10 {sup {minus}9}g Am/y.

  15. Electric Resistance Heating Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    heated hot water in an insulated storage tank is another thermal storage option. Control Systems All types of electric resistance heating are controlled through some type...

  16. Validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2008-09-01

    This report documents technical work performed to complete the ASC Level 2 Milestone 2841: validation of thermal models for a prototypical MEMS thermal actuator. This effort requires completion of the following task: the comparison between calculated and measured temperature profiles of a heated stationary microbeam in air. Such heated microbeams are prototypical structures in virtually all electrically driven microscale thermal actuators. This task is divided into four major subtasks. (1) Perform validation experiments on prototypical heated stationary microbeams in which material properties such as thermal conductivity and electrical resistivity are measured if not known and temperature profiles along the beams are measured as a function of electrical power and gas pressure. (2) Develop a noncontinuum gas-phase heat-transfer model for typical MEMS situations including effects such as temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces across which heat is flowing, and incorporate this model into the ASC FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (3) Develop a noncontinuum solid-phase heat transfer model for typical MEMS situations including an effective thermal conductivity that depends on device geometry and grain size, and incorporate this model into the FEM heat-conduction code Calore to enable it to simulate these effects with good accuracy. (4) Perform combined gas-solid heat-transfer simulations using Calore with these models for the experimentally investigated devices, and compare simulation and experimental temperature profiles to assess model accuracy. These subtasks have been completed successfully, thereby completing the milestone task. Model and experimental temperature profiles are found to be in reasonable agreement for all cases examined. Modest systematic differences appear to be related to uncertainties in the geometric dimensions of the test structures and in the thermal conductivity of the polycrystalline silicon test structures, as well as uncontrolled nonuniform changes in this quantity over time and during operation.

  17. Evolving opportunities for providing thermal comfort

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brager, Gail; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2015-01-01

    field measurement of thermal environment and questionnaireand non-uniform thermal environments, PhD Thesis, Center forPerception of transient thermal environments: Pleasure and

  18. Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films W. Holmes, a) J. M. Gildemeister, and P. L. Richards b)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Paul L.

    Measurements of thermal transport in low stress silicon nitride films W. Holmes, a) J. M. Gildemeister, and P. L. Richards b) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 V. Kotsubo c

  19. Non-contact, Wavelet-based Measurement of Vital Signs using Thermal Imaging S. Yu. Chekmenev, H. Rara, and Aly A. Farag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Louisville, University of

    Non-contact, Wavelet-based Measurement of Vital Signs using Thermal Imaging S. Yu. Chekmenev, H of human vital signs. Breathing causes noticeable changes in temperature at the nasal area, which appear-contact vital signs monitoring and intent identification at a distance. Keywords: Wavelets, Thermogram images

  20. Advancing reactive tracer methods for measuring thermal evolution in CO2-and water-based geothermal reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. This project aims to develop reactive tracer method for monitoring thermal drawdown in enhanced geothermal systems.

  1. Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers Construction of a sinter press and a BET-system to measure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zumbühl, Dominik

    Silver Sinter Heat Exchangers Construction of a sinter press and a BET-system to measure specific, efficient heat exchangers are of special importance. As the thermal boundary resistance, called Kapitza­resistance, is inversely proportional to the interface area, heat exchangers with large surface areas are used for the heat

  2. Field examples of electrical resistivity changes during steamflooding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansure, A.J. (Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Meldau, R.F.; Weyland, H.V.

    1993-03-01

    An essential part of using electrical geodiagnostic techniques to map thermal recovery processes is understanding the relationship between the process and the formation resistivity. This paper shows how the relationship used to interpret electrical well logs can be used to understand steamflood resistivity changes. Examples are presented of data from steamfloods in fields with different reservoir characteristics. Included is a typical heavy-oil steamflood (Kern River field) and a steamflood where fresh water is used for the steam generator feedwater (Elk Hills field). Because of differences in reservoir characteristics, changes in resistivity vary from reservoir to reservoir. The information presented include well logs taken before and after steamflooding and petrophysical measurements sufficient to determine the factors that controlled the resistivity changes in each field.

  3. Electric Motor Thermal Management for Electric Traction Drives (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Moreno, G.

    2014-09-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of material thermal properties and convective heat transfer coefficients. In this work, the thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. Also, convective heat transfer coefficients of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets were measured to better understand the heat transfer of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Experiments were carried out at various ATF temperatures and jet velocities to quantify the influence of these parameters on heat transfer coefficients.

  4. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peurrung, Anthony J. (Richland, WA); Stromswold, David C. (West Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  5. An in-line thermal-neutron coincidence counter for WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) certification measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krick, M.S.; Osborne, L.; Polk, P.J.; Atencio, J.D.; Bjork, C.

    1989-10-01

    A custom-designed, in-line, thermal-neutron coincidence counter has been constructed for the certification of plutonium waste intended for storage at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The mechanical and electrical components of the system and its performance characteristics are described. 6 refs., 16 figs.

  6. Implementation of Resistive Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiters in Electrical Grids: Performance Analysis and Measuring of Optimal Locations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiuchang; Zhong, Z; Coombs, T A

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years there has been a significant rise in the short-circuit current levels in transmission and distribution networks, it due to the increasing demands on power and the addition of sources of distributed generations. It leads to the need of integration of novel protection systems such as the superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs), ... . SFCL models on the electric distribution networks largely rely on the insertion of a step or exponential resistance that is determined by a predefined quenching time. However, beyond the framework of these models, the study of the performance, reliability, and location strategy for the installation of sole or multiple SFCLs in power grids still lacks of proper development leading to the utter need of comprehensive and systematic studies on this issue. In this paper, we expand the scope of the aforementioned models by considering the actual behaviour of a SFCL in terms of the temperature dynamic power-law dependence between the electrical field and the c...

  7. Magneto-Seebeck effect in spin-valve with in-plane thermal gradient

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, S. Bose, A. Palkar, V. R. Tulapurkar, A. A.; Lam, D. D. Suzuki, Y.; Sharma, H. Tomy, C. V.

    2014-12-15

    We present measurements of magneto-Seebeck effect on a spin valve with in-plane thermal gradient. We measured open circuit voltage and short circuit current by applying a temperature gradient across a spin valve stack, where one of the ferromagnetic layers is pinned. We found a clear hysteresis in these two quantities as a function of magnetic field. From these measurements, the magneto-Seebeck effect was found to be same as magneto-resistance effect.

  8. Measurement of the absolute penetration depth and surface resistance of superconductors and normal metals with the variable spacing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    , the complex conductivity, 1 i 2 , is a fundamental quantity which theories of superconductivity are able is important because it yields valuable information about intrin- sic charge carrier density, pairing state measured as a function of tem- perature, applied magnetic field, doping, or impurity concen- tration. Here

  9. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together withmore »the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.« less

  10. In-situ x-ray diffraction and resistivity analysis of CoSi{sub 2} phase formation with and without a Ti interlayer at rapid thermal annealing rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, C. Jr.; Clevenger, L.A.; Stephenson, G.B.; Brauer, S.; Morales, G.; Ludwig, K.F. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    It has been demonstrated, using synchrotron radiation, that at rapid thermal annealing rates (3 C/s) the 2formation of CoSi{sub 2} shifts to higher temperatures when a thin Ti interlayer is placed between Co and polycrystalline Si. It has also been shown that the Ti interlayer reduces the temperature range between the start of CoSi formation and CoSi{sub 2} formation (i.e. the range over which CoSi is present). 13 nm of Co deposited by physical vapor deposition on polycrystalline Si with and without either a 2 nm or 3.4 nm interlayer of Ti was analyzed in-situ by monitoring x-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensity as a function of temperature using monochromatic radiation from a synchrotron beam line and by monitoring resistivity as a function of temperature i a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) system. The XRD analysis indicates that the phase formation proceeds from CoSi to CoSi{sub 2} in a temperature range that decreases from about 200 C to 140 C to 115 C with pure Co, Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti films respectively. The onset of the CoSi formation increases by about 135 C and 160 C for Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti compared to pure Co. The CoSi temperature range decreases from about 75 C in pure Co to less than 50 C in Co/Ti. In-situ RTA resistance along with in-situ XRD analysis indicates that the onset formation temperatures for CoSi are about 440 C, 575 C and 600 C and the temperatures for the completion of CoSi{sub 2} formation are about 640 C, 715 C and 715 C for Co, Co/2 nm Ti and Co/3.4 nm Ti films respectively. The results are consistent with he Ti interlayer acting as a diffusion barrier during the initial stages of the Co-Si reaction.

  11. Thermal And Mechanical Analysis of High-power Light-emitting Diodes with Ceramic Packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Hu; L. Yang; M. -W. Shin

    2008-01-07

    In this paper we present the thermal and mechanical analysis of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with ceramic packages. Transient thermal measurements and thermo-mechanical simulation were performed to study the thermal and mechanical characteristics of ceramic packages. Thermal resistance from the junction to the ambient was decreased from 76.1 oC/W to 45.3 oC/W by replacing plastic mould to ceramic mould for LED packages. Higher level of thermo-mechanical stresses in the chip were found for LEDs with ceramic packages despite of less mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion comparing with plastic packages. The results suggest that the thermal performance of LEDs can be improved by using ceramic packages, but the mounting process of the high power LEDs with ceramic packages is critically important and should be in charge of delaminating interface layers in the packages.

  12. Sierra Designs 20 degrees F Wild Bill Climashield Sleeping Bag ClimashieldTM HL, a high-loft continuous filament insulation, offers excellent thermal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Lawrence R.

    -loft continuous filament insulation, offers excellent thermal efficiency, durability and water resistance Chest

  13. Fission Product Data Measured at Los Alamos for Fission Spectrum and Thermal Neutrons on {sup 239}Pu, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Selby, H.D.; Mac Innes, M.R.; Barr, D.W.; Keksis, A.L.; Meade, R.A.; Burns, C.J.; Chadwick, M.B.; Wallstrom, T.C.

    2010-12-15

    We describe measurements of fission product data at Los Alamos that are important for determining the number of fissions that have occurred when neutrons are incident on plutonium and uranium isotopes. The fission-spectrum measurements were made using a fission chamber designed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) in the BIG TEN critical assembly, as part of the Inter-laboratory Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Reaction Rate (ILRR) collaboration. The thermal measurements were made at Los Alamos' Omega West Reactor. A related set of measurements were made of fission-product ratios (so-called R-values) in neutron environments provided by a number of Los Alamos critical assemblies that range from having average energies causing fission of 400-600 keV (BIG TEN and the outer regions of the Flattop-25 assembly) to higher energies (1.4-1.9 MeV) in the Jezebel, and in the central regions of the Flattop-25 and Flattop-Pu, critical assemblies. From these data we determine ratios of fission product yields in different fuel and neutron environments (Q-values) and fission product yields in fission spectrum neutron environments for {sup 99}Mo, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 141,143}Ce, and {sup 147}Nd. Modest incident-energy dependence exists for the {sup 147}Nd fission product yield; this is discussed in the context of models for fission that include thermal and dynamical effects. The fission product data agree with measurements by Maeck and other authors using mass-spectrometry methods, and with the ILRR collaboration results that used gamma spectroscopy for quantifying fission products. We note that the measurements also contradict earlier 1950s historical Los Alamos estimates by {approx}5-7%, most likely owing to self-shielding corrections not made in the early thermal measurements. Our experimental results provide a confirmation of the England-Rider ENDF/B-VI evaluated fission-spectrum fission product yields that were carried over to the ENDF/B-VII.0 library, except for {sup 99}Mo where the present results are about 4%-relative higher for neutrons incident on {sup 239}Pu and {sup 235}U. Additionally, our results illustrate the importance of representing the incident energy dependence of fission product yields over the fast neutron energy range for high-accuracy work, for example the {sup 147}Nd from neutron reactions on plutonium. An upgrade to the ENDF library, for ENDF/B-VII.1, based on these and other data, is described in a companion paper to this work.

  14. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, D.M.

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe is described for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  15. Abrasion resistant heat pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Donald M. (Leola, PA)

    1984-10-23

    A specially constructed heat pipe for use in fluidized bed combustors. Two distinct coatings are spray coated onto a heat pipe casing constructed of low thermal expansion metal, each coating serving a different purpose. The first coating forms aluminum oxide to prevent hydrogen permeation into the heat pipe casing, and the second coating contains stabilized zirconium oxide to provide abrasion resistance while not substantially affecting the heat transfer characteristics of the system.

  16. High Performance Thermal Interface Technology Overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Linderman; T. Brunschwiler; B. Smith; B. Michel

    2008-01-07

    An overview on recent developments in thermal interfaces is given with a focus on a novel thermal interface technology that allows the formation of 2-3 times thinner bondlines with strongly improved thermal properties at lower assembly pressures. This is achieved using nested hierarchical surface channels to control the particle stacking with highly particle-filled materials. Reliability testing with thermal cycling has also demonstrated a decrease in thermal resistance after extended times with longer overall lifetime compared to a flat interface.

  17. Electric Motor Thermal Management R&D (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennion, K.

    2014-11-01

    Thermal constraints place significant limitations on how electric motors ultimately perform. Without the ability to remove heat, the motor cannot operate without sacrificing performance, efficiency, and reliability. Finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics modeling approaches are being increasingly utilized in the design and analysis of electric motors. As the models become more sophisticated, it is important to have detailed and accurate knowledge of both the passive thermal performance and the active cooling performance. In this work, we provide an overview of research characterizing both passive and active thermal elements related to electric motor thermal management. To better characterize the passive thermal performance, the effective thermal properties and inter-lamination thermal contact resistances were measured for different stator lamination materials. The active cooling performance of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) jets was also measured to better understand the heat transfer coefficients of ATF impinging on motor copper windings. Ford's Mercon LV was the ATF evaluated in this study. The presentation provides an overview of prior work with a focus on describing future plans for research to be performed during FY15.

  18. Oxidation-resistant, solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solution-processed plasmonic Ni nanochain-SiOsub x (x < 2) selective solar thermal absorbers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation-resistant,...

  19. Development of a compact thermal lithium atom beam source for measurements of electron velocity distribution function anisotropy in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishioka, T.; Shikama, T.; Nagamizo, S.; Fujii, K.; Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Zushi, H. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)] [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Uchida, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T. [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)] [Department of Fundamental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwamae, A. [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui University, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)] [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, Fukui University, Fukui 910-8507 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    The anisotropy of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasmas can be deduced from the polarization of emissions induced by anisotropic electron-impact excitation. In this paper, we develop a compact thermal lithium atom beam source for spatially resolved measurements of the EVDF anisotropy in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas. The beam system is designed such that the ejected beam has a slab shape, and the beam direction is variable. The divergence and flux of the beam are evaluated by experiments and calculations. The developed beam system is installed in an ECR plasma device with a cusp magnetic field, and the LiI 2s–2p emission (670.8 nm) is observed in low-pressure helium plasma. The two-dimensional distributions of the degree and direction of the polarization in the LiI emission are measured by a polarization imaging system. The evaluated polarization distribution suggests the spatial variation of the EVDF anisotropy.

  20. Hydrofracture diagnosis in open-hole and steel-cased wells using borehole resistivity measurements David Pardo, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU and IKERBASQUE and Carlos Torres-Verdin, The Uni-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Hydrofracture diagnosis in open-hole and steel-cased wells using borehole resistivity measurements are suitable for hydrofracture characterization in steel-cased wells. INTRODUCTION In 1949, the Halliburton Oil is used only dur- ing the stimulation phase of the fracture; occasionally, an ul- terior assessment may

  1. DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) At Mt Princeton Hot Springs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2008 - 2010 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determination of groundwater flux patterns Notes Researchers measured DC resistivity and produced 12 resistivity...

  2. Low Thermal Conductivity, High Durability Thermal Barrier Coatings for IGCC Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Eric; Gell, Maurice

    2015-01-15

    Advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBC) are crucial to improved energy efficiency in next generation gas turbine engines. The use of traditional topcoat materials, e.g. yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), is limited at elevated temperatures due to (1) the accelerated undesirable phase transformations and (2) corrosive attacks by calcium-magnesium-aluminum-silicate (CMAS) deposits and moisture. The first goal of this project is to use the Solution Precursor Plasma Spray (SPPS) process to further reduce the thermal conductivity of YSZ TBCs by introducing a unique microstructural feature of layered porosity, called inter-pass boundaries (IPBs). Extensive process optimization accompanied with hundreds of spray trials as well as associated SEM cross-section and laser-flash measurements, yielded a thermal conductivity as low as 0.62 Wm?¹K?¹ in SPPS YSZ TBCs, approximately 50% reduction of APS TBCs; while other engine critical properties, such as cyclic durability, erosion resistance and sintering resistance, were characterized to be equivalent or better than APS baselines. In addition, modifications were introduced to SPPS TBCs so as to enhance their resistance to CMAS under harsh IGCC environments. Several mitigation approaches were explored, including doping the coatings with Al?O? and TiO?, applying a CMAS infiltration-inhibiting surface layer, and filling topcoat cracks with blocking substances. The efficacy of all these modifications was assessed with a set of novel CMAS-TBC interaction tests, and the moisture resistance was tested in a custom-built high-temperature moisture rig. In the end, the optimal low thermal conductivity TBC system was selected based on all evaluation tests and its processing conditions were documented. The optimal coating consisted on a thick inner layer of YSZ coating made by the SPPS process having a thermal conductivity 50% lower than standard YSZ coatings topped with a high temperature tolerant CMAS resistant gadolinium zirconate Coating made by the SPPS process. Noteworthy was the fact that the YSZ to GZO interface made by the SPPS process was not the failure location as had been observed in APS coatings.

  3. Method for ultra-trace cesium isotope ratio measurements from environmental samples using thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Mathew S.; Snyder, Darin C.; Mann, Nick R.; White, Byron M.

    2015-05-01

    135Cs/137Cs isotope ratios can provide the age, origin and history of environmental Cs contamination. Relatively high precision 135Cs/137Cs isotope ratio measurements from samples containing femtogram quantities of 137Cs are needed to accurately track contamination resuspension and redistribution following environmental 137Cs releases; however, mass spectrometric analyses of environmental samples are limited by the large quantities of ionization inhibitors and isobaric interferences which are present at relatively high concentrations in the environment. We report a new approach for Cs purification from environmental samples. An initial ammonium molybdophosphate-polyacrylonitrile (AMP-PAN) column provides a robust method for extracting Cs under a wide variety of sample matrices and mass loads. Cation exchange separations using a second AMP-PAN column result in more than two orders of magnitude greater Cs/Rb separation factors than commercially available strong cation exchangers. Coupling an AMP-PAN cation exchanging step to a microcation column (AG50W resin) enables consistent 2-4% (2?) measurement errors for samples containing 3-6,000 fg 137Cs, representing the highest precision 135Cs/137Cs ratio measurements currently reported for soil samples at the femtogram level.

  4. Electrical resistivity probes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ki Ha; Becker, Alex; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Solbau, Ray D.

    2003-10-21

    A miniaturized electrical resistivity (ER) probe based on a known current-voltage (I-V) electrode structure, the Wenner array, is designed for local (point) measurement. A pair of voltage measuring electrodes are positioned between a pair of current carrying electrodes. The electrodes are typically about 1 cm long, separated by 1 cm, so the probe is only about 1 inch long. The electrodes are mounted to a rigid tube with electrical wires in the tube and a sand bag may be placed around the electrodes to protect the electrodes. The probes can be positioned in a borehole or on the surface. The electrodes make contact with the surrounding medium. In a dual mode system, individual probes of a plurality of spaced probes can be used to measure local resistance, i.e. point measurements, but the system can select different probes to make interval measurements between probes and between boreholes.

  5. Improvement in Thermal-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) using Total Flash Evaporation (TFE) method for lanthanides isotope ratio measurements in transmutation targets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mialle, S.; Gourgiotis, A.; Aubert, M.; Stadelmann, G.; Gautier, C.; Isnard, H.

    2011-07-01

    The experiments involved in the PHENIX french nuclear reactor to obtain precise and accurate data on the total capture cross sections of the heavy isotopes and fission products require isotopic ratios measurements with uncertainty of a few per mil. These accurate isotopic ratio measurements are performed with mass spectrometer equipped with multi-collector system. The major difficulty for the analyses of these actinides and fission products is the low quantity of the initial powder enclosed in steel container (3 to 5 mg) and the very low quantities of products formed (several {mu}g) after irradiation. Specific analytical developments are performed by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) to be able to analyse several nanograms of elements with this technique. A specific method of acquisition named Total Flash Evaporation was adapted in this study in the case of lanthanide measurements for quantity deposited on the filament in the order of 2 ng and applied on irradiated fuel. To validate the analytical approach and discuss about the accuracy of the data, the isotopic ratios obtained by TIMS are compared with other mass spectrometric techniques such as Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS). (authors)

  6. Rapid Thermal Pyrolysis of Interferometrically Patterned Resist...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Country of Publication: United States Language: English...

  7. Long-term dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.

    1984-04-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and reservoir monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on approximately an annual basis since then. Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at 1-km spacings were established over the field area. Resistivity remeasurements have been made on one line at 6- to 18-month intervals using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver. This high-power, low-noise system provides highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points. Results from four years of monitoring (1979-1983) indicate a 5% average annual increase in apparent resistivity over the present production area, and larger decreases in apparent resistivity in the region to the east. The increase in resistivity in the production zone is most likely due to dilution of reservoir fluids with fresher water, as evidenced by a drop in chloride content of produced waters. The area of decreasing resistivity east of the reservoir is associated with a steeply dipping conductive body, a zone of higher thermal gradients and an increase in shale thickness in the section. Decreasing resistivity in this area may be caused by an influx of high temperature, saline water from depths of 3/sup +/ km through a sandy gap in the shales.

  8. Effect of current compliance and voltage sweep rate on the resistive switching of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure as measured by conductive atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, You-Lin Liao, Chun-Wei; Ling, Jing-Jenn

    2014-06-16

    The electrical characterization of HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar resistive switching memory structure was studied using conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a semiconductor parameter analyzer, Agilent 4156C. The metal alloy Invar was used as the metal substrate to ensure good ohmic contact with the substrate holder of the AFM. A conductive Pt/Ir AFM tip was placed in direct contact with the HfO{sub 2} surface, such that it acted as the top electrode. Nanoscale current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the HfO{sub 2}/ITO/Invar structure were measured by applying a ramp voltage through the conductive AFM tip at various current compliances and ramp voltage sweep rates. It was found that the resistance of the low resistance state (RLRS) decreased with increasing current compliance value, but resistance of high resistance state (RHRS) barely changed. However, both the RHRS and RLRS decreased as the voltage sweep rate increased. The reasons for this dependency on current compliance and voltage sweep rate are discussed.

  9. Thermal cycling tests on surface-mount assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, C.W.

    1988-03-01

    The capability of surface-mount (SM) solder joints to withstand various thermal cycle stresses was evaluated through electrical circuit resistance changes of a test pattern and by visual examination for cracks in the solder after exposure to thermal cycling. The joints connected different electrical components, primarily leadless-chip carriers (LCCs), and printed wiring-board (PWB) pads on different laminate substrates. Laminate compositions were epoxy-glass and polyimide-glass with and without copper/Invar/copper (CIC) inner layers, polyimide-quartz, epoxy-Kevlar, and polyimide-Kevlar. The most resistant joints were between small LCCs (24 and 48 pins) and polyimide-glass laminate with CIC inner layers. Processing in joint formation was found to be an important part of joint resistant. Thermal cycling was varied with respect to both time and temperature. A few resistors, capacitors, and inductors showed opens after 500 30-min cycles between -65/degree/C and 125/degree/C. Appreciable moisture contents were measured for laminate materials, especially those of polyimide-Kevlar after equilibration in 100/percent/ relative humidity at room temperature. If not removed or reduced, moisture can cause delamination in vapor-phase soldering. 17 refs, 12 figs.,10 tabs.

  10. Hydrogen Permeation Resistant Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KORINKO, PAUL; ADAMS, THAD; CREECH, GREGGORY

    2005-06-15

    As the National Hydrogen Economy continues to develop and evolve the need for structural materials that can resist hydrogen assisted degradation will become critical. To date austenitic stainless steel materials have been shown to be mildly susceptible to hydrogen attack which results in lower mechanical and fracture strengths. As a result, hydrogen permeation barrier coatings may be applied to these ferrous alloys to retard hydrogen ingress. Hydrogen is known to be very mobile in materials of construction. In this study, the permeation resistance of bare stainless steel samples and coated stainless steel samples was tested. The permeation resistance was measured using a modular permeation rig using a pressure rise technique. The coating microstructure and permeation results will be discussed in this document as will some additional testing.

  11. Thermal engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnes, T.E.; Trupin, R.J.

    1984-01-03

    A thermal engine utilizing a strip of nitinol material or other thermally responsive shape memory effect material to drive a reciprocating output shaft, said strip of material forming a common wall between two different alternating temperature sources which thermally cycle the material.

  12. Basal-plane thermal conductivity of few-layer molybdenum disulfide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Insun; Ou, Eric; Shi, Li; Pettes, Michael Thompson; Wu, Wei

    2014-05-19

    We report the in-plane thermal conductivity of suspended exfoliated few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) samples that were measured by suspended micro-devices with integrated resistance thermometers. The obtained room-temperature thermal conductivity values are (44–50) and (48–52) W m{sup ?1} K{sup ?1} for two samples that are 4 and 7 layers thick, respectively. For both samples, the peak thermal conductivity occurs at a temperature close to 120?K, above which the thermal conductivity is dominated by intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering although phonon scattering by surface disorders can still play an important role in these samples especially at low temperatures.

  13. Heat flux measurement from thermal infrared imagery in low-flux fumarolic zones: Example of the Ty fault (La Soufrire de Guadeloupe)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beauducel, François

    the geothermal flux of a dormant volcano is necessary both for hazard assessment and for studying hydrothermal for the thermal infrared method, and 275 ± 50 W/m2 for the vertical temperature gradient method), if surface through connected porosity and fissures of rocks in which the thermal vertical gradient is nil. Near

  14. Placement of Thermal Vias in 3D ICs using Various Thermal Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    via islands increased, more heat removal was achieved but less space was available for routing [3]. Li and greater thermal resistance along heat dissipation paths. With the advent of better processing technologies

  15. Quantification of corrosion resistance of a new-class of criticality control materials: thermal-spray coatings of high-boron iron-based amorphous metals - Fe49.7Cr17.7Mn1.9Mo7.4W1.6B15.2C3.8Si2.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Shaw, C K; Rebak, R; Day, S D; Lian, T; Hailey, P; Payer, J H; Branagan, D J; Aprigliano, L F

    2007-03-28

    An iron-based amorphous metal, Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4} (SAM2X5), with very good corrosion resistance was developed. This material was produced as a melt-spun ribbon, as well as gas atomized powder and a thermal-spray coating. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) provided corrosion resistance, and boron (B) enabled glass formation. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. Earlier studies have shown that ingots and melt-spun ribbons of these materials have good passive film stability in these environments. Thermal spray coatings of these materials have now been produced, and have undergone a variety of corrosion testing, including both atmospheric and long-term immersion testing. The modes and rates of corrosion have been determined in the various environments, and are reported here.

  16. Thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Pittsburg, PA)

    2010-06-22

    This disclosure addresses the issue of providing a metallic-ceramic overlay coating that potentially serves as an interface or bond coat layer to provide enhanced oxidation resistance to the underlying superalloy substrate via the formation of a diffusion barrier regime within the supporting base material. Furthermore, the metallic-ceramic coating is expected to limit the growth of a continuous thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer that has been primarily considered to be the principal cause for failure of existing TBC systems. Compositional compatibility of the metallic-ceramic with traditional yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) top coats is provided to further limit debond or spallation of the coating during operational use. A metallic-ceramic architecture is disclosed wherein enhanced oxidation resistance is imparted to the surface of nickel-based superalloy or single crystal metal substrate, with simultaneous integration of the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) within the metallic-ceramic overlayer.

  17. Ground surface temperature reconstructions: Using in situ estimates for thermal conductivity acquired with a fiber-optic distributed thermal perturbation sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freifeld, B.M.; Finsterle, S.; Onstott, T.C.; Toole, P.; Pratt, L.M.

    2008-10-10

    We have developed a borehole methodology to estimate formation thermal conductivity in situ with a spatial resolution of one meter. In parallel with a fiber-optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS), a resistance heater is deployed to create a controlled thermal perturbation. The transient thermal data is inverted to estimate the formation's thermal conductivity. We refer to this instrumentation as a Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensor (DTPS), given the distributed nature of the DTS measurement technology. The DTPS was deployed in permafrost at the High Lake Project Site (67 degrees 22 minutes N, 110 degrees 50 minutes W), Nunavut, Canada. Based on DTPS data, a thermal conductivity profile was estimated along the length of a wellbore. Using the thermal conductivity profile, the baseline geothermal profile was then inverted to estimate a ground surface temperature history (GSTH) for the High Lake region. The GSTH exhibits a 100-year long warming trend, with a present-day ground surface temperature increase of 3.0 {+-} 0.8 C over the long-term average.

  18. Magnetic fields on resistance spaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Hinz; Luke Rogers

    2015-02-03

    On a metric measure space $X$ that supports a regular, strongly local resistance form we consider a magnetic energy form that corresponds to the magnetic Laplacian for a particle confined to $X$. We provide sufficient conditions for closability and self-adjointness in terms of geometric conditions on the reference measure without assuming energy dominance.

  19. In situ measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  20. Fourier series expansion in a non-orthogonal system of coordinates for the simulation of 3D-DC borehole resistivity measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    -logging measurements, the planning and drilling of a single well may cost several millions of dollars, borehole logging measurements are widely used by the oil-industry for hydrocarbon reservoir as to invert well-log measurements. Most numerical methods used by the oil-industry are based on 1D and 2D

  1. Measurements and Predictions of the Heat Transfer at the Tube-Fin Junction for Louvered Fin Heat Exchangers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thole, Karen A.

    Measurements and Predictions of the Heat Transfer at the Tube-Fin Junction for Louvered Fin Heat Transfer at the Tube-Fin Junction for Louvered Fin Heat Exchangers Abstract The dominant thermal resistance used to increase heat transfer by initiating new boundary layer growth and increasing surface area

  2. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Solar Thermal Collectors .is solar energy. Solar thermal collector arrays can be usedon integrating solar thermal collectors with desalination

  3. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"aided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  4. Advanced Thermal Control

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal models power density cost lifetime Advanced Thermal Interface Materials Advanced Heat Transfer Technologies Air Cooling Thermal System Performance and Integration Thermal...

  5. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1991-08-27

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation. 9 figures.

  6. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased wells in presence of acoustic and magnetic energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1991-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for measuring the acoustically modulated electronic properties of geological formations and cement layers adjacent to cased boreholes. Current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. Voltage measuring electrodes in electrical contact with the interior of the casing measure the voltage at various points thereon. The voltage differences between discrete pairs of the voltage measuring electrodes provide a measurement of the leakage current conducted into formation in the vicinity of those electrodes. Simultaneously subjecting the casing and formation to an acoustic source acoustically modulates the leakage current measured thereby providing a measure of the acoustically modulated electronic properties of the adjacent formation. Similarly, methods and apparatus are also described which measure the leakage current into formation while simultaneously subjecting the casing to an applied magnetic field which therefore allows measurement of the magnetically modulated electronic properties of the casing and the adjacent formation.

  7. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1993-01-01

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  8. Measuring resistivity changes from within a first cased well to monitor fluids injected into oil bearing geological formations from a second cased well while passing electrical current between the two cased wells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1993-02-16

    A.C. current is conducted through geological formations separating two cased wells in an oil field undergoing enhanced oil recovery operations such as water flooding operations. Methods and apparatus are disclosed to measure the current leakage conducted into a geological formation from within a first cased well that is responsive to fluids injected into formation from a second cased well during the enhanced oil production activities. The current leakage and apparent resistivity measured within the first cased well are responsive to fluids injected into formation from the second cased well provided the distance of separation between the two cased wells is less than, or on the order of, a Characteristic Length appropriate for the problem.

  9. Temperature dependence of thermal conductivity of AlxGa1-xN thin films measured by the differential 3 technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, University of California­Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (Received 2 July 2004; accepted conductivity of AlxGa1-xN thin films (x=0 and 0.4) grown by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy. ThermalN thin films (x=0 and 0.4) grown by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The accurate values

  10. Anomaly in the electric resistivity of one-dimensional uneven peanut-shaped C{sub 60} polymer film at a low temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryuzaki, Soh; Onoe, Jun, E-mail: jonoe@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors and Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2014-03-17

    We performed in situ four-probe measurements of the current-voltage characteristics of one-dimensional (1D) uneven peanut-shaped C{sub 60} polymer films in the temperature range 30–350?K under ultrahigh vacuum conditions (2?×?10{sup ?7}?Pa). Arrhenius plots of the film resistance with respect to temperature showed two different electron-conduction mechanisms. While electrons are conducted via a thermal excitation hopping at temperatures above 160?K, the resistivity of the 1D polymer film exhibits an anomalous behavior that becomes fluctuated at a given value in the temperature range 40–90?K and decreases at temperatures below 40?K.

  11. The stimulation of heavy oil reservoirs with electrical resistance heating 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baylor, Blake Allen

    1990-01-01

    field sample Fig. 26 ? Inflow performance relationship for the simulation with Hycal data 53 55 56 60 62 INTRODUCTION The application of heat to an oil reservoir is a process known as thermal recovery. The oldest known means of thermal...', and in 1986 for the White Wolf field in California. " More recent field tests were reported in Canada" and Brazil. Flock and Tharin ' examined possible thermal recovery techniques for heavy oils. In their discussion of resistance heating, they speculated...

  12. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  13. Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

  14. Electron density measurements of atmospheric-pressure non-thermal N{sub 2} plasma jet by Stark broadening and irradiance intensity methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dezhi; Shen, Jie; Lan, Yan; Xie, Hongbing; Shu, Xingsheng; Meng, Yuedong; Li, Jiangang; Cheng, Cheng E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk; Chu, Paul K. E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-05-15

    An atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma jet excited by high frequency alternating current using nitrogen is developed and the electron density in the active region of this plasma jet is investigated by two different methods using optical emission spectroscopy, Stark broadening, and irradiance intensity method. The irradiance intensity method shows that the average electron density is about 10{sup 20}/m{sup 3} which is slightly smaller than that by the Stark broadening method. However, the trend of the change in the electron density with input power obtained by these two methods is consistent.

  15. Strength and Resistivity Properties of Fouled Ballast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neupane, Madan

    2015-05-31

    . Resistivity tests using a Wenner 4 probe array in horizontal alignment and fall of potential method with a vertical probe and vertical alignment were carried out. Also, the light weight deflectometer (LWD) test for the measurement of dynamic modulus, static...

  16. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    varying solar energy inputs and thermal or power demands. Itusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  17. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    of solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solaraided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsobesides MVC require thermal energy as their primary energy

  18. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    15] O. A. Hamed, "THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF MULTISTAGE FLASHdesa4.aspx. [18] Encon, "Thermal Evaporators," June 2013. [http://www.evaporator.com/thermal-evaporator. [19] Y. Tian

  19. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    of such an aquifer thermal storage system were studied andusing aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlinedmatical Modeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers,"

  20. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    This requires no thermal storage tanks, but can have athe need for large thermal storage equipment, the evaporatorinclude analysis of thermal storage. A way of keeping the

  1. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined aboveModeling of Thermal Energy Storage in Aquifers," Proceed-ings of Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage Workshop, Lawrence

  2. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material (HPCRM) Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J S; Saw, C; Haslam, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D'Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2008-01-09

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal makes this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of such iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear properties, sufficient to warrant their use in earth excavation, drilling and tunnel boring applications. Large areas have been successfully coated with these materials, with thicknesses of approximately one centimeter. The observed corrosion resistance may enable applications of importance in industries such as: oil and gas production, refining, nuclear power generation, shipping, and others.

  3. Electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faussurier, G. Blancard, C.; Combis, P.; Videau, L.

    2014-09-15

    Expressions for the electrical and thermal conductivities in dense plasmas are derived combining the Chester-Thellung-Kubo-Greenwood approach and the Kramers approximation. The infrared divergence is removed assuming a Drude-like behaviour. An analytical expression is obtained for the Lorenz number that interpolates between the cold solid-state and the hot plasma phases. An expression for the electrical resistivity is proposed using the Ziman-Evans formula, from which the thermal conductivity can be deduced using the analytical expression for the Lorenz number. The present method can be used to estimate electrical and thermal conductivities of mixtures. Comparisons with experiment and quantum molecular dynamics simulations are done.

  4. THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pázsit, Imre

    THERMAL HYDRAULICS KEYWORDS: neutron activation, flow measurements, evaluation methods FLOWACT, FLOW RATE MEASUREMENTS IN PIPES WITH THE PULSED-NEUTRON ACTIVATION METHOD PER LINDÉN,* GUDMAR GROSSHÖG- neutron activation (PNA) in a specially designed test loop. A stationary neutron generator was used

  5. Resistive hydrogen sensing element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for providing a hydrogen sensing element with a more robust exposed metallization by application of a discontinuous or porous overlay to hold the metallization firmly on the substrate. An apparatus includes: a substantially inert, electrically-insulating substrate; a first Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and completely covered by a substantially hydrogen-impermeable layer so as to form a reference resistor on the substrate; a second Pd containing metallization deposited upon the substrate and at least a partially accessible to a gas to be tested, so as to form a hydrogen-sensing resistor; a protective structure disposed upon at least a portion of the second Pd containing metallization and at least a portion of the substrate to improve the attachment of the second Pd containing metallization to the substrate while allowing the gas to contact said the second Pd containing metallization; and a resistance bridge circuit coupled to both the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The circuit determines the difference in electrical resistance between the first and second Pd containing metallizations. The hydrogen concentration in the gas may be determined. The systems and methods provide advantages because adhesion is improved without adversely effecting measurement speed or sensitivity.

  6. Multimaterial coatings with reduced thermal noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yam, William

    The most sensitive measurements of time and space are made with resonant optical cavities, and these measurements are limited by coating thermal noise. The mechanical and optical performance requirements placed on coating ...

  7. Thermal Via Placement in 3D ICs Brent Goplen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    that as the size of thermal via islands increased, more heat removal was achieved but less space was available pronounced because of higher power densities and greater thermal resistance along heat dissipation paths cluster into parallel networks using the observation that heat transfer is much more efficient vertically

  8. Advanced Thermally Stable Jet Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A. Boehman; C. Song; H. H. Schobert; M. M. Coleman; P. G. Hatcher; S. Eser

    1998-01-01

    The Penn State program in advanced thermally stable jet fuels has five components: 1) development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; 2) quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles during thermal stressing; 3) characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; 4) elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; and 5) assessment of the potential of producing high yields of cycloalkanes and hydroaromatics from coal.

  9. Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions Shawn A. Putnam,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Thermal conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions Shawn A. Putnam,a David G. Cahill, and Paul V We describe an optical beam deflection technique for measurements of the thermal diffusivity of fluid the thermal conductivity of ethanol-water mixtures; in nearly pure ethanol, the increase in thermal

  10. Automatic insulation resistance testing apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyant, Francis J.; Nowlen, Steven P.; Luker, Spencer M.

    2005-06-14

    An apparatus and method for automatic measurement of insulation resistances of a multi-conductor cable. In one embodiment of the invention, the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, a plurality of input relay controlled contacts, a plurality of output relay controlled contacts, a relay controller and a computer. In another embodiment of the invention the apparatus comprises a power supply source, an input measuring means, an output measuring means, an input switching unit, an output switching unit and a control unit/data logger. Embodiments of the apparatus of the invention may also incorporate cable fire testing means. The apparatus and methods of the present invention use either voltage or current for input and output measured variables.

  11. Effect of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and micro porous layer (MPL) on thermal conductivity of fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Modeling and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Effect of Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and micro porous layer (MPL) on thermal conductivity robust model is devel- oped for estimating GDL thermal conductivity. The model considers PTFE addition of thermal conductivity on PTFE, MPL, and compression is considered. Thermal contact resistances between GDL

  12. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantifiedmore »by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.« less

  13. Enhancement of oxidation resistance of graphite foams by polymer derived-silicon carbide coating for concentrated solar power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, T.; Singh, D.; Singh, M.

    2015-05-01

    Graphite foam with extremely high thermal conductivity has been investigated to enhance heat transfer of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. However, the use of graphite foam for elevated temperature applications (>600 °C) is limited due to poor oxidation resistance of graphite. In the present study, oxidation resistance of graphite foam coated with silicon carbide (SiC) was investigated. A pre-ceramic polymer derived coating (PDC) method was used to form a SiC coating on the graphite foams. Post coating deposition, the samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The oxidation resistance of PDC-SiC coating was quantified by measuring the weight of the samples at several measuring points. The experiments were conducted under static argon atmosphere in a furnace. After the experiments, oxidation rates (%/hour) were calculated to predict the lifetime of the graphite foams. The experimental results showed that the PDC-SiC coating could prevent the oxidation of graphite foam under static argon atmosphere up to 900 °C.

  14. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids.

  15. MICROPOSIT PHOTO RESISTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Todd J.

    MICROPOSIT® S1800® SERIES PHOTO RESISTS MICROPOSIT S1800 SERIES PHOTO RESISTS are positive and maintain linewidth control when process- ing on highly reflective substrates. MICROPOSIT S1800 SERIES PHOTO Photoresist: MICROPOSIT ® S1813 ® PHOTO RESIST Coat: 12,300Å Softbake: 115°C/60 sec. Hotplate Exposure: Nikon

  16. The universal influence of contact resistance on the efficiency of a thermoelectric generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørk, R

    2015-01-01

    The influence of electrical and thermal contact resistance on the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is investigated. We consider 12 different segmented $p$-legs and 12 different segmented $n$-legs, using 8 different $p$-type and 8 different $n$-type thermoelectric materials. For all systems a universal influence of both the electrical and thermal contact resistance is observed on the leg's efficiency, when the systems are analyzed in terms of the contribution of the contact resistance to the total resistance of the leg. The results are compared with the analytical model of Min and Rowe (1992). In order for the efficiency not to decrease more than 20%, the contact electrical resistance should be less than 30% of the total leg resistance for zero thermal contact resistance, while the thermal contact resistance should be less than 20% for zero electrical contact resistance. The universal behavior also allowed the maximum tolerable contact resistance for a segmented system to be found, i.e. the r...

  17. Thermally Induced Nonlinear Optical Absorption in Metamaterial Perfect Absorbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guddala, Sriram; Ramakrishna, S Anantha

    2015-01-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks is fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  18. Hot wire needle probe for thermal conductivity detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Rempe, Joy Lynn; Knudson, Darrell lee; Daw, Joshua Earl; Wilkins, Steven Curtis; Fox, Brandon S.; Heng, Ban

    2015-11-10

    An apparatus comprising a needle probe comprising a sheath, a heating element, a temperature sensor, and electrical insulation that allows thermal conductivity to be measured in extreme environments, such as in high-temperature irradiation testing. The heating element is contained within the sheath and is electrically conductive. In an embodiment, the heating element is a wire capable of being joule heated when an electrical current is applied. The temperature sensor is contained within the sheath, electrically insulated from the heating element and the sheath. The electrical insulation electrically insulates the sheath, heating element and temperature sensor. The electrical insulation fills the sheath having electrical resistance capable of preventing electrical conduction between the sheath, heating element, and temperature sensor. The control system is connected to the heating element and the temperature sensor.

  19. A Comparison of the Corrosion Resistance of Iron-Based Amorphous Metals and Austenitic Alloys in Synthetic Brines at Elevated Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2008-11-25

    Several hard, corrosion-resistant and neutron-absorbing iron-based amorphous alloys have now been developed that can be applied as thermal spray coatings. These new alloys include relatively high concentrations of Cr, Mo, and W for enhanced corrosion resistance, and substantial B to enable both glass formation and neutron absorption. The corrosion resistances of these novel alloys have been compared to that of several austenitic alloys in a broad range of synthetic brines, with and without nitrate inhibitor, at elevated temperature. Linear polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used for in situ measurement of corrosion rates for prolonged periods of time, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) have been used for ex situ characterization of samples at the end of tests. The application of these new coatings for the protection of spent nuclear fuel storage systems, equipment in nuclear service, steel-reinforced concrete will be discussed.

  20. A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    A New Thermal-Conscious System-Level Methodology for Energy-Efficient Processor Voltage Selection a thermal-conscious system-level methodology to make energy-efficient voltage selection (VS) for nanometer), thermal resistance, are integrated and considered in our system models, and their impacts on energy

  1. Thermally activated current transport in MgB2 films S. Patnaik,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Thermally activated current transport in MgB2 films S. Patnaik,1,2 A. Gurevich,1 S. D. Bu,1 S. D 2004) Thermally-activated flux flow (TAFF) resistivity above the irreversibility field Bi is reported of thermally-activated drift of pre-existing quenched dislocations in the vortex lattice. Our results indicate

  2. Thermal Transport in Porous Media with Application to Fuel Cell Diffusion Media and Metal Foams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of thermal transport phenomena in fuel cell gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and metal foams and describes new transfer through the GDL is a key process in the design and operation of a proton exchange membrane (PEM program allows the separation of effective thermal conductivity and thermal contact resistance. For GDLs

  3. Measurement of Tunnel Junction Resistance during Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bland, Roger

    and wire­bonding of the device. Under the assumption that oxygen was diffusing through the electrodes, we, pumped with an oil diffusion pump. Throughout fabrication of the device, liquid nitrogen is circulated

  4. Thermal behavior of spiral fin-and-tube heat exchanger having fly ash deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuntaphan, Atipoang; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

    2007-08-15

    This research investigates the effect of fly-ash deposit on thermal performance of a cross-flow heat exchanger having a set of spiral finned-tubes as a heat transfer surface. A stream of warm air having high content of fly-ash is exchanging heat with a cool water stream in the tubes. In this study, the temperature of the heat exchanger surface is lower than the dew point temperature of air, thus there is condensation of moisture in the air stream on the heat exchanger surface. The affecting parameters such as the fin spacing, the air mass flow rate, the fly-ash mass flow rate and the inlet temperature of warm air are varied while the volume flow rate and the inlet temperature of the cold water stream are kept constant at 10 l/min and 5 C, respectively. From the experiment, it is found that as the testing period is shorter than 8 h the thermal resistance due to the fouling increases with time. Moreover, the deposit of fly-ash on the heat transfer surface is directly proportional to the dust-air ratio and the amount of condensate on heat exchange surface. However, the deposit of fly-ash is inversely proportional to the fin spacing. The empirical model for evaluating the thermal resistance is also developed in this work and the simulated results agree well with those of the measured data. (author)

  5. Spherical Accretion with Anisotropic Thermal Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prateek Sharma; Eliot Quataert; James M. Stone

    2008-07-05

    We study the effects of anisotropic thermal conduction on magnetized spherical accretion flows using global axisymmetric MHD simulations. In low collisionality plasmas, the Bondi spherical accretion solution is unstable to the magnetothermal instability (MTI). The MTI grows rapidly at large radii where the inflow is subsonic. For a weak initial field, the MTI saturates by creating a primarily radial magnetic field, i.e., by aligning the field lines with the background temperature gradient. The saturation is quasilinear in the sense that the magnetic field is amplified by a factor of $\\sim 10-30$ independent of the initial field strength (for weak fields). In the saturated state, the conductive heat flux is much larger than the convective heat flux, and is comparable to the field-free (Spitzer) value (since the field lines are largely radial). The MTI by itself does not appreciably change the accretion rate $\\dot M$ relative to the Bondi rate $\\dot M_B$. However, the radial field lines created by the MTI are amplified by flux freezing as the plasma flows in to small radii. Oppositely directed field lines are brought together by the converging inflow, leading to significant resistive heating. When the magnetic energy density is comparable to the gravitational potential energy density, the plasma is heated to roughly the virial temperature; the mean inflow is highly subsonic; most of the energy released by accretion is transported to large radii by thermal conduction; and the accretion rate $\\dot M \\ll \\dot M_B$. The predominantly radial magnetic field created by the MTI at large radii in spherical accretion flows may account for the stable Faraday rotation measure towards Sgr A* in the Galactic Center.

  6. High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production High Temperature Thermal Array for Next Generation Solar Thermal Power Production This...

  7. Multiscale thermal transport.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  8. Comparison of GAPCON-THERMAL-3 and FRAPCON-2 fuel-performance codes to in-reactor measurement of elastic cladding deformation. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lanning, D.D.; Rausch, W.N.; Williford, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A revision of the GAPCON-3 computer code became part of the NRC-sponsored FRAPCON-2 code. This paper presents a comparison of both codes to in-reactor data from IFA-508, a 3-rod test rig in the Halden Reactor, Norway, which features simultaneous measurements of fuel temperature, power, axial elongation, and diametral strain. The modeling revisions included putting all regions of the fuel in contact with cladding at all time, but assigning non-linear, spatially dependent, anisotropic elastic moduli to the fuel on an incremental load step basis. The moduli are functions of the local available void within the cladding. These concepts bring demonstrable improvement to the code predictions.

  9. Effects of thermal fluctuations on thermal inflation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takashi Hiramatsu; Yuhei Miyamoto; Jun'ichi Yokoyama

    2014-12-25

    The mechanism of thermal inflation, a relatively short period of accelerated expansion after primordial inflation, is a desirable ingredient for a certain class of particle physics models if they are not to be in contention with the cosmology of the early Universe. Though thermal inflation is most simply described in terms of a thermal effective potential, a thermal environment also gives rise to thermal fluctuations that must be taken into account. We numerically study the effects of these thermal fluctuations using lattice simulations. We conclude that though they do not ruin the thermal inflation scenario, the phase transition at the end of thermal inflation proceeds through phase mixing and is therefore not accompanied by the formations of bubbles nor appreciable amplitude of gravitational waves.

  10. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    storage in solar thermal applications," Applied Energy, pp.of Non-Tracking Solar Thermal Technology," 2011. [26] R.C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energy

  11. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    Evaporator Powered By Solar Thermal Energy 10:00 AM 10:00 AMaided or powered by solar thermal energy. A section is alsoexhaustive review of solar thermal energy systems has been

  12. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and thermal energy storage in solar thermal applications,"Solar infrastructure should include analysis of thermal storage.storage equipment, the evaporator can be integrated into the current solar

  13. Iron-Based Amorphous-Metals: High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Development Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C; Choi, J; Saw, C; Haslem, J; Day, D; Hailey, P; Lian, T; Rebak, R; Perepezko, J; Payer, J; Branagan, D; Beardsley, B; D'Amato, A; Aprigliano, L

    2009-03-16

    An overview of the High-Performance Corrosion-Resistant Materials (HPCRM) Program, which was co-sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) and the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian and Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), is discussed. Programmatic investigations have included a broad range of topics: alloy design and composition; materials synthesis; thermal stability; corrosion resistance; environmental cracking; mechanical properties; damage tolerance; radiation effects; and important potential applications. Amorphous alloys identified as SAM2X5 (Fe{sub 49.7}Cr{sub 17.7}Mn{sub 1.9}Mo{sub 7.4}W{sub 1.6}B{sub 15.2}C{sub 3.8}Si{sub 2.4}) and SAM1651 (Fe{sub 48}Mo{sub 14}Cr{sub 15}Y{sub 2}C{sub 15}B{sub 6}) have been produced as melt-spun ribbons, drop-cast ingots and thermal-spray coatings. Chromium (Cr), molybdenum (Mo) and tungsten (W) additions provided corrosion resistance, while boron (B) enabled glass formation. Earlier electrochemical studies of melt-spun ribbons and ingots of these amorphous alloys demonstrated outstanding passive film stability. More recently thermal-spray coatings of these amorphous alloys have been made and subjected to long-term salt-fog and immersion tests. Good corrosion resistance has been observed during salt-fog testing. Corrosion rates were measured in situ with linear polarization, while simultaneously monitoring the open-circuit corrosion potentials. Reasonably good performance was observed. The sensitivity of these measurements to electrolyte composition and temperature was determined. The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal make this amorphous alloy an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. In general, the corrosion resistance of these iron-based amorphous metals is maintained at operating temperatures up to the glass transition temperature. These materials are much harder than conventional stainless steel and nickel-based materials, and are proving to have excellent wear properties, sufficient to warrant their use in earth excavation, drilling and tunnel boring applications. The observed corrosion resistance may enable applications of importance in industries such as: oil and gas production, refining, nuclear power generation, shipping, and others. Large areas have been successfully coated with these materials, with thicknesses of approximately one centimeter.

  14. Hydrogen permeation resistant barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, J.C.; Brehm, W.F.

    1980-02-08

    A hydrogen permeation resistant barrier is formed by diffusing aluminum into an iron or nickel alloy and forming an intermetallic aluminide layer.

  15. Thermal Control & System Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The thermal control and system integration activity focuses on issues such as the integration of motor and power control technologies and the development of advanced thermal control technologies....

  16. DNA Engine Thermal Cycler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raizada, Manish N.

    ® Peltier Thermal Cycler PTC-0200 DNA Engine Cycler Operations Manual Version 4.0 #12;ii Tech Support: 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi The DNA Engine® Peltier Thermal Cycler Introduction

  17. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    and C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermalenergy storage in solar thermal applications," Appliedon photovoltaic/thermal hybrid solar technology," Applied

  18. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    thermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solarsolar energy systems, aquifer energy storage provides a buffer between time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal

  19. From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 From Consumer Resistance to Stakeholder Resistance The case of nanotechnology* Caroline Gauthier proposes to study the resistance of stakeholders, by exploring the nanotech field. Nanotechnology is today in the resistance context. Keywords. Nanotechnology; Resistance Bio. Caroline Gauthier is currently Professor

  20. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, Chin-Fu (Albany, CA); Doughty, Christine A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  1. Numerical evaluation of the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranville, Frédéric; Lucas, Franck; Johan, Seriacaroupin

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the thermal performances of roof-mounted radiant barriers. Using dynamic simulations of a mathematical model of a whole test cell including a radiant barrier installed between the roof top and the ceiling, the thermal performance of the roof is calculated. The mean method is more particularly used to assess the thermal resistance of the building component and lead to a value which is compared to the one obtained for a mass insulation product such as polyurethane foam. On a further stage, the thermal mathematical model is replaced by a thermo-aeraulic model which is used to evaluate the thermal resistance of the roof as a function of the airflow rate. The results shows a better performance of the roof in this new configuration, which is widely used in practice. Finally, the mathematical relation between the thermal resistance and the airflow rate is proposed.

  2. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  3. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  4. Electrical resistivity and magnetic investigations of the geothermal systems in the Rotorua area, New Zealand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibby, H.M. ); Dawson, G.B.; Rayner, H.H.; Bennie, S.L.; Bromley, C.J. )

    1992-04-01

    This paper reports that electrical and magnetic data are used in an investigation of a 450 km{sup 2} region in order to delineate the Rotorua City Geothermal system and determine its relationship with other geothermal systems in the region. Three distinct regions of low ({lt}30 Omega m) apparent resistivity are delineated. The southern of these outlines the Rotorua City Geothermal System which has an area of about 18 km{sup 2}, with the northern third covered by Lake Rotorua. The boundary of the system is characterized by a rapid lateral change in apparent resistivity which can be modeled as a single, near vertical zone in which the distance between hot and cold water is very narrow. Magnetic properties also change in the vicinity of the discontinuity in some areas, consistent with hydrothermal alteration having destroyed the magnetite in the rocks of the geothermal system. Hot water is believed to be rising, driven by buoyancy forces across the whole of the low resistivity region. There is some indication, particularly in the south, that the boundary between hot and cold fluids dips away from the field. A second low resistivity zone (the East Lake Rotorua anomaly) with an area of about 8 km{sup 2}, is believed to outline a second independent geothermal system, with surface manifestations on Mokoia Island, and on the eastern shore of the lake. High heat flow in lake bottom sediments, and a reduction in magnetic signature over this region supports this conclusion. A third resistivity low under the west of Lake Rotorua has no associated thermal features and is believed to be a fossil hydrothermal system. There is no apparent relationship between the location of the geothermal systems and the Rotorua caldera. The aeromagnetic measurements have delineated several highly magnetic bodies which cannot be linked with surface geology. These are believed to be caused by buried rhyolite dome complexes at shallow depth.

  5. Sheet resistance under Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haj?asz, M., E-mail: m.hajlasz@m2i.nl [Materials innovation institute (M2i), Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD, Delft (Netherlands); MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Donkers, J. J. T. M.; Sque, S. J.; Heil, S. B. S. [NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656 AE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Gravesteijn, D. J. [NXP Semiconductors Research, High Tech Campus 46, 5656 AE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands); Rietveld, F. J. R. [NXP Semiconductors, Gerstweg 2, 6534 AE, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schmitz, J. [MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2014-06-16

    For the determination of specific contact resistance in semiconductor devices, it is usually assumed that the sheet resistance under the contact is identical to that between the contacts. This generally does not hold for contacts to AlGaN/GaN structures, where an effective doping under the contact is thought to come from reactions between the contact metals and the AlGaN/GaN. As a consequence, conventional extraction of the specific contact resistance and transfer length leads to erroneous results. In this Letter, the sheet resistance under gold-free Ti/Al-based Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures on Si substrates has been investigated by means of electrical measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and technology computer-aided design simulations. It was found to be significantly lower than that outside of the contact area; temperature-dependent electrical characterization showed that it exhibits semiconductor-like behavior. The increase in conduction is attributed to n-type activity of nitrogen vacancies in the AlGaN. They are thought to form during rapid thermal annealing of the metal stack when Ti extracts nitrogen from the underlying semiconductor. The high n-type doping in the region between the metal and the 2-dimensional electron gas pulls the conduction band towards the Fermi level and enhances horizontal electron transport in the AlGaN. Using this improved understanding of the properties of the material underneath the contact, accurate values of transfer length and specific contact resistance have been extracted.

  6. Thermal Regimes of Northeast Streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thermal Loading (USGS) Stormwater and Streams ­ Optimizing Stormwater Management to Protect the Thermal

  7. Hypervelocity impact resistance of reinforced carboncarbon/ carbonfoam thermal protection systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, 241 Engineering Innovation Building, Clemson, SC 29634-0921, USA is planned to be constructed from two-ply panels. The outer play is made of a carbon­carbon composite while of the carbon­carbon/carbon­ foam CAV panels during potential hypervelocity impact of space debris

  8. Thermal contact resistance in a non-ideal joint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roca, Richard T.

    1971-01-01

    The contact conductance at an interface can be determined by knowing the material and surface properties and the interfacial pressure distribution. This pressure distribution can be influenced strongly by the roughness of ...

  9. High strength, thermally stable, oxidation resistant, nickel-based alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sikka, Vinod K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Vought, Joseph D. (Rockwood, TN); Howell, C. Randal (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A polycrystalline alloy is composed essentially of, by weight %: 15% to 30% Mo, 3% to 10% Al, up to 10% Cr, up to 10% Fe, up to 2% Si, 0.01% to 0.2% C, 0.01% to 0.04% B, balance Ni.

  10. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decays Citation DetailsSciTech ConnectPatent:

  11. Thermal shock resistance ceramic insulator (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decays Citation DetailsSciTech ConnectPatent:Patent:

  12. Crack-resistant siloxane molding compounds. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, J.W.; Swearngin, C.B.

    1980-11-03

    The crack resistance of phenyl silicone molding resins containing siliceous fillers is improved by incorporating therein about 0.5 to 5.5% by weight of ..beta..-eucryptite, a lithium aluminum silicate having a negative thermal expansion coefficient. These molding resins are particularly suitable for encapsulating electronic devices such as diodes, coils, resistors, and the like.

  13. High temperature, low expansion, corrosion resistant ceramic and gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauch, Sr., Harry W. (Lionville, PA)

    1981-01-01

    The present invention relates to ZrO.sub.2 -MgO-Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 -SiO.sub.2 ceramic materials having improved thermal stability and corrosion resistant properties. The utilization of these ceramic materials as heat exchangers for gas turbine engines is also disclosed.

  14. A nanostructure thermal property measurement platform. (Conference) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563 LLNL(Technicalentanglements for linear and nonlinear

  15. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decaysArticle) | SciTech Connect Thermodynamics|

  16. Thermomechanical measurements on thermal microactuators. (Technical Report)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decaysArticle) | SciTech Connect Thermodynamics||

  17. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ho-Myung

    THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF POWDER INSULATIONS FOR CRYOGENIC STORAGE VESSELS Y. S. Choi1 '3 , M. N of the present work was to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of powder cylinder is thermally anchored to the coldhead of a single stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler, while

  18. THE ODTX SYSTEM FOR THERMAL IGNITION AND THERMAL SAFETY STUDY OF ENERGETIC MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; Hust, G; Howard, M; Maienschein, J L

    2010-03-03

    Understanding the response of energetic material to thermal event is very important for the storage and handling of energetic materials. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can precisely measure times to explosion and minimum ignition temperatures of energetic materials at elevated temperatures. These measurements provide insight into the relative ease of thermal ignition and allow for the determination of kinetic parameters. The ODTX system can potentialy be a good tool to measure violence of the thermal ignition by monitoring the size of anvil cavity. Recent ODTX experimental data on various energetic materials (solid and liquids) are reported in this paper.

  19. Thermal non-equilibrium in dispersed flow film boiling in a vertical tube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forslund, Robert Paul

    1966-01-01

    The departure from thermal equilibrium between a dispersed liquid phase and its vapor at high quality during film boiling is investigated, The departure from equilibruim is manifested by the high resistance to heat transfer ...

  20. Genetic Variation in Clones of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes After Ten Months of Selection in Different Thermal Environments in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xia, Xuhua

    in Different Thermal Environments in the Laboratory Bihong Shi,1 Xuhua Xia2 1 Department of Ecology were cultured in two different thermal regimes for 10 months. Three clones in the Control group were of the acquisition of high temperature resistance [5, 22, 29]. A recent study on thermal adaptation of viral

  1. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, Philip J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Braski, David N. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowcliffe, Arthur F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01% to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties.

  2. Radiation resistant austenitic stainless steel alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maziasz, P.J.; Braski, D.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.

    1987-02-11

    An austenitic stainless steel alloy, with improved resistance to radiation-induced swelling and helium embrittlement, and improved resistance to thermal creep at high temperatures, consisting essentially of, by weight percent: from 16 to 18% nickel; from 13 to 17% chromium; from 2 to 3% molybdenum; from 1.5 to 2.5% manganese; from 0.01 to 0.5% silicon; from 0.2 to 0.4% titanium; from 0.1 to 0.2% niobium; from 0.1 to 0.6% vanadium; from 0.06 to 0.12% carbon; from 0.01 to 0.03% nitrogen; from 0.03 to 0.08% phosphorus; from 0.005 to 0.01% boron; and the balance iron, and wherein the alloy may be thermomechanically treated to enhance physical and mechanical properties. 4 figs.

  3. Electro thermal simulation of superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Marsili; Faraz Najafi; Charles Herder; Karl K. Berggren

    2010-12-17

    We developed an electro thermal model of NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) on sapphire substrates. SNAPs are single photon detectors consisting of the parallel connection of N superconducting nanowires. We extrapolated the physical constants of the model from experimental data and we simulated the time evolution of the device resistance, temperature and current by solving two coupled electrical and thermal differential equations describing the nanowires. The predictions of the model were in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  4. Resistance of a Molecule

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magnus Paulsson; Ferdows Zahid; Supriyo Datta

    2002-08-08

    In recent years, several experimental groups have reported measurements of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of individual or small numbers of molecules. Our purpose in this chapter is to provide an intuitive explanation for the observed I-V characteristics using simple models to illustrate the basic physics. In contrast to the MOSFET, whose I-V is largely dominated by classical electrostatics, the I-V characteristics of molecules is determined by a more interesting interplay between nineteenth century physics (electrostatics) and twentieth century physics (quantum transport) and it is important to do justice to both aspects. We start with a qualitative discussion of the main factors affecting the I-V characteristics of molecular conductors, using a simple toy model to illustrate their role. Including the effects of: (1) Shift in the energy level due to charging effects and (2) broadening of the energy levels due to the coupling to the two contacts we obtain realistic I-V plots, even though the toy model assumes that conduction takes place independently through individual molecular levels. In general, however, the full non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) formalism is needed. Here, we describe the NEGF formalism as a generalized version of the one-level model. This formalism provides a convenient framework for describing quantum transport and can be used in conjunction with ab initio or semi-empirical Hamiltonians. A simple semi-empirical model for a gold wire serves to illustrate the full NEGF formalism. This example is particularly instructive because it shows the lowest possible "Resistance of a 'Molecule'" per channel.

  5. Effect of composition and processing on the thermal fatigue and toughness of high performance die steels. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallace, J.F.; Wang, Y.; Schwam, D.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this study was to improve average die life by optimizing die steel composition and the die processing. Four different steels, K,Q,C and Premium Grade H-13 have been investigated for thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Optimum heat treatment processing has been determined for each steel with respect to austenitizing temperature and tempering conditions. The effect of the quenching rate on the thermal fatigue resistance and toughness of the die steels and the effect of Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) on the thermal fatigue resistance were also determined. The immersion thermal fatigue specimen developed at CWRU was used to determine the thermal fatigue resistance as characterized by the two parameters of average maximum crack length and total crack area. The Charpy V-notch impact test was used over a -100{degrees}F to 450{degrees}F testing temperature range to evaluate the toughness and the brittle-ductile transition behavior. K steel has been identified as superior in performance compared to Premium Grade H-13. Q and C provide lower toughness and thermal fatigue resistance than H-13. Faster cooling rates provide higher thermal fatigue resistance and toughness. Higher austenitizing temperatures such as 1925{degrees}F compared to 1875{degrees}F provide better thermal fatigue resistance, but lower austenitizing temperatures of 1875{degrees}F provide better toughness. Higher hardness improves thermal fatigue resistance, but reduces toughness. A minimum of Rc 46 hardness is desired for aluminum die casting dies. EDM reduces the thermal fatigue resistance compared to conventional machining operations. When the EDM process of multiple small steps of decreasing energy and post-EDM treatments are employed, the effect can be reduced to a very slight amount. Preliminary evidence of the superior performance of the K steel has been provided by ongoing field testing of inserts in multiple cavity dies.

  6. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. High efficiency, oxidation resistant radio frequency susceptor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Besmann, Theodore M.; Klett, James W.

    2004-10-26

    An article and method of producing an article for converting energy from one form to another having a pitch-derived graphitic foam carbon foam substrate and a single layer coating applied to all exposed surfaces wherein the coating is either silicon carbide or carbides formed from a Group IVA metal. The article is used as fully coated carbon foam susceptors that more effectively absorb radio frequency (RF) band energy and more effectively convert the RF energy into thermal band energy or sensible heat. The essentially non-permeable coatings also serve as corrosion or oxidation resistant barriers.

  8. Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt Concentration Differences Alter Membrane Resistance in Reverse Electrodialysis Stacks Geoffrey is usually measured by immersing the membrane in a salt solution at a single, fixed concentration. While salt resistance of the membranes separating different salt concentration solutions has implications for modeling

  9. Thermal Wind The thermal wind is defined as the vector difference between the geostrophic winds at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    ATMS 310 Thermal Wind The thermal wind is defined as the vector difference between the geostrophic winds at two levels. It is not really a wind at all, just a measure of the shear of the geostrophic wind. But there are good reasons for considering the geostrophic wind; mainly, it provides a convenient way of connecting

  10. Thermal and Electrical Transport in Oxide Heterostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravichandran, Jayakanth

    2011-01-01

    of thermal conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4 Thermal transport in2.3.2 Thermal transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  11. Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutberg, Michael; Hastbacka, Mildred; Cooperman, Alissa; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-06-05

    The article discusses thermal energy storage technologies. This article addresses benefits of TES at both the building site and the electricity generation source. The energy savings and market potential of thermal energy store are reviewed as well.

  12. Thermal Management of Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saadah, Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    phonon transmission and interface thermal conductance acrossF. Miao, et al. , "Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Advanced Materials for Thermal Management of Electronic

  13. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    time-varying solar energy inputs and thermal or powerthermal energy becomes apparent with the development of solar

  14. Multiwavelength Thermal Emission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

  15. Thermal Performance Benchmarking (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, G.

    2014-11-01

    This project will benchmark the thermal characteristics of automotive power electronics and electric motor thermal management systems. Recent vehicle systems will be benchmarked to establish baseline metrics, evaluate advantages and disadvantages of different thermal management systems, and identify areas of improvement to advance the state-of-the-art.

  16. On the origin of thermality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard S. Kay

    2012-12-04

    It is well-known that a small system weakly coupled to a large energy bath in a total microcanonical ensemble will find itself in an (approximately) thermal state and, recently, it has been shown that, if the total state is, instead, a random pure state with energy in a narrow range, then the small system will still be approximately thermal with a high probability (wrt `Haar measure'). We ask what conditions are required for something resembling these 'traditional' and 'modern' thermality results to still hold when system and energy bath are of comparable size. In Part 1, we show that, for given system and energy-bath densities of states, s_S(e) and s_B(e), thermality does not hold in general, as we illustrate when both increase as powers of energy, but that it does hold in certain approximate senses, in both traditional and modern frameworks, when both grow as exp(be) or as exp(qe^2) and we calculate the system entropy in these cases. In their 'modern' version, our results rely on new quantities, which we introduce and call the S and B 'modapprox' density operators, which, we claim, will, with high probability, give a close approximation to the reduced density operator for the system and energy bath when the total state of system plus energy bath is a random pure state with energy in a narrow range. In Part 2 we clarify the meaning of these modapprox density operators and give arguments for our claim. The prime examples of non-small thermal systems are quantum black holes. Here and in two companion papers, we argue that current string-theoretic derivations of black hole entropy and thermal properties are incomplete and, on the question of information loss, inconclusive. However, we argue that these deficiencies are remedied with a modified scenario which relies on the modern strand of our methods and results here and is based on our previous 'matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis'.

  17. Proof of feasibility of the through casing resistivity technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vail, Dr. W. Banning; Momii, Steven T.

    2000-06-21

    This project is to definitely prove that the resistivity of geological formations can be measured from within cased wells and to license the relevant patents and technology to major wireline service companies.

  18. Thermal well-test method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.F.; Doughty, C.A.

    1984-02-24

    A well-test method involving injection of hot (or cold) water into a groundwater aquifer, or injecting cold water into a geothermal reservoir is disclosed. By making temperature measurements at various depths in one or more observation wells, certain properties of the aquifer are determined. These properties, not obtainable from conventional well test procedures, include the permeability anisotropy, and layering in the aquifer, and in-situ thermal properties. The temperature measurements at various depths are obtained from thermistors mounted in the observation wells.

  19. Thermal and quantum noise in active systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Michel Courty; Francesca Grassia; Serge Reynaud

    2001-10-03

    We present a quantum network approach to the treatment of thermal and quantum fluctuations in measurement devices. The measurement is described as a scattering process of input fluctuations towards output ones. We present the results obtained with this method for the treatment of a cold damped capacitive accelerometer.

  20. Thermal Sprayed Coatings Used Against Corrosion and Corrosive Wear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    1 Thermal Sprayed Coatings Used Against Corrosion and Corrosive Wear P. Fauchais and A. Vardelle SPCTS, UMR 7315, University of Limoges, France 1. Introduction Coatings have historically been developed that can resist under specific conditions. They are usually distinguished by coating thickness: deposition

  1. In-situ Study of Nanostructure and Electrical Resistance of Nanocluster Films Irradiated with Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Weilin; Sundararajan, Jennifer A.; Varga, Tamas; Bowden, Mark E.; Qiang, You; McCloy, John S.; Henager, Charles H.; Montgomery, Robert O.

    2014-08-11

    An in-situ study is reported on the structural evolution in nanocluster films under He+ ion irradiation using an advanced helium ion microscope. The films consist of loosely interconnected nanoclusters of magnetite or iron-magnetite (Fe-Fe3O4) core-shells. The nanostructure is observed to undergo dramatic changes under ion-beam irradiation, featuring grain growth, phase transition, particle aggregation, and formation of nanowire-like network and nano-pores. Studies based on ion irradiation, thermal annealing and election irradiation have indicated that the major structural evolution is activated by elastic nuclear collisions, while both electronic and thermal processes can play a significant role once the evolution starts. The electrical resistance of the Fe-Fe3O4 films measured in situ exhibits a super-exponential decay with dose. The behavior suggests that the nanocluster films possess an intrinsic merit for development of an advanced online monitor for neutron radiation with both high detection sensitivity and long-term applicability, which can enhance safety measures in many nuclear operations.

  2. Computational modeling of thermal conductivity of single walled carbon nanotube polymer composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    was developed to study the thermal conductivity of single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composites1 Computational modeling of thermal conductivity of single walled carbon nanotube polymer resistance on effective conductivity of composites were quantified. The present model is a useful tool

  3. INTER-CARBON NANOTUBE CONTACT IN THERMAL TRANSPORT OF CONTROLLED-MORPHOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    conductivities of aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) polymer nano-composites were calculated using a random walk-isotropic heat conduction in aligned-CNT polymeric composites, because this geometry is an ideal thermal layer-CNT contact, volume fraction and thermal boundary resistance on the effective conductivities of CNT-composites

  4. EFFECT OF PTFE ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS OF PEM FUEL CELLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    The efficiency and performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) depends heavily on the heat, the added PTFE can change the thermal resistance of GDLs and, hence, affects the fuel cell heat managementEFFECT OF PTFE ON THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS DIFFUSION LAYERS OF PEM FUEL CELLS Hamidreza

  5. Method for transferring thermal energy and electrical current in thin-film electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan (St-Hubert, CA); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2003-05-27

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  6. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stout, Ray B. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress or measurements. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g. ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grid or other grid arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of the gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated from the resistivity measurements.

  7. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stout, R.B.

    1987-05-19

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress or strain measurements. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g., ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grind or other grind arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated form the resistivity measurements. 4 figs.

  8. Triple-material stress-strain resistivity gage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stout, R.B.

    1988-05-17

    A triple material piezoresistive gage provides multi-component elastic stress measurements is disclosed. Thin foils of three piezoresistive materials, e.g. ytterbium, manganin, and constantan, are configured in a nested serpentine rectilinear grid or other grid arrangement and embedded in a medium, preferably normal to the direction of shock wave propagation. The output of the gage is a resistivity change history for each material of the gage. Each resistivity change is independent of the others so that three diagonal components of the elastic stress or strain tensor can be calculated from the resistivity measurements. 4 figs.

  9. "Flexible aerogel as a superior thermal insulation for high temperature superconductor cable applications"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, Shannon O. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.; Demko, Jonathan A [ORNL; Tomich, A. [Aspen Aerogel, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) cables are an advanced technology that can both strengthen and improve the national electrical distribution infrastructure. HTS cables require sufficient cooling to overcome inherent low temperature heat loading. Heat loads are minimized by the use of cryogenic envelopes or cryostats. Cryostats require improvement in efficiency, reliability, and cost reduction to meet the demanding needs of HTS conductors (1G and 2G wires). Aspen Aerogels has developed a compression resistant aerogel thermal insulation package to replace compression sensitive multi-layer insulation (MLI), the incumbent thermal insulation, in flexible cryostats for HTS cables. Oak Ridge National Laboratory tested a prototype aerogel package in a lab-scale pipe apparatus to measure the rate of heat invasion. The lab-scale pipe test results of the aerogel solution will be presented and directly compared to MLI. A compatibility assessment of the aerogel material with HTS system components will also be presented. The aerogel thermal insulation solution presented will meet the demanding needs of HTS cables.

  10. Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, Lin

    Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on SiO2 Substrates Jun Yao, Lin Zhong-controlled resistive switching in various gap systems on SiO2 substrates is reported. The nanoscale-sized gaps are made. The switching site is further reduced in size by using multiwalled carbon nanotubes and single-walled carbon

  11. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume (Sections 1 through 5).

  12. Catalytic thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kulkarni, Anand A. (Orlando, FL); Campbell, Christian X. (Orlando, FL); Subramanian, Ramesh (Oviedo, FL)

    2009-06-02

    A catalyst element (30) for high temperature applications such as a gas turbine engine. The catalyst element includes a metal substrate such as a tube (32) having a layer of ceramic thermal barrier coating material (34) disposed on the substrate for thermally insulating the metal substrate from a high temperature fuel/air mixture. The ceramic thermal barrier coating material is formed of a crystal structure populated with base elements but with selected sites of the crystal structure being populated by substitute ions selected to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a higher rate than would the base compound without the ionic substitutions. Precious metal crystallites may be disposed within the crystal structure to allow the ceramic thermal barrier coating material to catalytically react the fuel-air mixture at a lower light-off temperature than would the ceramic thermal barrier coating material without the precious metal crystallites.

  13. Thermal transport properties of metal/MoS{sub 2} interfaces from first principles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao, Rui; Kong, Byoung Don; Kim, Ki Wook, E-mail: kwk@ncsu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7911 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    Thermal transport properties at the metal/MoS{sub 2} interfaces are analyzed by using an atomistic phonon transport model based on the Landauer formalism and first-principles calculations. The considered structures include chemisorbed Sc(0001)/MoS{sub 2} and Ru(0001)/MoS{sub 2}, physisorbed Au(111)/MoS{sub 2}, as well as Pd(111)/MoS{sub 2} with intermediate characteristics. Calculated results illustrate a distinctive dependence of thermal transfer on the details of interfacial microstructures. More specifically, the chemisorbed case with a stronger bonding exhibits a generally smaller interfacial thermal resistance than the physisorbed. Comparison between metal/MoS{sub 2} and metal/graphene systems suggests that metal/MoS{sub 2} is significantly more resistive. Further examination of lattice dynamics identifies the presence of multiple distinct atomic planes and bonding patterns at the interface as the key origins of the observed large thermal resistance.

  14. AQUIFER THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsang, C.-F.

    2011-01-01

    aquifers for thermal energy storage. Problems outlined abovean Aquifer Used for Hot Water Storage: Digital Simulation ofof Aquifer Systems for Cyclic Storage of Water," of the Fall

  15. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    sunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving large mirror surfaces...

  16. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    pp. 67-73, 2003. [17] "Energy Requirements of Desalinationof solar collectors and thermal energy storage in solarapplications," Applied Energy, pp. 538-553, 2013. [20] P. G.

  17. Solar Thermal Powered Evaporators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moe, Christian Robert

    2015-01-01

    C. Y. Zhao, "A review of solar collectors and thermal energya Passive Flat-Plate Solar Collector," International Journalof Flat Plate Solar Collector Equipped with Rectangular Cell

  18. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  19. Results from two years of resistivity monitoring at Cerro Prieto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilt, M.J.; Goldstein, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and resistivity monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on an annual basis since then. Two 20 km long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at one kilometer spacings were established over the field area; one of these lines is remeasured annually. Resistivity measurements are taken using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor controlled signal averaging receiver; this high power-low noise system is capable of highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter-receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points, but 95% confidence intervals show error limits about 2 to 4 times higher. Analysis of collected data indicate little change in the apparent resistivity of the upper 300 m over the field production zone and that in this section measurements are relatively insensitive to the annual rainfall cycle. Apparent resistivity increases were observed over the older producing zone at Cerro Prieto at depths of 1 km and greater. Large zones of decreasing apparent resistivity were observed flanking the zone of increases on both sides. The increase in apparent resistivity in the production region may be due to an increasing fraction of steam in the reservoir resulting from a production related decline in reservoir pressure. Alternatively the increases may be the result of fresh water influx from the Colorado River. The zone of declining resistivity flanking the area of increase may be due to the movement of saline waters into the reservoir region as a result of the pressure decline. Quantitative modeling of observed changes is impractical owing to the high uncertainty in estimating apparent resistivity changes and the nonuniqueness of models.

  20. Solar Thermal Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biesinger, K.; Cuppett, D.; Dyer, D.

    2012-01-30

    HVAC Retrofit and Energy Efficiency Upgrades at Clark High School, Las Vegas, Nevada The overall objectives of this project are to increase usage of alternative/renewable fuels, create a better and more reliable learning environment for the students, and reduce energy costs. Utilizing the grant resources and local bond revenues, the District proposes to reduce electricity consumption by installing within the existing limited space, one principal energy efficient 100 ton adsorption chiller working in concert with two 500 ton electric chillers. The main heating source will be primarily from low nitrogen oxide (NOX), high efficiency natural gas fired boilers. With the use of this type of chiller, the electric power and cost requirements will be greatly reduced. To provide cooling to the information technology centers and equipment rooms of the school during off-peak hours, the District will install water source heat pumps. In another measure to reduce the cooling requirements at Clark High School, the District will replace single pane glass and metal panels with â??Kalwallâ?? building panels. An added feature of the â??Kalwallâ? system is that it will allow for natural day lighting in the student center. This system will significantly reduce thermal heat/cooling loss and control solar heat gain, thus delivering significant savings in heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) costs.

  1. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 21 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 19 NOVEMBER 2001 Thermal Transport Measurements of Individual Multiwalled Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McEuen, Paul L.

    VOLUME 87, NUMBER 21 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 19 NOVEMBER 2001 Thermal Transport Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 3 Division of Materials Sciences, Lawrence

  2. Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, Sheldon X.-D.

    Fast Thermal Simulation for Architecture Level Dynamic Thermal Management Pu Liu, Zhenyu Qi, Hang temperature by dynamic thermal managements becomes necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to the thermal analysis at chip architecture level for efficient dynamic thermal management. Our new approach

  3. Induced natural convection thermal cycling device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung Kit (Aiken, SC)

    2002-08-13

    A device for separating gases, especially isotopes, by thermal cycling of a separation column using a pressure vessel mounted vertically and having baffled sources for cold and heat. Coils at the top are cooled with a fluid such as liquid nitrogen. Coils at the bottom are either electrical resistance coils or a tubular heat exchange. The sources are shrouded with an insulated "top hat" and simultaneously opened and closed at the outlets to cool or heat the separation column. Alternatively, the sources for cold and heat are mounted separately outside the vessel and an external loop is provided for each circuit.

  4. Degenerate resistive switching and ultrahigh density storage in resistive memory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lohn, Andrew J., E-mail: drewlohn@gmail.com; Mickel, Patrick R., E-mail: prmicke@sandia.gov; James, Conrad D.; Marinella, Matthew J. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2014-09-08

    We show that in tantalum oxide resistive memories, activation power provides a multi-level variable for information storage that can be set and read separately from the resistance. These two state variables (resistance and activation power) can be precisely controlled in two steps: (1) the possible activation power states are selected by partially reducing resistance, then (2) a subsequent partial increase in resistance specifies the resistance state and the final activation power state. We show that these states can be precisely written and read electrically, making this approach potentially amenable for ultra-high density memories. We provide a theoretical explanation for information storage and retrieval from activation power and experimentally demonstrate information storage in a third dimension related to the change in activation power with resistance.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of silver- and copper-coated Nylon 6 forcespun nanofibers by thermal evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mihut, Dorina M., E-mail: dorinamm@yahoo.com; Lozano, Karen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States); Foltz, Heinrich [Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Texas Pan American, 1201 W University Drive, Edinburg, Texas 78539 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Silver and copper nanoparticles were deposited as thin films onto substrates consisting of Nylon 6 nanofibers manufactured using forcespinning{sup ®} equipment. Different rotational speeds were used to obtain continuous nanofibers of various diameters arranged as nonwoven mats. The Nylon 6 nanofibers were collected as successive layers on frames, and a high-vacuum thermal evaporation method was used to deposit the silver and copper thin films on the nanofibers. The structures were investigated using scanning electron microscopy–scanning transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical resistance measurements. The results indicate that evaporated silver and copper nanoparticles were successfully deposited on Nylon 6 nanofibers as thin films that adhered well to the polymer substrate while the native morphology of the nanofibers were preserved, and electrically conductive nanostructures were achieved.

  6. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  7. Corrosive resistant heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richlen, Scott L. (Annandale, VA)

    1989-01-01

    A corrosive and errosive resistant heat exchanger which recovers heat from a contaminated heat stream. The heat exchanger utilizes a boundary layer of innocuous gas, which is continuously replenished, to protect the heat exchanger surface from the hot contaminated gas. The innocuous gas is conveyed through ducts or perforations in the heat exchanger wall. Heat from the heat stream is transferred by radiation to the heat exchanger wall. Heat is removed from the outer heat exchanger wall by a heat recovery medium.

  8. Electrically insulated MLI and thermal anchor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Koji; Furukawa, Masato; Murakami, Haruyuki; Kizu, Kaname; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Koidea, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Hatakenaka, Ryuta; Miyakita, Takeshi [Japan Aerospace Exploration and Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan)

    2014-01-29

    The thermal shield of JT-60SA is kept at 80 K and will use the multilayer insulation (MLI) to reduce radiation heat load to the superconducting coils at 4.4 K from the cryostat at 300 K. Due to plasma pulse operation, the MLI is affected by eddy current in toroidal direction. The MLI is designed to suppress the current by electrically insulating every 20 degree in the toroidal direction by covering the MLI with polyimide films. In this paper, two kinds of designs for the MLI system are proposed, focusing on a way to overlap the layers. A boil-off calorimeter method and temperature measurement has been performed to determine the thermal performance of the MLI system. The design of the electrical insulated thermal anchor between the toroidal field (TF) coil and the thermal shield is also explained.

  9. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.; Elder, M.G.; Kemme, J.E.

    1984-03-20

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus for thermally protecting sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components such as electronics to a heat sink such as ice.

  10. Thermal protection apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM); Elder, Michael G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kemme, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus which thermally protects sensitive components in tools used in a geothermal borehole. The apparatus comprises a Dewar within a housing. The Dewar contains heat pipes such as brass heat pipes for thermally conducting heat from heat sensitive components to a heat sink such as ice.

  11. Thermal radiation Ron Zevenhoven

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    .00032, similarly for 2·T = 0.7·2500 = 1750 µmK4 this gives f0-2 = 0.03392. Thus for 0.4 - 0.7 µm, f1-2 = 0Thermal radiation revisited Ron Zevenhoven Åbo Akademi University Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory / Värme- och strömningsteknik tel. 3223 ; ron.zevenhoven@abo.fi Process Engineering

  12. Mechanical Engineering & Thermal Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LASP's mechanical analysts also lead mechanical verification testing including: random vibration, forceMechanical Engineering & Thermal Group The Mechanical Engineering (ME) & Thermal Group at LASP has, and ground- based mechanical systems. Instrument Design Building on decades of design experience that has

  13. Thermal conductor for high-energy electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Joseph A. (Minneapolis, MN); Domroese, Michael K. (South St. Paul, MN); Lindeman, David D. (Hudson, WI); Radewald, Vern E. (Austin, TX); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); Trice, Jennifer L. (Eagan, MN)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal conductor for use with an electrochemical energy storage device is disclosed. The thermal conductor is attached to one or both of the anode and cathode contacts of an electrochemical cell. A resilient portion of the conductor varies in height or position to maintain contact between the conductor and an adjacent wall structure of a containment vessel in response to relative movement between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor conducts current into and out of the electrochemical cell and conducts thermal energy between the electrochemical cell and thermally conductive and electrically resistive material disposed between the conductor and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may be fabricated to include a resilient portion having one of a substantially C-shaped, double C-shaped, Z-shaped, V-shaped, O-shaped, S-shaped, or finger-shaped cross-section. An elastomeric spring element may be configured so as to be captured by the resilient conductor for purposes of enhancing the functionality of the thermal conductor. The spring element may include a protrusion that provides electrical insulation between the spring conductor and a spring conductor of an adjacently disposed electrochemical cell in the presence of relative movement between the cells and the wall structure. The thermal conductor may also be fabricated from a sheet of electrically conductive material and affixed to the contacts of a number of electrochemical cells.

  14. Theoretical investigation of the impact of grain boundaries and fission gases on UO2 thermal conductivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Shiyu; Andersson, Anders D.; Germann, Timothy C.; Stanek, Christopher R.

    2012-05-02

    Thermal conductivity is one of the most important metrics of nuclear fuel performance. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the impact of microstructure features on thermal conductivity, especially since the microstructure evolves with burn-up or time in the reactor. For example, UO{sub 2} fuels are polycrystalline and for high-burnup fuels the outer parts of the pellet experience grain sub-division leading to a very fine grain structure. This is known to impact important physical properties such as thermal conductivity as fission gas release. In a previous study, we calculated the effect of different types of {Sigma}5 grain boundaries on UO{sub 2} thermal conductivity and predicted the corresponding Kapitza resistances, i.e. the resistance of the grain boundary in relation to the bulk thermal resistance. There have been reports of pseudoanisotropic effects for the thermal conductivity in cubic polycrystalline materials, as obtained from molecular dynamics simulations, which means that the conductivity appears to be a function of the crystallographic direction of the temperature gradient. However, materials with cubic symmetry should have isotropic thermal conductivity. For this reason it is necessary to determine the cause of this apparent anisotropy and in this report we investigate this effect in context of our earlier simulations of UO{sub 2} Kapitza resistances. Another source of thermal resistance comes from fission products and fission gases. Xe is the main fission gas and when generated in sufficient quantity it dissolves from the lattice and forms gas bubbles inside the crystalline structure. We have performed studies of how Xe atoms dissolved in the UO{sub 2} matrix or precipitated as bubbles impact thermal conductivity, both in bulk UO{sub 2} and in the presence of grain boundaries.

  15. Thermal treatment wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Newmark, Robin L. (Livermore, CA); Knauss, Kevin G. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal treatment wall emplaced to perform in-situ destruction of contaminants in groundwater. Thermal destruction of specific contaminants occurs by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation at temperatures achievable by existing thermal remediation techniques (electrical heating or steam injection) in the presence of oxygen or soil mineral oxidants, such as MnO.sub.2. The thermal treatment wall can be installed in a variety of configurations depending on the specific objectives, and can be used for groundwater cleanup, wherein in-situ destruction of contaminants is carried out rather than extracting contaminated fluids to the surface, where they are to be cleaned. In addition, the thermal treatment wall can be used for both plume interdiction and near-wellhead in-situ groundwater treatment. Thus, this technique can be utilized for a variety of groundwater contamination problems.

  16. Tunable thermal link

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Majumdar, Arunava; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2014-07-15

    Disclosed is a device whereby the thermal conductance of a multiwalled nanostructure such as a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) can be controllably and reversibly tuned by sliding one or more outer shells with respect to the inner core. As one example, the thermal conductance of an MWCNT dropped to 15% of the original value after extending the length of the MWCNT by 190 nm. The thermal conductivity returned when the tube was contracted. The device may comprise numbers of multiwalled nanotubes or other graphitic layers connected to a heat source and a heat drain and various means for tuning the overall thermal conductance for applications in structure heat management, heat flow in nanoscale or microscale devices and thermal logic devices.

  17. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Charles L. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  18. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  19. Repeated compressive stress increase with 400 [degree]C thermal cycling in tantalum thin films due to increases in the oxygen content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cabral, C. Jr.; Clevenger, L.A.; Schad, R.G. )

    1994-07-01

    Stresses which build up in thin films such as tantalum, during thermal processing, can cause major reliability problems in electronic and x-ray optics applications. We demonstrate that 50--200 nm thick sputtered [beta]-Ta thin films undergo repeated compressive stress increases when thermally cycled to 400 [degree]C (at a rate of 10 [degree]C/min) and back in a purified He ambient because of small amounts of oxygen gettered by the tantalum. The oxygen contamination results from the poor quality of the atmospheric seal on the quartz annealing chamber. As-deposited Ta thin films have a compressive stress ranging from [minus]1 to [minus]4 GPa. The compressive stress buildup was monitored [ital in] [ital situ] and was shown to increase [minus]0.5 GPa on average after each thermal cycle for a final value from [minus]6 to [minus]7 GPa after seven cycles. After being cycled thermally seven times any perturbation of the film such as a four-point probe resistivity measurement can cause the film to instantaneously crack in a serpentine pattern, relieving the large compressive stress. Auger electron spectroscopy depth profiling analysis was used to determine that the as-deposited film contained 1 at. % oxygen which increased to 8%--12% after seven thermal cycles with an approximate doubling in resistivity. The [minus]0.5 GPa average compressive stress increase in Ta thin films when cycled to 400 [degree]C is attributed to a 1.3% increase in oxygen concentration leading to a Ta unit cell expansion of 0.6%.

  20. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  1. Neutrino Physics with Thermal Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nucciotti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano Bicocca and INFN Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza, 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2009-11-09

    The investigation of fundamental neutrino properties like its mass and its nature calls for the design of a new generation of experiments. High sensitivity, high energy resolution, and versatility together with the possibility of a simple multiplexing scheme are the key features of future detectors for these experiments. Thermal detectors can combine all these features. This paper reviews the status and the perspectives for what concerns the application of this type of detectors to neutrino physics, focusing on direct neutrino mass measurements and neutrinoless double beta decay searches.

  2. Thermal Stability Of Formohydroxamic Acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Rudisill, T. S.

    2011-10-21

    The thermal stability of formohydroxamic acid (FHA) was evaluated to address the potential for exothermic decomposition during storage and its use in the uranium extraction process. Accelerating rate calorimetry showed rapid decomposition at a temperature above 65 {degree}?C; although, the rate of pressure rise was greater than two orders of magnitude less than the lower bound for materials which have no explosive properties with respect to transportation. FHA solutions in water and nitric acid did not reach runaway conditions until 150 {degree}?C. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that FHA melted at 67 {degree}?C and thermally decomposed at 90 {degree}?C with an enthalpy of -1924 J/g. The energics of the FHA thermal decomposition are comparable to those measured for aqueous solutions of hydroxylamine nitrate. Solid FHA should be stored in a location where the temperature does not exceed 20-25 {degree}?C. As a best practice, the solid material should be stored in a climate-controlled environment such as a refrigerator or freezer. FHA solutions in water are not susceptible to degradation by acid hydrolysis and are the preferred way to handle FHA prior to use.

  3. Reconstructing phonon mean-free-path contributions to thermal conductivity using nanoscale membranes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuffe, John

    Knowledge of the mean-free-path distribution of heat-carrying phonons is key to understanding phonon-mediated thermal transport. We demonstrate that thermal conductivity measurements of thin membranes spanning a wide ...

  4. Thermal Modeling and Device Noise Properties of Three-Dimensional-SOI Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Tze Wee

    Thermal test structures and ring oscillators (ROs) are fabricated in 0.18-mum three-dimensional (3-D)-SOI technology. Measurements and electrothermal simulations show that thermal and parasitic effects due to 3-D packaging ...

  5. Thermally-related safety issues associated with thermal batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guidotti, Ronald Armand

    2006-06-01

    Thermal batteries can experience thermal runaway under certain usage conditions. This can lead to safety issues for personnel and cause damage to associated test equipment if the battery thermally self destructs. This report discusses a number of thermal and design related issues that can lead to catastrophic destruction of thermal batteries under certain conditions. Contributing factors are identified and mitigating actions are presented to minimize or prevent undesirable thermal runaway.

  6. State Waste Discharge Permit Application: Electric resistance tomography testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    This permit application documentation is for a State Waste Discharge Permit issued in accordance with requirements of Washington Administrative Code 173-216. The activity being permitted is a technology test using electrical resistance tomography. The electrical resistance tomography technology was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and has been used at other waste sites to track underground contamination plumes. The electrical resistance tomography technology measures soil electrical resistance between two electrodes. If a fluid contaminated with electrolytes is introduced into the soil, the soil resistance is expected to drop. By using an array of measurement electrodes in several boreholes, the areal extent of contamination can be estimated. At the Hanford Site, the purpose of the testing is to determine if the electrical resistance tomography technology can be used in the vicinity of large underground metal tanks without the metal tank interfering with the test. It is anticipated that the electrical resistance tomography technology will provide a method for accurately detecting leaks from the bottom of underground tanks, such as the Hanford Site single-shell tanks.

  7. Fourier-based magnetic induction tomography for mapping resistivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puwal, Steffan; Roth, Bradley J. [Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic induction tomography is used as an experimental tool for mapping the passive electromagnetic properties of conductors, with the potential for imaging biological tissues. Our numerical approach to solving the inverse problem is to obtain a Fourier expansion of the resistivity and the stream functions of the magnetic fields and eddy current density. Thus, we are able to solve the inverse problem of determining the resistivity from the applied and measured magnetic fields for a two-dimensional conducting plane. When we add noise to the measured magnetic field, we find the fidelity of the measured to the true resistivity is quite robust for increasing levels of noise and increasing distances of the applied and measured field coils from the conducting plane, when properly filtered. We conclude that Fourier methods provide a reliable alternative for solving the inverse problem.

  8. Thermally-induced voltage alteration for integrated circuit analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A thermally-induced voltage alteration (TIVA) apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an integrated circuit (IC) either from a device side of the IC or through the IC substrate to locate any open-circuit or short-circuit defects therein. The TIVA apparatus uses constant-current biasing of the IC while scanning a focused laser beam over electrical conductors (i.e. a patterned metallization) in the IC to produce localized heating of the conductors. This localized heating produces a thermoelectric potential due to the Seebeck effect in any conductors with open-circuit defects and a resistance change in any conductors with short-circuit defects, both of which alter the power demand by the IC and thereby change the voltage of a source or power supply providing the constant-current biasing. By measuring the change in the supply voltage and the position of the focused and scanned laser beam over time, any open-circuit or short-circuit defects in the IC can be located and imaged. The TIVA apparatus can be formed in part from a scanning optical microscope, and has applications for qualification testing or failure analysis of ICs.

  9. Thermal Giant Gravitons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armas, Jay; Obers, Niels A; Orselli, Marta; Pedersen, Andreas Vigand

    2012-01-01

    We study the giant graviton solution as the AdS_5 X S^5 background is heated up to finite temperature. The analysis employs the thermal brane probe technique based on the blackfold approach. We focus mainly on the thermal giant graviton corresponding to a thermal D3-brane probe wrapped on an S^3 moving on the S^5 of the background at finite temperature. We find several interesting new effects, including that the thermal giant graviton has a minimal possible value for the angular momentum and correspondingly also a minimal possible radius of the S^3. We compute the free energy of the thermal giant graviton in the low temperature regime, which potentially could be compared to that of a thermal state on the gauge theory side. Moreover, we analyze the space of solutions and stability of the thermal giant graviton and find that, in parallel with the extremal case, there are two available solutions for a given temperature and angular momentum, one stable and one unstable. In order to write down the equations of mot...

  10. Corrosion-resistant uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hovis, V.M. Jr.; Pullen, W.C.; Kollie, T.G.; Bell, R.T.

    1981-10-21

    The present invention is directed to the protecting of uranium and uranium alloy articles from corrosion by providing the surfaces of the articles with a layer of an ion-plated metal selected from aluminum and zinc to a thickness of at least 60 microinches and then converting at least the outer surface of the ion-plated layer of aluminum or zinc to aluminum chromate or zinc chromate. This conversion of the aluminum or zinc to the chromate form considerably enhances the corrosion resistance of the ion plating so as to effectively protect the coated article from corrosion.

  11. Abrasion resistant composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Keith D; Barnes, Christopher A; Henderson, Stephen L

    2014-05-13

    A surface covering composition of abrasion resistant character adapted for disposition in overlying bonded relation to a metal substrate. The surface covering composition includes metal carbide particles within a metal matrix at a packing factor of not less than about 0.6. Not less than about 40 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter in the range of +14-32 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix. Not less than about 3 percent by weight of the metal carbide particles are characterized by an effective diameter of +60 mesh prior to introduction to the metal matrix.

  12. Multilayer thermal barrier coating systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vance, Steven J. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Sloan, Kelly M. (Longwood, FL)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer thermal barrier coating systems and methods of making the multilayer thermal barrier coating systems. The thermal barrier coating systems comprise a first ceramic layer, a second ceramic layer, a thermally grown oxide layer, a metallic bond coating layer and a substrate. The thermal barrier coating systems have improved high temperature thermal and chemical stability for use in gas turbine applications.

  13. Current measurement apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umans, Stephen D. (Belmont, MA)

    2008-11-11

    Apparatus and methods are provided for a system for measurement of a current in a conductor such that the conductor current may be momentarily directed to a current measurement element in order to maintain proper current without significantly increasing an amount of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element or adding resistance to assist in current measurement. The apparatus and methods described herein are useful in superconducting circuits where it is necessary to monitor current carried by the superconducting elements while minimizing the effects of power dissipation attributable to the current measurement element.

  14. Determining resistivity of a formation adjacent to a borehole having casing using multiple electrodes and with resistances being defined between the electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Methods of operation of different types of multiple electrode apparatus vertically disposed in a cased well to measure information related to the resistivity of adjacent geological formations from inside the cased well. The multiple electrode apparatus have a minimum of three spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes that electrically engage the interior of the cased well. Measurement information is obtained related to current which is caused to flow from the cased well into the adjacent geological formation. First compensation information is obtained related to a first casing resistance between a first pair of the spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes. Second compensation information is obtained related to a second casing resistance between a second pair of the spaced apart voltage measurement electrodes. The measurement information, and first and second compensation information are used to determine a magnitude related to the adjacent formation resistivity.

  15. Research and Development for Novel Thermal Energy Storage Systems (TES) for Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faghri, Amir; Bergman, Theodore L; Pitchumani, Ranga

    2013-09-26

    The overall objective was to develop innovative heat transfer devices and methodologies for novel thermal energy storage systems for concentrating solar power generation involving phase change materials (PCMs). Specific objectives included embedding thermosyphons and/or heat pipes (TS/HPs) within appropriate phase change materials to significantly reduce thermal resistances within the thermal energy storage system of a large-scale concentrating solar power plant and, in turn, improve performance of the plant. Experimental, system level and detailed comprehensive modeling approaches were taken to investigate the effect of adding TS/HPs on the performance of latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems.

  16. Parylene-based active micro space radiator with thermal contact switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueno, Ai; Suzuki, Yuji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Thermal management is crucial for highly functional spacecrafts exposed to large fluctuations of internal heat dissipation and/or thermal boundary conditions. Since thermal radiation is the only means for heat removal, effective control of radiation is required for advanced space missions. In the present study, a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) active radiator using the contact resistance change has been proposed. Unlike previous bulky thermal louvers/shutters, higher fill factor can be accomplished with an array of electrostatically driven micro diaphragms suspended with polymer tethers. With an early prototype developed with parylene MEMS technologies, radiation heat flux enhancement up to 42% has been achieved.

  17. THERMAL RADIATION SUMMARY (Rees Chapter 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    words this approximation is good when viewing thermal emissions from the Earth over the microwave band. Microwave radiometers can measure the power received L at an antenna. This is sometimes called). Solar radiation at the top of the atmosphere is well approximated by a blackbody spectrum (yellow

  18. Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Few-Layer Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baowen

    Thermal Transport in Suspended and Supported Few-Layer Graphene Ziqian Wang,, Rongguo Xie,,,§, Cong few-layer graphene using a thermal-bridge configuration. The room temperature value of is comparable transport of the suspended graphene. The measured values of are generally lower than those from theoretical

  19. Oxidation Resistant Graphite Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Windes; R. Smith

    2014-07-01

    The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) Graphite Research and Development Program is investigating doped nuclear graphite grades exhibiting oxidation resistance. During a oxygen ingress accident the oxidation rates of the high temperature graphite core region would be extremely high resulting in significant structural damage to the core. Reducing the oxidation rate of the graphite core material would reduce the structural effects and keep the core integrity intact during any air-ingress accident. Oxidation testing of graphite doped with oxidation resistant material is being conducted to determine the extent of oxidation rate reduction. Nuclear grade graphite doped with varying levels of Boron-Carbide (B4C) was oxidized in air at nominal 740°C at 10/90% (air/He) and 100% air. The oxidation rates of the boronated and unboronated graphite grade were compared. With increasing boron-carbide content (up to 6 vol%) the oxidation rate was observed to have a 20 fold reduction from unboronated graphite. Visual inspection and uniformity of oxidation across the surface of the specimens were conducted. Future work to determine the remaining mechanical strength as well as graphite grades with SiC doped material are discussed.

  20. Simulations of drift resistive ballooning L-mode turbulence in the edge plasma of the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, B. I.; Umansky, M. V.; Nevins, W. M.; Makowski, M. A.; Boedo, J. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Groebner, R. J.

    2013-05-15

    Results from simulations of electromagnetic drift-resistive ballooning turbulence for tokamak edge turbulence in realistic single-null geometry are reported. The calculations are undertaken with the BOUT three-dimensional fluid code that solves Braginskii-based fluid equations [X. Q. Xu and R. H. Cohen, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36, 158 (1998)]. The simulation setup models L-mode edge plasma parameters in the actual magnetic geometry of the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 807 (2002)]. The computations track the development of drift-resistive ballooning turbulence in the edge region to saturation. Fluctuation amplitudes, fluctuation spectra, and particle and thermal fluxes are compared to experimental data near the outer midplane from Langmuir probe and beam-emission-spectroscopy for a few well-characterized L-mode discharges in DIII-D. The simulations are comprised of a suite of runs in which the physics model is varied to include more fluid fields and physics terms. The simulations yield results for fluctuation amplitudes, correlation lengths, particle and energy fluxes, and diffusivities that agree with measurements within an order of magnitude and within factors of 2 or better for some of the data. The agreement of the simulations with the experimental measurements varies with respect to including more physics in the model equations within the suite of models investigated. The simulations show stabilizing effects of sheared E × B poloidal rotation (imposed zonal flow) and of lower edge electron temperature and density.

  1. Thermally Polymerized Rylene Nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrew, Trisha Lionel

    Rylene dyes functionalized with varying numbers of phenyl trifluorovinyl ether (TFVE) moieties were subjected to a thermal emulsion polymerization to yield shape-persistent, water-soluble chromophore nanoparticles. Perylene ...

  2. Thermal Insulation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanley, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal insulation systems are receiving a high degree of attention in view of increasing energy cost. Industrial, commercial and residential energy users are all well aware of energy cost increases and great emphasis is being directed to energy...

  3. Contact thermal lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Aaron Jerome, 1979-

    2004-01-01

    Contact thermal lithography is a method for fabricating microscale patterns using heat transfer. In contrast to photolithography, where the minimum achievable feature size is proportional to the wavelength of light used ...

  4. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  5. Photovoltaic-thermal collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, III, Charles H. (Carlisle, MA)

    1984-04-24

    A photovoltaic-thermal solar cell including a semiconductor body having antireflective top and bottom surfaces and coated on each said surface with a patterned electrode covering less than 10% of the surface area. A thermal-absorbing surface is spaced apart from the bottom surface of the semiconductor and a heat-exchange fluid is passed between the bottom surface and the heat-absorbing surface.

  6. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  7. Rejuvenation of metallic glasses by non-affine thermal strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ketov, S. V.; Sun, Y. H.; Nachum, S.; Lu, Z.; Checchi, A.; Beraldin, A. R.; Bai, H. Y.; Wang, W. H.; Louzguine-Luzgin, D. V.; Carpenter, M. A.; Greer, A. L.

    2015-08-12

    be compared with the property improvements (hardness, wear resistance) obtained by deep cryogenic treatment (DCT) of steels22. DCT, however, works through phase changes (transformation of residual austenite, precipitation of fine carbides) on holding at low... treatment on the thermal decomposition of Fe–C martensite. J. Mater. Sci. 49, 8183–8191 (2014). 23. Ma, B. M. Nuclear Reactor Materials and Applications, Sect. 6.7.2. Thermal-cycling growth, pp. 149?151 (Van Nostrand, New York, 1983). 24. Yuan, C., Wang...

  8. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  9. Skew resisting hydrodynamic seal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conroy, William T. (Pearland, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Sugar Land, TX); Gobeli, Jeffrey D. (Houston, TX); Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX)

    2001-01-01

    A novel hydrodynamically lubricated compression type rotary seal that is suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion. Particularly, the seal geometry ensures constraint of a hydrodynamic seal in a manner preventing skew-induced wear and provides adequate room within the seal gland to accommodate thermal expansion. The seal accommodates large as-manufactured variations in the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sealing material, provides a relatively stiff integral spring effect to minimize pressure-induced shuttling of the seal within the gland, and also maintains interfacial contact pressure within the dynamic sealing interface in an optimum range for efficient hydrodynamic lubrication and environment exclusion. The seal geometry also provides for complete support about the circumference of the seal to receive environmental pressure, as compared the interrupted character of seal support set forth in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,873,576 and 6,036,192 and provides a hydrodynamic seal which is suitable for use with non-Newtonian lubricants.

  10. Crystallographic, electronic, thermal, and magnetic properties of single-crystal SrCo2As2

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pandey, Abhishek [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Quirinale, D. G. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Jayasekara, W. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Sapkota, A. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kim, M. G. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dhaka, R. S. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Lee, Y. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Heitmann, T. W. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Missouri Research Reactor; Stephens, P. W. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Ogloblichev, V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Urals Div., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Metal Physics; Kreyssig, A. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; McQueeney, R. J. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Goldman, A. I. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Kaminski, Adam [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Harmon, B. N. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Furukawa, Y. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Johnston, D. C. [Ames Lab. and Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2013-07-01

    In tetragonal SrCo2As2 single crystals, inelastic neutron scattering measurements demonstrated that strong stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) correlations occur at a temperature T = 5 K [W. Jayasekara et al., arXiv:1306.5174] that are the same as in the isostructural AFe2As2 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) parent compounds of high-Tc superconductors. This surprising discovery suggests that SrCo2As2 may also be a good parent compound for high-Tc superconductivity. Here, structural and thermal expansion, electrical resistivity ?, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), heat capacity Cp, magnetic susceptibility ?, 75As NMR and neutron diffraction measurements of SrCo2As2 crystals are reported together with LDA band structure calculations that shed further light on this fascinating material. The c-axis thermal expansion coefficient ?c is negative from 7 to 300 K, whereas ?a is positive over this T range. The ?(T) shows metallic character. The ARPES measurements and band theory confirm the metallic character and in addition show the presence of a flat band near the Fermi energy EF. The band calculations exhibit an extremely sharp peak in the density of states D(EF) arising from a flat dx2-y2 band. A comparison of the Sommerfeld coefficient of the electronic specific heat with ?(T ? 0) suggests the presence of strong ferromagnetic itinerant spin correlations which on the basis of the Stoner criterion predicts that SrCo2As2 should be an itinerant ferromagnet, in conflict with the magnetization data. The ?(T) does have a large magnitude, but also exhibits a broad maximum at 115 K suggestive of dynamic short-range AFM spin correlations, in agreement with the neutron scattering data. The measurements show no evidence for any type of phase transition between 1.3 and 300 K and we propose that metallic SrCo2As2 has a gapless quantum spin-liquid ground state.

  11. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-13

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

  12. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (San Francisco, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

  13. Electrochemical-thermal modeling and microscale phase change for passive internal thermal management of lithium ion batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Thomas F.; Bandhauer, Todd; Garimella, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    A fully coupled electrochemical and thermal model for lithium-ion batteries is developed to investigate the impact of different thermal management strategies on battery performance. In contrast to previous modeling efforts focused either exclusively on particle electrochemistry on the one hand or overall vehicle simulations on the other, the present work predicts local electrochemical reaction rates using temperature-dependent data on commercially available batteries designed for high rates (C/LiFePO{sub 4}) in a computationally efficient manner. Simulation results show that conventional external cooling systems for these batteries, which have a low composite thermal conductivity ({approx}1 W/m-K), cause either large temperature rises or internal temperature gradients. Thus, a novel, passive internal cooling system that uses heat removal through liquid-vapor phase change is developed. Although there have been prior investigations of phase change at the microscales, fluid flow at the conditions expected here is not well understood. A first-principles based cooling system performance model is developed and validated experimentally, and is integrated into the coupled electrochemical-thermal model for assessment of performance improvement relative to conventional thermal management strategies. The proposed cooling system passively removes heat almost isothermally with negligible thermal resistances between the heat source and cooling fluid. Thus, the minimization of peak temperatures and gradients within batteries allow increased power and energy densities unencumbered by thermal limitations.

  14. Designing a Thermal Energy Storage Program for Electric Utilities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niehus, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities are looking at thermal energy storage technology as a viable demand side management (DSM) option. In order for this DSM measure to be effective, it must be incorporated into a workable, well-structured utility program. This paper...

  15. Effect of ligand on thermal dissipation from gold nanorods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alper, Joshua

    Thermal interface conductance was measured for soluble gold nanorods (NRs) coated with mercaptocarboxylic acids (HS-(CH[subscript 2])[subscript n]COOH, n = 5, 10, 15), thiolated polyethylene glycols (MW = 356, 1000, 5000), ...

  16. Investigation and Analysis of Winter Classroom Thermal Environment in Chongqing 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, J.; Li, B.; Yao, R.

    2006-01-01

    The classrooms in Chongqing are taken as a study subject in this paper. Measurements of the indoor thermal environmental parameters, e.g., indoor dry/wet bulb temperature, and air velocity, were taken. Combined with the questionnaire, which included...

  17. Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reid, Scott A.

    Thermal Lens Spectroscopy Mladen Franko Laboratory of Environmental Research, University of Nova-beam Instruments 5 3.3 Differential Thermal Lens Instruments 7 3.4 Multiwavelength and Tunable Thermal Lens Spectrometers 8 3.5 Circular Dichroism TLS Instruments 9 3.6 Miniaturization of Thermal Lens Instruments 9 4

  18. Oxidation of Metals, Vol. 61, Nos. 3/4, April 2004 ( 2004) Thermal Conductivity, Phase Stability, and Oxidation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trice, Rodney W.

    . INTRODUCTION Thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) have been used to protect gas-turbine- engine components since, and Oxidation Resistance of Y3Al5O12 (YAG)/Y2O3­ZrO2 (YSZ) Thermal-Barrier Coatings Y. J. Su, R. W. Trice,# K­aluminum garnet (YAG) into a typical YSZ TBC system. The thermal conductivity of as-sprayed YAG/YSZ coatings

  19. Calculations of Surface Thermal-Expansion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KENNER, VE; Allen, Roland E.

    1973-01-01

    expansion. At high temperatures, the results for the surface thermal expansion are in agreement with the prediction of an approximate model which we gave earlier, +surface/abu)k ?(3/4) & ur ) su f / (0 )b lk At lOW temperatureS, a,???e/ab?,k paSSeS thr... influence the shifts in the Bragg peaks which are observed experimentally, as has been found to be the case in other attempts to measure surface thermal expansion. A nonkinematical calculation of temperature effects in low-energy-electron diffraction from...

  20. Thermal imaging diagnostics of high-current electron beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pushkarev, A.; Kholodnaya, G.; Sazonov, R.; Ponomarev, D. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30 Lenin Ave., Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-15

    The thermal imaging diagnostics of measuring pulsed electron beam energy density is presented. It provides control of the electron energy spectrum and a measure of the density distribution of the electron beam cross section, the spatial distribution of electrons with energies in the selected range, and the total energy of the electron beam. The diagnostics is based on the thermal imager registration of the imaging electron beam thermal print in a material with low bulk density and low thermal conductivity. Testing of the thermal imaging diagnostics has been conducted on a pulsed electron accelerator TEU-500. The energy of the electrons was 300-500 keV, the density of the electron current was 0.1-0.4 kA/cm{sup 2}, the duration of the pulse (at half-height) was 60 ns, and the energy in the pulse was up to 100 J. To register the thermal print, a thermal imager Fluke-Ti10 was used. Testing showed that the sensitivity of a typical thermal imager provides the registration of a pulsed electron beam heat pattern within one pulse with energy density over 0.1 J/cm{sup 2} (or with current density over 10 A/cm{sup 2}, pulse duration of 60 ns and electron energy of 400 keV) with the spatial resolution of 0.9-1 mm. In contrast to the method of using radiosensitive (dosimetric) materials, thermal imaging diagnostics does not require either expensive consumables, or plenty of processing time.

  1. Fouling and thermal-performance characteristics of the Humboldt Bay Unit 2 power-plant condenser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Elliott, E.S. [Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Ramon, CA (US)

    1993-07-01

    An experimental program was conducted at the Humboldt Bay condenser using eight clusters of four neighboring tubes with different conditions. In each cluster, there were (1) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being distilled water; (2) a new tube, the tubeside fluid being plant circulating water (seawater) and no cleaning; (3) an old tube, plant circulating water with no cleaning; and (4) an old tube, plant circulating water with normal periodic manual cleaning (blowing plugs or sponge balls). These tube clusters were located at four different locations within both the first and second passes of this two-pass condenser. Because of the different conditions, the fouling and cleaning characteristics can be obtained with measurements of the flow rate and inlet, outlet, and saturation temperatures. In addition to the fouling data, the thermal performance can be compared to that obtained with the standard rating method. There was a reduction in the thermal performance of the new, distilled-water tubes for about the first 80 days, and then the performance remained essentially constant. This performance change was most likely the result of the change from dropwise to filmwise condensation on the 7/8-in OD, 18 BWG Admiralty tubes. There was a continued increase of the tubeside fouling resistance with time (no asymptotic behavior) for the tubes that were not cleaned in each cluster using the plant circulating water. The fouling rates were somewhat larger for the first or lower temperature pass initially for the new tubes and after about 100 days for the old tubes. However, the fouling resistance values were substantially larger for the old tubes.

  2. Thermalization and possible quantum relaxation times in "classical" fluids: theory and experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Nussinov; F. Nogueira; M. Blodgett; K. F. Kelton

    2015-09-07

    Quantum effects in material systems are often pronounced at low energies and become insignificant at high temperatures. We find that, perhaps counterintuitively, certain quantum effects may follow the opposite route and become sharp when extrapolated to high temperature within a "classical" liquid phase. In the current work, we suggest basic quantum bounds on relaxation (and thermalization) times, examine kinetic theory by taking into account such possible fundamental quantum time scales, find new general equalities connecting semi-classical dynamics and thermodynamics to Planck's constant, and compute current correlation functions. Our analysis suggests that, on average, the extrapolated high temperature dynamical viscosity of general liquids may tend to a value set by the product of the particle number density ${\\sf n}$ and Planck's constant $h$. We compare this theoretical result with experimental measurements of an ensemble of 23 metallic fluids where this seems to indeed be the case. The extrapolated high temperature viscosity of each of these liquids $\\eta$ divided (for each respective fluid by its value of ${\\sf n} h$) veers towards a Gaussian with an ensemble average value that is close to unity up to an error of size $0.6 \\%$. Inspired by the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis, we suggest a relation between the lowest equilibration temperature to the melting or liquidus temperature and discuss a possible corollary concerning the absence of finite temperature "ideal glass" transitions. We suggest a general quantum mechanical derivation for the viscosity of glasses at general temperatures. We invoke similar ideas to discuss other transport properties and demonstrate how simple behaviors including resistivity saturation and linear $T$ resistivity may appear very naturally. Our approach suggests that minimal time lags may be present in fluid dynamics.

  3. One-Dimensional Time to Explosion (Thermal Sensitivity) of ANPZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P.; Hust, G.; McClelland, M.; Gresshoff, M.

    2014-11-12

    Incidents caused by fire and combat operations can heat energetic materials that may lead to thermal explosion and result in structural damage and casualty. Some explosives may thermally explode at fairly low temperatures (< 100 C) and the violence from thermal explosion may cause a significant damage. Thus it is important to understand the response of energetic materials to thermal insults. The One Dimensional Time to Explosion (ODTX) system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been used for decades to measure times to explosion, threshold thermal explosion temperature, and determine kinetic parameters of energetic materials. Samples of different configurations (pressed part, powder, paste, and liquid) can be tested in the system. The ODTX testing can also provide useful data for assessing the thermal explosion violence of energetic materials. This report summarizes the recent ODTX experimental data and modeling results for 2,6-diamino-3,5-dintropyrazine (ANPZ).

  4. Electro-thermal simulation of superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsili, F.; Najafi, F.; Herder, C.; Berggren, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an electrothermal model of NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) on sapphire substrates. SNAPs are single-photon detectors consisting of the parallel connection of N superconducting nanowires. We extrapolated the physical constants of the model from experimental data and we simulated the time evolution of the device resistance, temperature and current by solving two coupled electrical and thermal differential equations describing the nanowires. The predictions of the model were in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  5. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. (North Chili, NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2002-01-01

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  6. Corrosion resistant PEM fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fronk, Matthew Howard (Honeoye Falls, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY); Hulett, Jay S. (Rochester, NY); Brady, Brian K. NY); Cunningham, Kevin M. (Romeo, MI)

    2011-06-07

    A PEM fuel cell having electrical contact elements comprising a corrosion-susceptible substrate metal coated with an electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant polymer containing a plurality of electrically conductive, corrosion-resistant filler particles. The substrate may have an oxidizable metal first layer (e.g., stainless steel) underlying the polymer coating.

  7. Method for the thermal characterization, visualization, and integrity evaluation of conducting material samples or complex structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortiz, Marcos G. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A method for modeling a conducting material sample or structure (herein called a system) as at least two regions which comprise an electrical network of resistances, for measuring electric resistance between at least two selected pairs of external leads attached to the surface of the system, wherein at least one external lead is attached to the surface of each of the regions, and, using basic circuit theory, for translating measured resistances into temperatures or thermophysical properties in corresponding regions of the system.

  8. Coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kentaro Somiya; Kazuhiro Yamamoto

    2009-03-17

    Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the limiting noise sources in the high precision measurement such as gravitational-wave detection, and the modeling of thermal noise has been developed and refined over a decade. In this paper, we present a derivation of coating thermal noise of a finite-size cylindrical mirror based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. The result agrees to a previous result with an infinite-size mirror in the limit of large thickness, and also agrees to an independent result based on the mode expansion with a thin-mirror approximation. Our study will play an important role not only to accurately estimate the thermal-noise level of gravitational-wave detectors but also to help analyzing thermal noise in quantum-measurement experiments with lighter mirrors.

  9. Article for thermal energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    2000-06-27

    A thermal energy storage composition is provided which is in the form of a gel. The composition includes a phase change material and silica particles, where the phase change material may comprise a linear alkyl hydrocarbon, water/urea, or water. The thermal energy storage composition has a high thermal conductivity, high thermal energy storage, and may be used in a variety of applications such as in thermal shipping containers and gel packs.

  10. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

    1996-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  11. Corrosion resistant ceramic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

    1995-01-01

    Ceramic materials which exhibit stability in severely-corrosive environments having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These sulfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  12. Detection of thermal neutrons with a CMOS pixel sensor for a future dosemeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanstalle, M.; Husson, D.; Higueret, S.; Le, T. D.; Nourreddine, A. M.

    2011-07-01

    The RaMsEs group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) is developing a new compact device for operational neutron dosimetry. The electronic part of the detector is made of an integrated active pixel sensor, originally designed for tracking in particle physics. This device has useful features for neutrons, such as high detection efficiency for charged particles, good radiation resistance, high readout speed, low power consumption and high rejection of photon background. A good response of the device to fast neutrons has already been demonstrated [1]. In order to test the sensibility of the detector to thermal neutrons, experiments have been carried out with a 512 x 512 pixel CMOS sensor on a californium source moderated with heavy water (Cf.D{sub 2}O) on the Van Gogh irradiator at the LMDN, IRSN, Cadarache (France)). A thin boron converter is used to benefit from the significant cross section of the {sup 10}B (n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction. Results show a high detection efficiency (around 10{sup -3}) of the device to thermal neutrons. Our measurements are in good agreement with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  13. MESO-SCALE MODELING OF THE INFLUENCE OF INTERGRANULAR GAS BUBBLES ON EFFECTIVE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Michael Tonks

    2011-06-01

    Using a mesoscale modeling approach, we have investigated how intergranular fission gas bubbles, as observed in high-burnup nuclear fuel, modify the effective thermal conductivity in a polycrystalline material. The calculations reveal that intergranular porosity has a significantly higher resistance to heat transfer compared to randomly-distributed porosity. A model is developed to describe this conductivity reduction that considers an effective grain boundary Kapitza resistance as a function of the fractional coverage of grain boundaries by bubbles.

  14. Thermal noise driven computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2006-10-28

    The possibility of a new type of computing, where thermal noise is the information carrier and the clock in a computer, is studied. The information channel capacity and the lower limit of energy requirement/dissipation are studied in a simple digital system with zero threshold voltage, for the case of error probability close to 0.5, when the thermal noise is equal to or greater than the digital signal. In a simple hypothetical realization of a thermal noise driven gate, the lower limit of energy needed to generate the digital signal is 1.1*kT/bit. The arrangement has potentially improved energy efficiency and it is free of leakage current, crosstalk and ground plane electromagnetic interference problems. Disadvantage is the large number of redundancy elements needed for low-error operation.

  15. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  16. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, S.E.; Arasteh, D.K.; Hartmann, J.L.

    1988-04-05

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas. 2 figs.

  17. Thermal insulated glazing unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selkowitz, Stephen E. (Piedmont, CA); Arasteh, Dariush K. (Oakland, CA); Hartmann, John L. (Seattle, WA)

    1991-01-01

    An improved insulated glazing unit is provided which can attain about R5 to about R10 thermal performance at the center of the glass while having dimensions about the same as those of a conventional double glazed insulated glazing unit. An outer glazing and inner glazing are sealed to a spacer to form a gas impermeable space. One or more rigid, non-structural glazings are attached to the inside of the spacer to divide the space between the inner and outer glazings to provide insulating gaps between glazings of from about 0.20 inches to about 0.40 inches. One or more glazing surfaces facing each thermal gap are coated with a low emissivity coating. Finally, the thermal gaps are filled with a low conductance gas such as krypton gas.

  18. Highly directional thermal emitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric A; Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2015-03-24

    A highly directional thermal emitter device comprises a two-dimensional periodic array of heavily doped semiconductor structures on a surface of a substrate. The array provides a highly directional thermal emission at a peak wavelength between 3 and 15 microns when the array is heated. For example, highly doped silicon (HDSi) with a plasma frequency in the mid-wave infrared was used to fabricate nearly perfect absorbing two-dimensional gratings structures that function as highly directional thermal radiators. The absorption and emission characteristics of the HDSi devices possessed a high degree of angular dependence for infrared absorption in the 10-12 micron range, while maintaining high reflectivity of solar radiation (.about.64%) at large incidence angles.

  19. THERMAL EXPANSION AND PHASE INVERSION OF RARE-EARTH OXIDES By...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    are sufficient and binders are not required. 3 4. Measurements can be made on each crystalline phase in samples con- taining multiple components. Thermal expansion data are...

  20. Plasma motions and non-thermal line broadening in flaring twisted coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordovskyy, Mykola; Browning, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Observation of coronal EUV spectral lines offers an opportunity to evaluate the thermal structure and flows in flaring atmospheres. This, in turn, can be used to estimate the partitioning between the thermal and kinetic energies released in flares. Our aim is to forward-model large-scale (50-10000 km) velocity distributions in order to interpret non-thermal broadening of different spectral EUV lines observed in flares. The developed models allow us to understand the origin of the observed spectral line shifts and broadening, and link these features to particular physical phenomena in flaring atmospheres. We use ideal MHD to derive unstable twisted magnetic fluxtube configurations in a gravitationally-stratified atmosphere. The evolution of these twisted fluxtubes is followed using resistive MHD, with anomalous resistivity depending on the local density and temperature. The model also takes into account the thermal conduction and radiative losses. The model allows us to evaluate average velocities and velocity...

  1. Factors affecting the microstructural stability and durability of thermal barrier coatings fabricated by air plasma spraying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helminiak, M. A.; Yanar, N. M.; Pettit, F. S.; Taylor, T. A.; Meier, G. H.

    2012-10-01

    The high-temperature behavior of high-purity, low-density (HP-LD) air plasma sprayed (APS) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with NiCoCrAlY bond coats deposited by argon-shrouded plasma spraying is described. The high purity yttria-stabilized zirconia resulted in top coats which are highly resistant to sintering and transformation from the metastable tetragonal phase to the equilibrium mixture of monoclinic and cubic phases. The thermal conductivity of the as-processed TBC is low but increases during high temperature exposure even before densification occurs. The porous topcoat microstructure also resulted in good spallation resistance during thermal cycling. The actual failure mechanisms of the APS coatings were found to depend on topcoat thickness, topcoat density, and the thermal cycle frequency. The failure mechanisms are described and the durability of the HP-LD coatings is compared with that of state-of-the-art electron beam physical vapor deposition TBCs.

  2. Standard Practice for Evaluating Thermal Insulation Materials for Use in Solar Collectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth a testing methodology for evaluating the properties of thermal insulation materials to be used in solar collectors with concentration ratios of less than 10. Tests are given herein to evaluate the pH, surface burning characteristics, moisture adsorption, water absorption, thermal resistance, linear shrinkage (or expansion), hot surface performance, and accelerated aging. This practice provides a test for surface burning characteristics but does not provide a methodology for determining combustibility performance of thermal insulation materials. 1.2 The tests shall apply to blanket, rigid board, loose-fill, and foam thermal insulation materials used in solar collectors. Other thermal insulation materials shall be tested in accordance with the provisions set forth herein and should not be excluded from consideration. 1.3 The assumption is made that elevated temperature, moisture, and applied stresses are the primary factors contributing to the degradation of thermal insulation mat...

  3. Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-02-08

    A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

  4. Fibers and fabrics with insulating, water-proofing, and flame-resistant properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Coronado, Paul R.

    2004-04-20

    Fibers, and fabrics produced from the fibers, are made water repellent, fire-retardant and/or thermally insulating by filling void spaces in the fibers and/or fabrics with a powdered material. When the powder is sufficiently finely divided, it clings tenaciously to the fabric's fibers and to itself, resisting the tendency to be removed from the fabric.

  5. 18 m THICK HIGH FREQUENCY CAPACITIVE HARPSS RESONATORS WITH REDUCED MOTIONAL RESISTANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    thermal oxide layer is first grown on the low resistivity SOI substrate. The oxide is patterned and kept be as large as a few tens of microns. Trench sidewalls are coated with a thin sacrificial LPCVD oxide layer. The thickness of the deposited sacrificial oxide layer determines the capacitive gap size in between the SCS

  6. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, Roy (Columbus, IN); Kakwani, Ramesh M. (Columbus, IN); Valdmanis, Edgars (Columbus, IN); Woods, Melvins E. (Columbus, IN)

    1988-01-01

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m.degree. C. and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg.degree. C. with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber.

  7. Thermal ignition combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kamo, R.; Kakwani, R.M.; Valdmanis, E.; Woods, M.E.

    1988-04-19

    The thermal ignition combustion system comprises means for providing walls defining an ignition chamber, the walls being made of a material having a thermal conductivity greater than 20 W/m C and a specific heat greater than 480 J/kg C with the ignition chamber being in constant communication with the main combustion chamber, means for maintaining the temperature of the walls above a threshold temperature capable of causing ignition of a fuel, and means for conducting fuel to the ignition chamber. 8 figs.

  8. Cermet fuel thermal conductivity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvis, John Mark

    1988-01-01

    VITA 36 37 40 40 40 40 44 45 47 48 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Unit cell for derivation of model Page Heat Conduction Solution 22 3 Fission Gas Release Model 26 4A Metal Matrix Thermal Conductivity 4B Ceramic Fuel Thermal Conductivity 5... is based on the simple heat conduction equation. It is assumed that there is a uniform distribution of fuel particles in a regular array. A unit cell consists of a cube of matrix material of side length L, containing a spherical fuel particle of radius, r...

  9. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  10. Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herbordt, Martin

    Software Optimization for Performance, Energy, and Thermal Distribution: Initial Case Studies Md can help achieve higher energy efficiency and better thermal behavior. We use both direct measurements- sired level of performance while reducing energy consumption. A closely related issue is thermal

  11. Thermal activation and ATP dependence of the cytoskeleton remodeling dynamics R. Sunyer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ritort, Felix

    Thermal activation and ATP dependence of the cytoskeleton remodeling dynamics R. Sunyer,1,2 F-energy barriers induced by thermally activated forces mediated by ATP. The measured activation energy in- tramolecular and intermolecular weak interactions that are thermally activated and use ATP

  12. On Person Authentication by Fusing Visual and Thermal Face Biometrics Ognjen Arandjelovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cipolla, Roberto

    . This is due to the fact that a thermal infrared sensor measures the heat energy radiation emitted by the faceOn Person Authentication by Fusing Visual and Thermal Face Biometrics Ognjen Arandjelovi´c Riad in the thermal spectrum are promising in achieving invariance to extreme illumination changes that are often

  13. Influence of Thermal Stratification on Wind Profiles for Heights up to 140 m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinemann, Detlev

    Influence of Thermal Stratification on Wind Profiles for Heights up to 140 m Ulrich Focken, Detlev of the thermal stratification is well known normaly the neutral logarithmic wind profile is used, which leadsBruin for the thermal stratification is testet with measured data from the 200 m high met mast in Cabouw, Netherlands

  14. Thermal effects in radiation processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zagorski, Z.P.

    1984-10-21

    The balance of ionizing radiation energy incident on an object being processed is discussed in terms of energy losses, influencing the amount really absorbed. To obtain the amount of heat produced, the absorbed energy is corrected for the change in internal energy of the system and for the heat effect of secondary reactions developing after the initiation. The temperature of a processed object results from the heat evolved and from the specific heat of the material comprising the object. The specific heat of most materials is usually much lower than that of aqueous systems and therefore temperatures after irradiation are higher. The role of low specific heat in radiation processing at cryogenic conditions is stressed. Adiabatic conditions of accelerator irradiation are contrasted with the steady state thermal conditions prevailing in large gamma sources. Among specific questions discussed in the last part of the paper are: intermediate and final temperature of composite materials, measurement of real thermal effects in situ, neutralization of undesired warming experienced during radiation processing, processing at temperatures other than ambient and administration of very high doses of radiation.

  15. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    and Background Solar thermal energy collection is anCHANGE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWERfor Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal

  16. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardin, Corey Lee

    2011-01-01

    ENERGY STORAGE FOR CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PLANTS,”Thermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal PowerThermal Energy Storage in Concentrated Solar Thermal Power

  17. Magneto-transport properties of oriented Mn{sub 2}CoAl films sputtered on thermally oxidized Si substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, G. Z.; Du, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Liu, E. K.; Wang, W. H. Wu, G. H.; Zhang, H. G.

    2014-06-16

    Spin gapless semiconductors are interesting family of materials by embracing both magnetism and semiconducting due to their unique band structure. Its potential application in future spintronics requires realization in thin film form. In this Letter, we report fabrication and transport properties of spin gapless Mn{sub 2}CoAl films prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates by magnetron sputtering deposition. The films deposited at 673?K are well oriented to (001) direction and display a uniform-crystalline surface. Magnetotransport measurements on the oriented films reveal a semiconducting-like resistivity, small anomalous Hall conductivity, and linear magnetoresistance representative of the transport signatures of spin gapless semiconductors. The magnetic properties of the films have also been investigated and compared to that of bulk Mn{sub 2}CoAl, showing small discrepancy induced by the composition deviation.

  18. Prediction of Thermal Conductivity for Irradiated SiC/SiC Composites by Informing Continuum Models with Molecular Dynamics Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Gao, Fei; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2014-05-01

    This article proposes a new method to estimate the thermal conductivity of SiC/SiC composites subjected to neutron irradiation. The modeling method bridges different scales from the atomic scale to the scale of a 2D SiC/SiC composite. First, it studies the irradiation-induced point defects in perfect crystalline SiC using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to compute the defect thermal resistance as a function of vacancy concentration and irradiation dose. The concept of defect thermal resistance is explored explicitly in the MD data using vacancy concentrations and thermal conductivity decrements due to phonon scattering. Point defect-induced swelling for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) SiC as a function of irradiation dose is approximated by scaling the corresponding MD results for perfect crystal ?-SiC to experimental data for CVD-SiC at various temperatures. The computed thermal defect resistance, thermal conductivity as a function of grain size, and definition of defect thermal resistance are used to compute the thermal conductivities of CVD-SiC, isothermal chemical vapor infiltrated (ICVI) SiC and nearly-stoichiometric SiC fibers. The computed fiber and ICVI-SiC matrix thermal conductivities are then used as input for an Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach to compute the thermal conductivities of 2D SiC/SiC composites subjected to neutron irradiation within the same irradiation doses. Predicted thermal conductivities for an irradiated Tyranno-SA/ICVI-SiC composite are found to be comparable to available experimental data for a similar composite ICVI-processed with these fibers.

  19. Thermal Performance of Uninsulated and Partially Filled Wall Cavities: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridouane, E. H.; Bianchi, M.

    2011-08-01

    Low-rise, wood-framed homes are the most common type of residential structures in the United States. Wood wall construction supports roofs efficiently and provides a stable frame for attaching interior and exterior wall coverings. Wall cavities are prevalent and increase thermal resistance, particularly when they are filled with insulating material. This paper describes detailed computational fluid dynamics modeling to evaluate the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially filled wall cavities and accounts for conduction through framing, convection, and radiation. Parameters are ambient outdoor temperature, cavity surface emissivity, cavity aspect ratio, and insulation height. Understanding the thermal performance of uninsulated or partially insulated wall cavities is essential for conserving energy in residential buildings. The results can serve as input for building energy simulation tools such as DOE2 and EnergyPlus for modeling the temperature dependent energy performance of new and older homes with uninsulated or partially insulated walls.

  20. Thermal Reactor Safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Information is presented concerning fire risk and protection; transient thermal-hydraulic analysis and experiments; class 9 accidents and containment; diagnostics and in-service inspection; risk and cost comparison of alternative electric energy sources; fuel behavior and experiments on core cooling in LOCAs; reactor event reporting analysis; equipment qualification; post facts analysis of the TMI-2 accident; and computational methods.

  1. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  2. Thermal barrier coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowker, Jeffrey Charles (Gibsonia, PA); Sabol, Stephen M. (Orlando, FL); Goedjen, John G. (Oviedo, FL)

    2001-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating for hot gas path components of a combustion turbine based on a zirconia-scandia system. A layer of zirconium scandate having the hexagonal Zr.sub.3 Sc.sub.4 O.sub.12 structure is formed directly on a superalloy substrate or on a bond coat formed on the substrate.

  3. WEAR RESISTANT ALLOYS FOR COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhat, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    Proceedings of the Conference on Coal Feeding Systems, HeldWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equipment", proposalWear Resistant Alloys for Coal Handling Equi pment". The

  4. Magnetotelluric Transect of Long Valley Caldera: Resistivity...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to sample the important features of the upper crustal and deeper resistivity structures. Additional control on the shallowest resistivity is provided by a continuous...

  5. Fertility versus disease resistance, a hard choice.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bart, Rebecca; Ronald, Pamela; Hake, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    resistance to all groups of pests and pathogens (insects, bacteria,bacteria, fungi, and viruses) means that the plant is often quickly outwitted and loses resistance.

  6. Giant Thermal Rectification from Polyethylene Nanofiber Thermal Diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Teng

    2015-01-01

    The realization of phononic computing is held hostage by the lack of high performance thermal devices. Here we show through theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulations that unprecedented thermal rectification factors (as large as 1.20) can be achieved utilizing the phase dependent thermal conductivity of polyethylene nanofibers. More importantly, such high thermal rectifications only need very small temperature differences (< 20 oC) across the device, which is a significant advantage over other thermal diodes which need temperature biases on the order of the operating temperature. Taking this into consideration, we show that the dimensionless temperature-scaled rectification factors of the polymer nanofiber diodes range from 12 to 25 - much larger than other thermal diodes (< 8). The polymer nanofiber thermal diode consists of a crystalline portion whose thermal conductivity is highly phase-sensitive and a cross-linked portion which has a stable phase. Nanoscale size effect can be utilized t...

  7. Thermal annealing study on P3HT: PCBM based bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gollu, Sankara Rao; Sharma, Ramakant G, Srinivas Gupta, Dipti

    2014-10-15

    Recently, Thermal annealing is an important process for bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ OSCs) to improve the device efficiency and performance of the organic solar cells. Here in, we have examined the changes in the efficiency and morphology of P3HT: PCBM film according to the thermal annealing temperature to find the changes during the annealing process by measuring the optical absorption, atomic force microscope and X-ray diffraction. We also investigated the effect of different annealing process conditions (without, pre- and post-annealing) on the device performance of the inverted bulk heterojunction organic solar cells consist the structure of ITO/ ZnO / P3HT: PCBM / MoO{sub 3}/ Al by measuring AC impedance characteristics. Particularly, the power conversion efficiency (PCE), crystalline nature of the polymer, light absorption and the surface smoothness of P3HT: PCBM films are significantly improved after the annealing process. These results indicated the improvement in terms of PCE, interface smoothness between the P3HT: PCBM and MoO{sub 3} layers of the post annealed device originated from the decrease of series resistance between P3HT: PCBM layer and Al electrodes, which could be due to decrease in the effective life time of charge carriers.

  8. The thermal performance of steel-framed walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbour, C.E. [NAHB Research Center, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States). Building Systems Div.; Goodrow, J. [Holometrix, Bedford, MA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Thermal bridges are areas in constructions that have highly conductive materials, allowing higher heat transfer through less conductive areas. In a wall, thermal bridges can increase heat loss, cause dust to accumulate on the studs (ghosting) due to temperature distribution, and cause condensation to form in and on the walls. The effects of thermal bridges are often misunderstood by engineers, buildings, and manufacturers of construction products. This study attempts to provide a better understanding of the effects of thermal bridges in steel-framed walls, as well as information leading to improved methods of predicting R-value of walls containing thermal bridges. An improved method for estimating R-value would allow an equitable comparison of thermal performance with other construction types and materials. This would increase the number of alternative materials for walls available to designers, thus allowing them the freedom to correctly choose the optimum choice for construction. In order to arrive at an improved method, experimental data on the heat transfer characteristics of steel-framed walls were collected. Twenty-three wall samples were tested in a calibrated hot box (ASTM C976) to measure the thermal performance of steel-framed wall systems. The tests included an array of stud frame configurations, exterior sheathing, and fiberglass batt insulations. Other studies of thermal bridging in steel-framed walls have not included the use of insulating sheathing, which reduces the extent of the thermal bridges and improves total thermal performance. The purpose of the project was to provide measured R-values for commonly used steel-framed wall configurations and to improve R-value estimating methods. Also, detailed monitoring of temperature gradients in the test walls combined with numerical analysis provided new insights into heat transfer phenomena concerning thermal bridges.

  9. Development of Submerged Entry Nozzles that Resist Clogging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Jeffrey D. Smith; Kent D. Peasle

    2002-10-14

    Accretion formation and the associated clogging of SENs is a major problem for the steel industry leading to decreased strand speed, premature changing of SENs or strand termination and the associated reductions in productivity, consistency, and steel quality. A program to evaluate potentially clog resistance materials was initiated at the University of Missouri-Rolla. The main objective of the research effort was to identify combinations of steelmaking and refractory practices that would yield improved accretion resistance for tundish nozzles and submerged entry nozzles. A number of tasks were identified during the initial kick-off meeting and each was completed with two exceptions, the thermal shock validation and the industrial trials. Not completing these two tasks related to not having access to industrial scale production facilities. Though much of the results and information generated in the project is of proprietary nature.

  10. Corrosion resistance of concrete reinforcement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ward-Waller, Elizabeth, 1982-

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the mechanism of corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete and epoxy coated reinforcing bars as corrosion resistant alternatives. Several case studies explore the durability ...

  11. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, William G. (Philomath, OR); Lindbo, John A. (Kent, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection.

  12. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  13. Foldable dome climate measurements and thermal properties Guus Sliepena,b, Aswin P.L. Jagersa,b, Robert H. Hammerschlaga, and Felix C.M. Bettonvila,b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rutten, Rob

    and the GREGOR telescope on Tenerife.6 In addition, we have measured the wind field around each dome. Although-shaped building. These differences result in large differences in temperature and humidity insulation when fluctuations at the sites of the domes. It was observed that on small time scales the temperature fluctuations

  14. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan (El Cerrito, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Lee, Chuck K. (Hayward, CA); Walker, Jeffrey (Gaithersburg, MD); Russell, Paige (Las Vegas, NV); Kirkwood, Jon (Saint Leonard, MD); Yang, Nancy (Lafayette, CA); Champagne, Victor (Oxford, PA)

    2012-05-29

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  15. Corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Jor-Shan; Farmer, Joseph C; Lee, Chuck K; Walker, Jeffrey; Russell, Paige; Kirkwood, Jon; Yang, Nancy; Champagne, Victor

    2013-11-12

    A method of forming a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising the steps of spray or deposition or sputtering or welding processing to form a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material. Also a corrosion resistant neutron absorbing coating comprising a composite material made of a spray or deposition or sputtering or welding material, and a neutron absorbing material.

  16. Bipole-dipole survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs, Thermal Area, Beaver County, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frangos, W.; Ward, S.H.

    1980-09-01

    A bipole-dipole electrical resistivity survey at Roosevelt Hot Springs thermal area, Beaver County, Utah was undertaken to evaluate the technique in a well-studied Basin and Range geothermal prospect. The major electrical characteristics of the area are clearly revealed but are not particularly descriptive of the geothermal system. More subtle variations of electrical resistivity accompanying the geothermal activity are detectable, although the influence of near-surface lateral resistivity variations imposes upon the survey design the necessity of a high station density. A useful practical step is to conduct a survey using transmitter locations and orientations which minimize the response of known features such as the resistivity boundary due to a range front fault. Survey results illustrate the effects of transmitter orientation and placement, and of subtle lateral resistivity variations. A known near-surface conductive zone is detected while no evidence is found for a deep conductive region.

  17. Thermal Damage Characterization of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, P C; DeHaven, M R; Springer, H K; Maienschein, J L

    2009-08-14

    We conducted thermal damage experiments at 180?C on PBXN-9 and characterized its material properties. Volume expansion at high temperatures was very significant which led to a reduction in material density. 2.6% of weight loss was observed, which was higher than other HMX-based formulations. Porosity of PBXN-9 increased to 16% after thermal exposure. Small-scale safety tests (impact, friction, and spark) showed no significant sensitization when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature. Gas permeation measurements showed that gas permeability in damaged materials was several orders of magnitude higher than that in pristine materials. In-situ measurements of gas permeability and density were proved to be possible at higher temperatures.

  18. Characterization of thermally degraded energetic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Renlund, A.M.; Miller, J.C.; Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Wellman, G.W.; Baer, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Characterization of the damage state of a thermally degraded energetic material (EM) is a critical first step in understanding and predicting cookoff behavior. Unfortunately, the chemical and mechanical responses of heated EMs are closely coupled, especially if the EM is confined. The authors have examined several EMs in small-scale experiments (typically 200 mg) heated in both constant-volume and constant-load configurations. Fixtures were designed to minimize free volume and to contain gas pressures to several thousand psi. The authors measured mechanical forces or displacements that correlated to thermal expansion, phase transitions, material creep and gas pressurization as functions of temperature and soak time. In addition to these real-time measurements, samples were recovered for postmortem examination, usually with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. The authors present results on EMs (HMX and TATB), with binders (e.g., PBX 9501, PBX 9502, LX-14) and propellants (Al/AP/HTPB).

  19. Thermal Modeling of Lundell Alternators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, Sai Chun

    Thermal analysis of Lundell alternators used in automobiles is presented. An analytical thermal model for Lundell alternators is proposed, and procedures for acquiring the model parameters are elucidated. Based on the ...

  20. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal...